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          U.S. military retrieves possible World War Two remains from Myanmar      Cache   Translate Page      

U.S. military retrieves possible World War Two remains from MyanmarAfter a brief ceremony, the remains were taken from Myanmar's second-largest city, Mandalay, to a laboratory in the United States for further analysis and identification. You are not forgotten," said the U.S. ambassador to Myanmar, Scot Marciel, at the ceremony. From 1942 to 1945, the airspace over Myanmar, then called Burma, served as an important supply corridor from India to China after the Japanese captured the northern town of Lashio, severing the last major Allied supply route over land into China.



          B2B Outside Sales Assessor - Burman Energy Consultants Group Inc - Barrie, ON      Cache   Translate Page      
Accommodations are available on request for candidates taking part in all aspects of the selection process.... $35,000 - $45,000 a year
From Indeed - Mon, 11 Mar 2019 18:04:23 GMT - View all Barrie, ON jobs
          8mm Round Grade A Gemstone Beads - Burma Jade (10 Pack)       Cache   Translate Page      

We've made it easier than ever to begin designing with Gemstones. Our new styles of round gemstones have been broken down into convenient and economical packages to lessen the amount of extra beads you end up with when you want to design gemstone bra...[Read More]
Our Price: $5.52 On Sale [Add to Cart]



          Mining Company Accused of Assaulting Journalists Sues for Defamation      Cache   Translate Page      

Chinese venture Tha Khin Sit says Myitkyina Journal’s coverage of controversial banana plantation damaged its reputation.

The post Mining Company Accused of Assaulting Journalists Sues for Defamation appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Shan Rebel Group Demands Release of Detained Fighters      Cache   Translate Page      

The RCSS is demanding the release of 31 fighters is says the Myanmar military mistakenly detained as suspected drug traffickers so that peace talks can get back on track.

The post Shan Rebel Group Demands Release of Detained Fighters appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Racially, Religiously Discriminative Lesson to be Dropped from National Curriculum      Cache   Translate Page      

The move comes after an open letter of complaint about an elementary lesson which teaches discriminatory phrases was sent to the president signed by over 100 civil society groups.

The post Racially, Religiously Discriminative Lesson to be Dropped from National Curriculum appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Govt Spokesman Says Fighting in Rakhine a ‘Cause for Concern’      Cache   Translate Page      

"Leaders will review it and do their best. They have been holding talks,” U Zaw Htay said without elaborating. 

The post Govt Spokesman Says Fighting in Rakhine a ‘Cause for Concern’ appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Scandal-Hit Tenasserim Region Chief Minister Fired      Cache   Translate Page      

Daw Lei Lei Maw charged under Anti-Corruption Law on suspicion of taking bribes, President’s Office says

The post Scandal-Hit Tenasserim Region Chief Minister Fired appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Solidarity in Metta      Cache   Translate Page      


Props to Chaplain Danny for an excellent idea of viral maitri.

May the monks and nuns of Burma, and all beings there may be, be happy and free at heart.

Record yourself reciting the Metta Sutta.

Post on You Tube.

Spread the good word.
          The president of Burma met with the Chinese side is willing to deepen the new Shengkun anti-terroris-若槻ゆうか      Cache   Translate Page      
Burma’s president meets with Guo Shengkun, China is willing to deepen counter-terrorism cooperation – the news agency of the new network in Beijing in September 28, Naypyidaw news: Burma’s president Wu Tingjue 27, met with visiting Burma presided over fifth Burma cooperation in law enforcement and security conference China State Councilor and Minister of public […]
          March 2015 ~ Challenge #20      Cache   Translate Page      
Hello! Welcome to another Scrappy Challenge!

Before we reveal the March challenge board, we would like announce our Winner and Top 3 from last month.

OUR FEBRUARY CHALLENGE WINNER

#9 ~ Debi
Congratulations!
Please contact us at forcrafting{at}yahoo{dot}com for your guest designing information.
Also, here is a badge to display on your blog:


OUR TOP 3

#2 ~ Katrina

#6 ~ Michelle M.

#11 ~ Cheryl
Thank you ladies!
Here is a badge to display on your blogs:



**************************************************************

Now, on to our new challenge!

OUR MARCH BOARD

We have a guest designer playing along this month.
Welcome Jane!
She used lace, mint background and feathers.
Gorgeous!
Thank you Jane.
Be sure to visit Jane's blog at: 
http://scrappiecesofme.blogspot.com.au

Here's what our Design Team made!

Melinda
lace, mint background, feathers

Joefil
feathers, the word AMAZING, use a paper punch

Beverley
bicycle, baker's twine, use a paper punch

Sue
lace, pearls, use a paper punch

Majo
feathers, the word AMAZING, use a paper punch

Lynne
lace, pearls, use a paper punch

Lizzie
lace, pearls, use a paper punch

Elina
lace, mint background, feathers

Now it's your turn!
You have until March 31st to enter.







          Two men from Burma illegal transportation bear jailed for twelve years – the new entry in the 三色网 333se.cc      Cache   Translate Page      
Two men from the Burma bears entry illegal transportation of jailed for twelve years zhongxinwangzhongxinwang – in February 24 Kunming Xinhua (Luo Changyan) Ludian court of Yunnan Province issued 24, two men from Burma for illegal transportation of black bear entry by the hospital to illegal transportation of rare and endangered wild animal crime sentenced […]
          French artist Maite Delteil to showcase her paintings in Delhi      Cache   Translate Page      
A series of vibrant paintings by French artist Maite Delteil, who is married to renowned India artist Sakti Burman, will be showcased in the national capital from March 15.
          WATAIN Respond To Authorities For Concert Cancellation: “This One Is For The Honorless Rats Behind The Ban”      Cache   Translate Page      

  Swedish black metal band Watain have responded to their concert in Singapore being cancelled at the last minute by the authorities.   “In the light of yesterday’s events in Singapore, we would like to send a proud hail to our fans and followers from Singapore, Indonesia, Sarawak, Burma, Laos, Phillipines and Malaysia who had […]

The post WATAIN Respond To Authorities For Concert Cancellation: “This One Is For The Honorless Rats Behind The Ban” appeared first on Metal Wani.


          Second pastor kidnapped by militant Buddhist forces in Myanmar      Cache   Translate Page      
Barnabas Fund contacts report that Pastor Thar Tun was kidnapped from his home in Rakhine state, Myanmar (Burma) on 13 February by Buddhist militants thought to be members of the Arakan Army (AA). Pastor Tun, 56, who has five children, is the
          က်ပ္ေငြေစ်းေတြက်ေနတာ ဗဟိုဘဏ္ ဘာလုပ္ေနလဲ       Cache   Translate Page      
က်ပ္ေငြေစ်းေတြက်ေနတာ ဗဟိုဘဏ္ ဘာလုပ္ေနလဲ
21 July 2018

က်ပ္ေငြေစ်း က်ဆင္းတဲ့ အေရး က ျပည္တြင္းက အေၾကာင္းရင္းေတြ ထက္စာရင္ ျပည္ပက လာတဲ့ အေၾကာင္းရင္းေတြ နဲ႔ ပိုသက္ဆိုင္လိမ့္မယ္ လို႔ ဗဟိုဘဏ္ ဒုတိယ ဥကၠဌ ဦးဘိုဘိုငယ္ က ဘီဘီစီ ကို ေျပာ
ျမန္မာ့က်ပ္ေငြတန္ဖိုး က အေမရိကန္ ေဒၚလာ ေငြနဲ႔လဲလွယ္တဲ့အခါမွာ ဆက္တိုက္ဆိုသလို က်ဆင္းလာေနေတာ့ ဘယ္အထိ သက္ေရာက္ ထိခိုက္လာေလ မလဲဆိုတာ ကို စီးပြားေရး အသိုင္းအဝိုင္း နဲ႔ လူအမ်ား အၾကား စိုးရိမ္စရာေတြ ျဖစ္လာတာနဲ႔ အတူ ဗဟိုဘဏ္ က ဒီအေရး အေပၚ ဘာလုပ္မလဲ ဆိုတာကို ေစာေၾကာေနၾကတာပါ။

ဘီဘီစီ က ဗဟိုဘဏ္ ကို ေမးျမန္းေတာ့ ဒီအေရး ကို ဂ႐ုတစိုက္ ေစာင့္ၾကည့္ေနပါတယ္ လို႔ ဆိုပါတယ္။

ျမန္မာ့က်ပ္ေငြေစ်းဟာ ဒီႏွစ္အတြင္း ေဖေဖာ္ဝါရီ လဆန္းပိုင္းေလာက္ က တေဒၚလာ ကို ၁၃၃၀ က်ပ္ နဲ႔ ညီေနရာကေန ၿပီးခဲ့တဲ့ လ ေတြ အတြင္း တျဖည္ျဖည္း တက္လာရာကေန ဇူလိုင္ လအတြင္းမွာ ေတာ့ တက္ႏႈန္း က ပိုျမင့္လာခဲ့ပါတယ္။ ဇူလိုင္လထဲ က သီတင္းပတ္ တပတ္ တပတ္ ေက်ာ္လာေလေလ၊ က်ပ္ေစ်း က တေဒၚလာ ကို ၁၄၂၀၊ ၁၄၃၀ စသျဖင့္ ဆက္တိုက္က်ဆင္းေနခဲ့တာပါ။

အခုလို က်ပ္ေငြေစ်း က်ဆင္းတဲ့ အေရး က ျပည္တြင္းက အေၾကာင္းရင္းေတြ ထက္စာရင္ ျပည္ပက လာတဲ့ အေၾကာင္းရင္းေတြ နဲ႔ ပိုသက္ဆိုင္လိမ့္မယ္ လို႔ ဗဟိုဘဏ္ ဒုတိယ ဥကၠဌ ဦးဘိုဘိုငယ္ က ဘီဘီစီ ကို ေျပာပါတယ္။

အေမရိကန္မွာ ၂၀၀၈-၂၀၀၉ ကာလမွာ ကတည္းက ဘဏ္တိုးႏႈန္း ၀% ျဖစ္ေနခဲ့ရာကေန၊ ဒီႏွစ္ ဇြန္လမွာ ၂% ျဖစ္လာၿပီးေတာ့ ဒီႏွစ္အတြင္း ၂.၅% အထိတက္လာမယ္လို႔ မွန္းဆေန ၾကတယ္၊ အရင္က စီးပြားေရးသမားေတြက ေဒၚလာေငြ က ေန အာရွေဒသတြင္း သုံး ေငြေတြ ကို လဲလွယ္ ၿပီး ဒီဘက္မွာ ဘဏ္တိုးႏႈန္းပိုရတဲ့အတြက္ လာေရာက္ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံထားတဲ့ေငြေတြကို အခုအခါ ေဒၚလာေငြနဲ႔ ျပန္လဲၿပီး အေမရိကန္မွာ ျပန္ရင္းႏွီးျမႇဳပ္ႏွံတာ ေတြ ျဖစ္လာတယ္၊ ဒီအတြက္ ေဒၚလာေစ်း ေတြ တက္လာၿပီး ျမန္မာအပါအဝင္ ေဒသသုံးေတြ ေတြ က်ဆင္းလာတယ္။ လို႔ သူ က သုံးသပ္ေျပာပါတယ္။

ျမန္မာက်ပ္ေငြ က ဒီႏွစ္အတြင္း အျမင့္ဆုံးျဖစ္တဲ့ ေဖေဖာ္ဝါရီ လဆန္း ပိုင္း ေစ်းႏႈန္း တေဒၚလာ ၁၃၃၀ က်ပ္ႏႈန္းနဲ႔ စာရင္ အခု ကာလမွာ ၅.၅% က်ဆင္းလာေၾကာင္းနဲ႔ တ႐ုတ္၊ ထိုင္း၊ အိႏၵိယ ေငြေၾကးေတြ ေဒၚလာနဲ႔လဲလွယ္ရင္ ေစ်းက်တဲ့ ရာခိုင္ႏႈန္း က ျမန္မာထက္မ်ားေနေၾကာင္း သူ က ေျပာၿပီး၊ အဲလို ျမန္မာ့ ကုန္သြယ္ဖက္ ႏိုင္ငံေတြ က ေငြေၾကးေတြ လည္း တန္ဖိုးက်ဆင္း ေနတဲ့အတြက္ ကုန္သြယ္ေရး ဖက္မွာ သိပ္မထိခိုက္ႏို္္င္ေၾကာင္း သူက ေျပာပါတယ္။

သို႔ေသာ္လည္း ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ စီးပြားေရး ဟာ ကမာၻ႔စီးပြားေရး နဲ႔ ဆက္ႏြယ္မႈရွိေနတဲ့အတြက္ ဒီ ဂယက္ရဲ႕ သက္ေရာက္မႈ ကေတာ့ ရွိမယ့္အေၾကာင္း ဗဟိုဘဏ္ က မွန္းဆ ထားပါတယ္။

ေငြေၾကးေဖာင္းပြတဲ့ႏႈန္း တစုံတရာ တက္လာမယ္လို႔လည္း သူတို႔ က ခန႔္မွန္းထားပါတယ္။

ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံဟာ အခုလို ကာလမွာ တင္ပို႔ကုန္နဲ႔ တင္သြင္းကုန္ႏႈိင္းယွဥ္ရင္ တင္ပို႔ကုန္ က မ်ားတဲ့အတြက္ ေဒၚလာလိုအပ္မႈ က ပိုရွိေနတတ္တဲ့ ႏိုင္ငံ တခု လည္းျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

ေနာက္ၿပီး မိုးရာသီမွာ တင္ပို႔ကုန္ ေတြ နည္းတတ္တဲ့ သဘာဝရွိတာမို႔ အၿမဲမိုးရာသီ ဆိုရင္ ေဒၚလာေစ်း က တက္ေလ့ရွိပါတယ္။

Earning Money လို႔ေခၚၾကတဲ့ တင္ပို႔မႈ က ရရွိတဲ့ ႏိုင္ငံျခားေငြ (ေဒၚလာေငြ) ကို တင္သြင္းလိုတဲ့ တင္သြင္းသူ လုပ္ငန္းရွင္ က ျပန္ဝယ္ၿပီး အသုံးျပဳရတဲ့ စနစ္ ကလည္း ျမန္မာျပည္မွာ ရွိေနၿပီး အဲဒီ စနစ္ ေၾကာင့္လည္း ေဒၚလာ ေစ်းေတြ တက္တာလို႔ ေဝဖန္မႈ ေတြ ရွိတဲ့အေပၚမွာ ေတာ့ ဦးဘိုဘိုငယ္ က ဒီစနစ္ က ႏိုင္ငံအေတာ္မ်ားမ်ား မွာ ရွိတဲ့အတြက္ အဲဒီစနစ္ေၾကာင့္ ေဒၚလာေစ်း တက္တာ မဟုတ္ေၾကာင္း ျငင္းပါတယ္။

အခုေလာေလာဆယ္ အေျခအေနမွေတာ့ ေငြေၾကးေစ်းကြက္ အတြင္း ကို ေဒၚလာေတြ ထည့္သြင္းၿပီး ျမန္မာေငြေၾကးေစ်းက်မႈ ကို ထိန္းမွာ မဟုတ္ေသးဘဲ၊ ေစ်းကြက္ သေဘာ အရပဲ ထားထားမွာ ျဖစ္ေပမယ့္ ေဒၚလာအေရာင္းအဝယ္လုပ္ေနၾကတဲ့ Money Changer ေတြ၊ Interbank ေငြေၾကးေရာင္းဝယ္မႈေတြကို အၿမဲေစာင့္ၾကည့္ၿပီး လိုအပ္ရင္ လိုအပ္သလို ထိန္းညႇိေဆာင္႐ြက္တာေတြ လုပ္သြားမယ္ လို႔ သူ က ဆိုပါတယ္။

