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          آینده عکاسی از سیاه چاله‌ها: هدف بعدی تلسکوپ EHT چیست؟      Comment   Translate Page      
آینده عکاسی از سیاه چاله‌ها: هدف بعدی تلسکوپ EHT چیست؟

تلسکوپ EHT به‌زودی سیاه‌چاله‌ها و افق رویداد آن‌ها را دقیق‌تر بررسی خواهد کرد و در آینده، عکس‌هایی با وضوح بیشتر خواهد گرفت.


          The current Yankees are a tomato can      Comment   Translate Page      
Last night, in a confluence of crapola and karma, Brian "Cooperstown" Cashman happened to be talking to the media as the game was called - his fully-operational Death Star losing yet another. The Yankee brain trust chalked up the latest monstrosity to bad "mojo," too cowardly to utter the real word, "juju." 

Cashman tossed the following word salad: 

“We have people who are capable, it is just a combination of, yes, are we hurt? We are are hurt, but we are still capable. But we have a lot of poor play going on simultaneously on the current active roster.”

Translation: Hummina-hummina-hummina.

What Cashman overlooked was the Yankees' winter strategy of pursuing cheap knock-offs to expensive merchandise. While the 36-year-old J.A. Happ was being pummeled by the lowly Chisox, Patrick Corbin was pitching for the Washington Nats. Corbin held the Pirates to one run in seven innings, lowering his spring ERA to 2.84. Corbin, a native of North Syracuse, wanted to be a Yankee. All winter, that was the word around Central New York: the Yankees merely had to make him a decent offer, and he would sign. And the franchise could draw upon a virtually limitless mountain of private and public cash, finagled by corrupt politicos and the simple magnitude of billionaire wealth. It would simply be a few more gold coins on a bubbling volcano of money so vast it can only be seen with a telescope on Mars. But the Yankees went cheap. They went cheap because they wanted to be cheap. And last night, cheap is what we saw. 

Hey, it's almost Easter: Cheap, cheap, cheap...

Of course, it's still early. That's what they say. It's only April. A 20-game winning streak will change everything. And yes, this team has faced a Biblical rain of locusts, snakes and tweaked gonadal sacs. So horrifying are the injury reports that, any day now, I expect to hear that Aaron Judge stepped on a crack, broke his mother's back, and will miss a month. But last night's loss wasn't just a case of poor play. What we saw was a flat-out lousy team. Aside from Judge, here is what we sent out:

A career minor leaguer at 3B, an unknown commodity at DH, a career-back up at C, a slap-hitting 2B, a 2B playing SS, a LF playing CF, a disappointment at 1B, a mystery in LF, an aging starter in his career twilight, a bullpen in distress and a manager known for his easy-going style.

Boston is creeping up on us. At this rate, they'll overtake us next week, in our own stadium - just like last year. 

Listen: Cashman is right; it's a long season. But April might not be a mere bump in the road. We're seeing what we designed, with a little bad juju. We may be facing a meltdown season. Hummina-hummina-hummina.
          Επιστήμονες προτείνουν ένα ποιητικό χαβανέζικο όνομα για την πρώτη μαύρη τρύπα που φωτογραφήθηκε      Comment   Translate Page      
Επιστήμονες προτείνουν ένα ποιητικό χαβανέζικο όνομα για την πρώτη μαύρη τρύπα που φωτογραφήθηκε

«Ποουβέχι» (Powehi), που στα χαβανέζικα σημαίνει «στολισμένη σκοτεινή πηγή της αέναης δημιουργίας» (ή «στολισμένη απύθμενη σκοτεινή δημιουργία»), είναι το όνομα που προτείνει ο καθηγητής γλωσσολογίας του Πανεπιστημίου της Χαβάης Λάρι Κιμούρα για την πρώτη μαύρη τρύπα που φωτογραφήθηκε από το Tηλεσκόπιο Ορίζοντα Γεγονότων (ΕΗΤ), όπως ανακοινώθηκε στις 10 Απριλίου.

Μερικοί από τους αστρονόμους που συμμετείχαν στη φωτογράφηση, συμφώνησαν με την προτεινόμενη ονομασία, αλλά τον τελικό λόγο θα έχει η Διεθνής Αστρονομική Ένωση (IAU), που βαφτίζει τα ουράνια σώματα και άλλα διαστημικά φαινόμενα.

Η πρόταση για χαβανέζικο όνομα έγινε με το σκεπτικό ότι δύο από τα συνολικά οκτώ διασυνδεμένα τηλεσκόπια του ΕΗΤ, τα James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) και Submillimeter Array (SMA), βρίσκονται στη Χαβάη, στο όρος Μαουνακέα. Δεν είναι σαφές κατά πόσο οι περισσότεροι από 200 επιστήμονες του ΕΗΤ συμφωνούν με τη χαβανέζικη ονομασία, η οποία παραπέμπει στην αρχαία μυθολογική παράδοση για τη δημιουργία του (χαβανέζικου) σύμπαντος.

Η συγκεκριμένη μαύρη τρύπα που βρίσκεται στο γαλαξία Messier 87 και φωτογραφήθηκε, ονομάζεται μέχρι σήμερα Μ87 (το όνομα του γαλαξία της), ενώ έχει και άλλες… «βαρετές» ονομασίες, όπως NGC 4486, UGC 7654, Arp 152 και 3C 274, ανάλογα με τον κατάλογο που ανήκει και που μόνο οι αστρονόμοι καταλαβαίνουν. Ο ίδιος γαλαξίας -και η ίδια μαύρη τρύπα του- μπορεί να έχει πολλά διαφορετικά ονόματα.

Η Διεθνής αστρονομική Ένωση, που ιδρύθηκε το 1919, ακολουθεί αυστηρούς κανόνες για την ονοματοδοσία γαλαξιών, άστρων, πλανητών, δορυφόρων και αστεροειδών, αλλά δεν υπάρχουν ανάλογα πρωτόκολλα για τις μαύρες τρύπες μέχρι σήμερα, εν μέρει επειδή ποτέ έως τώρα δεν είχε γίνει άμεση παρατήρηση τους.

Συχνά πέρα από τις αλφαριθμητικές ονομασίες, ένα αντικείμενο του διαστήματος διαθέτει κι ένα πιο εύηχο και «πιασάρικο» εγκεκριμένο όνομα. Για παράδειγμα, ο γαλαξίας Μ104 λέγεται και «Γαλαξίας Σομπρέρο», επειδή θυμίζει το ομώνυμο καπέλο, ενώ το νεφέλωμα Barnard 3 ονομάζεται και «Αλογοκεφαλή», επειδή μοιάζει με κεφάλι αλόγου.

Οπότε το ερώτημα είναι κατά πόσο άλλοι επιστήμονες θα συναινέσουν να χρησιμοποιούν το προτεινόμενο χαβανέζικο όνομα για τη μαύρη τρύπα Μ87 και επίσης αν η Διεθνής Αστρονομική Ένωση θα συμφωνήσει.


Πηγή
          Aus den Feuilletons - Ausflug in die Ontologie      Comment   Translate Page      
Der erste direkte visuelle Nachweis eines Schwarzen Lochs  (Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) / dpa)Die "FAZ" nimmt das erste Bild eines Schwarzen Lochs zum Anlass für eine Einführung in die Philosophie. Und stellt fest, dass die Wissenschaft "die Grenze des Bereichs des Beobachtbaren in eindrucksvoller Weise ein weiteres Mal verschoben" hat.

Von Tobias Wenzel
www.deutschlandfunkkultur.de, Kulturpresseschau
Hören bis: 19.01.2038 04:14
Direkter Link zur Audiodatei



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          【画像あり】ブラックホールを観測した望遠鏡、ヤバすぎるwwwww      Comment   Translate Page      
1: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:46:50.43 ID:9qn/6gVX0
ブラックホールをとらえたイベントホライズンテレスコープ

ハワイ、アリゾナ、メキシコ、チリ、スペイン、南極の6点に設置された巨大電子望遠システムを仮想連結
地球上に直径1万キロメートルの合体電子レンズを顕現させ、視力300万を獲得したイベントホライズンテレスコープによりブラックホールを観測した。
no title

解説:ブラックホールの撮影成功、何がわかった?
ブラックホールの姿が、史上初めてとらえられた。
科学者たちがとらえたのは、太陽65億個分の質量をもつ超大質量ブラックホールだ。地球から5500万光年の彼方、おとめ座銀河団の中心にある巨大楕円銀河M87のさらに中心にある。画像には、いびつな光の輪に囲まれた暗い部分が見える。これはブラックホールのシルエットを世界で初めてとらえたもので、ブラックホールの口に限界まで迫った画期的な画像である。
https://natgeo.nikkeibp.co.jp/atcl/news/19/041200223/ 

3: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:47:29.96 ID:G4cwlKGYa
かっこよすぎる

2: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:47:24.40 ID:vNtKhJcKd
ロボアニメかな?

4: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:47:43.07 ID:8MANDI7bd
想像してた500倍くらいヤバくて草

6: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:48:00.98 ID:09EQI+/90
つよい

8: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:48:13.20 ID:x5bnvIgv0
もうSFのそれだろ

10: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:48:36.11 ID:4u80T7qV0
視力300万て視力2.0とかの?

57: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:52:21.63 ID:HxC82pyQ0
>>10
せやで

14: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:48:51.95 ID:rKpCp+7Kr
そんだけやってもまだ見るだけなんやな

17: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:49:10.28 ID:UpQohe5dd
視力300万で草
バトル漫画のインフレかよ

20: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:49:41.79 ID:QT2BtqGo0
イベントホライズンテレスコープとかカッコよすぎるやろ

22: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:49:52.85 ID:NMj2q+7u0
意味不明で草

25: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:50:08.61 ID:nUZ3SOE80
カッコええな
仮想連結とか意味わからんけど

28: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:50:14.90 ID:3S7DpINL0
月に置いてあるゴルフボールが地球から見えるレベルとか草

29: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:50:29.06 ID:dDJYX+5N0
つまりどういうこと?

40: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:51:11.66 ID:bSIT70N30
>>29
地球規模の望遠鏡や



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30: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:50:33.68 ID:W/XvxBemp
テレ朝でやってるけど意味不明すぎて草

33: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:50:44.67 ID:9TzRVMtYd
こういうのめっちゃワクワクする

35: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:50:54.38 ID:NoDTmd9r0
見えないものを見ようとして望遠鏡を覗き込んだんやな

56: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:52:16.90 ID:YQxb1Ayp0
>>35
静寂を切り裂いていくつも声が生まれたんやろなぁ

78: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:53:18.84 ID:NoDTmd9r0
>>56
明日が僕らを呼んだって返事もロクにしないんやろな

711: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 23:16:50.27 ID:zsn36A/1a
>>78
そして輝くウルトラソウッッッ  

やろなあw

41: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:51:12.86 ID:4s0DQZKB0
ちな視力450万にアップデート予定らしい

43: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:51:16.78 ID:hkLHyTL90
月に落ちてるゴルフボールが地球から見えるとか

やばくね

80: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:53:21.36 ID:zGQRd65l0
>>43
でも月にゴルフボール落ちてないから実際には見えないぞ

544: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 23:11:07.36 ID:08Vau9lAa
>>80

no title

796: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 23:19:24.96 ID:zGQRd65l0
>>544

探してもらおう

54: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:52:11.34 ID:HrbmKw2x0
こんなん嘘つかれてても分かりませんやん

55: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:52:13.59 ID:kyn879Odr
なろうやん

81: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:53:22.42 ID:gD308AEN0
ブラックホール
no title
by Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration (EHT)

114: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:54:50.12 ID:aNqtSAbra

>>81
真ん中の黒いのがブラックホールなん?

146: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:55:37.96 ID:3S7DpINL0
>>114
真ん中のがブラックホールやね
正確には周囲の光の影や

663: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 23:15:26.48 ID:URddKG2/0
>>146
周囲のはガスやろ

123: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:55:08.92 ID:2rH79fGma
>>81
なんか想像とちがう
というか赤いんやな

152: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:55:50.70 ID:tMkZzTCa0
>>81
ピント合ってへんやん
ワイのスマホ以下が何が地球望遠鏡や

155: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:55:55.62 ID:TEaYLuo20
>>81
はぇ~こたつみたい

160: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:55:58.83 ID:QPCCi5130
>>81
これが現実ならインターステラーのブラックホールのままでこれを知りたくなかった

161: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:56:02.35 ID:vXPacWa10
>>81
この赤いのはガスなんやろけどなんで赤く写ってるんやろ

218: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:58:11.30 ID:stidqNPl0
>>161
電波望遠鏡の画像やから後から色付けただけや

274: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 23:00:33.22 ID:2rH79fGma
>>218
なら色もついてへんもとの写真はただ黒いだけってこと?

317: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 23:01:55.51 ID:5dlQP8t50
>>274
画像ですらないぞ

384: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 23:04:53.08 ID:stidqNPl0
>>274
元はただのデータでしかない
わかりやすいように画像化する時に色付けてる

88: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:53:51.19 ID:HcnoTaK60
おお~…(なんか微妙…)

97: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:54:17.32 ID:EktbWvbMM
インターステラーで見たブラックホールと全然違くて草
専門家監修してたんやなかったんかい

102: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:54:27.39 ID:VcOQcipB0
これが本当にブラックホールと誰が証明してくれるん?

156: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:55:56.32 ID:zGQRd65l0
>>102
言ったもん勝ちや
ブラックホールはありまぁす!

649: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 23:15:03.54 ID:KHW32sk70
>>102
ブラックホールって名付けられたものと同じ挙動してるから実質ブラックホールやぞ

104: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:54:34.13 ID:bBt5z3bD0
インタビューの回答してるやつめちゃくちゃ頭よくね?
素人にこんなにわかりやすく説明できる内容やないやろ

115: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:54:51.80 ID:rmy5JDiJ0
>>104
会見めっちゃわかりやすかったような

130: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:55:23.50 ID:ZdSSEDvX0
観測されたブラックホール
直径 1000億km
質量 太陽の65億倍
周りに纏うガスの温度 60億℃

189: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:57:18.14 ID:CRdkVs7Ma
>>130
どうせわからんからって適当ぶっこいてんじゃねーよ

198: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:57:42.70 ID:ZdSSEDvX0
>>189
正式に発表されてるぞ

262: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 23:00:04.21 ID:6Qiwde9oa

222: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:58:24.09 ID:1KBvJVhl0
>>130
意味不明で草

322: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 23:02:04.98 ID:uZ9BBX7Za
>>130
ゼットンより弱いやんけしょっぼ

357: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 23:03:39.96 ID:CVTmz8Gl0
>>130
ぼくがかんがえたさいきょうのブラックホール

142: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:55:34.82 ID:wKNcdmvBd
この望遠鏡を仮想連結する概念がよくわからん

47: 風吹けば名無し 2019/04/10(水) 22:51:35.28 ID:i3BeQCJx0
よくわからんけどロマンに満ち溢れてるのはわかる

1001: 以下の記事もオススメです 2032/3/2(火) 04:044:44.44 ID:usi32.com

宇宙はなぜブラックホールを造ったのか (光文社新書)
谷口義明
光文社
売り上げランキング: 2,369

元スレ:http://swallow.5ch.net/test/read.cgi/livejupiter/1554904010/


02

誰だよブラックホールなんて
実在しないって言ってた奴は…

01

私の視力は53万です
ですがもちろんフルパワーで凝視する気はありませんからご心配なく

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          如果人掉進黑洞…會被「拉成麵條」嗎? 給地球人的黑洞指南      Comment   Translate Page      

▲▼ 黑洞 。(圖/中央研究院提供)

▲「事件視界望遠鏡」拍下首張黑洞影像, 距離地球5500萬光年 。(圖/中央研究院提供)

記者王致凱/編譯

「事件視界望遠鏡(Event Horizon Telescope)計畫」於台灣時間10日晚間公開人類史上首張「黑洞照片」,寫下天文史新頁。但對於黑洞這個宇宙中最神秘天體,人們好奇究竟什麼是黑洞,人如果跌入黑洞會怎麼樣呢?《紐約時報》(The New York Times)特別為所有的「地球生靈」,整理出幾條有關「黑洞」的有趣指南。