ျမန္မာ့ေငြေစ်းဟာ ၂၀၁၆ ဇူလိုင္လ က တေဒၚလာ ကို ၁၁၈၀ က်ပ္၊ ၂၀၁၇ ဇူလိုင္လ က တေဒၚလာ ကို ၁၃၆၀ က်ပ္ ရွိခဲ့ပါတယ္။

BBC Burmese
https://www.bbc.com/burmese

          ႀကိဳးၾကာငွက္တို႔ရဲ႕အျပန္လမ္း (ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္း)      Cache   Translate Page      

ႀကိဳးၾကာငွက္တို႔ရဲ႕အျပန္လမ္း (ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္း)
ျမတ္လိႈင္း
(မိုးမခ) ဇူလိုင္ ၂၁၊ ၂၀၁၈

ေျပာမယ္ဆိုရင္ကြ်န္ေတာ္တကယ္မသိခဲ့ပါ။ ဒီအမ်ဳိးသားညြန္႔ေပါင္းအစုိးရ (NCGUB) ကုိ မတရား အသင္းေၾကညာခဲ့တာ၊ အၾကမ္းဖက္သူမ်ားလို႔သတ္မွတ္ခဲ့တာ ဘယ္တုန္းကလဲဆိုတာ။ကြ်န္ေတာ္သိခဲ့တာက အမ်ဳိးသားညြန္႔ေပါင္းအစုိးရရဲ႕ဝန္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္က ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းဆိုတာရယ္၊ ၂၀၁၂ ခုႏွစ္က ေဒၚ ေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္အေမရိကားမသြားခင္မွာ အမ်ဳိးသားညြန္႔ေပါင္းအစုိးရ (NCGUB) ကုိ ဖ်က္သိမ္းလိုက္ျပီ ဆိုတာေလာက္ပဲ သိခဲ့ရပါတယ္။၂၀၁၅ ခုႏွစ္အေထြေထြေရြးေကာက္ပြဲမွာ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္ ဦးေဆာင္တဲ့ အင္အယ္ဒီအနိုင္ရျပီး အစုိးရဖြဲ႔ခြင့္ရေတာ့ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းတေယာက္ အမိျမန္မာျပည္ကုိ ျပန္လာနိုင္ေတာ့မယ္ဆိုျပီး ဝမ္းသာေမ်ွာ္လင့္ေနမိပါေသးတယ္။

ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းဟာ ၁၉၉၀ ခုႏွစ္က အင္အယ္ဒီအေထြေထြေရြးေကာက္ပြဲအနိုင္ရတဲ့အခ်ိန္မွာ ေရြး ေကာက္ခံလႊတ္ေတာ္ကုိယ္စားလွယ္တဦးျဖစ္ေနပါတယ္။ အင္အယ္ဒီပါတီကေန ဝင္အေရြးခံရတဲ့ လႊတ္ ေတာ္ကုိယ္စားလွယ္မဟုတ္ေပမယ့္ တကယ္လို႔ အင္အယ္ဒီပါတီကုိမတရားအသင္းေၾကညာလိုက္ရင္ ဆို တဲ့အေတြးနဲ႔ သက္ကယ္ပါတီတခုအေနနဲ႔ ”အမ်ဳိးသားဒီမိုကေရစီပါတီ” အျဖစ္ဖြဲ႔ျပီး အေထြေထြေရြးေကာက္ ပြဲေကာ္မရွင္မွာ မွတ္ပုံတင္ထားခဲ့တာပါ။ အဲဒီ ”အမ်ဳီးသားဒီမိုကေရစီပါတီ” ရဲ႕ဥကၠ႒ကုိ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္း တာဝန္ ယူခဲ့ရတာပါ။ အတြင္းေရးမွဴးကုိျမင့္ေဆြ(ကဗ်ာဆရာတင္ေဆြမိုး)အလုပ္အမႈေဆာင္ေတြ ကေတာ့ ကုိစုိးဝင္း(အျဖဴေလး)နဲ႔ ကုိသိန္းဦးတို႔ ပါဝင္ခဲ့ပါတယ္။ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းက အဲဒီအမ်ဳိးသားဒီမိုကေရစီ ပါတီ ကေန ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲအနိုင္ရခဲ့တဲ့ ၉၀ ခုႏွစ္ လႊတ္ေတာ္ကုိယ္စားလွယ္တေယာက္ျဖစ္ေနတာပါ။ 
 
ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းဟာ အမ်ဳိးသားေခါင္းေဆာင္ႀကီး၊ အာဇာနည္ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေအာင္ဆန္းရဲ႕အစ္ကုိရင္းျဖစ္တဲ့ အာဇာနည္ဦးဘဝင္းရဲ႕သားျဖစ္သလို ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္ရဲ႕အစ္ကုိတစ္ဝမ္းကြဲျဖစ္ပါတယ္။ 
 
အစ္ကုိေတြထဲမွာ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္ရဲ႕ အားအကုိးဆုံးအစ္ကုိတေယာက္ကုိျပပါဆိုရင္ ေဒါက္တာ စိန္ဝင္းကုိ ျပရပါလိမ့္မယ္။ သခ်ၤာဘာသာနဲ႔ပါရဂူဘြဲ႔ယူခဲ့သူပါ။ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းဟာ ဂ်ာမနီနိုင္ငံ ဟမ္း ဘတ္တကၠသုိလ္က မဟာသိပၸံဘြဲ႔နဲ႔ ပါရဂူဘြဲ႔ကုိ ရခဲ့ပါတယ္။

၁၉၉၀ ခုႏွစ္မွာ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းက အင္အယ္ဒီရဲ႕ဗဟုိတတ္သိအဖြဲ႔၀င္ျဖစ္သလို မွတ္တမ္းလႊာရဲ႕ ဘ႑ာေရးမွဴးတာဝန္ယူခဲ့ရပါတယ္။

၉၀ ခုႏွစ္က အင္အယ္ဒီကထုတ္ေဝတဲ့မွတ္တမ္းလႊာရဲ႕အယ္ဒီတာေတြအျဖစ္ ကြ်န္ေတာ္နဲ႔ ကုိေအာင္ ေက်ာ္ဦး (ကုိပိန္ပိန္)တို႔က တာဝန္ယူခဲ့ရတဲ့အခ်ိန္မွာ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းက ဘ႑ာေရးမွဴးတာဝန္ ယူေနရ ေတာ့ အျမဲထိေတြ႔ဆက္ဆံေနရပါတယ္။ အလြန္ခင္မင္ခဲ့ၾကရပါတယ္။ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းကုိ ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔ ေနာက္ရယ္ေျပာင္ရယ္နဲ႔ ေနခဲ့ၾကတာပါ။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔ ေနာက္ေျပာင္တာကုိ ၿပံဳးျပံဳးႀကီးနဲ႔ ေနတတ္ခဲ့သူျဖစ္ ပါတယ္။ အမွတ္တရကေတာ့ ကုိစုိးဝင္း(အျဖဴေလး) အိမ္အေပၚထပ္မွာေပါ့။ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းက သူ႔ တပည့္မ မိန္းမငယ္ငယ္ေလးယူလို႔ စားရင္းေသာက္ရင္းနဲ႔ေနာက္ေျပာင္ေနခဲ့တာကုိ အမွတ္ရေနဆဲပါ။
 
ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔ေတြ အေမရိကန္သံရံုးကအခန္းအနားတခုခုလုပ္လို႔ဖိတ္ရင္ အတူတူသြားခဲ့ၾကပါတယ္။ အခမ္းအနားမွာ ဘီယာဗူးေတြလိုက္ေပးရင္ယူထားျပီး ကြ်န္ေတာ့္ကုိ အျမဲျပန္ေပးေလ့ရွိတာကုိလည္း သတိရ ေနပါတယ္။ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းက ေဆးလိပ္၊ ကြမ္း၊ အရက္ ေသာက္တတ္သုံးတတ္သူ မဟုတ္ပါဘူး။ ေျပာတာ ဆိုတာလည္း ျပံဳးျပံဳးေလးနဲ႔ပဲ ေျပာတတ္ဆိုတတ္ပါတယ္။

ဒါေပမဲ့ အလုပ္လုပ္တဲ့ေနရာမွာေတာ့ ျပတ္ျပတ္သားသား တိတိက်က်လုပ္ကုိင္တတ္သလို အလုပ္နဲ႔ ပတ္သက္ျပီးေျပာရင္လည္း တိတိက်က်ေျပာတတ္ပါတယ္။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္နဲ႔ ကိုပိန္ပိန္နဲ႔ပတ္သက္ရင္ေတာ့ ေတာ္ေတာ္ လိုက္ေလ်ာပါတယ္။ ဥပမာအေနနဲ႔ေျပာရရင္ မွတ္တမ္းလႊာထုတ္လုပ္မႈစရိတ္ေတြ စာရင္းရွင္း ၾကတဲ့အခါ ကြ်န္ေတာ္နဲ႔ကုိပိန္ပိန္က ညေနတိုင္းအရက္ေသာက္တဲ့စာရင္းကုိ ထည့္ေရးပါတယ္။ 
 
ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔ ႏွစ္ေယာက္ထဲအရက္ေသာက္တတ္တာက ေျမနီကုန္း၊”အလင္းေရာင္” နဲ႔ ေျမနီကုန္းညေစ်း ထဲက” ေရႊပုဇြန္”ေခါက္ဆြဲေၾကာ္ဆိုင္မွာ ဘီအီး(အရက္ျဖဴ) ေသာက္တတ္ပါတယ္။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔မွတ္တမ္း လႊာထုတ္လုပ္တဲ့အသုံးစရိတ္မွာ အရက္ေသာက္တဲ့စာရင္းကုိၾကည့္ျပီး ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းက ရီ(ရယ္) ပါေလ ေရာ။

”ေန႔စဥ္ထမင္းစရိတ္ကထားပါေတာ့၊ အရက္ေသာက္တာကုိစာရင္းထဲထည့္တင္တာ တရားမဝင္ဘူးကြ” လို႔ ေျပာပါတယ္။ ”သြားတဲ႔လာတဲ႔ကားခေတာ့မတင္ပဲနဲ႔ အရက္ျဖဴေသာက္တာက်ေတာ့တင္ရတယ္လို႔ကြာ” လို႔ေျပာေတာ့ ကြ်န္ေတာ္က ”ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔ဘယ္သြားသြား ကုိေစာလိႈင္ကသူ႔ကားနဲ႔လိုက္ပုိ႔တာဆိုေတာ့ ကားခမကုန္ဘူးေလ” လို႔ ေျပာလိုက္ပါတယ္။ ကုိေစာလိႈင္ဆိုတာက ဒဂုံျမိဳ႕နယ္ ေယာမင္းၾကီးလမ္းမွာေန တဲ့ ၿမိဳ႕နယ္ အင္အယ္ဒီတာဝန္ခံပါ။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္နဲ႔ကုိပိန္ပိန္ကုိခင္လို႔ ေန႔စဥ္ကားတစီးနဲ႔ လိုက္ပုိ႔ေနတတ္ပါ တယ္။ ”ကုိေစာလိႈင္ကေစတနာနဲ႔လိုက္ပုိ႔ေပမယ့္၊ ထုတ္လုပ္စရိတ္ထဲမွာသြားလာစရိတ္တင္ရတယ္၊ အဲဒီ သြားလာစရိတ္နဲ႔အရက္ေသာက္ေပါ့၊ ပုိရင္ေတာင္ပုိဦးမယ္” လို႔ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းက ၿပံဳးျပံဳးႀကီးနဲ႔ လမ္းညႊန္ ျပပါေတာ့တယ္။

ဟုတ္ေတာ့လည္း ဟုတ္ပါတယ္။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔ေန႔စဥ္သြားလာေနရတဲ႔လမ္းေၾကာင္းေတြကမနည္းပါဘူး။ ဘားလမ္းကဦးတင္စုိးရဲ႕စပယ္ဦးပုံႏွိပ္တိုက္၊ ၄၈ လမ္းက ကုိေက်ာ္၀င္းရဲ႕သုခဝတီပုံႏွိပ္တိုက္၊ ေက်ာက္ ေျမာင္းက ဖလင္ေမာင္မ်ဳိး (ပန္းခ်ီတင္လွဝင္းထင္သား)၊ ေက်ာက္ေျမာင္းက ကုိေမာင္ေမာင္နိုင္ရဲ႕ ေမတၱာ မိုး ေအာ့ဖ္ဆက္၊ လမ္း ၃၀ က ေဒၚျမင့္ျမင့္တင္ရဲ႕ ျမင့္သီဂီေအာဖ့္ဆက္ေတြကုိ ေန႔စဥ္သြားလာေနရတဲ့ ခရီးေတြ မနည္းပါဘူး။ ဒီခရီးစဥ္ေတြအတြက္တကၠစီကားငွားတဲ့စရိတ္ကုိစာရင္းျပျပီးတင္ရင္ ကြ်န္ေတာ္နဲ႔ ကုိပိန္ပိန္အတြက္ ညေနတိုင္းဘီအီးေသာက္နိုင္ေနပါတယ္။ အဲဒီအခ်ိန္တုန္းက ညေနဖက္ကုိစားေသာက္ ဆိုင္ႀကီးေတြမွာ လိုက္ဒကာခံၾကမယ့္သူေတြကလည္း အျမဲလိုေပၚလာတတ္ပါတယ္။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔အတြက္ အသုံးစရိတ္ကဘာမွမရွိပါဘူး။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္နဲ႔ကုိပိန္ပိန္ကုိတစ္လေလးရာက်ပ္ေပးထားပါေသးတယ္။ ကုိယ္ လုပ္ခ်င္တဲ့မွတ္တမ္းလႊာကုိလုပ္ခြင့္ရေနတာကုိပဲ ႏွစ္သက္ေပ်ာ္ရႊင္ေနတတ္ၾကတာပါ။ ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို႔ျပန္ ၾကားေရးက အုပ္စုေလးတအုပ္စုလိုျဖစ္ေနျပီး စိတ္တူကုိယ္တူလက္တြဲျပီးေပ်ာ္ရႊင္စရာေကာင္းခဲ့ပါတယ္။

ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းဟာ ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔ျပန္ၾကားေရးအုပ္စုနဲ႔ေနရတာေပ်ာ္ရႊင္ေနတတ္ပါတယ္။ ၿပံဳးျပံဳး ျပံဳးျပံဳးနဲ႔ စကားသိပ္မေျပာတတ္ပါဘူး။ ဒါေပမဲ့ စစ္အာဏာရွင္ေတြအေပၚကုိေတာ့ ျပတ္ျပတ္သားသား ဆန္႔ က်င္တတ္တဲ့လူတေယာက္ပါ။ အေျပာျပတ္သားသလို စိတ္လည္း ရဲရင့္ျပတ္သားပါတယ္။
 
အင္အယ္ဒီအနိုင္ရလႊတ္ေတာ္ကုိယ္စားလွယ္မ်ားရဲ႕ပထမအႀကိမ္အစည္းအေဝး(ဂႏၵီခန္းမ)မွာ က်င္းပေတာ့ ဒီဂႏၵီခန္းအစည္းအေဝးကေနျပီး လႊတ္ေတာ္အျဖစ္ေၾကညာဖို႔ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္း တက္ဖတ္တဲ့စာတမ္းဟာ စစ္အာဏာရွင္ကုိ တင္းမာျပတ္သားစြာစိန္ေခၚမႈပါပဲ။ ဂႏီၵခန္းမမွာထက္ေရာက္ေနတဲ့အနိုင္ရ လႊတ္ေတာ္ ကုိယ္စားလွယ္က ၈၀ ရာခိုင္ႏႈန္းေက်ာ္ရိွတဲ့အတြက္ ဒီဂႏီၵခန္းမကေန လႊတ္ေတာ္အျဖစ္ေၾကညာလိုက္ျပီး အစုိးရဖြဲ႔ဖို႔ဆိုတဲ့အဆိုကုိ တင္ခဲ႔တာပါ။ ဒီဂႏၵီခန္းမစာတမ္းက ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းကုိ စစ္အာဏာရွင္အစုိးရ အေနနဲ႔ ပုိျပီးသတိျပဳမိသြားေစပါတယ္။

အဲဒီ့ဂႏၵီခန္းမအစည္းအေဝးၿပီးေနာက္ပုိင္းမွာ စစ္ေထာက္လွမ္းေရးက အင္အယ္ဒီမွာ တင္းမာတဲ့ တတိယအုပ္စုတခု ေပၚေပါက္လာတယ္လို႔ သတ္မွတ္လိုက္တာပါ။ အင္အယ္ဒီမွာအုပ္စုႏွစ္အုပ္စု အားၿပ္ိဳင္ ေနတဲ့အခ်ိန္ပါ။ မ်ဳိးခ်စ္တပ္မွဴးေဟာင္းမ်ားအုပ္စုနဲ႔ တတ္သိအုပ္စုပါ။ ဂႏၵီအစည္းအေဝးနာက္ပုိင္းမွာ ေၾက ညာခ်က္ ၅/၉၀ ထြက္ျပီး တတ္သိအုပ္စုကုိ ေပ်ာ့ေျပာင္းသြားတယ္လို႔ ထင္မွတ္ခံခဲ့ရပါတယ္။

ဂႏၵီအစည္းအေဝးမွာဆုံးျဖတ္ခဲ့တဲ့လုပ္ငန္းစဥ္မွာ လႊတ္ေတာ္ေခၚယူေရးကုိ အဓိကထားခဲ့ပါတယ္။ လႊတ္ ေတာ္ေခၚယူျပီး လႊတ္ေတာ္ကဖြဲ႔စည္းပုံအေျခခံဥပေဒ ေရးဆြဲမယ္ဆိုတဲ့ သေဘာထားပါ။ ၅/၉၀ ကုိ ေၾက ညာခ်က္အျဖစ္ထုတ္ျပန္လိုက္ေတာ့ ဖြဲ႔စည္းပုံကုိအရင္ေရးဆြဲျပီး ဒီဖြဲ႔စည္းပုံအရ လႊတ္ေတာ္ေခၚယူမယ္ဆို တဲ့ သေဘာထားျဖစ္သြားခဲ့ပါတယ္။ အဲဒီ ၅/၉၀ ေၾကညာခ်က္ေၾကာင့္ အင္အယ္ဒီပါတီတြင္းမွာ ျပႆနာ ေတြျဖစ္ျပီး တတိယအုပ္စု ေပၚလာခဲ့ပါတယ္။ ဒီစစ္အာဏာရွင္စနစ္အေပၚ တင္းမာတဲ့သေဘာထားရွိသူ တတိယအုပ္စုကုိဦးေဆာင္သူေတြကေတာ့ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္း၊ ဦးတင္ေမာင္ဝင္း(ခရမ္း)၊ ေဒါက္တာေမာင္ ေမာင္ေစာ၊ ဦးသိန္းတင္၊ ဦးျမဝင္း(အဂၤပူ)၊ ပီတာလင္းပင္၊ ေဒၚစန္းစန္း(ဆိပ္ကမ္း) တို႔ပါပဲ။

ဒီအုပ္စုက အမရပူရအပါအဝင္ လ်ွိဳ႕ဝွက္အစည္းအေဝးျပဳလုပ္ျပီး စင္ျပိဳင္အစုိးရကုိဖြဲ႔စည္းနိုင္ဖို႔ ျပင္ ဆင္ပါတယ္။ ဒါကုိစစ္ေထာက္လွမ္းေရးကသိသြားၿပီး စတင္ ဖမ္းဆီးပါေတာ့တယ္။ 
 
ဦးတင္ေမာင္ဝင္းတို႔အဖမ္းခံလိုက္ရေပမယ့္ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းတို႔က တဖက္ထိုင္းနယ္စပ္ကုိ ထြက္သြားပါ တယ္။ အင္အယ္ဒီရဲ႕အမာလိုင္းတတိယအုပ္စုကုိဖမ္းျပီးေတာ့ ဦးၾကည္ေမာင္၊ ဦးေက်ာ္မင္း(ပိသုကာ)၊ ဦးခင္ေမာင္ေဆြတို႔ဦးေဆာင္တဲ့တတ္သိအုပ္စုကုိပါ ဖမ္းလိုက္ပါေတာ့တယ္။ 
 
အင္အယ္ဒီပါတီတြင္းအားျပိဳင္ေနတဲ့ မ်ဳိးခ်စ္တပ္မွဴးေဟာင္းအုပ္စုနဲ႔ တတ္သိအုပ္စုႏွစ္အုပ္စုမွာ၊ ဦးေအာင္ ေရႊဦးေဆာင္တဲ့မ်ဳိးခ်စ္တပ္မွဴးေဟာင္းအုပ္စုတခုထဲသာ က်န္ေနပါေတာ့တယ္။ ၁၉၉၀ ဒီဇင္ဘာလေလာက္ ေရာက္ေတာ့ လြတ္ေျမာက္နယ္ေျမလို႔ဆိုၾကတဲ့ မာနယ္ပေလာမွာ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းကုိဝန္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္တင္ျပီး ျပည္ေထာင္စုျမန္မာနိုင္ငံ အမ်ဳိးသားညြန္႔ေပါင္းအစုိးရ ဖြဲ႔လိုက္တယ္ဆိုတဲ့သတင္း ၾကားလိုက္ၾကရပါတယ္။
 
မာနယ္ပေလာနယ္ေျမမွာ တပ္ေပါင္းစုနဲ႔အတူ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္း -(Google)
၂၀၁၅ ခုႏွစ္မွာ ေဒါက္တာ စိန္ဝင္းရဲ႕ညီမ ေဒၚေအာင္ ဆန္းစုၾကည္ ဦးေဆာင္တဲ့အစုိးရတရပ္ကုိ ဖြဲ႔စည္းနိုင္ ေတာ့ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္း ျမန္မာျပည္ကုိျပန္လာနိုင္ ၿပီလို႔ ထင္ခဲ့ပါတယ္။ အမ်ားႀကီးလည္း ေမ်ွာ္လင့္ ခဲ႔မိပါတယ္။ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းလို ပီဘိ ပညာရွင္စစ္စစ္တေယာက္လည္းျဖစ္၊ နူးညံ့တဲ့စိတ္သေဘာထားရွိသူလည္းျဖစ္၊ နိုင္ငံေရးမွာလည္း စိတ္ ခိုင္မာျပတ္သားတဲ့သူတေယာက္သာရွိေနခဲ့မယ္ဆိုရင္ ႏိုင္ငံေရးဦးေဆာင္မႈအပုိင္းမွာ သူတကယ္ယုံၾကည္ တဲ့ သူ႔ညီမကုိ အမ်ားႀကီးကူညီနိုင္လိမ့္မယ္လို႔ ထင္ပါတယ္။
 
ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းဟာ ျမန္မာျပည္ကုိ တကယ္ခ်စ္တဲ့သူ တေယာက္ပါ။ သူ႔ဖခင္ အာဇာနည္ ဦးဘဝင္းနဲ႔ သူ႔ ဦးေလး ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္ေအာင္ဆန္းတို႔လို ျမန္မာျပည္အတြက္ ဘဝတခုလုံးကုိ ျမႇဳပ္ႏွံထားမယ္လူမ်ဳိးျဖစ္တယ္ ဆို တာ လုံးဝသံသယျဖစ္စရာမလိုတဲ့သူပါ။

ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္အစုိးရဖြဲ႔နိုင္ေတာ့ သူျမန္မာျပည္ကုိျပန္လာဖို႔ ေဆာင္ရြက္ခဲ႔ပါေသးတယ္။ ဒါေပမဲ့ သူထင္သလိုျဖစ္မလာခဲ့ပါဘူး။ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္း ျမန္မာျပည္ကုိျပန္လာခ်င္လို႔ဆိုတဲ့စကားေလးကို မိုးမခမဂၢဇင္းမွာဖတ္မိၿပီး ေတာ္ေတာ္စိတ္မေကာင္း ျဖစ္လိုက္ရပါေသးတယ္။

သူေျပာသြားတာက ...
”ေနေကာင္းပါတယ္ခင္ဗ်၊ ေကာင္းတယ္ဆိုေသာ္လည္း ေဆးေတြေတာ့စားေနရတာေပါ့။ ကြ်န္ေတာ္က ႏွလုံးေရာဂါေတာ့ ရွိတယ္ေလ၊ သည္ေတာ့ေဆးေတြစားေနရတာေပါ့” ။

ျမန္မာျပည္ျပန္ဖို႔ဆိုတာကုိေျဖတဲ့ေနရာမွာေတာ့ ...
 ”ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔ကေလ်ွာက္ေတာ့ အဲသည္တုန္းက ျပႆနာခံဝန္ခ်က္ေတြထိုးရတာ၊ နိုင္ငံေရးမလုပ္ပါဘူး တို႔ ဘာတို႔၊ ခံဝန္ခ်က္ထိုးရတယ္။ အဲဒါကုိ ကြ်န္ေတာ္ မႀကိဳက္ဘူး”။
 
အင္မတန္ဝမ္းနည္းစရာေကာင္းတာက ”ဗမာျပည္မွာ အေျခအေနက ေျပာင္းေနျပီ။ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစု ၾကည္တို႔ ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲအနိုင္ရတယ္။ ဒီမိုကေရစီ သြားေနျပီ။ ဒါဆိုရင္ လြယ္လြယ္ကူကူျဖစ္ရမွာေပါ့ဗ်ာ။ တိုင္းျပည္ထဲဝင္တယ္ဆိုရင္ တိုင္းျပည္ရဲ႕ ဥပေဒေတြနဲ႔မေက်နပ္ရင္ ျပန္ေမာင္းထုတ္လို႔ရတယ္”။ 
 
”ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔ကုိနိုင္ငံသားေဟာင္းဆိုၿပီးလုပ္တာက်ေတာ့ ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔က နိုင္ငံသားအေဟာင္းလဲ မဟုတ္ ဘူးဗ်။ နိုင္ငံသားအသစ္လည္း မဟုတ္ဘူးဗ်။ ျမန္မာျပည္နိုင္ငံသားပဲ။ အဲဒါကုိေတာ့ ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔ မေလ်ွာ့ ဘူး။ ဘယ္ေတာ့မွမေလ်ွာ့ဘူး။ အဲဒါပါပဲ” တဲ့။
ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္၏အေမရိကန္ခရီးစဥ္တခုတြင္ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းႏွင့္အတူဆုံခဲ့ၾက
 
ေျပာမယ္ဆိုရင္ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းက ျမန္မာျပည္ကုိ တကယ္ခ်စ္ျပီး ျမန္မာျပည္အတြက္ က်ရာေနရာ ကေန အလုပ္အေကြ်းျပဳခ်င္သူပါ။ အခုေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းတို႔ဖ်က္ထားျပီးျဖစ္တဲ့ ျပည္ေထာင္စုျမန္မာနိုင္ငံ အမ်ဳိးသားညြန္႔ေပါင္းအစုိးရ (National Coalition Govenment of Union of Burma-NCGUB) ကုိ မတရားအသင္းကေနဖ်က္သိမ္းျပီး အၾကမ္းဖက္သမားေတြ မသတ္မွတ္ေတာ့ဘူးဆိုတဲ့ ေၾကညာစာထြက္ လာပါျပီ။ ဒီအမိန္႔ေၾကညာခ်က္နဲ႔ ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းဟာ ျမန္မာျပည္ထဲကုိျပန္ရင္ ျပန္လာနိုင္ပါလိမ့္မယ္။

ေဒါက္တာစိန္ဝင္းျပန္ေရာက္လာရင္ေတာ့ ျမန္မာနိုင္ငံအတြက္ေရာ သူ႔ညီမ ေဒၚေအာင္ဆန္းစုၾကည္ အတြက္ ပါ အားထားရာ အင္အားျဖစ္လာမယ္လို႔ ယုံၾကည္မိပါတယ္။
ကြ်န္ေတာ္တို႔ရဲ႕ေပ်ာ္ရႊင္စရာႏွစ္ကာလမ်ားကေတာ့ ၁၉၉၀ ခုႏွစ္မွာက်န္ခဲ႔ပါျပီ။ ျမန္မာ့စစ္အာဏာရွင္ေတြရဲ႕ ကမၻာေက်ာ္လိမ္လည္မႈနဲ႔အတူ နာမယ္ႀကီးခဲ့တဲ့ ျမန္မာျပည္ရဲ႕ ၉၀ေ ေရြးေကာက္ပြဲကုိ ျပန္ေတြးမိရင္ ျပန္ မွတ္မိေနဦးမွာပါ။ 

မၾကာခင္ေရာက္လာေတာ့မယ့္ "ႀကိဳးၾကာငွက္တို႔ရဲ႕အျပန္လမ္းမထက္” ဆီကုိ တင္ႀကိဳေမ်ွာ္လင့္ျပီး ႀကိဳဆို ခ်င္ေနမိပါေတာ့တယ္။

ျမတ္လိႈင္း
 

          Burmarrad Group goes green      Cache   Translate Page      

Burmarrad Group, a leading supplier of new and used commercial and private vehicles and lifting equipment, has invested more than €200,000 to introduce a nine-strong fleet of new fully electric Peugeot Partner. The Partner L1 Fleet is capable of fully recharging from zero per cent to 80 per cent in just 30 minutes at an electric vehicle docking station. The same vehicle can also be fully charged at home or office with a domestic plug in just eight hours. With one full charge, the zero-emissions Peugeot Partner has a range of up to 170 kilometres. Sharon Camilleri, director at Burmarrad Group said: “as one of the largest suppliers of commercial and private vehicles, we continuously strive to diversify and adapt to the current needs of the market. Thus we were fully in favour to get behind this green initiative and successfully implement it.” When asked if consumers are still wary of purchasing electric vehicles, Gauci emphasised that this is simply the way forward.  “It’s the future, less maintenance, less overall costs. All of these factors will help businesses cut costs and thrive financially.” In his speech at the official launch last week, Prime Minister Joseph Muscat...
          The All India Radio broadcaster from Burma who watched history unfold in front of her      Cache   Translate Page      
Ma Than E donned many hats in her lifetime – singer, wartime volunteer, UN bureaucrat, even artist’s model.
          OneKyat - Myanmar Buy & Sell v3.0.39      Cache   Translate Page      
Sell, Buy, Trade New or Beloved itemsOneKyat is C2C marketplace for Myanmar (Burma) and designed to make it simple and easy to use.
Buyers and sellers can communicate via in-app chat function. Or they can add their phone number while listing their items to make the deal faster.

- If you are online store owner and you want to advertise your products for free
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This is the right place for you.

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OneKyat ဆိုတာ ျမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ အတြက္ ရည္ရြယ္ျပီး ထုတ္လုပ္ထားတဲ့ ေရာင္းသူႏွင့္ ဝယ္သူ တိုက္ရိုက္ ဆက္သြယ္ႏိုင္တဲ့ အေရာင္းအဝယ္ ေစ်းကြက္ ျပည္တြင္းျဖစ္ app ေလး တစ္ခုပဲျဖစ္ပါတယ္..
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ဒီေနရာေလးဟာ သင့္အတြက္ မွန္ကန္တဲ့ ေနရာေလးလို႕ပဲေျပာခ်င္ပါတယ္..

- အကယ္၍ သင့္မွာ အၾကံျပဳခ်င္တာမ်ား ရွိရင္လည္း အၾကံျပဳႏိုင္ပါတယ္... အၾကံျပဳခ်က္မ်ားကို onekyat မွ အျမဲပဲ ၾကိဳဆိုေနပါတယ္... ဥပမာ.. feature အသစ္ ထည့္ခ်င္တာပဲျဖစ္ျဖစ္.. category အသစ္ထည့္ခ်င္တာပဲျဖစ္ျဖစ္ အၾကံေပးႏိုင္ပါတယ္...