黑洞是個飢餓的野獸

黑洞會吞噬所有靠近它的一切,就連光也無法抵抗它的強大引力,而周遭的所有行星、恆星、氣體,都成為滋養黑洞的養分。

黑洞的邊緣被稱為「事件視界」(event horizon),是一條沒有歸路的邊界,千萬注意要遠離這條邊界,因為一旦過了邊界,就連光都會被吸入黑洞,沒有辦法逃脫,而沒有任何東西比光速還快。

幾乎我們知道的全部宇宙運作機制,都取決於黑洞

可能有些人想錯了,或者我們不得不承認,人類仍然不具備瞭解宇宙奧秘的能力。黑洞火牆悖論質疑最明確的科學理論。愛因斯坦(Albert Einstein)、波爾欽斯基(Joseph Polchinski)、霍金(Stephen Hawking),或者根本沒有人知道;如果我們能夠真正知道物理資訊在黑洞內會發生什麼變化,我們對於宇宙的一切知識都可能改變。

註:火牆悖論(firewall paradox)是物理學上一個假說,認為當觀察者落入黑洞的事件視界,會遭遇高能量子密集聚在一起而形成的「火牆」。此概念由阿姆黑利(Ahmed Almheiri)、馬若夫(Donald Marolf)、波爾欽斯基和蘇利(James Sully)等4位物理學家於2012年提出,但學界對此仍有爭議,因為其違反愛因斯坦廣義相對論中的「等效原理」。

▼過去對於「雙黑洞」產生重力波的想像圖。(圖/路透社)

▲▼雙黑洞,重力波。(圖/路透社)

如果不小心掉入黑洞,目前還不清楚你究竟會怎麼死

人掉進黑洞,會被重力撕成碎片呢?還是火牆會直接讓你消失?又或者你身體內的某些「本質」會因為黑洞而浮現?學界始終沒有定論。

根據愛因斯坦1915年的廣義相對論,如果你掉入黑洞,重力還來不及將你「拉成麵條」,你就會先毫髮無損的落入「事件視界」,最終被塞進奇異點(Singularity)裡,也就是黑洞中密度趨近於無限的核心。

但波爾欽斯基和他的團隊則以量子理論反駁,認為事件視界將會成為一道炙熱的能量火牆,將你的身體直接燒成碎片。

霍金的觀點則保留了上述兩種理論。霍金在2014年1月表示,黑洞並不是我們所想的那樣,「沒有事件視界,也沒有奇異點,他們就是不相同。」根據霍金的說法,黑洞的邊緣被稱為時空的第四維度,像天氣一般波動,因此不認為有清晰的邊界。

霍金所說的黑洞邊緣,就像是一個「光線的煉獄」,光線試著逃離黑洞,但卻緩慢的消散並向內移動,卻又未被拉進奇異點。霍金說,事件視界始終保持不變,甚至因為黑洞緩慢的能量外洩而縮小。根據霍金的說法,落入黑洞中,你會被「炒碎」並逸散到太空中,就像「霍金輻射」一樣。

黑洞會唱歌

2003年,天文學家法比安(Andrew Fabian)領導的團隊利用美國NASA的錢卓拉X射線天文台(Chandra X-ray Observatory)發現了宇宙中最長、最古老、最低沉的「黑洞之歌」。儘管這對人耳來說實在太低沉,無論如何人都不可能直接聽見。

黑洞控制星系的大小

天文學家認為,當星系物質在黑洞周圍旋轉、升溫時,形成的能量會射出X射線,這些X射線能為類星體(quasar)提供能量。

幾乎每個星系都有黑洞

雖然在地球附近沒有黑洞,但幾乎在每一個星系,包括我們自己所在的銀河系,以及地球上可觀測到的1000億個星系,都有黑洞存在的跡象。

黑洞是恆星的墓碑

1967年7月2日,一顆衛星記錄到來自外太空的一次伽馬射線爆發,現在回想起來,這可能是第一個表明黑洞真實存在的跡象。時至今日,科學家們相信伽馬射線爆發,代表著垂死恆星嚥下的最後一口氣,以及相當恆星質量大小的黑洞誕生。

▲▼星星, 星空, 觀星, 銀河, 旅行一個人慢慢走(圖/記者徐文彬攝)

▲天文學家相信,在已知的所有星系中幾乎都黝黑動的存在(圖/記者徐文彬攝)

「黑洞無毛」

2011年3月28日,天文學家觀測到距離40億光年外的一次伽馬射線爆發,是人類首次觀察到可能有一個蟄伏的黑洞吞了一顆星星。但無論黑洞吞了什麼,吞了一顆恆星、一頭驢子、一台iPhone,或是吞了你的高中老師,結果都是一樣的。

正如物理學家惠勒(John Archibald Wheeler)所說的「黑洞無毛」(A black hole has no hair),意即黑洞只有質量、角動量以及電荷三個守恆量,其他任何物質所具備的性質都不存在。

循著光亮,探索黑暗

因為光線無法逃離黑洞,所以要看見裡面的東西是不可能的。拍下黑洞邊緣的影像非常困難,要獲得清晰的圖像更是一件大事。

黑洞並非永恆

隨著「霍金輻射」洩漏到宇宙,量子效應顯示黑洞最終將會蒸發。但要使黑洞完全蒸發殆盡,需要比宇宙的年齡還要好幾倍長的時間。

歐洲的大磁鐵不會摧毀這顆星球

在歐洲核子研究組織(CERN)2008年啟用大型強子對撞機(LHC)前,反對者憂心它可能製造出黑洞,吞沒地球。他們10多年前也曾對美國布魯克黑文國家實驗室的相對論性重離子對撞機(RHIC)發出類似疾呼。但根據他們的計算方法,穿透地球大氣層的超高能宇宙射線每年約在地球上形成100個微小黑洞,如果這是個問題,那麼地球早就已經崩塌成「無限」。

2008年6月,安全審查宣布LHC實驗安全無虞後,實驗正式開始,結果地球不但沒有毀滅,人類還發現了俗稱「上帝粒子」的希格斯玻色子(Higgs boson)。

▼在歐洲核子研究組織(CERN)的大型強子對撞機。(圖/達志影像/美聯社)

▲▼ 義大利物理學教授史楚米亞(Alessandro Strumia)在歐洲核子研究組織(CERN)發表性別歧視言論。(圖/達志影像/美聯社)

文章來源: 東森新聞


          Links for 2019-04-12      Comment   Translate Page      
_First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results. III. Data Processing and Calibration_ ‘We present the calibration and reduction of Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) 1.3 mm radio wavelength observations of the supermassive black hole candidate at the center of the radio galaxy M87 and the quasar 3C 279, taken during the 2017 April 5–11 observing campaign. These […]
          So, we’ve seen the first-ever photo of a black hole. What happens now?      Comment   Translate Page      
This image released Wednesday, April 10, 2019, by Event Horizon Telescope shows a black hole. Scientists revealed the first image ever made of a black hole after assembling data gathered by a network of radio telescopes around the world.

Astronomers agree that their work is far from done, project director Sheperd Doeleman said at a news conference.


          Комментарий к записи Как написать письмо королеве Великобритании (Agenakacagree)      Comment   Translate Page      
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La primera foto de un agujero negro, captada por el Event Horizon Telescope: "Un absoluto monstruo", dicen. Tres millones de veces más grande que la Tierra. No sé, pero me recuerda a aquella imagen del video de Soundgarden: Black Hole Sun.

"Won't you come
And wash away the rain".



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Associates degree, B.S, or M.S in Information Technologies, Computer Networking, Computer Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Computer Science, or a related...
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          3 Huge Questions the Black Hole Image Didn't Answer      Comment   Translate Page      
3 Huge Questions the Black Hole Image Didn't Answer By Rafi Letzter An international network of radio telescopes has produced the first-ever clos
          Re: Debunking Christianity: The State of Scholarly Mythicism      Comment   Translate Page      

I’ll be happy to purchase and read your book. But before I do, I would like to know what has caused mythicists to doubt that Jesus ever existed. There has never been a revolutionary development in academia without *some* catalyst. A breakthrough of one sort or another. To my knowledge there has never been an area of study completely flipped upside down without such a catalyst. The red shift, Galápagos Islands, the telescope, a new discovery, *something*. There must surely be some “go to” argument that you think is strong enough to merit consideration and peak interest? One that doesn’t take 800 pages to explain?

Also, is there any major pillar that mythicism is built upon that *isnt* considered a fringe minority view? Even by secular standards? It seems like to accept the conclusion Jesus never existed one must not only adopt a position that is considered bizarre, but also defend a series of premises that are held by almost *no one*. Can you give an example of some important premises in the mythicist argument that would be held by most mainstream academics?


          视觉中国“黑洞”引众怒 中国官方出手打“假版权”      Comment   Translate Page      
BdTD schwarzes Loch EHT (Reuters/National Science Foundation)
人类首张黑洞照片是多国科学家共同协作研究推证的结果
(德国之声中文网)4月10日,"事件视界望远镜"(EHT)国际研究项目研究人员在包括美、日、中、台等在内的多个国家和地区同时公布了人类真正掌握的第一张宇宙黑洞的照片。令全世界的天文迷为之振奋。而这个事件在中国却掀起了一个有关版权的纷争。中国专业图片版权提供方"视觉中国"一时间成为众矢之的,原因是它一度把全球科研人员通过共同努力协作研究制作完成的黑洞照片归为"己有",向用户收取数额不小的版权使用费。
据包括"新华社"在内的各大中国媒体报道,4月11日,也就是"事件视界望远镜"(EHT)组织公布第一张黑洞照片后的第二天,中国的正版图片内容服务网站"视觉中国"出现了同一张黑洞的照片。据"搜狐财经"报道,视觉中国官方网站曾在 "人类首张黑洞照片"版权声明中称图片由欧洲南方天文台(The European Southern Observatory)提供,图片仅限编辑类使用,不得商用,而版权所有归为视觉中国,如用于商业,则需咨询视觉中国客户代表。官媒新华社在相关报道中指出:上述说法难免被大众理解为一旦使用"黑洞"图片就要付费给视觉中国。
版权方:注明来源无商业用途限制
中国媒体《每日经济新闻》声称就此事获得了欧洲南方天文台(简称ESO)的正式书面回复,在相关回复的中文翻译文本中可以看到ESO表态称:视觉中国的这种版权主张不合法。这张图片的版权归属于事件视界望远镜合作项目(Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration,以下简称EHT),而ESO就是隶属于EHT。据称欧洲南方天文台在回复中明确表示:相关图片可以免费使用,且只要正确地写明了图片的来源,这些图片也可以用作商业用途。
所以也就不难理解为何"视觉中国"网站最初向黑洞照片的使用者收取费用的做法会激起众多中国网民的抵触。更有网民找出了这个上市公司所属网站向中国"国旗"、"国徽"以及领导人历史照片收取版权费用的例证。中国"共青团中央"的官方微博于4月11日发表了两张"视觉中国"称国旗国徽版权归其所有的网站截图,并@视觉中国网站的官方微博"视觉中国影像"发文问道:"国旗、国徽的版权也是贵公司的?"
Handelsstreit zwischen USA und China (picture-alliance/dpa/Getty Images/F. Li)
在Getty Images的图库中 可以看到许多国旗的图片
官方出面点名"视觉中国"
随后,中国国家版权局通过其官方微信公众号发表声明称:"近日,"黑洞图片"版权问题引发关注。国家版权局重视图片版权保护,依法维护著作权人合法权益。各图片公司要健全版权管理机制,规范版权运营,合法合理维权,不得滥用权利。"同时天津互联网信息办公室也于4月12日凌晨公布,已于11日依法约谈视觉中国网站负责人,责令该网站立即停止违法违规行为,全面彻底整改。
天津网信办认为,视觉中国"在其发布的多张图片中刊发敏感有害信息标注,引起网上大量转发,破坏网络生态,造成恶劣影响",此行为违反了相关法规,责令其立即停止传输相关信息,从严处理相关责任人,全面清查历史存量信息,加强内容审核管理和编辑人员教育培训,并提到,视觉中国网站负责人表示,管理上存在严重问题,将全面彻底整改,在此期间暂时关闭网站。
截止至4月12号,"视觉中国"的官方网站(www.vcg.com)已经无法登陆,由于该公司的主体为上市公司,其上市企业信息网站仍可访问。本周五,视觉中国的股票开盘后毫无悬念跌停,跌幅为10%。但从该公司最新的财务报告来看,这家以"视觉内容与服务"为核心主业的上市公司2018年上半年的营业收入比去年同期增长了近26%,经营活动产生的现金流量净额更是在同期内增长了158%。而真正能从中获取最大利益的是公司的大股东--美国图片内容交易公司Getty Images。根据视觉中国公布的财务报告,Getty Images的占股比例为50%。
Screenshot Getty Foto Schwarzes Loch M87 (gettyimages.de)
Getty Images 也为这张版权不属于它的图片开出了475欧元高价
Getty Images也弄错了
而在Getty Images德国区的图片素材网站上,可以看到和"视觉中国"几乎类似的对"黑洞"照片的处理方法。截止至德国时间4月12日上午,Getty Images在网站上给黑洞照片4K大分辨率版的开价为475欧元,同时在图片版权说明中表示:Getty Images针对以新闻编辑为目的行为提供这个公开发布的图像,但不是其版权所有者。使用该图可能需要其它权限,并且最终由用户自行负责。在面对德国之声的询问时,Getty Images的一名企业客户服务代表承认,该网站为黑洞4K照片475欧元的开价是"系统错误",原因是该公司在这张图片上没有更改相关默认的系统设置。对于全球的新闻媒体来说,在报道中使用该图不用支付任何费用。同时该客户服务代表认为,目前没有人有权将最新公布的这张黑洞照片用于商业领域。综其所述,视觉中国之前所说的"如用于商业,则需咨询视觉中国客户代表"并无法律依据。
在舆论的高压之下,视觉中国4月11日通过其官方微博发表声明称:"黑洞"照片属于Event Horizon Telescope组织,视觉中国通过合作伙伴获得编辑类使用授权。该图片授权并非独家,其他媒体和图片机构也获得了授权。但是该图片根据版权人要求只能用于新闻编辑传播使用,未经许可,不能作为商业类使用。商业使用一般包括广告、促销等使用场景,视觉中国并未获得该图片商业用途的权利。"如未经版权人授权,用于商业用途,将可能存在风险。"在使用相关图片默认的版权信息声明情况下,"视觉中国"和其控股公司Getty Images都未将欧洲南方天文台向《每日经济新闻》的相关表态考虑在内。
激怒舆论的真正原因
在舆论对"视觉中国"的批评声中,可以看到让广大中国网民,包括许多自媒体博主真正愤怒的不是黑洞照片被一度被"视觉中国"归为己有,而是对其背后商业盈利模式的质疑。公司在2017年的年度报告中披露:公司自行研发了鹰眼(图像版权网络追踪系统),能够追踪到公司拥有的图片在网络上的使用情况。报告期内,公司通过"鹰眼"发现的潜在客户数量较去年同期有超过84%的增长;通过"鹰眼"新增年度协议客户数量较去年同期增长超过54%。
所以,视觉中国"黑洞"事件爆发后,就引发了公众对该公司自称拥有版权的图片到底有多少合法性的质疑。新华社在其最新报道中指出,对于很多刚刚进入自媒体行业的人来说,"都会得到前辈一句教导--网上搜图的时候一定要看看有没有视觉中国的水印。一旦用了视觉中国的图片,视觉中国都只接受'赔偿'而不是删图道歉。"中国的自媒体中,目前比较知名的就是专门翻译外媒文章的自媒体网站"煎蛋网"。其创始人Sein去年曾在题为《被视觉中国索赔图片版权,很难受》的文章中表示收到了视觉中国的"索赔"邮件,称被要求赔偿"整体打包优惠"后的25万人民币。在这篇文章的评论区,可以看到诸多"我也被告了,求后来"的网友评论。
中国官媒《人民日报》的一则博文更是得到了中国网民的广泛转发和评论,该报在新浪微博发问:"视觉中国"下线国旗、国徽等不合规图片并致歉。怎样的图片能收费?探讨来得猝不及防却颇有意义。当版权保护成共识,没有人否认摄影作品有著作权。问题在于,著作权是否真成立?平台有没有净化版权池?商业模式是否经得起推敲?避免版权保护陷入"黑洞",与提倡版权付费一样重要。在这个被评论转发均超过12000次的博文下,《人民日报》贴出了写着"不敢配图"四个大字的图片。

          Get to Know Gemini! Lindsay Magill      Comment   Translate Page      

Get to Know Gemini is a series of blog posts aimed to highlight the different careers, backgrounds, and types of people contributing to Gemini Observatory and its science. Name:  Lindsay Magill What is your current position and at which telescope? Science Operations Specialist, Gemini South In four lines or less, explain what you do as […]

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          Μαύρη Τρύπα: Βλέποντας το ανείδωτο      Comment   Translate Page      
Κόσμος


Η είδηση της φωτογράφισης μιας μαύρης τρύπας, ή, πιο σωστά, των φωτεινών «ιχνών» των αερίων γύρω της, αφού η ίδια η μαύρη τρύπα είναι αδύνατον να φωτογραφηθεί ακριβώς διότι δεν αφήνει ούτε το φως να δραπετεύσει από αυτήν, έκανε τον γύρο του κόσμου. Σε έναν πλανήτη όπου κυριαρχεί η απελπισία, η επιστήμη έρχεται να μας θυμίσει, για μια ακόμη φορά, ότι η ανθρωπότητα αξίζει μακράν έναν καλύτερο κόσμο. Έστω και αν πλέον οι διαστημικές υπηρεσίες, όπως η NASA, όλο και περισσότερο εκκινούνται από την ανάγκη να εξασφαλίσουν χρηματοδότηση, οπότε «σκηνοθετούν» σε επικοινωνιακό επίπεδο τις ανακοινώσεις τους, έτσι ώστε να αγγίξουν όσο το δυνατόν περισσότερο κοινό.

Το γεγονός παραμένει, ότι αυτή η φωτογραφία είναι σημαντική, διότι είναι η πρώτη φορά που οι αστρονόμοι αποτύπωσαν την εικόνα αυτού του συμπαντικού φαινομένου.

Επίτευγμα όμως αποτελεί και ο τρόπος που επιτεύχθηκε αυτό, μετατρέποντας, ουσιαστικά, όλη τη Γη… σε ένα τηλεσκόπιο. Διότι αυτή εικόνα είναι το εκπληκτικό επίτευγμα του Horizon Telescope Event, ή Τηλεσκόπιου Ορίζοντα Γεγονότων, μια παγκόσμια συνεργασία περισσότερων από 200 επιστημόνων που χρησιμοποιούν μια σειρά παρατηρητηρίων διάσπαρτα σε όλο τον κόσμο, από τη Χαβάη μέχρι τον Νότιο Πόλο.

Συνδυασμένη, αυτή η συστοιχία λειτουργεί σαν ένα τηλεσκόπιο μεγέθους της Γης και ήταν σε θέση να συγκεντρώσει περισσότερο από 1 petabyte δεδομένων, «κοιτάζοντας» έτσι τη μαύρη τρύπα του γαλαξία M87 για πρώτη φορά τον Απρίλιο του 2017. Στη συνέχεια χρειάστηκαν δύο χρόνια επεξεργασίας για να συνθέσουν την φωτογραφία.

Πάνω από 50 εκατομμύρια έτη φωτός μακριά, λοιπόν, στην καρδιά ενός γιγαντιαίου ελλειπτικού γαλαξία που ονομάζεται Messier 87, ένα γιγάντιο «θηρίο» καταβροχθίζει οτιδήποτε «ξεστρατίζει» και φτάνει πολύ κοντά του. Αστέρια, πλανήτες, αέρια και σκόνη «εξαφανίζονται» αν βρεθούν στο «λάθος» μέρος τη «λάθος» στιγμή. Ούτε καν το φως δεν μπορεί να ξεφύγει μόλις περάσει ένα όριο που ονομάζεται «ορίζοντας συμβάντος». Γι’ αυτό και αυτή η τρύπα είναι κατάμαυρη.

Οι επιστήμονες αποκάλυψαν την εικόνα αυτού του φαινομένου, μια υπερμεγέθη μαύρη τρύπα με μάζα που ισούται με αυτήν 6,5 δισεκατομμυρίων Ήλιων. Μοιάζει με ένα… «κυκλικό κενό», όπως το χαρακτηρίζει το National Geographic, που περιβάλλεται από ένα δαχτυλίδι φωτός.

Μέχρι τώρα, μπορούσαμε να δούμε μόνο έμμεσες ενδείξεις της ύπαρξης μαύρων τρυπών, όπως η ανίχνευση της ακτινοβολίας από την υπερθερμασμένη ύλη που περιστρέφεται μέσα τους ή καταγράφοντας τα εξαιρετικά ενεργά σωματίδια που εκτοξεύονται από τα ταραχώδη περιβάλλοντά τους.

«Μελετάμε μαύρες τρύπες για τόσο μεγάλο χρονικό διάστημα που μερικές φορές είναι εύκολο να ξεχάσουμε ότι κανείς από εμάς δεν έχει δει ποτέ μία», σημείωσε η διευθύντρια του Εθνικού Ιδρύματος Επιστημών των ΗΠΑ, Φρανς Κόρντοβα,, κατά τη διάρκεια της συνέντευξης Τύπου όπου ανακοινώθηκε το επίτευγμα.

«Είμαστε στην ευχάριστη θέση να σας αναφέρουμε σήμερα, ότι είδαμε αυτό που πιστεύαμε ότι ήταν ανείδωτο», πρόσθεσε ο Σεπ Ντόλεμαν του Ινστιτούτου Αστροφυσικής του Harvard-Smithsonian. «Αυτό που βλέπετε είναι απόδειξη ενός ορίζοντα γεγονότος. Τώρα έχουμε οπτικές αποδείξεις της ύπαρξης των μαύρων τρυπών».

«Ένα πορτοκάλι στο φεγγάρι»


Το τηλεσκόπιο Ορίζοντα Γεγονότων ξεκίνησε αρχικά να αποτυπώσει μια εικόνα της υπερμεγέθους μαύρης τρύπας στον πυρήνα του γαλαξία μας. Έχοντας βαφτιστεί από τους επιστήμονες ως Τοξότης A*, αυτή η μαύρη τρύπα είναι σχετικά «μικρή» σε σύγκριση με αυτή του γαλαξία M87, περιέχοντας τη μάζα «μόλις» τεσσάρων εκατομμυρίων Ήλιων. Επειδή η μαύρη τρύπα του M87 είναι μία από τις πλησιέστερες, μεγαλύτερες μαύρες τρύπες, η επιστημονική ομάδα αποφάσισε να στοχεύσει το τηλεσκόπιο και προς τα εκεί.

Όπως προέκυψε, το να προσπαθήσουμε να κοιτάξουμε προν την καρδιά του γαλαξία μας αποδείχθηκε λίγο πιο περίπλοκο από το να παρατηρήσουμε μια μαύρη τρύπα στο επόμενο σύμπλεγμα γαλαξιών, γι’ αυτό και το «πορτρέτο» του M87 είναι το πρώτο.

Στην προκειμένη περίπτωση, αντί αυτό το «πορτρέτο» να είναι ένα ενιαίο στιγμιότυπο, όπως οι πολλές θεαματικές φωτογραφίες του διαστημικού τηλεσκοπίου Hubble, η εικόνα του τηλεσκοπίου Ορίζοντα Γεγονότων είναι προϊόν μιας διαδικασίας που ονομάζεται συμβολομετρία (interferometry), η οποία συνδυάζει παρατηρήσεις από πολλά τηλεσκόπια, σε μία εικόνα. Όταν τα ξεχωριστά «πιάτα» παρατηρούν ταυτόχρονα τον ίδιο στόχο, οι επιστήμονες μπορούν να συγκεντρώσουν τις παρατηρήσεις και να «δουν» ένα αντικείμενο σαν να χρησιμοποιούν ένα τεράστιο «πιάτο» που καλύπτει την απόσταση μεταξύ αυτών των τηλεσκοπίων.

Για να αναλύσουν αυτές τις υπερμεγέθεις μαύρες τρύπες - οι οποίες είναι και πάλι μικροσκοπικές σε σύγκριση με τους γαλαξίες που τις περιβάλλουν - οι συνεργαζόμενοι επιστήμονες έπρεπε να αξιοποιήσει τη δύναμη των ραδιοτηλεσκοπίων σε όλο τον πλανήτη. ‘Ετσι, έξι παρατηρητήρια στο Μεξικό, τη Χαβάη, την Αριζόνα, τη Χιλή και την Ισπανία έστρεψαν τα «βλέμματά» τους ταυτόχρονα προς τον M87, ο οποίος είναι ο μεγαλύτερος γαλαξίας στο κέντρο του αστερισμού της Παρθένου. Λειτουργώντας ως ένα τηλεσκόπιο με το μέγεθος της Γης, αυτό το δίκτυο μπορεί να αναλύσει αντικείμενα ακόμη και το 1/10 του μεγέθους αυτών που μπορεί να δει το Hubble. Όπως το έθεσαν παραστατικά οι επιστήμονες, «είναι περίπου το ίδιο μέγεθος σαν να προσπαθείτε να τραβήξετε μια φωτογραφία ενός πορτοκαλιού στο φεγγάρι».

Περισσότερα τα νέα ερωτήματα από τις απαντήσεις


Για ημέρες, η επιστημονική ομάδα παρατήρησε το M87 σε βραχέα μήκη κύματος ραδιοσυχνοτήτων, επειδή τα ραδιοκύματα μπορούν να διαπεράσουν τα σκοτεινά πέπλα σκόνης και αερίου που περιβάλλουν τα κέντρα των γαλαξιών. Κατά τη διάρκεια αυτής της παρατήρησης, η οποία περιελάμβανε και άλλους στόχους εκτός από τον M87, η ομάδα συγκέντρωσε τόσες πληροφορίες - πέντε petabytes - που ο μόνος λογικός τρόπος για να μεταφερθούν ήταν να τις συγκεντρώσουν σε πραγματικούς σκληρούς δίσκους αντί να αποσταλούν ψηφιακά. Για να πάρουμε μια ιδέα για το τι σημαίνει αυτός ο όγκος, οι επιστήμονες εξήγησαν ότι πέντε petabytes ισούνται με 5.000 χρόνια αρχείων MP3, ή ολόκληρη η ισόβια συλλογή σέλφι 40.000 ανθρώπων.

Με αυτή τη φωτογραφία στο χέρι, οι επιστήμονες μπορούν τώρα να αρχίσουν να εξετάζουν μερικά από τα βαθύτερα μυστήρια της φυσικής των μαύρων τρυπών, συμπεριλαμβανομένης της επιβεβαίωσης των θεμελιωδών τους βάσεων. Πιο απλά: Να διαπιστώσουν αν ο Αϊνστάιν είχε δίκιο. Μέχρι στιγμής, φαίνεται ότι είχε. Αν και ο ίδιος προσέγγιζε με σκεπτικισμό ακόμη και την πιθανότητα ύπαρξης μαύρων τρυπών, ωστόσο, οι λύσεις στις εξισώσεις του για τη γενική θεωρία της σχετικότητας, που δημοσίευσε το 1915, προέβλεπαν, ότι εάν τα υπερμεγέθη αντικείμενα υπήρχαν διάσπαρτα στο σύμπαν, θα έπρεπε να είναι σφαιρικά, περιβαλλόμενα από ένα δαχτυλίδι φωτός. Ακριβώς δηλαδή αυτό που δείχνει η φωτογραφία της μαύρης τρύπας του M87…

Η επιστημονική ομάδα μέτρησε τη μάζα της καταλήγοντας ότι είναι περίπου όσο 6,5 δισεκατομμύρια ήλιοι. Αυτό όμως που είναι πιο δύσκολο να εκτιμηθεί είναι το πόσο μακριά εκτείνεται ο ορίζοντας συμβάντος του M87. Ακριβώς όπως οι σκιές ή οι σιλουέτες έχουν συχνά ασαφείς άκρες, το ίδιο συμβαίνει και με τον σκοτεινό κύκλο της φωτογραφίας. Το ακριβές πλάτος του εξαρτάται από μια σειρά από παραμέτρους που δεν είναι ακόμα γνωστές, όπως για παράδειγμα πόσο γρήγορα περιστρέφεται η μαύρη τρύπα και τον ακριβή προσανατολισμό της στο διάστημα.

Είναι πιθανόν ότι αν η μαύρη τρύπα τοποθετηθεί  στο ηλιακό μας σύστημα, ο ορίζοντας του γεγονότος θα εκτείνεται πολύ πέρα από την τροχιά του Πλούτωνα, ίσως να εκτείνεται περισσότερο από 120 φορές από την απόσταση μεταξύ της Γης και του ‘Ηλιου.

Κανείς δεν ξέρει τι βρίσκεται στον πυρήνα μιας μαύρης τρύπας, αν υποθέσουμε ότι όντως υπάρχει κάτι. Η μαύρη τρύπα περιβάλλεται από μια καμπύλη του χωροχρόνου από την οποία δεν διαφεύγει τίποτα. Ωστόσο, η νέα εικόνα θα βοηθήσει τους αστρονόμους να καταλάβουν περισσότερα για το εξωτερικό της, ειδικά τα «συντριβάνια» σωματιδίων που ταξιδεύουν σχεδόν με την ταχύτητα του φωτός.

Μια έκρηξη ύλης από μαύρη τρύπα στο διάστημα μπορεί να ακούγεται παράδοξη, δεδομένου ότι γενικά τείνουν να απορροφούν ύλη και όχι να την «εκπνέουν», αλλά, όπως το θέτει το National Geographic, αυτά τα εξωτικά αντικείμενα δεν θα ήταν τίποτα αν δεν ήταν μπερδεμένα. Έτσι, βλέποντας τη διεπαφή μεταξύ του φωτός, της ύλης και του ορίζοντα συμβάντος του M87, οι επιστήμονες θα μπορούσαν να επεξεργαστούν αυτή την αινιγματική, «ανάποδη», διαδικασία.

Με λίγα λόγια, ως είθισται στην αέναη περιπέτεια του ανθρώπου για την κατανόηση του κόσμου μέσα στον οποίο υπάρχει, τα ερωτήματα από κάθε νέα ανακάλυψη είναι πάντα περισσότερα από τις απαντήσεις που έδωσε.

Πηγή: tvxs.gr



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          Tecnologia orobica per il telescopio che ha «catturato» il primo buco nero      Comment   Translate Page      
L’impianto installato nella base Amundsen Scott in Antartide ha visto la collaborazione tra la Cospal di Ambivere e la Carpenteria Colombo di Monte Marenzo.

Duecento ricercatori e una rete mondiale di radiotelescopi hanno confermato ciò che Einstein aveva già teorizzato un secolo fa: l’esistenza dei buchi neri. Come già accaduto in passato - basti pensare alla rivoluzione scientifica del ‘600 - anche oggi a sostegno delle grandi menti dell’astrofisica non poteva che esserci la tecnologia, una fetta della quale è da rintracciare in due aziende locali: la Cospal, di Ambivere e la Carpenteria Colombo, di Monte Marenzo.

È infatti loro la mano che sta dietro uno degli strumenti fondamentali utilizzati per raggiungere lo storico obiettivo di fotografare un buco nero, dimostrandone l’esistenza. Il contributo maggiore dato dalle due aziende del territorio ha riguardato la fornitura del South Pole telescope, installato al Polo Sud, presso la base Amundsen Scott. Tutta la struttura è infatti stata realizzata dalla Carpenteria Colombo, mentre le parti ottiche del telescopio sono frutto dell’opera della Cospal, un lavoro di squadra che consolida la ultraventennale collaborazione di due imprese che si definiscono «complementari».

Alta professionalità tecnica

«Dal punto di vista tecnologico è stata una grande sfida – ha spiegato Loris Rota Martir, presidente Cospal - sia per le condizioni metereologiche in cui sarebbe stato collocato il radiotelescopio sia per il livello di precisione, nell’ordine del millesimo di millimetro, dei pezzi che compongono le lenti». La capacità di accettare le sfide, del resto, sembra far parte del dna di quest’azienda che porta avanti progetti innovativi: «Ci vogliono fantasia, dedizione e tanta competenza, caratteristiche – continua il presidente Cospal – che il nostro personale tecnico, una ventina di persone, è stato in grado di mettere in campo, grazie a una preparazione altamente specializzata e unica nel suo genere». «Professionalità - aggiunge - che li ritroviamo anche in aziende fornitrici del territorio con cui collaboriamo».