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          1/3/18 KEGHAIRAHAN EKONOMI CHINA, kita menjadi biar papa asal bergaya! (DRAFT)      Cache   Translate Page      
Mao Zedung meninggal dunia pada 9 Sept., 1976. Beliau adalah suatu susuk penting yang Allah kurniakan dalam menjadikan China sepertinya China kini. Pada 1981, mengikut Bank Dunia, kadar kemiskinan di China adalah pada kadar 88 peratus.  Jika sebegitu keadaan kemiskinan di China pada 1981, maka pada 1960an dan 1970an, pasti kemiskinan di sana jauh lebih parah. Namun kadar itu menurun ke 6.5 peratus pada 2012,  turun lagi ke 4.1 peratus pada 2014, dan dijangka turun ke 2.0 peratus pada 2018. Pada 2020 China menjangkakan akan dapat menghapuskan sepenuhnya kemiskinan di negara tersebut. Di lihat dari sudut kemakmuran rakyat China, bagi tempoh 1990-2000 GDP Per Kapita China naik dari U$200 ke U$1,000. Kemudian dari 2000-2010 GDP Per Kapitanya meningkat dari U$1,000 ke U$5,000. Pada 2016, GDP Per Kapita China adalah pada U$6,894 berbanding US pada U$52,194. GDP China pada 2016 bernilai U$11.2 trillion berbanding US pada U$18.57 trillion. Sebegitulah sekilas pandang kedudukan ekonomi China dari 1976-2018 iaitu bagi tempoh 42 tahun yang lepas. Perubahan besar ekonomi China dimulakan oleh Deng Xiaoping pada 1978 bila dia menukar urustadbir ekonomi China ke Komunis-Kapitalis dari tok tok Komunis sebelumnya.
(2) Jika kita melihat bagi tempoh pemerintahan Mao Zedung, 1949-1976, tumpuan beliau adalah untuk menjadikan China-China iaitu kesatuan China yang tidak boleh digugat oleh bangsa apapun, khususnya Tar Tar, Jepun dan malah Amerika. Allah mengadakan keberadaan Mao adalah untuk membentuk China yang satu atau 1China. Sebelumyna, Allah telah memberikan China temadun Yang Tze untuk dikembangkan, namun China kemudian berubah menjadi Feudal yang sering bergolak, sehingga muncul Koamintang di bawah Chiang Kai Shek yang mengibarkan bendera Nasionalis-Kapitalis. Namun itu juga gagal lalu 1China yang dibentuk oleh Mao adalah China berteraskan tradisi peasant chinese. Inilah China yang dibentuk dari kekuatan China sediada. Saya melihat, mahabijaksana Allah, Dia perlu mengaruh sehingga terbentuk 1China, kerana tanpa China bersatu teguh, perpecahan China pasti mengundang malapetaka bagi seluruh Asia Timur malah Nusantara. Ada perkara yang Allah cuba lindungi di atas wujudnya 1China. Maka Tumpuan asas Mao adalah untuk membentuk China yang aman dan rakyat boleh hidup. Mungkin kemakmuran temadun Yang Tze pada 3,000-2,000BC dahulu menjadi sumber ilham beliau. Dari mulanya keruntuhan temaddun Yang Tze sehinggalah di awal abad ke 20, China telah terlalu lama bergolak. Bagi beliau, China adalah suatu keluarga besar. Segala-galanya milik China, harus diusahakan dan diperkongsi oleh sebuah keluarga besar China. Beliau tidak membenarkan kejayaan individu. Individu yang berjaya adalah musuh keluarga dan harus dinyah. Kepada Mao Zedung, kemandirian China haruslah berteraskan kesamarataan dalam keluarga besar. Rakyat harus menikmati taraf hidup yang hampir-hampir mendatar. Tiada siapa yang harus lebih mewah dari yang lain. Hanya ketua keluarga iaitu dirinya perlu punya kelebihan yang luas untuk membolehkannya dapat mengekalkan sebuah keluarga besar. Itulah logik pemikiran tok tok Komunisma Mao. Secara keseluruhan beliau berjaya menyatukan tanah besar China melainkan Macau, Hong Kong dan Taiwan. Mao berjaya mengekalkan sebuah keluarga China yang 'bersatu padu, aman dan makmur'.

(3) Allah mengadakan Mao sesuai pada masanya. Juga jika diteliti mendalam, banyak hikmah yang cuba Allah sampaikan melaluinya. Pertama-tama dan paling utama adalah rakyat harus bersatu membina keluarga besar. Mao mendapat ilham mengenainya. Dia bersungguh-sungguh bekerja ke arah itu. Dia menjadikan long march sebagai permulaan ke arah itu. Dalam keadaan getir yang dikeliling musuh-musuh yang handal-handal, hanya kuasa rakyat yang dapat menantang segalanya. Sekali lagi Mao mendapat ilham tentang itu dan bekerja keras ke arah itu. Dia menjadikan musuh Negara sebagai musuh rakyat. Rakyat pada masa itu cukup derita kerana dirayah penjajah malah golongan sarakah di antara mereka. Menghapus kesengsaraan rakyat beliau angkat menjadi sebuah perjuangan. Beliau berjaya menjadikan kesengsaraan rakyat sebagai perjuangan rakyat untuk menantang segala musuh mereka. Moa dengan bijak menjadikan kemiskinan sebagai benteng dan kereta kebal menantang musuh. Beliau berjaya pada jalan itu. Namun, seperti kita tahu, di waktu-waktu akhirnya, Mao menjadi seperti lupa diri. Di situlah kebesaran Allah, pada Mao Dia hanya berikan sedikit ilham bagi menyedarkan kita sebagai pemerhati betapa jika apapun yang kita lakukan tidak bertepatan dengan kehendak Allah, kita pasti gagal juga akhirnya. Moa mengajak rakyat payah, namun pada akhirnya dia menikmati segala kemewahan sedang rakyat kekal terus susah. Mao berjaya menyelamatkan Negara, tetapi Mao gagal dalam membela rakyat.

(4) Pada Mao, Allah menunjukkan teladan antara kejayaan sebuah perjuangan tanpa Iman berbanding sebuah perjuangan atas landasan Iman sekitar 1,300 terdahulu yang dipelopori oleh SAW dan para sahabat besar beliau. SAW berjaya membina dan membela Ummah, malah kemaraan Islam terus kekal sehingga kini biar dirinya tetap zuhud seisi keluarga sehingga akhir hayat. Perjuangan yang berteraskan keImanan dan Taqwa tidak menuntut nikmat kemewahan, yang utama adalah janji Syurga yang telah Allah tetapkan.

(5) Pemimpin China selepas Mao, khasnya Deng Xiaoping, sedar China tidak boleh bertahan sebagai China Mao, lantaran dunia sedang berubah dan bilangan rakyat China sendiri juga sudah kian meningkat mendadak. Mereka melihat, dalam menantang musuh luaran, kuasa ekonomi luar bandar bukan bentengnya. Jika China terus kekal dengan peasant-based economy, bukan sahaja mereka akan gagal menantang kuasa-kuasa luaran, malah rakyat sendiri akan bangkit memberontak akhirnya. Demografi China dan dunia sudah berubah. Pada tahun 1953 penduduk China berjumlah 583 juta orang. Pada 1964, jumlah itu, meningkat ke 694.5 juta. Pada 1982, jumlah rakyat China terus meningkat ke 1,008 juta. Biar dengan adanya dasar satu orang anak bagi satu keluarga yang diperkenalkan pada 1982, kini penduduk China sudah meningkat ke 1.43 billion pada 2017. Dari segi taburan penduduk, pada 1980, sekitar 19.6 peratus dari penduduk China tinggal di bandar. Keadaan ini berubah di mana kini pada 2018 sekitar 51.27 peratus rakyatnya mendiami kawasan bandar. Sejumlah 680 juta rakyat China tinggal di bandar berbanding Amerika di mana 83.7 peratus dari sejumlah penduduknya yang berjumlah 326 juta tinggal di bandar. Hakikatnya, penduduk bandar China hampir 300 peratus lebih besar dari di US. Kerana itu, Model Ekonomi Komunis Mao sudah tidak terpakai di China bermula dari saat kematiannya. Deng Xiaoping mula mengenengahkan Model Ekonomi Komunis-Kapitalis.

(6) Dengan Model Komunis-Kapitalis ie bukan tok tok Komunis dan bukan juga tulin Kapitalis, maka Model Ekonomi China saya lihat sebagai Model Ekonomi Quasi Komunis-Kapitalis. Dalam sistem ini, Negara masih menguasai apa saja atas kepentingan Negara. Pengusaha bebas melakukan apa saja asalkan tidak bercanggah dengan kepentingan dan ketentuan Negara. Berbanding dengan Komunis tulin, kini pihak swasta sudah mengambilalih kebanyakan dari tugas-tugas memakmurkan Negara. Namun kebebasan pengusaha adalah cukup terkawal dan terarah. Pengusaha harus membina apa yang Negara perlukan dan pada syarat-syarat yang Negara tetapkan. Negara tidak berkompromi dengan apa-apa yang terpesong dari kepentingan Negara. Peranan rakyat pula, mereka mesti patuh kepada kehendak Negara dan Pengusaha. Sedang peranan Negara, agak mudah dan jelas iaitu mengawal segala-gala. Rakyat dan Pengusaha adalah milik Negara. Negara pula dilihat sebagai sekelompok penguasa Central Comunist Committee CCC. Simbiosis antara Negara, Pengusaha dan Rakyat adalah agak sedikit berbeza dari Komunis Mao dan Kapitalis Amerika. Sistem Quasi Komunis-Kapitalis China juga agak sedikit berbeza dari Sosialis Russia. Dalam sistem sosialis Russia, pengusaha dan Negara adalah kelompok yang sama. Pengusaha Russia lebih menjurus kepada GLC. Di China, pengusaha adalah private enterprises cuma mereka mendapat dokongan awal dari pemerintah. Biasanya mereka punya hubungan sangat akrab dengan penguasa di peringkat wilayah, negeri atau majlis perbandaran dan nasional. Sebetulnya kedua-dua Russia dan China kini sedang melakukan evolusi sistem ekonomi baru iaitu lari dari Kapitalis, Sosialis malah Kapitalis. Russia mungkin sedang mengevolusi Sosialis-Kapitalis dan China sedang mengevolusi Komunis-Kapitalis. Kedua-duannya sedang menempah kejayaan dengan cara tersendiri. Namun apapun China nampaknya jauh lebih berjaya dari Russia atas sebab beda strategi. Russia lebih menjurus kepada pantang dicabar sedang China menyusup seperti api dalam sekam. China jarang terlibat di dalam apa-apa pertelingkahan hebat dunia, lantaran itu maka segala sumbernya digunakan untuk kebaikannya, sedang Russia sering terheret ke dalam kancah mendalam sehingga segala sumbernya menjadi terhakis.

(7) Dalam ertikata lain, Russia gemar menari mengikut gendang musuh, sedang China lebih gemar melihat fire across the sea. Sifat-sifat jati diri kendiri seperti yang SAW amalkan terilham sebagai teras strategi China dalam mendepani musuh-musuh luaran mereka. Bilangan penduduk China yang sangat besar, menjadikan musuh-musuh luaran agak tidak terlalu keras terhadap China, umpamanya US bila berdepan China di Pig Bay mereka terpaksa berundur bila Mao mengugut untuk menghantar 200 juta rakyatnya ke US. Dari segi musuh dalaman, China tiada tolak ansur. Biar geng of five Mao Zedung pun mereka hapuskan.

(8) Namun apapun, permodenan dalam padangan China pasca Mao tetap bersandarkan kesamarataan. Dengan penduduk yang begitu besar serta dari suku kabilah yang pelbagai, China tidak akan lari dari konsep kesamarataan. Saya melihat itu sebagai teras China, lantaran itulah asas kepada kekuatan China. China tidak boleh lari dari keperluan kesamarataan dalam sebuah keluarga yang besar. Mereka tidak boleh mengamalkan kesaksamaan. Kesamarataan dan kesaksamaan adalah dua konsep yang berbeza. Kesaksamaan mengambilkira persoalan keupayaan. Siapa yang berupaya, maka dia ke depan.  Konsep kesamarataan China melibatkan unsur-unsur paksaan. Pengusaha, rakyat malah pemimpin selainpemimpin nombor satu Negara, semua harus dipaksa berkerja ke arah kepentingan Negara. Tidak ada yang boleh terlepas dari tuntutan norma tersebut. China melihat cabaran dan acaman kepada keutuhan Negara bertitik tolak dari kesamarataan. Kepincangan bahkan berlebihan di mana-mana pasti mengugat keutuhan Negara. Dengan cara Model Ekonomi Quasi Komunis-Kapitalis, China telah dapat merombak struktur ekonominya ke arah ekonomi moden bandaran sehingga dapat membebaskan tekanan kemiskinan di luar bandar. Biar sektor pertanian terus berjalan, namun tumpuan harus kepada perindustrian. Bermula dengan industri pembinaan, kini China sudah siap sedia untuk bergerak pantas dalam industri pembuatan. Ekonomi China bukan lagi bersifat domestic consumption tetapi harus berebut hebat menjadi exporting economy. Semua ini harus dibuat dengan cepat. Maka lantaran struktur sosial dan geografi China yang sangat mencabar, maka kuasa mutlak penguasa mereka pergunakan sepenuhnya sebagai kekuatan paling mampan untuk menghapus segala rintangan. Moa dari satu sudut, beliau telah berjaya mengujudkan sebuah keluarga yang mana para ahlinya sangat patuh manut kepada ketua. Dengan sebab itu pengunaan kuasa penguasa menjadi sangat berkesan di China. Tiada siapa yang berani membantah melainkan inginkan nyawanya dicabut.

(9) Dengan permodenan sektor bandar, China sedang bergerak cergas untuk mencapai Negara maju sepenuhnya pada 2020 sama dengan sasaran W2020 Malaysia. Jika di zaman Mao, kesamarataan adalah sekadar untuk hidup aman damai di dunia agarian, kini kesamarataan mereka telah menjurus kepada rakyat hidup aman dan makmur di sektor moden. Dari 1978 sehingga kini, China tekad untuk menjadi Negara Maju menjelang 2020, bukan sekadar maju tetapi menjadi gergasi ekonomi dunia. Pada tahun 2020, GDP China disasar mencapai U$24.6 trillion mengatasi US. Mao melihat kemakmuran sebagai menghancurkan Negara, namun kini kepimpinan China sedang menghambat kemakmuran sebagai teras kekuatan sebenar Negara dan bangsa. Secara bandingan, Mao terbawa-bawa semangat Yahudi Orthodox, ie tidak mengapa miskin, yang penting kesatuan bangsa China; sedang para pemimpin selepas beliau melihat kemakmuran menyatu kukuh Negara cuma ianya harus terkawal dan terarah menghampiri fahaman Yahudi Zionis-Kapitalis. Di zaman Mao, bilangan rakyat yang miskin adalah senjata yang mantap untuk mempertahankan China; China kini juga menjadikan bilangan rakyat yang sangat ramai juga sebagai senjata utama. Cuma jika dulu lebih kepada saikologi ketenteraan, kini ianya diubah menjadi kuasa ekonomi domestik yang semua pihak perlu hargai dan manafaatkan. Tiada negara sanggup untuk bermusuh secara terang-terangan dengan China demi kepentingana dagangan.