In nave e in aereo vero l’Antardite

Competenze tecniche rintracciabili anche nell’équipe,che conta complessivamente 50 persone, della Carpenteria Colombo, impegnata a 360° in questo progetto: «La precisione dei pezzi e le tolleranze richieste – spiega Paola Colombo la titolare – erano davvero elevati. A ciò si deve aggiungere anche la particolarità di dover produrre una struttura interamente smontabile per il trasporto aereo». Tutta la struttura è partita in nave alla volta della Nuova Zelanda dove è poi stata smontata per il trasporto in aereo verso l’Antartide

È stata dunque un’avventura in tutte le fasi del lavoro dalla progettazione alla consegna di questo radiotelescopio che, con le sue 280 tonnellate di peso, i suoi 20 metri di altezza e una parabola di 10 metri di diametro, ha contribuito ad una storica impresa: «Non sapevamo che i nostri prodotti sarebbero stati utilizzati per una simile ricerca - ha commentato Giuliano Rota Martir, a.d . di Cospal - ed è stata una grande emozione scoprirlo». Tanta, in effetti, la commozione: «Eravamo emozionati già dal primo momento in cui abbiamo ricevuto quest’ordine, figuriamoci ora – ha commentato Paola Colombo -, sapendo di aver contribuito ad una grande scoperta». A sottolinearlo anche Loris Rota Martir: «Sotto il profilo personale c’è la soddisfazione non solo di interloquire con la comunità scientifica mondiale, ma anche di progettare strumenti che contribuiscono ad una ricerca scientifica di altissimo livello».


          Getting Creative With Stores Advice      Comment   Translate Page      
This is How You Will Buy Your Own Telescope Many people who love the idea or beauty of sky will love to have their own telescope. Are you tired of going out of your way just to attend an observatory event in famous museum? Are you in the pursuit of getting your own telescope to […]
          Discoveroids: The Universe Sends a ‘Big Message’      Comment   Translate Page      
The picture above this post is one that everyone has seen by now. We copied ours from NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration), whose website has this article: Black Hole Image Makes History; NASA Telescopes Coordinated Observations. A few … Continue reading
          Soundgarden Fans Petition To Name Newly-Photographed Black Hole After Chris Cornell      Comment   Translate Page      
Earlier this week, a team of scientists at the Event Horizon Telescope revealed the first-ever photograph of a supermassive black hole. Here on Planet Earth, the reflective glow of the photo brought to mind one of the 1990s biggest songs: Soundgarden's 1994 hit "Black Hole Sun." Now, a group of longtime fans have started a…
          GNU GPLv3 At The Center Of The Black Hole Image      Comment   Translate Page      

Scientists have finally seen what could not have been seen – a black hole. As fascinating is the fact that we can now ‘see’ a black hole, the story behind this achievement is even more fascinating.

It’s a story of victory of science in the political era of science denials. It’s a victory of diversity in the era of homophobia and sexism. It’s a victory of free software in the era of…well, we live in the era of free software.

Read more


          Here’s the first image of a Black Hole – Scientists want to better this image by building a telescope in Namibia      Comment   Translate Page      
For the first time, astronomers have managed to take a photo of a supermassive black hole and its shadow which shows the black hole at the centre of Messier 87, a massive galaxy in the nearby Virgo galaxy cluster. This black hole is 55 million light-years from earth and is 6.5 billion times the mass […]
          How our capacity for wonder was challenged by the black hole image | Tim Adams      Comment   Translate Page      
We marvelled at the first image of an event horizon 55m light years away, but struggled to grasp its majesty and dimensions

A few years ago, during a period of insomnia, I briefly got into the habit of contributing to the online project Galaxy Zoo. I would log on to a website that presented, one after another, singular images of tens of thousands of galaxies observed by the Hubble telescope, each billions of light years away. There were so many of these images that cosmologists had opened them up to thousands of amateur volunteers to help narrow down the field of those galaxies that warranted closer study.

Peering at my dimmed computer screen in the early hours, at catherine wheels of stars that perhaps no human eye had ever seen, I ticked the relevant boxes that would assist in classifying them – “elliptical or spiral?”; “smooth or fuzzy?” – and then paused for a while over the open-ended final question: “Is there anything odd in this image?” (An inquiry that always seemed to beg the reply: “You mean, beyond the fact that it is a rotating mass of incalculable solar systems that likely expired untold millions of years ago?”)

Continue reading...
          [과학TALK] 블랙홀 촬영한 '지구 규모' 전파 망원경 어떻게 만들었나      Comment   Translate Page      
우주와 관련된 영화를 보다 보면 흔히 광활한 대지 위에 늘어선 접시 모양의 안테나를 볼 수 있다. 이 안테나들은 바로 지난 10일 인류가 M87 블랙홀을 실제로 관측하는 데 성공한 전파망원경의 일부분이다.

전파망원경(Radio Telescope)은 우주 공간에 있는 천체로부터 복사되는 전파를 수신하는 장치다. 광학망원경이 천체가 내뿜는 가시광선...
          So, we’ve seen the first-ever photo of a black hole. What happens now?      Comment   Translate Page      
This image released Wednesday, April 10, 2019, by Event Horizon Telescope shows a black hole. Scientists revealed the first image ever made of a black hole after assembling data gathered by a network of radio telescopes around the world.

Astronomers agree that their work is far from done, project director Sheperd Doeleman said at a news conference.


          A rolling stand for my Harbor Freight Router Table      Comment   Translate Page      
I’ve slowly been trying to do some woodworking projects. I have very little skill and experience. In the past, I had (barely) enough skill to put together some simple Dobsonian telescopes out of plywood, using mostly a handheld router and a jigsaw, but they weren’t actually very accurately made (especially compared to the tolerances the … Continue reading "A rolling stand for my Harbor Freight Router Table"
          Conheça a Dra. Katie Bouman: a jovem cientista de 29 anos por trás da primeira imagem de um buraco negro      Comment   Translate Page      
O mundo ficou hipnotizado esta semana pela primeira imagem de um buraco negro, capturada por uma rede de oito telescópios interligados conhecida como Colaboração do Telescópio do Horizonte de Eventos (Event Horizon Telescope - EHT).

Mas desde então, a atenção voltou-se para uma segunda imagem: a da mulher de 29 anos que tornou tudo isso possível.

A cientista da computação, Dra. Katie Bouman, recebeu o crédito por liderar a criação de um algoritmo que fez a imagem do halo de poeira e gás situado a 53 milhões de anos-luz da Terra.

Uma foto de Bouman se preparando para o lançamento inovador foi amplamente compartilhada nas mídias sociais.

Em um post em sua conta no Facebook, o jovem cientista escreveu: “Observando, incrédula, como a primeira imagem que eu já fiz de um buraco negro estava em processo de reconstrução.”

Bouman começou a trabalhar no programa de computador há três anos, enquanto era estudante de pós-graduação em ciência da computação e inteligência artificial no Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

Enquanto esteve lá, ela foi responsável pela liderança do projeto, com a assistência do Laboratório de Inteligência Artificial e Ciência da Computação do MIT, do Centro de Astrofísica Harvard-Smithsonian e do Observatório MIT Haystack.

O algoritmo foi então usado para renderizar dados capturados pelo EHT para renderizar os milhões de gigabytes de dados coletados durante sua missão de uma década para fotografar o buraco negro.
Uma das imagens que viralizou na internet mostra a Dra Bouman junto à uma pilha de HD's que foram utilizados para guardar os dados da imagem do buraco negro da galáxia M 83.

“Quando a vimos pela primeira vez, estávamos todos descrentes. Foi espetacular ”, disse Bouman à BBC Radio 5.

Após a divulgação da imagem, Bouman recebeu aplausos internacionais por seus anos de trabalho - incluindo celebridades e políticos.

Bouman, que agora é professora assistente de computação e ciências matemáticas no Instituto de Tecnologia da Califórnia, fez questão de destacar a contribuição compartilhada de seus colegas.
“Nenhum de nós poderia fazer isso sozinho”, disse ela à CNN
.

Os esforços para capturar a imagem envolveram uma equipe de mais de 200 cientistas em locais em todo o mundo. A contribuição de Bouman foi um dos vários algoritmos usados ​​para unir as imagens capturadas pela rede de telescópios.


No entanto, seu método de processar os dados - que envolvia múltiplos algoritmos com “suposições diferentes embutidas neles” - foi considerado instrumental.

”(Bouman) foi uma parte importante de uma das subequipes de imagem”, disse Vincent Fish, pesquisador do Observatório Haystack do MIT.

Sua contribuição também foi saudada pelo MIT e pelo Smithsonian nas mídias sociais.

“Há 3 anos, Katie Bouman, estudante do MIT, liderou a criação de um novo algoritmo para produzir a primeira imagem de um buraco negro”, escreveu o Laboratório de Ciência da Computação e Inteligência Artificial do MIT.

Bouman também foi comparada a outra mulher programadora, a também cientista do MIT, Margareth Hamilton, que escreveu o código do software que colocou o homem na Lua em 1969. A foto de Hamilton ao lado da pilha de códigos escritos à mão também viralizou na internet nos dias de hoje.

Hamilton ao lado do software de navegação que ela e sua equipe no MIT produziram para o projeto Apollo.

Aqui você poderá desfrutar da palestra da Dra. Bouman no TEDx  "How Take a Picture of Black Hole".

          Young Man Fucks Her Very Hot Ass      Comment   Translate Page      

Release Year: 2010
Cast: Black Angelika and James Brossman
Genres: Anal, Bubble Butt, Raven, Sex Toys, Big Tits, Ass Worship
Video language: English

It's a very normal day for Angelika, wake up early, masturbate and work out. Things get awkward fast when she catches a man spying on her with a telescope from a window across the way.

After the man gets caught and the beautiful babe has gone away he invites himself over to her house knowing that she wants to have a huge cock rammed up her tight asshole.

Usually assuming things will get you into trouble, instead it got this young man a beautiful asshole to fuck.

Format: Windows Media
Duration: 38:34
Video: 1920x1080, Windows Media Video 9 Advanced Profile
Audio: 125kbps





File size: 3.3 GB






          NCSS Smartbrief: We have seen what we thought was unseeable.      Comment   Translate Page      
Sheperd Doeleman, astrophysicist and director of the Event Horizon Telescope project, when unveiling the first picture of a b
          Επιστήμονες προτείνουν χαβανέζικο όνομα για την 1η μαύρη τρύπα που φωτογραφήθηκε      Comment   Translate Page      
«Ποουβέχι» (Powehi), που στα χαβανέζικα σημαίνει «στολισμένη σκοτεινή πηγή της αέναης δημιουργίας» (ή «στολισμένη απύθμενη σκοτεινή δημιουργία»), είναι το όνομα που προτείνει ο καθηγητής γλωσσολογίας του Πανεπιστημίου της Χαβάης Λάρι Κιμούρα για την πρώτη μαύρη τρύπα που φωτογραφήθηκε από το Tηλεσκόπιο Ορίζοντα Γεγονότων (ΕΗΤ), όπως ανακοινώθηκε στις 10 Απριλίου. Μερικοί από τους αστρονόμους που συμμετείχαν στη φωτογράφηση, συμφώνησαν με την προτεινόμενη ονομασία, αλλά τον τελικό λόγο θα έχει η Διεθνής Αστρονομική Ένωση (IAU), που βαφτίζει τα ουράνια σώματα και άλλα διαστημικά φαινόμενα.
Η πρόταση για χαβανέζικο όνομα έγινε με το σκεπτικό ότι δύο από τα συνολικά οκτώ διασυνδεμένα τηλεσκόπια του ΕΗΤ, τα James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) και Submillimeter Array (SMA), βρίσκονται στη Χαβάη, στο όρος Μαουνακέα. Δεν είναι σαφές κατά πόσο οι περισσότεροι από 200 επιστήμονες του ΕΗΤ συμφωνούν με τη χαβανέζικη ονομασία, η οποία παραπέμπει στην αρχαία μυθολογική παράδοση για τη δημιουργία του (χαβανέζικου) σύμπαντος.

          The Black Hole’s B.O.B. Made with CRICKIT @roboweek #NationalRoboticsWeek #RoboWeek #MakeRobotFriend      Comment   Translate Page      
One of our favorite robots is B.O.B. from the great The Black Hole, voiced by Slim Pickens. With the astonishing Event Horizon Telescope images of the black hole M87 we’re thinking about B.O.B., and this early CRICKIT project.This robot was made with Adafruit CRICKIT #MakeRobotFriend using 2 standard servos, NeoPixel strand, thin 8 ohm speaker. […]
          NASA lists 10 Things You Should Know About Planetary Defense      Comment   Translate Page      
These three radar images of near-Earth asteroid 2003 SD220 were obtained on Dec. 15-17, by coordinating observations with NASA's 230-foot (70-meter) antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex in California and the National Science Foundation's (NSF) 330-foot (100-meter) Green Bank Telescope in West Virginia. (NASA/JPL-Caltech/GSSR/NSF/GBO)

NASA Headquarters  Washington, D.C. – 1. Why Asteroids Impact Earth: Why do asteroids and meteoroids collide with Earth? NASA says these objects orbit the Sun just like the planets, as they have been doing for billions of years, but small effects such as gravitational nudges from the planets can jostle the orbits, making them gradually […]

The post NASA lists 10 Things You Should Know About Planetary Defense appeared first on Clarksville, TN Online.


          So, we’ve seen the first-ever photo of a black hole. What happens now?      Comment   Translate Page      
This image released Wednesday, April 10, 2019, by Event Horizon Telescope shows a black hole. Scientists revealed the first image ever made of a black hole after assembling data gathered by a network of radio telescopes around the world.

Astronomers agree that their work is far from done, project director Sheperd Doeleman said at a news conference.


          Dentro al buco nero      Comment   Translate Page      

Mercoledì 10 aprile è apparsa sulle nostre timeline la prima fotografia di un buco nero, probabilmente il corpo celeste più misterioso che “conosciamo” e il più stimolante da studiare per fisici e astronomi. Lo scatto è frutto dello sforzo collettivo di Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), un progetto internazionale di ricerca che ha l’obiettivo di studiare … Continued

L'articolo Dentro al buco nero sembra essere il primo su Rivista Studio.


          Ученые: следующий снимок черной дыры будет более четким      Comment   Translate Page      

В среду представители сети Event Horizon Telescope показали первый в истории снимок окрестностей горизонта событий черной дыры в центре галактики М 87. Однако изображение получилось мутным, несмотря на невероятный объем данных и время, затраченное на их обработку. ...

           Comment on Scientists Unveil First Black Hole Image by TimW       Comment   Translate Page      
Please don't scoff at me for asking this question. I am not an astronomer. Is it impossible for this to be a nebula with a hole in the middle?
           Comment on Why Are Two Ghost Galaxies Missing Dark Matter? by Astropatologo       Comment   Translate Page      
I really doubt about the amount of dark matter in these galaxies. Please, check this article: https://arxiv.org/abs/1903.09163
          First black hole to be photographed gets Hawaiian name      Comment   Translate Page      

Space researchers captured the imagination of everyone on Earth by releasing the first ever photo of a black hole earlier this week. Now, it has been given a name: Powehi. It was decided that the mysterious space object would have a Hawaiian name because two of the eight telescopes used to make the historic picture […]

The post First black hole to be photographed gets Hawaiian name appeared first on USAHM Conspiracy News.


          Update: OPUS: The Day We Found Earth (Games)      Comment   Translate Page      

OPUS: The Day We Found Earth 2.0.2


Device: Mac OS
Category: Games
Price: $8.99, Version: 1.7.1 -> 2.0.2 (iTunes)

Description:

OPUS: The Day We Found Earth is a chill, stargazing experience that's handcrafted for people who enjoy story-driven games and arguing about Pluto. It tells a tale of purpose and pursuit through the lens of a deep space telescope that players operate throughout the game.

"...lighthearted space exploration and stargazing that fits this purview to a T." – Rock Paper Shotgun
"I resonated with it (OPUS) on a spiritual level." [10/10] – OPNoobs
"...you may want to be sure there is a tissue nearby." [4/5] – Jay is Games

=================

FEATURES
▪ A story-driven experience that defies definition
▪ Unique gameplay mechanic
▪ A whole galaxy to explore and get lost in
▪ Meticulously crafted art
▪ A beautiful soundtrack to chill out to

=================

STORY
After eons of spreading across the cosmos, humanity has lost its way back. Help the childlike robot Emeth carry on his creator's will of locating Earth, and find our long lost home together, as he realizes a greater purpose inside his tiny mechanical heart.