(10) Sesungguhnya, Model Ekonomi Quasi Komunis-Kapitalis China 1980-2010 tidak banyak pihak menelitinya dari sudut keperluan China. Apa lagi untuk menjadikan ianya sebagai perbandingan dengan Model Ekonomi Islam. Kebanyakan melihat kebangkitan China pada tempoh itu (dan kini) sebagai ancaman kepada dunia terutama para prejudis Barat. Tujuan kapitalis Barat adalah mudah. Ianya adalah sebuah sistem liberal tulin. Pengusaha punya kebebasan untuk berbuat apapun bagi mengoptima keuntungan mereka. Model Kapitalis Barat adalah Sistem Ekonomi Amerika. Bagi Barat, bahkan dunia, Amerika adalah the Lord of Today Economic System iaitu sistem ekonomi yang percaya kepada individual merit. Kenapa itu menjadi tunjang sosial dan ekonomi Amerika? Jawabannya cukup mudah ie mereka asalnya adalah pelarian dari segala bentuk penindasan feudal penjajah biar British, Peranchis, Spanyol malah Jerman. Bangsa Anglo dan Yahudi Amerika, mereka terdahulunya adalah bangsa-bangsa yang pernah tertekan hebat oleh negera-negara ibundna penjajah mereka, mereka sanggup berperang melawan ibunya penjajah mereka, maka bila Amerika merdeka, mereka mahu merdeka dalam segala sisi dan tidak mahu terikat dengan apa-apa yang yang terdahulu biar di bidang agama sekalipun (melainkan bagi Yahudi). Slogan We are American bermaksud bahawa Amerika tidak perlu terhutang budi kepada sesiapa. Amerika merdeka penuh.

(11) Amerika sebagai tunggak Barat, cukup bernafsu untuk mengembangkan sistem ekonomi liberal mereka ke seluruh dunia. Amerika sangat berminat agar dunia mengamalkan sistem ekonomi liberal, cuma di Amerika sendiri, mereka tidaklah liberal sangat. Mereka mahukan dunia mengamalkan sikap liberal biar di dalam negara, mereka cukup bijak menjadikan ianya only for America. Asasnya mudah. Mereka telah terkedepan dalam segala bidang, maka pastinya amalan sistem ekonomi liberal peringkat dunia akan sangat memperkayakan mereka. Negara-negara membangun pasti sukar berdepan dengan mereka atas kekurangan segala faktor pengeluaran.

(12) Today Free America adalah kerana rakyat mereka serik dan tidak sekali-kali mahu terikat dengan kuasa penjajah biar ibunda mereka sendiri; is all about America is an independent Country, free to set it own course. Sesiapapun yang menjadi rakyat Amerika, sifat dan sikap mereka adalah we are free American dalam context the American cultures. Namun, saya tidak akan membicarakan itu serta perbandingan ekonomi Quasi Komunis-Kapitalis China dengan Ekonomi Islam, biar kita lihat bagaimana China dari 1978-2010 khususnya telah berjaya menyediakan dirinya untuk menjadi gergasi nombor dua dunia pada 2017. China memulakan segalanya dengan segala macam kegilaan. Barat pernah mengkritik dan menghentam China bilamana China mula membina projek-projek raksaksa di sana. Pada 1994, Barat mengkritik hebat usaha China membina the Gorges Dam. Cuba lihat kesan pembinaan empangan tersebut: The project used 27.2×106 m3 (35.6×106 cu yd) of concrete (mainly for the dam wall), used 463,000 T of steel (enough to build 63 Eiffel Towers), and moved about 102.6×106 m3 (134.2×106 cu yd) of earth.[28] The concrete dam wall is 181 m (594 ft) high above the rock basis. Dengan kejayaan projek ini pada 2010, China sedar akan kesan economic trickling effects apapun Projek mega seterusnya. Maka langkah seterusnya China adalah dalam pembinaan lebuhraya-lebuhraya secara meluas. Tujuannya mudah, untuk mengangkut segala sumber kekayaan bumi Negara dari kawasan luar bandar ke kawasan-kawasan industri. Kawasan-kawasan industri pula pada permulaannya dibangun dengan teknologi apapun yang ada, biar kuno sekalipun, namun yang lebih penting dalam pemikiran pemimpin China adalah agar profession rakyat dapat diubah dari traditional peasant. Tenaga rakyat yang dulu diperah di tanah sawah, kini diubah diperah di kilang-kilang, biarpun dari segi sengsaranya tiada beda. Lalu kemudian, berlaku rampasan tanah-tanah perumahan rakyat yang kuno slums bagi membina kawasan perumahan yang menjulang langit serta percambahan hebat bandar-bandar baru yang kian tersusun menjadi megacities yang modern seperti apa yang ada pada hari ini. Deng Xiao Ping mengilhamkan kepada seluruh kepimpinan China sehingga kini, "buat apa yang mesti kita buat, jika perlu, peluru harus dijadikan kuasa penentu". China kini mengunakan sepenuhnya para pengusaha mereka untuk membina kemakmuran China bukan berteraskan Kapitalis tulin tetapi Komunis-Kapitalis. "Kamu buat apa yang Negara perlukan, jika tidak nyah kamu." Pada kacamata China, demokrasi dan apapun nilai-nilai lainnya tidak penting. Yang penting adalah China mesti makmur, rakyat China bersatu padu, Negara kuat.

(13) Di pasca Mao, pemimpin China telah dengan bijak mengadunkan kuasa mutlak yang ada pada mereka dengan sifat manut rakyat China yang dibina oleh Mao, dalam cara lain ie secara Quasi Komunis-Kapitalis. China dari 1976-2018 punya sikap yang sangat jelas, mereka tidak peduli hal-hal lain, melainkan mengunakan sepenuh kuasa dan kekuatan rakyat untuk membina Negara. Bahkan sehingga 2020, sikap mereka akan tetap sama.

(14) Sesungguhnya menjelang abad ke 21, China sekali lagi sedang mengubah Model Keluarga Besarnya dari hanya membina dari dalaman, mereka kini sedang membina Keluarga Besar China di persada antarabangsa. Dengan tempoh sekitar 40 tahun (1978-2018), jika China dapat menambah penduduk bandarnya dari 19 peratus ke 52 peratus iaitu dengan pertambahan 33 peratus, maka bagi tempoh sehingga 2020, tidak mustahil penduduk bandar China boleh mencecah 80-85 peratus. China mempunyai strategi cukup berani, tegas dan cepat untuk merobah struktur keseluruhan ekonomi rakyatnya. Lantaran rakyat China kian menuju kota-kota besar, maka keperluan China sudah kian berubah dan pasti sukar dipenuhi jika cara baru tidak segera dicari. Untuk tujuan itu, apapun strategi 1978-2000 kian sudah tidak terpakai, maka strategi 2000-2015 yang menekankan industri asas tempatan juga sudah lapuk, maka dengan adanya asas-asas kukuh yang telah terbangun sehingga 2015, maka China kini sedang hebat melihat keluar negara sebagai asas membina kekuatannya. Maka dengan sebab itu, China kini sedang bergerak cergas ke seluruh pelusuk dunia untuk menguasai sumber-sumber ekonomi di sana. Afrika, Asia, Australia dan Latin Amerika kian menjadi sasaran hebat China. Sikap China ini tidaklah susah untuk dimengertikan. Tidakkah Amerika dan Eropah pada kurun ke 16 sudah mulai menguasai dunia biar penduduk mereka hanya sekitar 300 juta pada masa itu, dan sangat mencengkam dunia pada saat revolusi industri mereka di awal abad ke 19? Maka apa yang berlaku dengan China adalah serupa. Cuma bedanya, jika di zaman perluasan Barat di abad ke 17, negara-negara sasaran belum punya sekutu bahkan masih bebas, namun kini di saat kebangkitan China, Barat sedang menguasai negara-negara ini. Kepentingan Barat sedang terjejas dengan kebangkitan China. Lantaran itu, dunia kini melihat kebangkitan China agak berbeza dengan semasa Barat menjajah mereka.

(15) Belajar dari Barat, China jelas akan keperluannya untuk membina kekuatan dagangan, kewangan, diplomatik, malah ketenteraan sebagai strategi menyeluruh bagi membina dan mempertahankan the Great China. Kebangkitan kuasa ekonomi China kini sedang digembar-gembur dengan kebangkitan kuasa ketenteraan China yang meniupkan api-api kekhuathiran tentang peralihan penjajahan dari barat ke China. Apakah dunia ke tiga akan mengalami pisang berbuah dua kali, jika itu terjadi apa tidak mungkin dunia ke tiga akan mengalami sudah jatuh ditimpa tangga. Kedudukan Malaysia bagaimana? Persoalan ini, tergantung dengan cara kita melihat dan bersiap diri untuk mengatasi atau mencapai nikmat darinya.



(16) Secara bandingan GDP Per Kapita Malaysia pada 1970 adalah U$900, meningkat ke U$3,400 pada tahun 2000. Pada 2016, GDP Per Kapita Malaysia adalah pada U$11,028. Darai segi GDP Per Kapita, kita sekitar 100 peratus terkedepan dari China. Kadar kemiskinan telah turun dari 54.5 peratus pada 1970 ke 5.5 peratus pada 2000. Pada 2012, kadar kemiskinan di Malaysia terus turun ke 1.7 peratus dari 3.8 peratus pada 2009 dan pada 2016 kadar kemiskinan menjunam ke 0.4 peratus. Secara perbandingan, sesungguhnya Malaysia berada jauh ke depan dari kebanyakan negara di Asia dan rantau ASEAN sejak 1970an lagi melainkan Burma (kini Myanmar) dan Filipina. Namun kedua-dua Burma dan Filipina kecundang berbanding Malaysia di 1980an berpunca dari masalah rasuah dan salahguna kuasa. Dari 1972 berakibatkan malapetaka Mei, 13 pada 1969, Malaysia di bawah Razak membawa ke Mahathir (2003) sangat menitik beratkan pertumbuhan ekonomi melalui agihan, growth with distribution.

(17) Razak, bukan kerana kefaham Komunisma, tetapi atas citarasa menjiwai kesusahan rakyat dan martabat Islam, maka bermula dari 1970-76, dalam keadaan Negara masih miskin dan agak kacau, beliau menekankan pembangunan luar bandar. Beliau menekankan pembangunan prasarana asas, komoditi makanan dan eksport. Perlahan-lahan beliau juga mengasak perubahan struktur pentadbiran untuk memacu Negara ke bidang-bidang perindustrian. Melihat akan musibah akibat private enterprises penjajah, maka Razak membina banyak institusi awam bagi tujuan pembangunan ekonomi Negara. Felda, Felcra, Risda, MARA, PKNS, FAMA, Bernas dsb adalah beberapa contoh tentang government heavy weight involvement dalam mengurus ekonomi Malaysia di bawah Razak. Razak mengubal DEB sebagai strategi untuk mencapai apa yang dinamakan sebagai pengagihan saksama kekayaan Negara. Konsep saksama Razak berbeda dengan saksama liberal Barat. Beliau lebih menekankan sokongan kepada pribumi yang terpinggir di samping tidak menyekat kalangan berkeupayaan untuk berbuat apa yang terbaik. Saya melihat tindakkan beliau mirip Model Ekonomi Komunis Mao iaitu pembangunan ekonomi berteraskan institusi milik Negara. Cuma dalam bahasa sedikit lembut, Razak membina ekonomi Negara lewat demokrasi terpimpin.

(18) Kemudian bila Mahathir mengambialih pentadbiran pada 1981-2003, dia meneruskan dasar-dasar Razak namun mengubah secara mendadak di sekitar pertengahan 1980an. Tekanan Mahahtir adalah permodenan prasarana, penstrukturan institusi awam ke arah pengswataan dan seterusnya menjadikan GLC sebagai tonggak pembinaan dan agihan kekayaan Negara. Agihan ekonomi Negara di zaman Mahathir lebih kepada memperbaiki kepincangan DEB, di mana DEB dari mengalih ekuiti asing kepada pribumi, namun ianya telah beralih dari British kepada bukan pribumi. Cara Mahathir adalah mirip Quasi Sosialis-Kapitalis Russia, bahkan dasar ekonomi Mahathir jauh lebih berjaya dari Vladimir Putin yang menjawat jawatan Perdana Menteri Persekutuan Russia sejak 1999-2000 dan 2008-2012 dan kini sebagai Presiden Russia sejak Mei, 2012. Maka dengan sebab itu dikatakan, Putin mempunyai rasa hormat yang cukup tinggi kepada Mahathir. Namun dasar Mahathir, tidak digemari oleh Barat kerana ianya menyekat Barat dari menyusup mengaut untung dari sistem ekonomi kita. Sistem ekonomi kita dicap sebagai sistem ekonomi separa tetutup. Samalah di zaman Razak, semua pengamal sistem ekonomi agak tertutup terutama di negara-negara baru merdeka juga menjadi musuh Barat. Saya melihat Mahathir dan Putin berpunya keperibadian yang agak serupa bila melibatkan Barat. Kedua-duanya antagonistic West.

(19) Namun sedikit berbeza dengan Model Quasi Sosialis-Kapitalis Russia, dasar Mahathir memberikan banyak kelonggaran kepada local private enterprises untuk bersama-sama GLC dalam memajukan Negara. Lantaran itu, kita dapati semenjak awal 1990an, Bursa Saham Kuala Lumpur menjadi sangat aktif dan ekonomi kita mulai terbuka luas. Mahathir mendidik kalangan pribumi melalui segala macam GLC yang beliau wujudkan dari penswastaan institusi-institusi awam agar boleh bersaing hebat dengan private non-bumi enterpises. Mahathir mengunakan pendekatan preparing equal platform untuk membolehkan kalangan generasi baru kaum pribumi untuk kemudiannya bersama kalangan private enterprises bukan pribumi untuk sama-sama membina kekuatan Negara. Pendekatan ini saya kira amat wajar bagi sebuah Negara majmuk seperti Malaysia ini. Pendekatan Russia dan China sukar kita terap penuh memandangan kedua-dua Negara tersebut mempunyai masyarakat yang agak monogenous. Apa lagi mereka berpunya the benefit of being authotitarian. Kita, pada takdir Allah sebagai masyarakat majmuk apa lagi terasnya adalah Islam, menciplak sepenuhnya samada Barat, China atau Russia pasti bukan cara terbaik buat kita.

(20) Saya berkeyakinan, jika langkah-langkah Mahathir diteruskan katalah untuk tempoh sekitar 15-25 tahun dari tarikh dia mengundur diri pada 2003, Malaysia akan menjadi sangat lain, dan dari segi ekonomi kita mungkin boleh mencapai taraf yang lebih saksama. Malaysia juga In Shaa Allah lebih makmur dan sejahtera. Sayang hanya dengan silap cara mengurus kasus Anwar Ibrahim, Malaysia kini terseret dalam krisis ideologi dan strategi yang cukup merugikan.

(21) Bila Mahathir mengundur, agenda-agenda mulia tersirat di sebalik segala usaha beliau telah dicompromised sehingga bila beliau membuat penentangan di atas apa yang sedang berlaku maka seluruh Negara terseret ke kancah politicking yang tidak berpenghujung. Atas pengalaman dan pemerhatian saya, penglibatan saksama kaum pribumi di Negara di dalam sektor-sektor apapun, tidak boleh dibiarkan kepada mereka secara individu. Masyarakat pribumi di Negara ini, secara sejadinya bukanlah economically extrovert, sifat keusahawanan bukan jati diri mereka. Sistem feudal terlalu kuat mengakar di kalangan masyarakat pribumi Malaysia sehingga biar mereka merdeka, tetap mereka tidak merdeka secara individunya. Sifat dan jatidiri pribumi di Malaysia adalah kemasyarakatan. Sifat mereka mirip serigala, the wolves. Mereka tidak boleh hidup dan atau berjaya dalam apapun tanpa mereka harus berbuat secara berkelompok. A wolf can't survive by its own. The wolves need a team to hunt. Lantaran suka berkelompok, maka majlis-majlis kenduri dan atau kemasyarakatan di kalangan mereka cukup berjaya. Mereka cukup berjaya dalam gerombolan politik malah keagamaan. Selain dari itu, mereka lebih gemar melepas tangan. Saya yakin dengan mengakui tabii tersebut maka Razak menggunakan institusi awam sebagai senjatanya untuk mengembeling kalangan pribumi untuk maju. Samalah bagi Mahathir, dia mengunakan GLC lalu kemudian perlahan-lahan melepaskan GLC ini untuk menjadi entiti private enterprises sebagai jalan mengupayakan kalangan pribumi untuk boleh maju jauh ke depan.