GAMEPLAY
Through delightfully simple controls, players operate an evolving space telescope to find Earth by scanning nearby stars. Players will also be able to explore the stories of each crew member through secrets scattered throughout the spaceship.

SOUND
Enjoy a full soundtrack of original music from composer Triodust, woven deeply into every corner of the game. Prepare to lose yourself in the organically generated soundscape while wandering through the galaxy!

What's New

Minor bug fixes

OPUS: The Day We Found Earth


          Update: SkySafari 6 Plus (Reference)      Comment   Translate Page      

SkySafari 6 Plus 6.2.0


Device: Mac OS
Category: Reference
Price: $29.99, Version: 6.1.2 -> 6.2.0 (iTunes)

Description:

SkySafari 6 Plus goes beyond most basic astronomy apps by providing you with a full-featured space simulator with telescope control.

Note that there is no discount upgrade path from SkySafari 6 Plus to SkySafari 6 Pro. Choose carefully!

Here's what's new in version 6:

1) Complete support for MacOS. We got you covered and release regular updates.

2) Clouds and Astronomy. Two words that rarely go together. Rewritten from the ground up, SkySafari 6 Plus will (optionally) back up all of your observing data in our secure cloud storage and make it easily accessible to multiple devices as well as from our new web interface, LiveSky.com.

3) We Have The Best Stars. Precise, modern and deep. We’ve updated our star catalog to use the latest and greatest, UCAC5 star catalog.

4) Observers First. A redesign of our tools puts the active observer first. Quick access to features like your equipment, observing sites, lists, and observations make it easy and enjoyable to get out, observe, and record your observations.

5) Graph It. The completely new graph tool will give a quick visual representation of an object’s altitude above the horizon. Essential for planning your night’s observations.

6) Plan It. Make the most of your time under the stars. Our updated planner is a powerful tool that lets you create a list of targets for your observing session with filters like object types, specific time ranges, constellation, catalog, and more. Plan it and get more done.

7) Share It. SkySafari 6 is more than just an app, it’s a new system to help organize and share your observing experiences. With a free signup, you can see and share your observing data from our web portal, LiveSky.com! Affordable premium memberships add online editing, so you can not only view, but edit your observations, add new observing sites, manage your equipment and more. Finally, you can view, edit and manage your settings files with SkySafari Web, our fully functional web version.

If you haven't used SkySafari 6 Plus before, here's what you can do with it:

• Hold your device up, and SkySafari 6 Plus will find stars, constellations, planets, and more!

• Simulate the night sky up to 10,000 years in the past or future! Animate meteor showers, conjunctions, eclipses, and other celestial events.

• Learn the history, mythology, and science of astronomy! Browse over 1500 object descriptions and astronomical images. Explore NASA space missions! Stay up-to-date with SkyWeek for all major sky events every day!

• Control your telescope, log and plan your observations.

• Night Vision – Preserve your eyesight after dark.

• Orbit Mode. Leave the Earth’s surface behind, and fly through our solar system.

• Time Flow – Follow the motion of sky objects as days, months, and years are compressed into a few seconds.

• Advanced Search – Find objects using properties other than their name.

• Support for Apple Watch!

• Tonight at a Glance: the Sun, Moon, Planets, ISS, and Iridium flares in one handy view!

• Notifications when the ISS will pass overhead, when Iridium satellites flare, and more!

• Much more!

For even more features, and a gigantic database aimed at the most dedicated amateur or professional astronomer, check out SkySafari 6 Pro!

What's New

• Added option to have rectangular custom fields of view.
• Added new in-app purchases for Galaxy View and the H-R Diagram.
• Fixed UI bug where the GAIA in-app purchase wasn't showing it installed when it was.
• In the Observation panel, from the More button you can now display the info for the object or center the object in the main chart.
• In the Observations panel, we no longer show sessions without any observations. We also show the number of observations in sessions that do have observations.
• When associating an observing list with an observation, we now show all observing lists rather than just those that contain the object. If the chosen list doesn't have that object in it, we give you the option to add it.
• There is a new option in the Object Info's More button to show all observing lists containing the object.
• Various modifications for compatibility with soon to be released Starry Night 8.
• Various stability and performance improvements.

SkySafari 6 Plus


          Encore: Jennifer Gehl on The Science of Planetary Signatures in Medicine: Restoring the Cosmic Foundations of Healing      Comment   Translate Page      
GuestWhen we look at the vast and intricate cosmos—galaxies, planets, organisms, organs, cells, molecules, atoms—there is a fundamental order, a music or harmony of the spheres. Our cells reflect the images of galaxies seen through our telescopes. We are the microcosm, reflecting the macrocosm of the heavens. Our ancestors understood these patterns and connections between humanity and the universe and developed spiritual and healing traditions in line with these cosmic truths. Yet in ...
          Jennifer Gehl on The Science of Planetary Signatures in Medicine: Restoring the Cosmic Foundations of Healing      Comment   Translate Page      
GuestWhen we look at the vast and intricate cosmos—galaxies, planets, organisms, organs, cells, molecules, atoms—there is a fundamental order, a music or harmony of the spheres. Our cells reflect the images of galaxies seen through our telescopes. We are the microcosm, reflecting the macrocosm of the heavens. Our ancestors understood these patterns and connections between humanity and the universe and developed spiritual and healing traditions in line with these cosmic truths. Yet in ...
          Agujeros negros, el misterio que nació en la pizarra de Einstein      Comment   Translate Page      

El pasado 10 de abril vimos cómo es un agujero negro por primera vez en la historia. La imagen fue fruto del trabajo de un consorcio internacional de 200 científicos del «Event Horizon Telescope» (EHT) y de un avance tecnológico sin precedentes. Los investigadores sincronizaron ocho observatorios para crear un telescopio virtual tan grande como la Tierra, que fue capaz de captar un objeto que en el cielo tendría el tamaño de una naranja puesta en la superficie de la Luna. Después, procesaron una cantidad ingente de datos, con la ayuda de supercomputadores, para poder reconstruir la sombra del misterioso cuerpo. Finalmente, la imagen obtenida confirmó los postulados de la Relatividad General de Albert Einstein, que el científico alemán esbozó en su pizarra, hace más de 100 años.

Y no sin esfuerzo. El genio estuvo casi una década trabajando en su teoría. En el año milagroso de 1905 había publicado cuatro artículos fundamentales para la Física, poco después de acabar su doctorado. En ellos explicaba el movimiento browniano, el efecto fotoeléctrico, por el que recibió el Nobel de Física, en 1921, y que sugirió fuertemente la dualidad onda-corspúsculo de la luz, desarrolló la Relatividad Especial, que acabó con la noción de tiempo y espacio absolutos, y estableció la equivalencia masa-energía, con su famosa fórmula (E=mc^2). Pero no fue hasta 1915 cuando publicó su Relatividad General, en la que presentó un marco teórico que sustituyó a la Gravitación Universal de Isaac Newton, publicada en 1686. De acuerdo con la Relatividad General, la atracción gravitatoria observada entre masas (como planetas) no se debe a la acción de fuerzas a distancia, sino a la curvatura del espacio-tiempo.

La importancia del tesón

«Una de las cosas que hacen a un científico ser un gran científico es la porfía», ha explicado a ABC Andrés Gomberoff, profesor en la Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, en Santiago de Chile, y autor de «Einstein para perplejos» (Debate). «Y él la tenía. Creía en sus ideas y las llevaba hasta el final. Estuvo 10 años buscando algo porque sentía que era lo correcto, aunque no le resultaba, pero él siguió. Lo pensó mucho, hizo muchos zigzags y tuvo que aprender nuevas matemáticas... Hasta que dio con su teoría final, en 1915».

«Einstein creía en sus ideas y las llevaba hasta el final. Estuvo 10 años buscando algo porque sentía que era lo correcto, aunque no le resultaba, pero él siguió»

El tesón de Einstein cambió nuestra concepción del espacio, del tiempo, de la materia y del Universo. La Relatividad General consiguió explicar varias anomalías observadas en la órbita de Mercurio, que las teorías de Newton no podía explicar y, en 1919, Arthur Eddington confirmó que el Sol curvaba el espacio-tiempo gracias a un eclipse total. La Relatividad predijo la existencia de ondas gravitatorias, que fueron descubiertas de forma directa por primera vez en 2015, y su esbozo de las ecuaciones fue resuelto por otros científicos para ir dando forma al concepto de agujero negro. Pero se puede decir que el tesón de Einstein también le llevó a equivocarse.

«Él no tuvo un papel directo en el nacimiento del concepto de agujero negro», ha comentado José Luis Fernández Barbón, investigador científico del Instituto de Física Teórica CSIC/UAM. «De hecho siempre se mostró escéptico y llegó a tener una actitud negativa hacia ellos». Sin embargo, «los agujeros negros son consecuencia directa de sus ecuaciones, así que conceptualmente su papel fue fundamental».

«Einstein siempre se mostró escéptico y llegó a tener una actitud negativa hacia los agujeros negros»

Durante décadas, según ha dicho Gomberoff, el concepto de agujero negro fue «una cosa totalmente exótica, con unas características increíbles», como un horizonte de sucesos -un punto de no retorno en los agujeros a partir del cual nada, ni la luz, puede escapar de la gravedad- y una singularidad, una realidad física con ceros e infinitos. Así que no sorprende que lo que hoy se acepta con naturalidad, durante décadas fuera algo muy controvertido. «Se pensaba que el agujero negro era una curiosidad, algo imposible en la realidad», ha recordado Gomberoff.

Además, si las ideas de Einstein fueron esenciales en el nacimiento de la mecánica cuántica, gracias a gigantes como Schrödinger, Heisenberg, Bohr o Born, resultó que el genio rechazó la descripción probabilística impulsada por los físicos cuánticos, porque él creía en un mundo casual: «Yo, en cualquier caso, estoy convencido de que Él no juega a los dados», escribió Einstein, refiriéndose al Dios concebido por Baruch Spinoza.

Los límties de Einstein

Einstein se equivocó más veces. Cometió su «mayor error», cuando introdujo una constante cosmológica en sus ecuaciones para explicar con ellas un Universo estacionario, pero luego se descubrió que este es estaba expandiendo. En 1916 un artículo suyo fue rechazado en una revista científica, y su respuesta fue negarse a publicar allí de nuevo. En él, se retractaba de su propuesta de la existencia de ondas gravitatorias, confirmadas indirectamente en los sesenta y directamente en 2015.

Las Relatividad General se confirmó en 1919, pero pasó mucho tiempo hasta las recientes confirmaciones, la de ondas gravitatorias en 2015 y la del agujero negro esta semana. Según ha dicho Fernández Barbón, esto ocurre porque ha sido necesario «buscar efectos a distancia en objetos gravitacionalmente muy intensos, como agujeros negros, pero todos estos son pequeños y están muy lejos».

Décadas de confirmaciones han permitido que «el marco teórico de la Relatividad General esté totalmente afianzado», en opinión de este experto. «La cuestión es si vamos a encontrar desviaciones o no». Según ha dicho, lo más probable es que la Relatividad describa la física de los agujeros negros, pero que se quede en su superficie: «El interior es otro tema. Ahí sí sabemos que la teoria de Einstein deja de aplicarse, pero no tenemos manera de observar lo que pasa ahí dentro». Además, es fundamental conciliar la Relatividad General con la mecánica cuántica para describir la gravedad en la escala de lo más pequeño, cosa aún no lograda.

Para Dom Pesce, investigador del Event Horizon Telescope, la imagen recién publicada es importante porque captura «vívida y sucintamente la esencia de un agujero negro» y porque muestra «lo que se puede hacer con las nuevas técnicas». Ha explicado que próximamente se publicará la imagen del agujero negro supermasivo del centro de la Vía Láctea, Sagitario A*, y que la tecnología empleada se usará en otros radiotelescopios.

Sea como sea, en el centro de la imagen publicada esta semana se esconde el agujero negro supermasivo de la galaxia M87. Su oscuridad es insondable. Ninguna ecuación ni ley puede aclararnos qué está ocurriendo en su interior. Por eso, esta instantánea, que hace pensar en un donut, nos puso esta semana cara a cara con nuestra propia ignorancia.


          YouTube é criticado por dar destaque a vídeo sexista que critica Katie Bouman      Comment   Translate Page      

Nesta semana, fomos agraciados com a primeira foto real de um buraco negro da história, bem como conhecemos melhor o trabalho de Katie Bouman, que acabou ganhando notoriedade da mídia pelo seu trabalho com o Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), pelo qual a imagem do buraco negro que fica no centro da galáxia M87 foi obtida. Entretanto, parece que nem tudo são flores nessa história, e até mesmo o YouTube está envolvido em uma polêmica envolvendo o feito de Bouman — a plataforma está sendo bastante criticada por impulsionar um vídeo sexista que descredita a engenheira.

No momento em que a Katie começou a receber os holofotes dos jornais, um grupo criou sua própria versão da história, acusando-a de estar, supostamente, lucrando com o trabalho duro de outro colega da equipe do EHT. Essa falsa narrativa chamou a atenção de tal forma que, de acordo com o Business Insider, o vídeo do canal Mr. Obvious — que continha essas acusações — se tornou o resultado principal do YouTube quando as pessoas pesquisavam pelo nome Katie Bouman.

O vídeo, intitulado de "A mulher faz 6% do trabalho, mas obtém 100% do crédito" (na tradução literal), afirma que um homem chamado Andrew Chael havia escrito mais de 850 mil linhas do código do algoritmo que permitiu realizar a captura da foto, enquanto a Bouman teria colaborado com apenas poucas linhas.

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Esse vídeo acabou ganhando uma repercussão tão grande que o próprio Andrew Chael comentou sobre o caso no Twitter, por onde protegeu a sua colega e negou o conteúdo do Mr. Obvious, afirmando que Bouman contribuiu de forma grandiosa ao trabalho e que o resultado final não poderia ter sido alcançado sem os esforços dela. Mesmo após a manifestação de Andrew, no entanto, o canal do YouTube não mudou a sua posição e disse que, pelas suas contas, Katie teria escrito apenas 14% do código e que “isso não muda o fato de que 80% dos cientistas envolvidos serem do sexo masculino”, os quais teriam realizado a grande maioria do trabalho.

Isso levou vários usuários do Twitter a criticarem o YouTube, que estaria permitindo que o vídeo em questão pudesse ser mantido no topo dos resultados de pesquisa dentro de sua plataforma. Eventualmente, o tal item acabou saindo da lista de resultados e, pelo visto, ele acabou perdendo o destaque após o YouTube ter adicionado Bouman à sua lista de tópicos de pesquisa relacionados a notícias.

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          Entenda por que a imagem real do buraco negro é tão importante, mesmo "borrada"      Comment   Translate Page      

Para a comunidade científica e entusiastas da ciência, a revelação da primeira imagem real de um buraco negro foi recebida com louvor. Já para parte do público geral, o feito histórico da ciência moderna foi encarado com posts decepcionados nas redes sociais e muitos memes — tudo porque a foto "borrada" não se parecia com Gargantua, o buraco negro de Interestelar, tido como uma representação cientificamente fiel de como se esperaria que um buraco negro se parecesse.

Bom, antes de qualquer coisa, vamos explicar rapidamente o que é um buraco negro: são objetos extremamente massivos, cujo campo gravitacional é tão intenso que nada consegue escapar dali de dentro, nem mesmo a luz, uma vez que estiver na região chamada de horizonte de eventos — ao redor do "buraco". Sendo assim, acreditava-se que jamais seria possível fotografar um buraco negro (afinal, a luz não escapa dali para "viajar" pelo espaço até chegar a nós). Contudo, a equipe do Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) deu um jeitinho para fotografar o que estava acontecendo ao redor do buraco negro que fica no centro da galáxia M87, a 55 milhões de anos-luz da Terra.

A imagem levou dois anos para ser elaborada, pois o EHT conecta radiotelescópios de todo o mundo para criar um telescópio virtual gigantesco, do tamanho da Terra. Então os dados coletados em 2017 foram reunidos e depois compilados por um algoritmo, que gerou a imagem mostrando o real aspecto do buraco negro. Essa imagem, apesar de "borrada", é bastante próxima ao que os cientistas do EHT imaginavam, por sinal:

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À esquerda, a imagem do buraco negro da M87. No centro, a simulação de como o buraco negro seria. À direita, a mesma simulação borrada digitalmente para corresponder à resolução do telescópio, mostrando que a imagem real registrada está totalmente de acordo com o esperado pelas simulações (Imagem: Akiyama et al (ApJL (2019))

Quanto à imagem hollywoodiana de Gargantua, Kazunori Akiyama, pesquisador do Observatório Haystack do MIT, que liderou a equipe responsável pela imagem do EHT, disse que "a imagem em Interestelar é quase correta". No filme, o buraco negro em questão tem uma fina faixa de matéria ao redor de seu centro, algo que não vemos na imagem do buraco negro da M87, mas isso é fácil de explicar: de acordo com os dados do EHT, a imagem que vemos do buraco negro mostra a região mais próxima de um de seus polos, então o buraco negro na foto real não está de frente para o nosso ponto de vista. Sendo assim, o disco de matéria ao seu redor teria sido obscurecido pelo ângulo de observação, de acordo com Akiyama. É mais ou menos como observar, muito de longe, Saturno de cima ou de baixo: você não veria os anéis cruzando o planeta.

Já com relação ao brilho observado ao redor do buraco negro da M87, que parece ter um formato mais brilhante ainda no canto inferior esquerdo, isso acontece porque o objeto está girando. O material orbitando o buraco negro também está girando, afetado pela gravidade do objeto, o que implica no espaço-tempo a seu redor. Isso significa que esses materiais, quando se movendo em nossa direção, parecem mais brilhantes na imagem, enquanto o material que se afasta do nosso ângulo de visão parece mais escuro.

No filme de Christopher Nolan, esse detalhe do brilho foi omitido, provavelmente porque "o olho humano não seria capaz de discernir as diferenças de brilho nos dois lados do buraco quando esse brilho geral é tão extremo", explicou Kip Thorne, físico da Caltech e consultor de Interestelar.

Por enquanto, uma imagem como esta de um buraco negro segue existindo apenas em produções de Hollywood

Astrofísicos explicam o que vemos na imagem do EHT

Sheperd Doeleman, líder do EHT, e Katie Mack, astrofísica da North Carolina State University, falaram sobre a imagem obtida e por que ela fez todo sentido. Começando pela parte mais escura da imagem, o centro do buraco negro, eles explicam que, ainda que os chamemos de "objetos", a verdade é que eles não os são exatamente. A mancha escura é uma sombra, uma "pia" espacial, e toda luz e matéria que "cair" ali é tirada para sempre da nossa visualização.

O horizonte de eventos de um buraco negro é como se fosse o topo de uma cachoeira: imagine um peixe nadando num rio em direção ao topo da cachoeira; após certa distância, a água corre tão rapidamente que o peixe não consegue escapar apenas tentando nadar na direção oposta. O peixe, no caso, é o raio de luz se aproximando do buraco negro, sem conseguir escapar e "caindo" ali. Então, ao olhar para um buraco negro, saiba que existe luz e existe matéria ali, mas nós jamais poderemos ver isso, pois a luz não consegue escapar assim que "cai" de uma vez por todas.

Agora, ao olhar ao redor do centro escuro da imagem, o que vemos na verdade é a órbita dos fótons, cujo diâmetro é cerca de 2,5 vezes maior do que o do horizonte de eventos. E o anel ao redor da órbita dos fótons é brilhante porque a matéria está sendo "rasgada" em pedaços, a temperaturas de bilhões de graus, enquanto tudo é devorado pelo buraco negro a velocidades extremas. Então, a luz que vemos ao redor do buraco negro, na verdade, está vindo de todos os lados, e não apenas das laterais do objeto, sendo que o espaço-tempo está tão distorcido que algumas das luzes acabam orbitando o buraco negro em formato circular. E essa imagem é extraordinária não somente por revelar oficialmente aos nossos olhos um buraco negro, como também porque "nos permite vez, pela primeira vez, a geometria do espaço-tempo", de acordo com Doeleman.

Por que fotografar usando radiotelescópios?

O EHT conecta radiotelescópios espalhados pelo mundo para criar um imenso telescópio virtual, convertendo dados para gerar imagens. E por que não usar telescópios visuais, seja os gigantes em Terra, seja os telescópios espaciais como o Hubble, por exemplo?

Bom, buracos negros não podem ser visualizados diretamente, pois, como sabido, nem mesmo a luz escapa dali de dentro. Mas os supermassivos lançam jatos brilhantes de partículas, e esses "monstros" são cercados por discos brilhantes de acreção (como é chamado o halo ao redor do horizonte de eventos), com esse brilho podendo ser visualizado com a tecnologia adequada.

Radiotelescópios só conseguem "ver" frequências de rádio no espectro. E "o material ao redor do buraco negro é transparente para ondas de rádio, então podemos ver [com esses aparelhos] através de todo o gás quente tentando atravessar o horizonte de eventos; caso contrário, tudo o que veríamos seria uma grande bolha" no espaço, explica Doeleman.

Os radiotelescópios usados pelo EHT para observar o buraco negro da M87 em 2017 (Imagem: NY Times)

Agora, é preciso considerar o tamanho do buraco negro fotografado que, apesar de ser enorme, visto a 55 milhões de anos-luz de distância ele ocupa apenas 42 microssegundos de arco de extensão no céu — algo menor do que uma laranja na superfície da Lua sob o ponto de vista da Terra. Apenas um telescópio com resolução e tecnologias sem precedentes (o que ainda não existe) seriam capaz de, diretamente, fotografar um objeto tão pequeno no nosso céu — o Hubble, por sinal, só consegue distinguir objetos com cerca de 50 mil microssegundos de arco, pois a resolução de um telescópio depende diretamente de seu diâmetro (quanto maior, mais clara a visão). Para obter uma imagem minimamente nítida de um buraco negro à distância da M87, seria preciso um telescópio do tamanho da Terra — e foi isso o que o EHT fez, virtualmente, conectando os radiotelescópios ao redor do mundo para trabalharem de maneira sincronizada como se fossem uma só estrutura.

Todas as informações coletadas pelo telescópio virtual do EHT foram somadas em nada menos do que 8 petabytes de dados em dois anos de trabalho. Tamanha quantidade de dados não poderia ser enviada para lá e para cá por meio da internet, e então os dados de cada observatório que compõem o EHT precisaram ser transportados em discos rígidos periodicamente entre um continente e outro — processo que, obviamente, não foi nada rápido.

Para reunir, comparar, gerenciar e analisar essa enorme quantidade de informações, o EHT usou um algoritmo desenvolvido por uma equipe encabeçada por Katie Bouman, engenheira do MIT responsável pela criação do sistema capaz de contabilizar todo o volume de dados obtido pelos telescópios, formando a imagem final. Quando três telescópios fazem a medição de um mesmo local do céu, interferências atmosféricas podem gerar ruídos, e o algoritmo então retira as imagens que estão muito diferentes umas das outras do lote; logo, quanto mais imagens há de uma mesma região, mais preciso o algoritmo fica sobre a perda de informações, gerando uma imagem final realista.

Katie Bouman com os discos contendo os 8 petabytes de dados colhidos pelos radiotelescópios ao redor do planeta (Foto: EHT)

Mas por que a imagem saiu "borrada"?

A 55 milhões de anos-luz, o buraco negro da M87 é gigantesco em sua totalidade (considerando todas as partes de sua estrutura, e não apenas o "buraco" central). Com massa de 6,5 bilhões de vezes a massa do Sol, seu horizonte de eventos mede quase 40 bilhões de quilômetros de diâmetro, sendo maior do que o Sistema Solar inteiro. Enquanto isso, a Terra tem apenas 12.742 km de diâmetro, e seriam necessárias pouco mais de 2,98 milhões de Terras enfileiradas lado a lado para cobrir todo o comprimento do buraco negro da M87.

E, bem, é preciso lembrar que quanto mais longe um objeto está de você, menor ele parecerá ser. A nossa Lua, por exemplo, tem 3.400 km de diâmetro e está a 384.400 km de distância da Terra, e por isso, quando a vemos no céu, podemos cobri-la completamente posicionando um dedo polegar à sua frente. O buraco negro da M87 está a 55 milhões de km daqui, e mesmo com suas dimensões gigantescas para os nossos padrões, esta foi uma observação extremamente difícil — por isso a necessidade de se conectar radiotelescópios posicionados ao redor de todo o planeta para somar esforços.

Comparação entre o buraco negro da M87 com nosso Sol, a órbita extremamente distante de Plutão e a distância em que a sonda Voyager 1 deve estar de nós enquanto viaja pelo espaço interestelar (Imagem: National Science Foundation)

O EHT sincronizou vários telescópios ao redor do mundo, em um esforço envolvendo 200 cientistas de 20 países, usando uma técnica que explora a rotação da Terra para formar o gigante telescópio virtual. A técnica, por sinal, permite que o EHT obtenha uma resolução angular de 20 microssegundos de arco, algo suficiente para ler um jornal aberto em Nova Iorque a partir de uma calçada de Paris. Ainda assim, o buraco negro da M87 está extremamente longe, e isso explica, em partes, a imagem "borrada".

Vamos lembrar que 1 ano-luz tem aproximadamente 9,5 trilhões de quilômetros, e o buraco negro em questão está a 55 milhões de anos-luz. Então, não, mesmo com as tecnologias de ponta da atualidade, ainda não registramos um buraco negro em uma imagem digna de Interestelar, mas o fato de que conseguimos tirar uma foto real de um buraco negro, enquanto há poucos anos essa ideia era tida como simplesmente impossível de acontecer, é um feito e tanto e precisa ser comemorado — e não ridicularizado em redes sociais porque a foto não é nítida como a imaginação popular gostaria que fosse.

A gigantesca galáxia Messier 87, ou M87, fotografada pelo Hubble. Em seu centro, está o buraco negro supermassivo e seu jato cósmico, resultado do fluxo de materiais alimentando o buraco negro em questão. O material gasoso se acumula ali, e a energia liberada pelo fenômeno produz esse fluxo de partículas subatômicas, que são aceleradas a velocidades próximas à da luz (Foto: NASA)

A imagem, por sinal, comprova que Albert Einstein estava certo mais uma vez, pois ela reforça a coerência da Teoria da Relatividade Geral. O físico previu, há 100 anos, tudo isso que estamos, agora, comprovando não somente em dados, como em imagens, de maneira sem precedentes na história da ciência. Fomos capazes de prever um objeto espacial misterioso e vê-lo em imagens em um período de 100 anos, apenas — e isso deve ser admirado.

Agora, as pessoas que estão criticando o "borrão" da foto do buraco negro o fazem porque pensam em "foto" da mesma maneira que pensam na fotografia digital, feita por câmeras fotográficas ou por smartphones. Mas simplesmente não seria possível fotografar um buraco negro tal qual se aponta um celular a uma árvore, apertando um botão para que a imagem saia pronta e nítida.

A fotografia real do buraco negro da M87 pode não ser tão grandiosa como a população geral esperava que fosse, com o imaginário popular visualizando buracos negros com base em concepções da ficção científica, mas, antes de ficar desapontado com o "borrão" da imagem, vamos lembrar que a tecnologia e a ciência avançam a passos cada vez mais largos. Se hoje temos uma imagem nítida e repleta de detalhes de Plutão, é porque imagens borradas e "sem graça" foram registradas no passado, com o avanço da tecnologia permitindo o registro de imagens cada vez mais detalhadas com o passar do tempo. E isso também deve acontecer com a observação de buracos negros — há 100 anos, eles eram apenas uma teoria; agora, temos uma primeira imagem "borrada". Um dia, talvez poderemos nos admirar com buracos negros observando imagens que, talvez, se assemelhem às de Gargantua em Interestelar.

Plutão fotografado em 1996 com o Hubble, ao lado de Plutão fotografado em 2015 com a New Horizons (Imagem: Mistérios do Espaço)

E, com mais imagens como esta primeira do EHT, poderemos entender melhor os buracos negros supermassivos que se encontram no centro de suas galáxias — como o Sagittarius A*, que está no coração da nossa Via Láctea. A equipe do EHT, por sinal, também vem observando o Sagittarius A* juntamente com o buraco negro da M87, e em breve pode ser que vejamos uma imagem real do buraco negro que fica em nossa galáxia, pois a equipe, apesar de ter se concentrado primeiro em estudar e compilar os dados do objeto da M87, não desistiu de fazer o mesmo com o nosso. E tais imagens não somente têm valor para a ciência no que diz respeito ao entendimento de buracos negros e do universo em geral, como também ajudarão a ficção científica a produzir visões ainda mais precisas de como esses objetos fantásticos realmente são.

Com informações de Gizmodo, Vox, New Republic, NY Times, Science News, Futurism

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          21 UA Students Contributed to Global Effort Resulting in First Black Hole Image      Comment   Translate Page      
Lia Medeiros, and 20 other UA students, expanded their educations by participating in efforts to see the unseen with the Event Horizon Telescope.
          A sculptural, hand-made lamp inspired by black holes      Comment   Translate Page      

Sculptor Art Donovan (previously) writes in about "Event Horizon," his newest lamp, inspired by black holes.

Two weeks ago, I had finished this design called, "Event Horizon" to find that the subject of Black Holes and that incredible, historic image was all over the news last week. My own "E.V." was inspired by both my NASA experience and also the 2014 Christopher Nolan film, "Interstellar". That film's beautiful vision of the fictional Black Hole, "Gargantua" was dramatically and accurately rendered courtesy of Nobel Prize winning astrophysicist, Prof. Kip Thorne. Yesterday, physicists claimed that Gargantua is remarkably similar to that actual image published yesterday by the Event Horizon Telescope.

Now the specs: the "Event Horizon stands 24" tall and scratch-built from solid maple, bronze, brass and glass.

The globe bulb is obscured front and back by a circular "veils" of bronze and the light echoes back and forth in the gold and glass reflections. An orbital kind of movement is nicely implied by the shield's different diameters and materials- Solid bronze on top and a hexagonal brass mesh in front. A forward trajectory pierces the glass globe like an arrow.

Smoked gray maple. 24K plated brass and bronze. One-Of-A-Kind!

Event Horizon [Art Donovan/New Art and Design]

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          A sculptural, hand-made lamp inspired by black holes      Comment   Translate Page      

Sculptor Art Donovan (previously) writes in about "Event Horizon," his newest lamp, inspired by black holes.

Two weeks ago, I had finished this design called, "Event Horizon" to find that the subject of Black Holes and that incredible, historic image was all over the news last week. My own "E.V." was inspired by both my NASA experience and also the 2014 Christopher Nolan film, "Interstellar". That film's beautiful vision of the fictional Black Hole, "Gargantua" was dramatically and accurately rendered courtesy of Nobel Prize winning astrophysicist, Prof. Kip Thorne. Yesterday, physicists claimed that Gargantua is remarkably similar to that actual image published yesterday by the Event Horizon Telescope.

Now the specs: the "Event Horizon stands 24" tall and scratch-built from solid maple, bronze, brass and glass.

The globe bulb is obscured front and back by a circular "veils" of bronze and the light echoes back and forth in the gold and glass reflections. An orbital kind of movement is nicely implied by the shield's different diameters and materials- Solid bronze on top and a hexagonal brass mesh in front. A forward trajectory pierces the glass globe like an arrow.

Smoked gray maple. 24K plated brass and bronze. One-Of-A-Kind!