(21) Wawasan dan tujuan Razak dan Mahathir sama saja. Cuma mereka berbeda strategi atas faktor masa dan keadaan.

(22) Razak membina kekuatan talent bagi jalan pentadbiran Mahathir. Mahathir menyambut baik prihal itu dan menggunakannya untuk kemajuan selanjutnya. Mahathir tidak mengubah apa-apa dasar Razak, malah terus memperbaiki dan memperkukuhkannnya. Saya yakin, melalui MARA contohnya, Razak telah memberikan Mahathir sumber tenaga pribumi yang punya kemahiran serta semangat membela bangsa. Sebegitu juga pengalaman luas dan kegigihan para peguasa pribumi di institusi-institusi awam telah Mahathir gunakan untuk merobah institusi-institusi tersebut agar lebih bersifat berkeusahawanan enterpreneurizing. Pokoknya, Mahathir cukup menghargai sumbangan Razak serta sangat menghargai local talents. Beliau memulakan usaha to attract and retain talents dalam usahanya membina Negara. Selama tempoh 22 tahun (1981-2003) Mahathir sebetulnya telah memperluas dan memperdalam asas-asas local talents bagi pembinaan kekuatan pribumi di Negara ini seiringan dengan kaum-kaum bukan pribumi lainnya.

(23) Khilafnya, saat Abdullah (2003-2008) mulai mengenepikan local talents berbanding dengan penasihat asing, maka Mahathir di atas sifat taksub kenegaraannya menjadikan Abdullah sebagai musuh jalanan pembinaan bangsa, agama dan Negara. Abdullah bagi Mahathir telah mengkhianati segala dasar yang dia sendiri menjadi sebahagian pengubalannya bilamana dasar-dasar itu tidak beliau teruskan. Apa lagi dengan "kelemahan" Abdullah, Malaysia telah mulai "kehilangan beberapa hak kepada Singapura", maka itu telah menjadi senjata paling baik untuk Mahathir menyerang menurunkan Abdullah. Najib mengambilalih tampuk kepimpinan Negara mulai 2009. Kemelut Abdullah-Mahathir 2003-2009 telah mengheret Malaysia sedikit ke belakang dari landasan dan sasaran W2020 Negara. Saya yakin, Najib sedar, jika perkembangan cepat ekonomi Negara tidak tercapai, maka di tangannya W2020 akan gagal. Najib mungkin tidak ingin perkara ini terjadi. DEB telah gagal pada 1990. Maka W2020 tidak boleh digagalkan. Di mana maruah Melayu jika terus gagal mencapai cita-cita membina bangsa, agama dan Negara. Najib saya kira berada dalam dilema berat. Beliau cuma ada sekitar 10 tahun saja lagi untuk mencapai W2020, sedang gabungan krisis kewangan serantau 1997 dan kemelut Abdullah-Mahathir telah hampir-hampir menyeret kejayaan pegangan ekuiti pribumi ke taraf 1990 iaitu pada garis kegagalan DEB. Bermaksud, pada 2009, kedudukan sosio-ekonomi pribumi Negara ini telah mengundur sekitar 20 tahun ke belakang. Mana mungkin untuk dapat memperbaiki keadaan tersebut dalam tempoh 10 tahun ke depan jika cara yang sama harus Malaysia tempuhi. Maka di sinilah Najib mula mengatur experimental economic stragtegies ujikaji ekonominya yang tersendiri. Saya perhatikan, saat detik itu bermula, Najib telah banyak khilafnya.

(24) Najib sebetulnya ingin melangkah one-step-ahead dari kebiasaan. Kebetulan buku The Blue Ocean Strategies juga baru diterbitkan semasa beliau mengambilalih, maka buku tersebut menjadi ilham falsafah untuk beliau membawa seluruh Negara beralih dari cara Rahman, Razak, Husein, Mahathir dan malah Abdullah. Cara paling cepat dan mudah agar pendekatannya diterima rakyat adalah dengan langkah rebranding apa yang biasa. Istilah-istilah seperti NKA, NKRA, transformasi, dsb beliau perkenalkan bagi mengantikan apa saja yang terdahulu. Biar substances tetap sama, namun nama harus baru. Akibatnya, rakyat jadi sangat berharap, namun hasilnya tidak jelas. Itu langkah jangka pendek Najib. Secara jangka panjang dia mula melihat FDI secara lain. Bahkan penubuhan kawasan-kawasan perindustrian juga beliau mulai robah dari kebiasaan. Beliau memperkenalkan dasar-dasar yang jauh lebih liberal. Konsep pengswastaan beliau juga robah selaras dengan pure capitalist merit. Bagi mendokong dasar economic liberalization ini, maka banyak dasar-dasar yang lain juga turut dibuka luas. Kemasukan boroh asing juga menjadi semakin liberal. Dalam masa yang sama, kerajaan tidak lagi terlibat secara langsung dalam apa-apa usaha biarpun di bidang yang terdahulunya dikenali sebagai strategik. Institusi penting Negara, seperti Felda, MARA, TH, Prasarana, Khazanah, KWSP, dsb harus berkembang ke luar Negara. Malah 1MDB ditubuh untuk mengembeling kekuatan dana Negara untuk dapat meneroka ke alam lebih jauh serta lebih bebas. Semua institusi ini harus menerokai sektor global keluar dari kepompong local. Dasar percukaian Negara juga beliau ubah. Najib benar-benar runs 1,000 steps ahead biarpun di depan Mahathir. Cuma, nasib tidak bersama Najib, segala usahanya mengalami banyak masalah dan paling malang segala itu meletup-meletup terbakar pada waktu yang hampir-hampir berjujukan. Akibatnya, biar ekonomi Malaysia terus berkembang, namun itu tidak memberikan kesan terbaik ke atas keberhutangan rakyat (dan Negara). Di bawah Najib, Negara mungkin kian kaya (?), namun rakyat terbeban hutang.  Apa lagi, bila Mahathir sudah mula menjejaki kekhilafan Najib, dan menyerang beliau, maka segala-galanya kian menjadi retak menanti belah. Najib melihat Mahathir sebagai pengkhianat segala usahanya. Mahathir pula di satu pihak melihat Najib sebagai pengkhianat yang boleh mengheret Negara ke kancah sangat payah.

(25) Sesungguhnya, mengambil maklum dari sifat pribumi Negara ini yang tidak individually entreprizing, saya berpandangan, kekhilafan Najib yang paling utama bukan dari strategi ekonominya, tetapi lebih kepada siapa yang beliau percayai untuk melaksanakan strategi ekonominya. Najib mungkin telah banyak tersalah pilih driversnya. Najib saya kira terlalu bergantung kepada pakar-pakar (?) asing malah anak-anak muda Melayu lepasan pengajian tinggi luar Negara untuk melaksanakan kebanyakan dari strategi ekonominya. Bukan soal mereka orang asing atau lepasan pengajian luar Negara, soalnya adalah pengalaman dan kesetiaan terhadap tugas membina Negara, apa mungkin mereka terbaik? Paling malang, beliau juga lebih condong untuk mengguna "musuh-musuh Mahathir dan malah Abdullah" untuk mengalas tanggungjawab memacu institusi-institusi penting Negara. Najib saya kira sangat silap untuk tidak menggunakan yang terbaik antara segala sumber manusia yang ada di Negara ini. Mungkin kerana takut ditikam dari dalam dan atau takut gunting dalam lipatan menjadikan Najib menyisih banyak mereka yang berwibawa di zaman Mahathir dan Abdullah. Brain drain menjadikan institusi-institusi penting Negara agak hilang pertimbangan membina bangsa, agama dan Negara. Kita kacau di peringkat good governance. Anak-anak muda yang menguasai institusi penting Negara untuk melonjak keupayaan Melayu telah banyak mengambil peluang liberal Najib untuk kepentingan diri mereka sendiri. Creative corporate governance mengambilalih good corporate governance. Musang berbulu ayam sudah membiak menjadi sereban ayam sedang ayam-ayamnya sebetulnya kian lenyap. Negara dan institusi tampak kian maju, namun rakyat kian terbeban. Pokoknya, rakyat bukan menjadi sebahagian penting dari kemajuan Negara. Rakyat khususnya generasi baru kian tersepit dalam perebutan untuk hidup dalam serba kemodenan.

(26) Apakah ada jalan pemulihan? Ada pihak yang berpendapat, masalah generasi muda kini yang meliputi sekitar 40 peratus dari penduduk Negara adalah berpunca dari gaya hidup mereka. Kedai kopi, warung nasi lemak dan setaranya bukan lagi tempat mereka melepak Restoran, pub, kiosk-kiosk khusus dsb adalah pilihan mereka. Begitu juga dari segi tempat tinggal. Appartmen malah kondo menjadi kegilaan. Mereka sudah jijik untuk tinggal di rumah-rumah pangsa. Mereka lebih suka hidup mewah, mudah, selesa dan bergaya. Kepada sebilangan yang prihatin tentang masalah golongan generasi muda kini, mereka mahu generasi ini untuk mengudur dari segi gaya hidup mereka. Apa mungkin mereka mahu? Jika mereka mahu, pasti mereka kini tidak terjebak dengan beban hutang domestik yang tinggi. Keberadaan hutang domestik yang tinggi adalah petanda bahawa generasi muda Malaysia sekali-kali tidak akan sujud kepada masalah biar papa asal bergaya. Maka saranan untuk kembali ke pangkal jalan seperti sesetengah pihak pasti bukan jalannnya. Maka harus bagimana kita?

(27) Sesungguhnya Model Pembangunan Negara yang telah diasaskan oleh Razak adalah tepat pada masa dan keadaannya.  Biar masalah sosio-ekonomi Melayu menjadi asas perkiraan Razak, namun segala langkah pembangunan Negara telah spilled over kebanyakan di tangan pengusaha Cina. Pengusaha Cina telah menjadi tulang belakang dalam melaksanakan segala kontrak awam. Keamanan dan kemakmuran di zaman Razak adalah kerana biar adanya DEB, wealth distribution adalah sangat ketara di semua lapisan rakyat. Razak sebetulnya telah mengikuti langkah Deng Xio Peng dan malah Putin dalam meletakkan asas bagi perkembangan China dan Russia menjadi Negara Maju. Barat tidak gemar cara Deng dan Putin lantaran mereka tidak beroleh manafaat besar dari cara mereka. Sistem ekonomi Malaysia, biar ada unsur-unsur demokrasi di zaman Razak, namun ianya adalah demokrasi terkawal tetap juga Barat kritik hebat.

(28) Sebegitu juga bila Mahathir telah merombak Model Razak yang lebih condong kepada public driven ke private sector driven. Mahathir sangat mementingkan efficiency dan productivity dalam governance beliau. Mahathir khuatir, jika ekonomi Malaysia terus-terusan dikuasai oleh sektor awam, maka akan sampai waktunya, Malaysia akan menghadapi masalah pembiayaan. Sektor awam telah terbukti bukanlah entiti yang sangat cekap dalam menjana pendapatan. Mahathir menukar public entities Razak menjadi semi government lalu corporatized. Putin Russia, mengekalkan Model Pengurusan beliau kekal di tangan sektor awam, di mana GLC yang dibina terus dikuasai sektor awam, sedang Deng Xio Peng dan kemudiannya diikuti oleh Hu Jintao, dsb sehinggalah kini Xi Jinping menukar segala entiti awam kepada koprat sepenuhnya, namun harus bertindak pada landasan yang telah ditetapkan oleh CCC. Kesannya, kita boleh melihat bahawa ekonomi China membangun jauh lebih pantas dan berkesan dari Russia. Pendeknya, governance China di zaman Deng Xio Peng sehingga Xi Jinping menjurus kepada guided free market. Mahathir juga melihat langkah guided free market yang dilaksanakan oleh China sebagai sesuatu yang munasabah untuk diteladani oleh Malaysia. Kepincangan sosio-ekonomi antara kaum di Negara ini harus diusrus secara guided free market. Maka dengan sebab itu, kebanyakan GLC yang Mahathir jelmakan dari entiti awam Razak seperti TNB, MAB, PosMalaysia, STMB, PLUS, Khazanah, dsb adalah menjurus kepada penguasaan dan agihan kekayaan Negara secara lebih saksama khusnya melalui pegangan ekuiti oleh KWSP, KWAP, TH, PNB dll. Semua pihak iaitu Negara, agensi dan rakyat mendapat faedah dari langkah guided liberalization Mahathir.

(29) Cuma, apa yang saya nampak, kepincangan guided economic liberalization Mahathir terkurang kawalan ke atas penguasa politik dan institusi sebagaimana di amalkan oleh CCC. CCC sepertinya mempunyai tatacara yang cukup keras dalam mengawalselia agar semua GLC dan bahkan di kalangan pemimpin di semua peringkat agar terus patuh pada tuntutan nilai-nilai kesaksamaan dan kebersihan. Perasuah dan penyalahguna kuasa di China akan menghadapi tembakan maut, sedang di Malaysia mereka boleh dengan mudah melarikan diri. Pincang kita adalah pada sudut kawalan nilai kenegaraan pada pimpinan kita di semua peringkat. Keadaan ini menular hebat di zaman Abdullah dan kini di zaman Najib sudah menjadi perkara yang cukup memeningkan. Pening bukan kerana tiada ubatnya, tetapi pening kerana tidak mahu berobat.....bersambung In Sya Allah bersambung

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တနသၤာရီတိုင္း ယာယီဝန္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္ ဦးျမင့္ေမာင္
အဂတိပုဒ္မနဲ႔ ဖမ္းဆီးစစ္ေဆးခံေနရတဲ့ တနသၤာရီတိုင္းဝန္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္ ေဒါက္တာလဲ့လဲ့ေမာ္ ေနရာမွာ တိုင္းအစိုးရ သယံဇာတနဲ႔ ပတ္ဝန္းက်င္ထိန္းသိမ္းေရးဝန္ႀကီး ဦးျမင့္ေမာင္ကို ယာယီဝန္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္အျဖစ္ အတည္ျပဳခန႔္အပ္လိုက္တယ္လို႔ တနသၤာရီတိုင္း လုံၿခဳံေရးနဲ႔ နယ္စပ္ေရးရာဝန္ႀကီး ဗိုလ္မႉးႀကီး ေက်ာ္ေဇယ်က ဘီဘီစီကိုအတည္ျပဳ ေျပာပါတယ္။

ေဒါက္တာလဲ့လဲ့ေမာ္ကို တနသၤာရီတိုင္းဝန္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္အျဖစ္ ရာထူး တာဝန္က ရပ္စဲလိုက္တယ္လို႔ သမၼတ႐ုံးက ထုတ္ျပန္ခဲ့အၿပီး သူ႔ေနရာမွာ အစားထိုးခန႔္အပ္မယ့္သူကို သမၼတ႐ုံးက တိုင္းေဒသႀကီး အစိုးရကို ၫႊန္ၾကားလာတာ ျဖစ္ပါတယ္။

နယ္လုံဝန္ႀကီး ဗိုလ္မႉးႀကီး ေက်ာ္ေဇယ်ကေတာ့ ဒီခန႔္အပ္မႈနဲ႔ ေဒါက္တာလဲ့လဲ့ေမာ္ရဲ႕ အမႈအေပၚ တစုံတရာ မွတ္ခ်က္ျပဳေျပာဖို႔ မရွိဘူးလို႔ ေျပာပါတယ္။

ေဒါက္တာလဲ့လဲ့ေမာ္အပါအဝင္ Global Grand Services(GGS)ကုမၸဏီက အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္မႈဒါ႐ိုက္တာ ဦးသိန္းေထြး၊ ဒါ႐ိုက္တာ ဦးေအာင္ျမတ္နဲ႔ ဦးသူရအုံတို႔ကို အဂတိလိုက္စားမႈတိုက္ဖ်က္ေရးဥပေဒေတြနဲ႔ မတ္လ ၁၀ ရက္ေန႔က အမႈဖြင့္ထားခဲ့တာပါ။

အခု ယာယီအစားထိုးခန႔္အပ္လိုက္တဲ့ ဝန္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္သစ္ ဦးျမင့္ေမာင္ကေတာ့ တနသၤာရီတိုင္း NLD ပါတီအတြင္းေရးမႉးျဖစ္ၿပီး ၂၀၁၅ ေ႐ြးေကာက္ပြဲမွာ ေကာ့ေသာင္းၿမိဳ႕နယ္ တိုင္းေဒသႀကီးလႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားလွယ္အျဖစ္ ေ႐ြးခ်ယ္ခံခဲ့ရသူပါ။
တနသၤာရီတိုင္း ယာယီဝန္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္ ဦးျမင့္ေမာင္
သူဟာ လုပ္ေဖာ္ကိုင္ဖက္ေတြၾကား သေဘာေကာင္းၿပီး အလုပ္ႀကိဳးစားသူတစ္ဦးျဖစ္တယ္လို႔လည္း ဘုတ္ျပင္းၿမိဳ႕နယ္ တိုင္းေဒသႀကီးလႊတ္ေတာ္ကိုယ္စားလွယ္ ဦးတင္ထြန္းက ဘီဘီစီကို ေျပာပါတယ္။

ဒါ့အျပင္ ဦးျမင့္ေမာင္ဟာ တိုင္းအစိုးရ သယံဇာတဝန္ႀကီးအျဖစ္ ေဒသဖြံၿဖိဳးေရးလုပ္ငန္းေတြမွာ တက္တက္ႂကြႂကြ ပါဝင္ခဲ့သူတစ္ဦးျဖစ္တယ္လို႔ အရပ္ဖက္အသိုင္းအဝိုင္းက မွတ္ခ်က္ျပဳ ေျပာၾကပါတယ္။
အဂတိမႈနဲ႔ အဖမ္းခံထားရတဲ့ တနသၤာရီ ဝန္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္
ေဒါက္တာလဲ့လဲ့ေမာ္ကေတာ့ ဝန္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္အျဖစ္တာဝန္ထမ္းေဆာင္ခဲ့စဥ္မွာ သၾကၤန္ပြဲေတာ္ ဗဟိုမ႑ပ္ တည္ေဆာက္ေရး လုပ္ငန္း၊ ထားဝယ္ တကၠသိုလ္ဝင္း ခ်ဳံႏြယ္ ရွင္းလင္းေရး လုပ္ငန္း၊ ထားဝယ္ ေလယာဥ္ကြင္း အျပင္ဘက္ ခ်ဳံႏြယ္ရွင္းလင္းေရး လုပ္ငန္းေတြမွာ ဝန္ႀကီးခ်ဳပ္ တစ္ေယာက္ရဲ႕ ရာထူး တာဝန္ ကို အလြဲသုံးစားျပဳၿပီး ေငြေၾကး တံစိုးလက္ေဆာင္ ရယူခဲ့တာကို စစ္ေဆး ေတြ႕ရွိခဲ့တာေၾကာင့္ သူ႔ကို အဂတိလိုက္စားမႈတိုက္ဖ်က္ေရးဥပေဒနဲ႔ ထားဝယ္ၿမိဳ႕မရဲစခန္းမွာ တိုင္ၾကားခ်က္ဖြင့္ထားပါတယ္။

ဒီပုဒ္မဟာ အာမခံေပးမရတဲ့ ပုဒ္မျဖစ္ၿပီး တကယ္လို႔ ျပစ္မႈထင္ရွားမယ္ဆိုရင္ ေဒါက္တာလဲ့လဲ့ေမာ္ဟာ ေထာင္ဒဏ္ ၁၀ ႏွစ္ကေန ၁၅ ႏွစ္အထိ က်ခံရႏိုင္ပါတယ္။

မတ္လ ၁၁ ရက္ေန႔တုန္းကေတ့ာ ေဒါက္တာလဲ့လဲ့ေမာ္ကို ထားဝယ္ၿမိဳ႕တရား႐ုံးမွာ ခ်ဳပ္ရမန္ ၂ ပတ္ ယူခဲ့ၿပီး အဲ့ဒီေနာက္ ထားဝယ္အက်ဥ္းေထာင္မွာ ဖမ္းဆီးထိန္းသိမ္းထားပါတယ္။

BBC Burmese
https://www.bbc.com/burmese
          Turning the Page, Part 2      Cache   Translate Page      
Okay, it's taken me exactly one month to turn the second page. And no, my new site is not finished. (My fault solely -- it's taken me some time to get my vision together but we are on our way!) I was also waiting on some announcements which I can now make. So let's start there.

In my previous Turning the Page post, I alluded to an exciting opportunity. Well, now I can tell you that if you aren't sick of me yet, you can find me over at Doctorsmiths.com. I am writing as a Premium Parent for them and my first post goes up today. I am amongst some amazing bloggy ladies so I hope that you will check us out.



I am also now an affiliate for eShakti. You may have noticed my pretty banner on the left. I was lucky enough to review a dress of theirs a few months ago and I loved it so much that I agreed to be affiliated with them. They make beautiful dresses that can be customized and I have personally worn my dress several times and I am complimented EVERY time. So check them out, as well.

And for the record, in the case of both eShakti and Dr. Smith's, I am only working with them because I use and believe in their products. I am truly excited by both opportunities!

Now there are many a thank you outstanding. First off, (and she has no idea that I am doing this) -- I owe an ENORMOUS thank you to Unknown Mami. She is not unknown to me so I can attest to her brilliance and beauty in person. Think that she is lovely and funny on-line, triple that plus one and you've got her. She has been a constant source of support and friendship to me as a blogger and I would not know many of you had she not introduced me. I love her on-line and in real life. No way I could turn this page without her.

Next to the way overdue awards. I am terrible with awards. Not because I don't care but because I do. I am so honored that you shared a little love that I toss and turn on forwarding them properly. So I start a post that day and then I stop as I ponder what fabulous blog to award. I love so many of you guys so I keep this detailed list of who I have already awarded and when I did and then I look through those I haven't and I agonize. So I put it off. And then time starts to pass. and the guilt starts. And then more time passes and then I am embarrassed and UGH!!! So to those of you who have been gracious enough to pass them on, please forgive my lack of graciousness. As this moment inside my head has demonstrated, I mean well. But I am biting the bullet and acknowledging all of you. This may take a while.

Doreen over at They Say Everyone Has a Story, This is Mine gave me the Versatile Blogger award. Now I must share 7 things about myself that you may not know. I'm not sure if I have left anything to mystery, but we'll see.


1) My eyes change colors -- the center of my eye is dark blue and they are surrounded by an amber color which causes them to look green at times, light brown at times, and dark blue at times (especially when I cry)
2) I love old TV shows -- Mary Tyler Moore, Dick Van Dyke, Maude, etc.
3) I have three fake teeth -- when I was 16, I had a terrible car accident in which I smacked my face into a steering wheel. I smashed all the bone under my nose and knocked out the top front three teeth. Since then I have worn a bridge.
4) My daughter is named after a David Sylvian song.
5) I watch way too much TV though I am seriously considering cancelling cable to break free of the bondage of my addiction
6) I love carbs -- not the complex kind, but the very, very simple kind -- like brand, new soft white bread. I can't stand healthy bread. I don't want to work that hard. Sorry, healthy friends!
7) I have read "The Secret Garden" at least twenty times, including several times as an adult

Now I must bestow this honor onto 15 newly discovered blogs and they must share 7 things about them selves and pass it on. These are a mix of very different blogs -- some Mommies, some artists, and some giveaways. All are great.


1) Tracie from From Tracie
2) Mum in Flip Flops from MuminFlipFlops
3) Lemony Renee from Of Lemons and Honey
4) Templeton's Fury from Circling the Cuckoo's Nest
5) Leiah from A Southern Belle Trying Not to Rust
6) Ericka from Alabaster Cow
7) mathet zin from Myanmar (Burma) -- a beautiful love letter to a country
8) Michele Chastain from Fake It Til You Make It
9) Jane from Adoption of Jane
10) E.L.M.Dyck from Let Me Think -- she also gave me an award as you will see below
11) Dana Chabino from Daily Paintings -- Abstract - Impressionist Painter -- gorgeous artwork shared (almost) daily
12) Connie from The Young and the Relentless
13) Bridget from Readaholic
14) Kelly from Kelly's Lucky You
15) Jeanette Huston from Mommy Blessings in Small Bundles -- Giveaways and Reviews

A fabulous man around town and a globe trotter, as well, Subu.PS over at Passion for Road Trips and E.L.M.Dyck from Let Me Thinkgave me the Beautiful Blogger Award.

Share 7 things you find to be beautiful around you.

1) My husband -- enough said
2) My son's crooked smile
3) My daughter's chocolate eyes
4) The sun coming up through my window
5) My growing grapevine
6) Steam coming off of a cup of coffee brought to me by my husband
7) The sound of my children's laughter

Nominate 7 bloggers or more.


1) Doreen from They Say Everyone Has a Story, This is Mine -- I would have listed her above but she was kind enough to pass that award to me, so here is my opportunity to spotlight her
2) Living Our Dash
3) Alicia from A Beautiful Mess
4) Anastasia from Sweet Butter Bliss
5) Aging Mommy from Aging Mommy -- she is a gift giver, as well; see below
6) Holly from 504 Main
7) Francesca and Kacey from Mayhem and Moxie

And in my embarassment of riches, The Improbable Housewife and Aging Mommy gave me the Honest Scrap Award.


As I was supposed to tell ten things about me, I will simply add three to the seven above. Because really, I'm not sure you can stand to know much more!

8) I think that if the choice was between Heaven and Mint Chocolate Ice Cream, it would be a very hard decision
9) Though I don't share them here, I have very strong political views which are very often in opposition to most people I am related. I am something of a black sheep.
10) I am a serial hobbyist -- by this I mean, I pick up hobbies, get completely obsessed with them and then allow them to gather dust amongst other lost pastimes. This happened a little with blogging. I was visiting 50-60 blogs a day until my family cried "Uncle". I then ran out of steam and blogging lost a little luster. I think I have found a happy balance now, however. I still love visiting and blogging but I have to remember sunshine, sleep, and oh yeah -- my kids!!! :-)

And I will round out the group to ten more beloved blogs:
8) Confessions of a Fitness Instructor
9) Serena and Brandon's Playhouse
10) Shelley's swag


Finally, my good friend, Andrea over at Good Girl Gone Redneck gave me this award.


Where do you see yourself in ten years?

Well, after this time away, I definitely see myself living at the ocean. I just feel more alive there. And seeing my children and how comfortable they are in the water has inspired me. In fact, I have really spent the last week visualizing how I can get myself and my family living seaside all the time. (I'll be writing more on that soon.) So I see myself there. I also see myself writing professionally and hopefully performing on-stage at least once a year. Also, frighteningly, in ten years I will be the parent to two teenagers -- one of them driving. ARGH! So I see myself even more sleep deprived. But all in all, I see myself living my vision board! Here's hoping!

There are probably a million other thank yous owed. I have made the greatest friends through this blog. Mostly, I want to say thanks for sticking around this year and especially this summer. It has been a crazy one. I'm looking forward to school starting and life resuming some routine. Then I should be able to get back to my passion -- reading and writing. Blogs, that is.



          Matt’s 10 Best Albums of 2006…That He Bought in 2006, Anyway      Cache   Translate Page      

Because the best time to make a list of your favorite albums of the year is less than three hours after you’ve had two teeth yanked from your lower jaw, with the dentist breaking one in the process and having to poke around in the hole to tweeze out all the root fragments—right?

10.  Mission of Burma, The Obliterati, 2006
It has its flaws, like the too-sludgy sound throughout and the fact that they let their drummer, Peter Prescott, write a few of the songs when they shouldn’t.  But I’ve been missing guitar breaks for a while, . . .

Continue Reading »

          Babywearing through the ages      Cache   Translate Page      
David and I went to the local Farmer's Market on Saturday, and as usual he was sitting pretty in the BabyHawk on my back.  If you ever want to see babywearing in action, go to a farmer's market - I counted over a dozen other worn babies. 

A random woman in line commented "Those things are all the rage".  An old (80+) lady with a strong accent replied, "Eeet was da rage when I lived in Moscow too!"  She went on to tell me about how she always wore her babies, and how it helped to keep them warm during the long Russian winters.

Babywearing's not trendy, it's normal.  It's practical.  It's beautiful!  Below is a collection of beautiful babywearing pictures from around the world and through the ages, from a friend's presentation to her high school Spanish class.  Enjoy!


Not sure where, but nice Mei Tai!

South Africa


Ancient Egypt
 
Bolivia

Bolivia

Bosnia

Brazil

Brazil

Burma

China

Congo (Way to get some work done, mama!)

Czech Republic - love the basket!

Czech Republic

Netherlands

Egypt

Eskimo

French Daddy on a bike (not recommended lol)

Ghana

Guatemala

Guatemala

More Guatemala!  Beautiful pattern

Inuit - such a beautiful photo

Japan

Mary and Jesus

Dark ages?  I think not!

Mexico, rockin the Rebozo Superman toss!

Morocco - babies wearing babies

Poland

Roma (Gypsy Mama anyone?)

Slovakia - what a happy baby.

Southern USA

Modern Day Texas

Wales

Namibia

          Justine: Crazy Love      Cache   Translate Page      

Release Year: 1995
Genres: Erotica
Video language: English

Justine and Professor Robson evade ex-KGB agents, who follow them from Russia through the jungles of Burma to the Red Ligghts District of Amsterdam.

Format: mkv (Matroska)
Duration: 1:33:11
Video: 706x480, AVC (H.264)
Audio: 218kbps





File size: 1.3 GB






          Press Releases: Ambassador Michael Kozak, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor on the Release of the 2018 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices      Cache   Translate Page      
Special Briefing
Michael G. Kozak
Acting Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor
Washington, DC
March 13, 2019


AMBASSADOR KOZAK: Good morning. I thought I might say a few words about how the report is prepared just so that we have that background, and then I’d be happy to take questions.

As the Secretary mentioned, the report has been a legislative requirement on the Executive Branch going back to the late 1970s. The origins of this were that Congress, in making decisions on security assistance, initially, said we’ve – we find ourselves giving security assistance to countries that sometimes have pretty unsavory records, and we would like to know what the factual situation is before we make those judgments. So they imposed on the Executive the requirement that each year we prepare a report. Initially it was on the situation of human rights in countries that were recipients of security assistance, but then in later years Congress broadened that out so we now do reports on every country that is a member-state of the UN, and as the Secretary mentioned, some territories as well – for example, Hong Kong, while part of China, has a distinct system so we do a separate report on it.

The way the reports are done, there are instructions that are prepared each year during the summer and go out to our embassies abroad. What – they change sometimes a bit year to year when we find that things weren’t too clear in a previous year or something, and we will rectify them, but they’ve been pretty consistently the same over the years.

And what those instructions seek to do is basically ask a series of questions: Were there reports of extrajudicial killings in the country of your assignment or not? Were there credible reports of torture or not? If so, how much type of thing. So we’re asking exactly the same questions for every country. There is not one set of questions for the United Kingdom and a different set for North Korea or something. It’s exactly the same questionnaire.