Event Horizon [Art Donovan/New Art and Design]

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          Black Holes: The heart of darkness      Comment   Translate Page      
The first EVER picture of a Black Hole has been captured by a network of telescopes, known as the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). The picture shows a bright ring of fire surrounding a circular dark hole. The Black Hole has been described as a “monster” and is located in the M87 galaxy, 500 million trillion miles from Earth. As remarkable and spectacular as the picture is, it also provides scientists and researchers valuable scientific information about these behemoths of the universe. A team from the National Natural History Museum in Paris and the University of the Philippines have discovered bone fragments which are thought to belong to a new species of hominid, which they have called the Homo Luzonensis. These fossils provide sufficient evidence of a new species of hominin, who lived on the island of Luzon in the Philippines prior to 50,000 years ago. Wandering interstellar worlds like Oumuamua may help form planets. Some of these huge objects, which can be as large as skyscrapers and even cities, drift through every cubic parsec of space between the stars. Once these emerging systems become part of new stellar systems, interstellar objects could accelerate the growth of new planets. Humans seem programmed to appreciate beauty - whether that’s an attractive face, a glorious sunset, or a stirring piece of music. Of course, our individual tastes are all different, and culture plays a huge part too - but why are we so struck by whatever it is we find beautiful? What is that pleasurable sensation we get when we see or hear something we like? And has the ability to appreciate beauty given us any evolutionary advantages? We are joined by a panel of experts at the International Science Festival in Gothenburg, Sweden, to explore how far science can explain the mystery of beauty. We look to biology, the brain, art and mathematics, to see how patterns, rhythms and symmetry contribute to our experience of beauty. And we ask whether machines can recognise or ‘appreciate’ beauty – and to what extent artificial intelligence is starting to confuse or influence what we think of as beautiful. (Image: The first ever image of a black hole. Credit: Event Horizon Telescope)
          Hubble 25: A Quarter-Century of Discovery with the Hubble Space Telescope      Comment   Translate Page      
#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F2019_04_14%2F635288\Название: Hubble 25: A Quarter-Century of Discovery with the Hubble Space Telescope
Автор: NASA
Издательство: NASA
Год: 2019
Формат: PDF
Размер: 189 Мб
Язык: английский / English

In celebration of the Hubble Space Telescope's 25th anniversary, explore 25 of Hubble’s breathtaking and significant images. From planets in our own solar system to snapshots from a time when our universe was very young, these images are presented according to their distance from Earth, from near to far. Along with companion descriptions and videos, the 25 images highlight the telescope's amazing capabilities.
          TS-Optics 254/1016 mm Newton Großfeld Teleskop und (Gewerbliche Anzeigen)      Comment   Translate Page      
Neu im Gewerbliche Anzeigen - TS-Optics 254/1016 mm Newton Großfeld Teleskop und (von apmtelescopes)


          Sollte man haben: Filterrad (Gewerbliche Anzeigen)      Comment   Translate Page      
Neu im Gewerbliche Anzeigen - Sollte man haben: Filterrad (von apmtelescopes)


          Hypercam 183C PRO TEC Mono 20Mpx 4GB RAM (Gewerbliche Anzeigen)      Comment   Translate Page      
Neu im Gewerbliche Anzeigen - Hypercam 183C PRO TEC Mono 20Mpx 4GB RAM (von apmtelescopes)


          Woods Hole Library Telescope Event      Comment   Translate Page      
Deck: 
April 20th
Towns: 
Hub Category: 
Main Image: 
Thumbnail Image: 
Body: 

Telescope on Loan

The Woods Hole Public Library has purchased a new addition for its “Library of Things”, its group of useful objects and tools available for loan to their patrons.  Along with the sewing machine, the ukulele and guitar, the grain grinder, the serger, pickleball set, the yarn swift, and other Things, the Library now has a telescope for loan.

The telescope is a “4.5” Orion StarBlast” prepared for the  library by the Aldrich Astronomical Society of Paxton, Massachusetts.  They have modified the telescope to make it very sturdy and safe in travel, working with the New Hampshire Astronomical Society which has had a Library Loan program for about a decade.

In order to borrow the telescope, borrowers must be over 18 years old and have a current Falmouth (or Woods Hole, East Falmouth, West Falmouth, or North Falmouth) Library card, and come to the Library in person to pick it up.  Before people borrow the telescope, Librarians will give them a quick lesson in how to use the equipment.

On Saturday, April 20, at 1 PM, there will be an official dedication of the telescope which will include a Power Point presentation on its use by John Root of Paxton and the Astronomical Society. People are welcomed in to see the telescope and be introduced to its use, and celebrate with the Library on its new addition.

 For more information, either call the Library at 508-548-8961 or visit the website www.woodsholepubliclibrary.org.


          Body Language Analysis No. 4379: Katie Bouman, Black Holes, and Emotional Processing - Nonverbal and Emotional Intelligence (PHOTOS)      Comment   Translate Page      

Katherine Bouman has become the public persona for the first-ever imaging of a Black Hole. She's an American imaging scientist and an incoming assistant professor of computing and mathematical sciences at CalTech. Her Ph.D. thesis was titled, "Extreme imaging via physical model inversion: seeing around corners and imaging black holes".


As a member of the Event Horizon Telescope team, Dr. Bouman helped capture this first image of a supermassive black hole - at the center of Messier 87 (Also known as M87 - a truly gargantuan galaxy composed of a trillion stars - centered approximately 53.49 light years from Earth). This image is profoundly symbolic and significant in the history of science - for the photo matched the theory - and thus, was just what astronomers expected.


This photo, from Katie Bouman's Facebook post, is captioned, "Watching in disbelief as the first image I ever made of a black hole was in the process of being reconstructed".

From a nonverbal perspective, what does this photo of Katie Bouman tell us?

Although we can only see a portion of her mouth, it does seem to be configured in a true, sincere simile. Her left mouth corner - and a hint of her right corner - are both directed primarily upward and also laterally.

Another crucial component of a true smile is seen displayed by Dr. Bouman's cheek muscles (zygomaticus major). These contracted and vectored upward as well.

If her hands weren't covering her mouth, we'd only see her upper teeth.  

We can see that Katie Bouman's upper and lower eyelids are partially closed. Moreover, her lower eyelids each have a dynamic, concave-up furrow present. This evanescent finding is required of a true, sincere smile (a Duchenne Smile).

A seldom noted, but crucial part of a sincere smile is a non-contracted forehead. Note that Dr. Bouman's forehead is relaxed.

Dr. Bouman is also blushing. While not a required element of a true smile of joy-happiness, when accompanying the above-described characteristics - blushing is a sincerity amplifier.

As noted previously, Katie Bouman's hands are covering her mouth. This mouth covering is a signal of emotional processing. Said another way, while the logical portion of her brain knew what was happening - the emotional part of her brain was a more than a bit overloaded processing the event and its the ramifications.

Fascinatingly, during moments of dramatically good, bad, or surprising news - the covering of one's mouth - which often occurs rapidly (along with covering of portions of the cheeks and/or nose) - not only tells us the person's emotional characteristics in that moment - but this dynamic also speaks to a significant part of that person's overall character. Those who exhibit this behavior will have significantly higher sincerity and empathy levels.

Yet, Katie Bouman is displaying some emotional dissonance here. For this photo was taken at the moment when the first (of many) images of the M87 Supermassive Black Hole were being compiled. These were eventually amalgamated into the complete picture (shown above) which we've all since become familiar. In this early stage of this scientific moment, Dr. Bouman, naturally, had some anxiety - which is, in part, manifested with her straight, intertwined fingers. In this context, the collective positions of her upper and lower arms, along with her shoulders - which are all drawn inward and covering her chest - is an anxiety amplifying cluster.

SUMMARY: Katie Bouman's smile is a true, sincere smile of joy-happiness. She's also experiencing some (quite expected) anxiety - as well as some emotional processing during the unfolding of this historical event.


Media Inquires and Group Appearances 
One-on-One and Online Courses Available 


See also:

Body Language Analysis No. 4378: William Barr questioned regarding The Mueller Report

Body Language Analysis No. 4377: Donald Trump, "These aren't people, these are animals"

Body Language Analysis No. 4376: Jacinda Ardern and Donald Trump - a Study in Contrasts

Body Language Analysis No. 4375: Donald Trump, Ivanka Trump, Jared Kushner, and Security Clearances

Body Language Analysis No. 4374: Nancy Pelosi's Clap-Back to Donald Trump during the 2019 SOTU

Body Language Analysis No. 4373: Matthew Whitaker's Press Conference regarding Robert Mueller's Investigation

Body Language Analysis No. 4332: Richard Nixon, Nikita Khrushchev, and The Kitchen Debate

Body Language Analysis No. 4295: Elizabeth Holmes, Theranos, and Red Flags

Body Language Analysis No. 4254: Tony Robbins, Nanine McCool, and the #MeToo Movement


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          É possível encontrar Deus em um buraco negro?      Comment   Translate Page      
A prova concreta do buraco negro  (ANSA) O diretor do Observatório do Vaticano, Guy Consolmagno, comenta a primeira fotografia de um buraco negro no centro da galáxia M87 com a massa de seis bilhões e meio daquela do Sol, realizada pelo consórcio “Event Horizon Telescope”. Andressa Collet – Cidade do Vaticano Nesta sexta-feira (12), o […]
          We Got Nice Things In Your Nice Things!      Comment   Translate Page      


It's Palm Sunday, and you know what that means! Time to read one of Kurt Vonnegut's OK but not essential collections! Also, it means it's time to take a little time from the banal evils of the week and read some nice stuff, because dang, you look tense. You should relax some. Here, put your feet up.


Let's Pester A Historian, Shall We? (Be Nice, You)

We're actually taking a week off from Yr Wonkette Book Club; we're halfway through Winter War: Hoover, Roosevelt, and the First Clash Over the New Deal, by Erich Rauchway, a New Deal scholar and history prof at UC Davis. It's a darn good book about Herbert Hoover's attempts to undermine the incoming president and the New Deal, and how that clash helped shape the outlooks of Democratic and Republican politics for much of the 20th Century. And, well, RIGHT NOW:

Also, Herbert Hoover was SUCH a butt!

As an extra-special bonus this month, Dr. Rauchway has offered to participate in our little ol' Book Club. Go ahead and follow him on the Twitters, and then ask him any questions you have about Winter War, the New Deal, FDR 'n' Hoover, and related topics. Please be sure to include the hashtag #WinterWarWonkette so's he finds your question -- if you just toss a brilliant question out there with no tag, how the heck would he even see it? And if you don't use the Twitters, email your question to me at doktorzoom at-sign wonkette dot com, and I will pass them on for you! We'll compile the bestest Q&A; dialogues for a midweek Wonkette story!

Also, Dr. Rauchway weighed in on Friday's most important cultural event, the teaser trailer for the ninth Star Wars movie:

The man knows how to nerd. No, do not pester him with your fan theories on Jar Jar Binks. Like, not even if you think he was loosely based on Hoover's secretary of Labor, William N. Doak. Haha, Doak.

We'll finish Winter War for next Sunday, so if you haven't obtained a copy yet, hit the Amazon linky and Yr Wonkette gets a nice kickback!

OK, Fine, Another History Thing!

If you aren't yet following Princeton historian Kevin Kruse, you're missing some of the best stuff happening on Twitter. He's an expert at debunking rightwing nonsense with wit and ample documentation. He's also one of three historians who weighed in this weekend on the vital question, "Does It Matter That the President Knows Nothing About History?" (Spoiler: fuck yes!) He'll also be one of several historians featured in this year's edition of Samantha Bee's "Not the White House Correspondents' Dinner," whee! And if you wanna talk academic cred, this week, he was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship.

Needless to say, one side effect of Kruse's public service crops up surprisingly often: some dip who's been convinced of utter nonsense by Dinesh D'Souza or other hucksters will tell Kruse he knows nothing at all about REAL history, leading to this sort of exchange:

(The person who told Kruse she knows nothing? A Candace Owens fan with an AM radio show, who insists Kruse knows nothing about "data and accurate black history" because he only writes to please white people. No, she offers no actual data or history; she just knows.)

As tribute, a true hero of America sent Kruse some new business cards.

Time To Help Pay Gahan Wilson Back For All Those Laughs

This one, we're afraid, isn't exactly nice, although it's about somebody whose work probably made you laugh and perhaps cringe a little. Cartoonist Gahan Wilson, whose work appeared regularly in Playboy, The New Yorker, and the National Lampoon for decades, has advanced dementia, and his son in law is running a GoFundMe to raise money for his longterm memory care. Yr Wonkette is terrified of the copyright police, so we'll only link to some of his work that other people have put on the interwebs. But you probably recognize the signature, the style, and the wonderfully sick sense of humor.

The Arizona Republic published a very sweet piece on Wilson, who still draws, but isn't sure of who the people around him are and often doesn't recognize his own cartoons. His wife, Nancy Winters, died in March, and they had been doing OK together in an assisted living facility, but now Wilson needs more expensive care. And everybody whose sense of humor was warped by his should chip in and help with that, if you can afford that. Yes, GoFundMe and the kindness of strangers is no way to run a healthcare system, but it's what we're stuck with. For now.

gahanmom www.youtube.com

Yo Yo Ma ROCKS!

You probably already knew that, particularly if you watched "The West Wing." But yesterday, the cellist played concerts in the cross-border twin cities of Laredo, Texas, and Nuevo Laredo, Mexico.

It was part of his Bach Project, which uses the composer's 300-year-old music to explore connections between cultures. [...]

"As you all know, as you did and do and will do, in culture, we build bridges, not walls," he said. After his performance, he gestured to the bridge to his right. "I've lived my life at the borders. Between cultures. Between disciplines. Between musics. Between generations."

A single concert was originally planned to take place on the bridge between the two cities, and officials in both cities were up for that, but they eventually decided it would cause too much disruption to close the bridge even temporarily. So instead it became two concerts, held in parks right next to the border on each side. Works for us!

Cellist Yo-Yo Ma Plays Bach In Shadow Of Border Crossing youtu.be


All Hail Japan's Cat Lord!

This is just incredibly cute and neato: Japan's Bicchu Matsuyama Castle, built in 1240, was badly damaged by heavy rains in 2018. After that, tourists stopped visiting, and revenues fell sharply. Around the same time, a very friendly stray cat started hanging around the castle. The kittycat picked up the nickname "Sanjuro" (after a local samurai) and became a social media star. Tourism picked up, especially when the nonprofit that manages the castle named the handsome kitty the lord of the castle.


Looks like SOME countries know which orange celebrities deserve at least a ceremonial job. Also, we look forward to the inevitable anime in which Shinjuro is an anthropomorphic samurai kittycat.


Holy Crap Science Is Cool!

Everybody was excited about the Black Hole photos released this week! So were we! We're also lazy, so here, have a video 'splainer!

First Image of a Black Hole! youtu.be

You Want Cute Critters? Here, Have Cute Critters!


Otter pup being hand-reared at Chicago zoo youtu.be


You know, you really shouldn't anthropomorphize animals like that. They don't like it.

Also, some guy on Twitter found Granny Weatherwax's kitten, You, but said in the thread he wasn't looking for name suggestions. But c'mon, this is clearly You.

We are now dead of cute and ready to go to brunch, too. Have an excellent relaxing Sunday, pester Eric Rauchway with your #WinterWarWonkette questions, and we will all dive back into the daily horribleness tomorrow!

[Winter War at Amazon (Hardcover: $19.48, Kindle ebook: $18.99) / Eric Rauchway on Twitter / Kevin Kruse on Twitter / NPR / Arizona Republic / GoFundMe for Gahan Wilson / WaPo / Japan Times / Japan Tourism]

Yr Wonkette is supported by reader donations. You should send us money, you! Even if you are not a little white kitten!

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          Astronomers Reveal First Direct Visual Evidence of a Supermassive Black Hole      Comment   Translate Page      

Black Hole at the Heart of M87

The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) — a planet-scale array of eight ground-based radio telescopes forged through international collaboration — was designed to capture images of...

The post Astronomers Reveal First Direct Visual Evidence of a Supermassive Black Hole appeared first on SciTechDaily.


          10 SCARY THINGS ABOUT SPACE      Comment   Translate Page      

10 Scary Things About Space
By Christopher Warner,
Toptenz, 14 April 2019.

Since the dawn of man (and woman), humankind has gazed longingly at the flickering stars high above in search of meaning, guidance, and inspiration. A gradual progression in science and technology has taught us much about our faraway skies - namely, that it’s cold, dark, and tantalizingly mysterious up there. It’s also scarier than Hell.

Nonetheless, it’s hard not to daydream about the outer limits or simply laugh at Captain Kirk and that space lizard in the worst fight scene ever filmed. Although many elements of the final frontier remain elusive, recent discoveries have revealed an array of terrifying threats that will keep even the bravest star warriors hiding under the covers with the lights on at night.

10. Meteor Showers


Imagine cruising along in your Honda or Chevy GUV (Galactic Utility Vehicle) blasting sound waves on the ol’ satellite when suddenly out of nowhere - BLAMMO - you’re blindsided by a huge boulder. Not only is your insurance rate going to skyrocket, but the nearest space side assistance is billions of miles away. Bummer.

Although this scenario may seem like a sci-fi nightmare, a similar occurrence actually occurred on planet earth in 2013 after a meteorite exploded over the Ural mountains in Russia. By the time the dust settled, over 400 people had been injured, underscoring the disturbing reality that cascading debris can strike without warning.

Fortunately, most large falling objects burn up while traveling through the earth’s atmosphere. Space travelers in the future, however, will have to dodge a spate of other potential hazards, including meteors, comets, and asteroids.

9. Black Holes


Q: What traps light, warps time, and operates on a colossal scale but yet can’t be seen? A: Black Holes. True to its enigmatic label, black holes have been mythically confounding ever since Albert Einstein first introduced the notion with his general theory of relativity in 1916.

Recently, astronomers took the first image ever of a black hole via the Event Horizon Telescope, a network of eight linked telescopes around the world. Although many questions still remain unanswered, black holes are characterized by the way they affect nearby debris, stars, and galaxies - and typically form out of the death of a large star called a supernova (more on that that later). Unlike a planet or star, a black hole doesn’t have a surface but rather occupies a region where matter has collapsed on itself. The amount of concentrated mass is such that nothing can escape its gravitational pull - not even light - and certainly not an astronaut who makes a disastrous wrong turn while lost in space.

Black holes exist in many different sizes, and similar to tornadoes, they tend to move around at high speeds, leaving a trail of destruction in its wake. Even a small one in our Solar System would be catastrophic, tossing planets out of orbit and ripping the sun to shreds. Although intrepid explorers will be tempted to visit these dark voids, nothing so far has ever survived a trip to a black hole.

8. Solar Flares


Our sun is a glorious, awe-inspiring star that provides warmth, light and the necessary temperature for precious life to exist. It’s also steadily expanding - and will someday completely destroy earth, torching our beloved planet like a marshmallow that’s been left too long around a campfire. Fortunately, that won’t happen for billions of years, but in the meantime, solar flares are capable of inflicting tremendous damage with little or no warning.

A solar flare is a violent eruption that occurs when stored energy on the sun is suddenly released. This produces another one of those ridiculous hotter-than-Hell numbers, releasing a flash of radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum.

Scientists classify solar flares according to their brightness and in relation to x-ray wavelengths. The largest of categories, X-class flares, are large, disruptive events that can severely damage satellites, wipe out power grids, and basically relegate all “smart” technology to stupid pieces of crap.

7. Eridanus Supervoid


First of all, stop your juvenile snickering. No, this isn’t slang for an epic bowel movement or anything of the sordid kind. The Eridanus Supervoid is believed to be a massive empty section located in the Eridanus Constellation just south of Orion. However, what makes this discovery so intriguing is that it’s not only the largest structure ever observed in the Universe, but it’s missing about 10,000 galaxies - or around 20 percent less matter than other regions. As a result, the oddity could possibly contain an “alternative reality” within this ominous patch of sky.

In 2004, cosmologists at University of Hawaii observed a span stretching 1.8 billion light-years across and located about 3 billion light-years away (1 light year = 5.88 trillion miles). They identified a large Cold Spot on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), a map of the radiation left over from the Big Bang, providing a critical tool to study the origin and development of the Universe at cosmic timescales.

The startling revelation presented a perplexing conundrum: the enormity of the cold spot doesn’t align with our current understanding of how the Universe evolved. While it’s not uncommon to find a few small warm and cold patches on the CMB, cold patches of this magnitude are a head-scratching anomaly. According to one report, it’s “too big to exist.”

6. Fermi’s Paradox


In 1942, an Italian-American physicist named Enrico Fermi led an all-star team of scientists to build the world’s first nuclear reactor. This monumental effort was part of the Manhattan Project, a top-secret U.S. government operation that produced the atomic bomb. Afterward, Fermi shifted his attention and extraordinary acumen on solving another complex subject: why haven’t we detected any other alien civilization despite the billions upon billions of other Earth-type planets that most likely exist?

The theory, which came to be known as “Fermi’s Paradox,” posits how the high probability of extraterrestrial life is contradictory to the lack of fact-based, demonstrable evidence supporting it. Naturally, this school of thought discounts the myriad of claims made by people who have allegedly witnessed UFOs or experienced alien encounters - not to mention phenomenons such as Crop Circles and Cargo Cult Theory.

While it’s tough to argue with a genius of Fermi’s stature (especially with our own limited, reptilian brains), we’re left wondering if it’s more frightening that we’re all alone or that hostile life forms are waiting to devour us like a Great White Shark munching seal snacks. Either way, it’s best to keep that aforementioned light on at night.

5. HyperNova


Many subjects dealing with the cosmos involve an impossible-to-fathom number. A hypernova is one of them. In this instance, the astronomical figure relates to the excessive amount of heat and energy generated from an explosion. But first, let’s review what is known about these fascinating wonders.

Novas are relatively small eruptions that occur in double star systems. When a white dwarf’s gravity pulls material away from a companion star, gas piles up and eventually becomes dense enough to ignite in a spark of nuclear fusion. Next, the Supernova, usually marks the death of a large star and the formation of a neutron star. The heat of a supernova can reach 120 million degrees - a temperature five times that of a nuclear blast.

Finally, a hypernova is an ultra-energetic supernova marking the birth of black holes and the release of intense gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the most energetic form of light. As the mightiest of the Nova family, hypernovae are 5 to 50 times more energetic than a supernova. Additionally, for sake of completion, “Champagne Supernova“ is a song by the mega pop band Oasis, featuring lyrics of which scientists have yet to decipher the meaning…

4. We’re really, really, really small…


Although mother earth appears to be a gigantic sphere of bottomless oceans and endless roads, we’re relatively puny compared to other planets. How small? In terms of relative scale, Jupiter is 2.5 times larger than all the rest of the planets in the Solar System combined. But if you really want to feel minuscule, look no further than our sun - that big fiery 10,000-degree inferno 93 million miles away.

The Sun’s diameter is 109 times bigger than the rock we call home and is so large that 1,300,000 planet Earths could fit inside of it. While the luminous ball appears to be the largest star in the sky, that’s only because it’s the closest. The #1 star in the universe is the gargantuan UY Scuti, a Red Supergiant with a radius around 1,700 times larger than our sun.

But don’t despair, Earthlings. At least now you know how a ladybug feels, clinging to a thin blade of grass.

3. Rogue Planets


These wandering vagabonds (also known as nomad planets, unbound planets, orphan planets, starless planets, etc.) are objects with enough mass to qualify as planets but orbit a galactic center directly. The Universe, despite its vast expanse, consists of a jam-packed arena of activity that often resembles a well-choreographed dance. But a rogue planet disrupts this flow, stumbling recklessly to the beat of its own rhythmless hum while bumping into other cosmic bodies like a drunken ballerina.

Scientists believe rogue planets may have have been ejected from a previous planetary system or have never been gravitationally bound to another body such as a star. Furthermore, our galaxy (aka the Milky Way) alone may have billions of them.

Interestingly, some rogue planets feature a molten core, which combined with an insulated, cold exterior, could possess subterranean oceans that support life. A team of petrologists from Rice University recently theorized that a rogue planet the size of Mars possibly collided with earth 4.4 billion years ago, and could very well have planted the seeds of life while creating enough debris that later developed into our moon.

2. Space Junk


Ever since the start of the space race, man-made objects have been piling up in what has been politely termed “orbital debris.” But that’s being a little too kind. Let’s just call it what it really is: space junk. A wide range of discarded litter now includes thousands of metal fragments, cameras, spent rocket boosters, and even a complete 1958 U.S. satellite (Vanguard-1) that’s currently the oldest artificial hunk of metal still in orbit.

This overflowing galactic garbage, not unlike our polluted oceans, is rapidly nearing a critical juncture; the consequences could be detrimental for both astronauts and those below running for cover from the falling rubbish. There are currently over 1,700  satellites in operation, yet represents less than 10 percent of debris large enough to track from the ground. An obscene amount of smaller objects could also cause serious damage - and sadly, the number will only to continue to climb.

In just one single action from 2007, China destroyed a decommissioned weather satellite during one of its weapons tests, smashing the object into over 150,000 pieces. However, any attempts to clean up spiraling mess could present even more problems in terms of national security (surveillance equipment) and/or result in conflicts over territorial rights. In short, we’re doomed.

1. Zombie Stars


Just when you think we couldn’t be inundated any more movies, TV shows, and books about bloodsuckers and the undead, the science community has joined the fray with “Zombie Stars.”  Really? What’s next brainiacs, a Frankenplanet? Never mind.

As one might guess, a zombie star is something that won’t die. Ever. The monstrous explosion from a supernova typically glows brightly for a while before the dying star is obliterated into space dust. That is unless, for reasons that have yet to be determined, the star manages to avoid death. Adding to the horror show, the zombie star can become a vampire star by sucking fuel and energy from a nearby star to revive itself.

The most famous zombie (for scientists, anyway) is known as iPTF14hls. The star first appeared in 1954 and was thought to have died over a half century ago - but a discovery in 2014 revealed it’s still alive with no plans of retiring. According to the renowned astronomer, Iair Arcavi, a NASA Einstein Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the Las Cumbres Observatory, the star’s inexplicable behavior is the “the biggest puzzle I’ve encountered.”

Yikes. If he’s stumped, folks, all we can do is lock the doors to the space station and hope for the best.

Top image: Artist’s impression of dust formation around a supernova explosion. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser.

[Source: Toptenz. Top image added.]

           Comment on The Storyteller’s Ladder by Susan Setteducato       Comment   Translate Page      
Wow, what a subject! Look up at night and everything, including the concept of time, feels so vast. Look in the mirror and, well... maybe not so much! I'm working on a story with a four-book arc and I worry about having enough time to do it justice ( I relate to Vaughn's ticking clock!) I do my best to stay in the moment with the part of the tale I'm working on now, but try to allow another part of my brain to telescope forward over the span of the series. Dizzying at times, but I believe time is malleable. I'm going to take your prompt and write myself a manifesto to keep me moving up the stairway. Thank you, Gwendolyn!
          A sculptural, hand-made lamp inspired by black holes      Comment   Translate Page      

Sculptor Art Donovan (previously) writes in about "Event Horizon," his newest lamp, inspired by black holes.

Two weeks ago, I had finished this design called, "Event Horizon" to find that the subject of Black Holes and that incredible, historic image was all over the news last week. My own "E.V." was inspired by both my NASA experience and also the 2014 Christopher Nolan film, "Interstellar". That film's beautiful vision of the fictional Black Hole, "Gargantua" was dramatically and accurately rendered courtesy of Nobel Prize winning astrophysicist, Prof. Kip Thorne. Yesterday, physicists claimed that Gargantua is remarkably similar to that actual image published yesterday by the Event Horizon Telescope.

Now the specs: the "Event Horizon stands 24" tall and scratch-built from solid maple, bronze, brass and glass.

The globe bulb is obscured front and back by a circular "veils" of bronze and the light echoes back and forth in the gold and glass reflections. An orbital kind of movement is nicely implied by the shield's different diameters and materials- Solid bronze on top and a hexagonal brass mesh in front. A forward trajectory pierces the glass globe like an arrow.

Smoked gray maple. 24K plated brass and bronze. One-Of-A-Kind!

Event Horizon [Art Donovan/New Art and Design]

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          Комментарий к записи Как написать письмо королеве Великобритании (Frasermab)      Comment   Translate Page      
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          Cómo Katie Bouman desarrolló la primer imagen de un agujero negro      Comment   Translate Page      
Un estudiante graduada del Instituto Tecnológico de Massachusetts (MIT) lideró e hizo posible la maravilla de poder tener la primera imagen de un agujero negro, compartida al mundo.

El resultado quizá no se hubiera logrado sin el esfuerzo de Katie Bouman, desarrolló un algoritmo crucial en la búsqueda de la imagen.

LAS MEDICIONES KATIE BOUMAN

Hace tres años, Bouman comenzó a idear un algoritmo que eventualmente ayudó a capturar esta imagen única en su clase: un agujero negro supermasivo y su sombra en el centro de una galaxia conocida como M87.

En 2016, mientras Katie Bouman terminaba la carrera de Ciencias de la Computación e Inteligencia Artificial en el Instituto de Tecnología de Massachusetts, adoptó una solución algebraica para unir los datos recopilados a través de la red Event Horizon Telescope (EHT):

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"SI SE MULTIPLICAN LAS MEDICIONES DE TRES TELESCOPIOS, LOS RETRASOS ADICIONALES CAUSADOS POR EL RUIDO ATMOSFÉRICO SE ANULAN ENTRE SÍ. ESTO SIGNIFICA QUE CADA NUEVA MEDICIÓN REQUIERE DATOS DE TRES TELESCOPIOS, NO SÓLO DOS, Y EL INCREMENTO DE LA PRECISIÓN COMPENSA LA PÉRDIDA DE INFORMACIÓN."




¿CÓMO RETRATAR ALGO QUE NO EMITE, NI PUEDE REFLEJAR LUZ?
Es en este punto donde el juego de algoritmo de Bouman entra en escena, junto con otros. Utilizando algoritmos de imágenes como el de Bouman, los investigadores crearon tres líneas de código con guión para reconstruir la imagen.

"SU ALGORITMO, Y MUCHOS OTROS, AYUDARON A LLENAR LOS VACÍOS".

Se recopilaron millones de datos acerca de M87, cinco petabytes de información para ser exactos, los cuales no lograron ser subidos a internet pero fueron compartidos en discos duros.

Los resultados se obtuvieron gracias a una técnica conocida como interferometría, la cual que consisten en combinar la luz proveniente de diferentes receptores, telescopios o antenas de radio para obtener una imagen de mayor resolución.

Así que, tomaron los datos necesarios de centros de investigación y telescopios e intentaron hacer una imagen. Durante los últimos años, Bouman dirigió la verificación de imágenes y la selección de parámetros de imagen.

“DESARROLLAMOS FORMAS DE GENERAR DATOS SINTÉTICOS Y UTILIZAMOS DIFERENTES ALGORITMOS Y PROBAMOS A CIEGAS PARA VER SI PODEMOS RECUPERAR UNA IMAGEN”, DIJO A CNN.

“No queríamos solo desarrollar un algoritmo. Queríamos desarrollar muchos algoritmos diferentes que tuvieran suposiciones diferentes incorporadas. Si todos ellos recuperan la misma estructura general, entonces eso genera su confianza”.

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Un gran resultado
El desarrollo de la imagen fue todo un reto, debido a que Bouman tuvo que lograr resolver un problema: encontrar un lugar físico para enviar la enorme cantidad de datos recopilados por los telescopios de ocho partes del mundo, incluyendo México.

Afortunadamente logró tener el apoyo de su alma mater, y el MIT le prestó el observatorio Haystack MIT, donde almacenó media tonelada de discos duros con imágenes del agujero negro, que se completó con ayuda de su algoritmo.

"SU ALGORITMO, AL QUE LLAMÓ CHIRP, SE UTILIZÓ PARA LA RECONSTRUCCIÓN CONTINUA DE IMÁGENES DE ALTA RESOLUCIÓN CON PARCHES PREVIOS".

¿El resultado?
Una imagen innovadora de una estructura ladeada y en forma de anillo, la cual Albert Einstein predijo hace más de un siglo en su Teoría de la Relatividad General.

LAS IDEAS DE KATIE BOUMAN
La profesora en Ciencias de la Computación, Katie Bouman fue un miembro importante de uno de los subequipos de imágenes, destacó Vincent Fish, científico investigador del Observatorio Haystack del MIT.

“Una de las ideas que Katie aportó a nuestro grupo de imágenes es que existen imágenes naturales”, dijo Fish. “Solo piense en las fotos que toma con su teléfono con cámara: tienen ciertas propiedades … Si sabe qué es un píxel, tiene una buena idea de cuál es el píxel que está al lado”.

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Por ejemplo, hay áreas que son más suaves y áreas que tienen límites definidos. Las imágenes astronómicas comparten estas propiedades, y puedes codificarlas matemáticamente, dijo Fish.

“ÉSTE ES EL MOMENTO EN QUE SE PROCESÓ LA PRIMERA IMAGEN DE UN AGUJERO NEGRO, DESDE LOS OJOS DE LA INVESTIGADORA KATIE BOUMAN.”




Parte de la investigación fue dirigida por jóvenes, como estudiantes graduados y postdoctorados. Además, los telescopios que contribuyeron en este resultado fueron:

-ALMA
-APEX
-IRAM 30-meter telescope
-James Clerk Maxwell Telescope
-Gran Telescopio Milime´trico Alfonso Serrano (GTM),
-Submillimeter Array
-Submillimeter Telescope
-South Pole Telescope

Conferencia de Katie Bouman explicando cómo fotografiar agujeros negros, en 2016:




Con información de Muy Interesante.


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