What differs amongst the reports is the answers, and our people in the field strive to gather facts. One thing the Secretary has been very strong on as we went through the editing process this year is let’s keep it to the facts, ma’am, and not draw conclusions but try to always get back to what are the facts we know about this and can we repeat those and let the facts speak for themselves.

So that’s the way it’s done. In process terms, the report is prepared at the embassy or consulate with a couple of exceptions. Where we don’t have an embassy or consulate, like North Korea or Iran, it gets prepared in the regional bureau here by the desk officers. But in all the rest of the cases, it’s done by the human rights officer at post, it’s reviewed up the chain in the embassy, the first draft gets sent in to Washington. Then we have a staff of editors in DRL who go through and are comparing what we’re seeing there to other reporting on the subject. We look at international human rights organizations and what they’re saying. And this is often just to test our people. You can go back and say, well, you said this but we see that Amnesty International says that; what is the explanation for the discrepancy? And we try to sharpen the focus in that way.

Eventually we make edits. It goes back out to the embassy again for a second go-around of review and editing. And then they send their final version in, we do a final edit on it, and then if there are any discrepancies we work those out with the regional assistant secretary concerned and get the final version done.

So that’s the process for every country in the world. Again, it’s – there’s not a different process for friends and foes. It’s all the same. And what we’re trying to do is to just get as clear and as factual a report as we possibly can.

One final comment on that is obviously, we can’t document every abuse that’s occurred in a place because sometimes, unfortunately, they’re so widespread that you just wouldn’t have enough pages to write them. So what we try to do is have a description of the trend in that country and then give an example. So if it says there were credible reports of torture, we try to quantify that a bit – was it one isolated incident or was it widespread and systematic – but then we’ll give an example. But it’s just that, an example. The fact that some other case isn’t mentioned in the report doesn’t mean it was less important. It’s just that we’re using one as an illustration of the behavior that unfortunately is sometimes replicated en masse.

With that, I think I’ll stop and go to your questions.

MR PALLADINO: Want to do questions? You have any questions?

QUESTION: Yeah.

QUESTION: Yes.

MR PALLADINO: Start with Bloomberg.

QUESTION: Mr. Ambassador, I’m wondering what signal you think it sends that in the preamble to the report, the Secretary just says flat-out that the administration’s policy is to engage with other countries regardless of their human rights record?

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: Yeah. And that has been the policy and often is a – I mean, what we’re saying there is we will engage. Sometimes we’re engaging for the purpose of trying to get them to change their human rights practices, sometimes it’s because we’re trying to get them to stop threatening their neighbors. But I think the reason that that’s in the preface is to make it clear that our engaging with them does not mean we are approving of or accepting of their behavior. We’re saying we’re engaging with them despite their behavior sometimes and trying to use our engagement to make improvements in that. So that’s the sense, I think, that he was conveying there.

MR PALLADINO: Associated Press.

QUESTION: Thanks. Last year in this report, there was a little bit of a kerfuffle over whether or not the Palestinian Territories or the West Bank would be called occupied, and Golan. And the Golan was, in last year’s report, referred to as Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, but this year it says Israeli-controlled Golan Heights. Does that signal any kind of a change in the administration’s position as it relates to the Golan?

And then the second thing is that: Are governments asked to respond to the – what’s identified in these reports? Do you accept foreign governments’ comments on what this is? And I say this again in relation to Israel because it makes a point of – and it’s the only, that I can find, one where it says we have sought input from the Government of Israel on this. Are any other countries given the same opportunity?

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: Yeah. In sequence, on the descriptor of what kind of territory in Israel as we tried to shift last year – and this, by the way, is not a human rights issue. It’s a legal status issue and so the decisions on that get made by the regional bureau, by the Legal Adviser’s Office, and we follow their lead. But I think the – what they were trying to signal there is our – what we’re trying to do is report on the human rights situation in those territories, and so you’re trying to – you’re just trying to find a way of describing the place that you’re reporting on.

And “occupied territory” has a legal meaning to it. I think what they tried to do was shift more to just a geographic description. So we said Israel, Golan, West Bank, Gaza, Jerusalem, and it’s a complicated report because there are sometimes multiple authorities who have authority over people in particular parts of that territory. So it’s a very complicated one to write, but the – my understanding from the policy bureaus on this is that there’s no change in our outlook or our policy vis-a-vis the territories and the need for a negotiated settlement there.

On the --

QUESTION: Input.

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: -- reference to the input, that is something that we – and I think it’s back in the annex – that we do try. We don’t ask the governments to comment on a draft of the report. The report isn’t shown – I mean, you – Congress sees it the morning of, you guys see it an hour or two later than Congress and you have a jump on the rest of the world in that respect. But during the year, if our embassies are doing their job, they’re out trying to gather data on human rights, they’re taking up concerns that they see and so on, so they are getting input from the government. And in a lot of cases where you’re looking at things where you want data or there’s an allegation that this was an extrajudicial killing, you go to the government of concern and say, okay, and what’s your story on this and they’ll say no, it was a shooting in self-defense by the police or something. If there’s a dispute like that, then we try to report it.

Now, in the case of the Israel report, I think it was felt that because of the different sources of information we get and that sometimes each of them will accuse the other of being biased, that we just made it explicit in that report. But it’s explicit in the reports overall, so the practice isn’t any different. The form is a little bit different.

QUESTION: A quick clarification on this point, sir, if I may. If I --

MR PALLADINO: Let’s call on folks, Said. Okay? Now we’re going to call on folks.

QUESTION: Oh, sorry. Can I – just because – okay.

MR PALLADINO: I’m going to call on you. Said, go ahead.

QUESTION: Sure, thank you. Thank you very much.

MR PALLADINO: You’re welcome.

QUESTION: I’m sorry for the interruption. I just wanted to follow on Matt. Very quickly so we can understand, you no longer consider the West Bank to be occupied in these reports?

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: No. I said that our policy on the status of the territories had not changed. That is my understanding of our current thing. We just – we decided not to use the term in the reports because it’s not a human rights term and it was distracting.

QUESTION: And on Gaza – and on the violence on the Gaza fence, you’re citing the Israeli Defense Force, the settlers, and so on. Did you talk to anyone in Gaza about this? Did you gather information or do you have any mechanism to gather information on what’s going on in Gaza?

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: We talked to nongovernmental organizations; we talked to the Palestinian Authority. We don’t talk to Hamas, I must say, so we don’t try to reflect their point of view. We rely on media. There is – we basically try to vacuum it. It’s the same kind of job you all do as reporters. We’re trying to look at all credible or potentially credible sources of information, suck them in, match them against each other, and see if – if there’s a consistent story there, great, and if there’s a divergence, we try to explain the divergence. We don’t try to judge that one version is accurate and the other one isn’t. We’re using – essentially applying the same standards to different sources of information.

MR PALLADINO: Let’s go to Washington Post.

QUESTION: In the section on Saudi Arabia, you describe the killing of Jamal Khashoggi, but there is no mention in that section on – in the Khashoggi section on Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, who many believe may have directed the killing. And so I wanted to – even though he’s mentioned in passing later on in a separate section, in corruption, he’s not mentioned in the Khashoggi section. So I wanted to ask you why that – why you didn’t mention him and if you think you were pulling any punches.

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: Well, I think, with respect to the killing of Jamal Khashoggi, the U.S. has been very clear. This was a horrendous, horrific act that the people responsible, regardless of their level, should be held to account, should be brought to justice. The – as a result of diplomatic contacts, the Saudi Government, I think as is reflected in the report – the king has said that that is their policy, to bring – to do a proper investigation and bring to account those who are responsible for the killing. That investigation is still underway. We can all have our suspicions or our speculation as to where it may lead, but our effort has been to have where it comes out be fact-driven rather than opinion-driven. But we also are committed to getting all the facts, and we – we’re going to hold the Government of Saudi Arabia to its promise that they will do a thorough investigation and find all the facts.

I think as the report reflects, they have begun an investigation. They’ve indicted some people. They have more people under suspicion, under investigation, but it’s not a complete, by any means, investigation at this point. So we’re – we’re sort of in the middle of that movie, and hopefully as it plays out we’ll get a clearer set of facts as to who was and who was not responsible, and act accordingly.

Where we have had strong factual information, videotapes or others, we have – or statements by the governments concerned, we’ve already taken measures in terms of imposing visa restrictions and sanctions on some of the people that are prime suspects in the case. But that doesn’t mean there are not others, it just means the investigation and the facts haven’t taken us there yet.

MR PALLADINO: Press Trust of India.

QUESTION: Thank you. I wanted to you about your – what is your assessment about human rights situation in China, where hundreds and thousands of people of religious minorities have been put behind bars?

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: Yeah, I think as the Secretary just mentioned, it’s in a – they’re in a league of their own. I mean, for me, you haven’t seen things like this since the 1930s of rounding up – I mean, in our – some estimations are in the millions of people – and then putting them into camps and trying – and torturing them, abusing them, and trying to basically erase their culture and their religion and so on from their DNA. It’s just remarkably awful.

We have tried to – over the year we’ve been trying to push this information out, trying to gain wider international attention to the problem. I would say we’ve had maybe some success in that respect in that initially the Chinese Government was denying that there were any camps or that anything was going on. Now they’re saying, well, there are camps, but they’re some kind of labor training camps and that it’s all very voluntary and so on. That does not match the facts that we and others are seeing, but at least I think we’re starting to make them realize that there’s a lot of international scrutiny on this and none of it is good from their standpoint. It’s really – it’s one of the most serious human rights problems in the world today.

MR PALLADINO: CBS.

QUESTION: Thank you. You said earlier when – during the editing process, the Secretary said to you, let’s just keep this to the facts, and you talked about how it’s written, and then it goes up, and of course like anything we do as well it gets – it goes through an editing process. So to Carol’s question, I’m curious if at any point during this process there was a version of the Saudi section that included some evaluation or mention of the culpability of the crown prince in the Khashoggi killing.

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: No. Well, I won’t go into – I don’t want to get into that for every report, but we have not – and not only in the report, but I think in any other format – tried to draw our own conclusions as to who was and who wasn’t responsible. We – there are two governments that have jurisdiction, criminal jurisdiction over the case: the Turkish Government and the Saudi Government. And we are pushing for a genuine, transparent, thorough, factual investigation. And until we see that, trying to speculate about how might or might not have been involved is just not productive. So that’s where we’ve been.

MR PALLADINO: The New York Times.

QUESTION: Thanks, everyone, for doing this. One more question on the Saudis, and then one additional one. In the Saudi case, clearly the United States has gained a good deal of intelligence information that you’ve read about in the Times, Post, elsewhere that suggest what the evidentiary base is for their conclusion that with medium to high confidence that the crown prince was directly involved. I’m wondering if you have made sure that that information has been shared with the Saudi investigators to make it a little bit more difficult for Saudi Arabia to brush aside the complicity of the crown prince in this.

And then I just wanted to ask you about North Korea, because in previous reports you had referred to “egregious” human rights violations. I missed that word here, but maybe you replaced it with something else.

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: On the last first. I think the way – the format we’ve been using the last year or two in the summary up front is that where – we try to say for each country significant human – or “human rights issues included.” And then what basically we’re trying to do, we have a template there. If it’s torture or if it’s extrajudicial killing and some other – criminal libel, some other serious things, they go in that section. There are other human rights violations that we don’t put in there, because every country you can come up with a ton of them. But we’re trying to say let’s – in the executive summary, let’s try to hit the worst forms and see if those were present or not in the country.

Where “egregious” has come in is there are happily some countries where none of those things are present, so we say there were no reports of egregious human rights violations. But I don’t know that we’ve said – that we’ve characterized North Korea as – I mean, implicitly it is egregious because it has a litany of all the different things that they do that are fitting into that paragraph. And then you asked about --

QUESTION: On the intelligence information. Have you shared --

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: Yeah, and I just don’t know what our law enforcement people have done with their counterparts in the other countries. So I’d have to refer you to --

QUESTION: Has that data been shared with you in the preparation of this report? In other words, did you receive the CIA assessment in either classified or unclassified form that would –

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: I’m not going to go into intelligence.

QUESTION: Okay, so what we should report is the State Department is not saying whether or not it reviewed the intelligence report about – that came to the conclusion that the crown prince --

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: We – when we do these reports – let me generalize this – when we do these reports, we seek all relevant sources of information, including U.S. intelligence information. And --

QUESTION: And you will not say whether in the Saudi case --

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: But I’m not going to say what that was in any particular case because I can’t comment on intelligence.

QUESTION: I didn’t ask you what it was. I was asking you if you received it in the Saudi case.

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: I’m not going to even say with respect to particular countries, whether it’s Saudi or anybody else. So it’s not a – I mean, I’m not giving you an answer about Saudi; I’m giving you a general answer that I’m not going to say this, but I can say that we – I mean, we routinely review intelligence information as part of our daily job when we’re doing the reports. We look at classified reporting, State Department reporting. We look at classified reporting from other agencies, because that’s part of the panoply of information that we try to boil down and come up with a coherent report.

MR PALLADINO: Al Hurra. Michel.

QUESTION: If you need to rank the countries, who are the worst countries and who are the best?

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: That’s something we don’t do. I know this is – some of our legislative frameworks require us to put people in tiers and that kind of thing. I think one of the strengths of the Human Rights Report over the years is we don’t do that. So people aren’t – there’s no incentive to shade your reporting to try to avoid being in one tier or to be ranked in some way or another. We just try to report the facts on each country as best we can assess them and let the reader draw the conclusion.

Now when I was just mentioning that executive summary paragraph, one of the reasons that we have tried to get it more into a template format there is so that the reader can look at that. And I think if you go through the reports, if you see a country that says there were no reports of egregious human rights violations, that’s probably in the pretty good category even though when you read the body there may be some issues, but at least they’re not these really serious ones. But then if you look at another one, and they’ve got extrajudicial killing, they’ve got torture, they’ve got rape as a weapon of war, killing journalists, closing down independent media – bang, bang, bang, all of those things, you’d say, well, that probably fits in the worst category or pretty close to it. But we try to make it so that the reader can draw that conclusion, but we don’t draw those conclusions ourselves.

MR PALLADINO: Let’s go CNN.

QUESTION: Thank you. Going off of that, Mr. Ambassador, in the Iran section you say that their human rights record remained extremely poor. That seems to be editorializing much more than in other instances where you just lay out the human rights violations. Why that use of kind of editorial language? And a second quick question: Why not comment on reproductive rights again in this report?

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: Okay, on the – that actually, we – may be a holdover from past things. We used to have “remained extremely poor,” and I think we’ve tried to get away from that, and frankly I don’t know why we missed it in that case.

QUESTION: So it has nothing to do with the fact that Iran seems to be the boogeyman of this administration?

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: Yeah, well, it’s a true statement. I mean, it has not changed, but we try not to generally put that characterization in anymore. There was a time that we did 20 years ago and we don’t do it anymore.

On reproductive rights, actually, I thought I might get asked about that, so I came this year with – let me walk through this just so we all have the same background and terminology. Last year, I had to ad-lib it and do it from memory, but I went back and got my quotes. The term “reproductive rights” comes from the 1994 Cairo Declaration on Population and Development that was then reaffirmed in the 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform of Action. So that’s where this term comes from. These were outcome documents of two big conferences that were consensus-driven. In other words, the outcomes document needed the consensus of all of the states that were present, which include the Vatican, for example.

So in trying to form that consensus – the head of our delegation in Cairo was then Vice President Gore, and in a speech at the National Press Club right before the conference, he said, “The United States would never assert that a woman’s right to choose an abortion should be internationally guaranteed. We believe that decisions about the extent to which abortion is acceptable should be the province of each government.” And he further said that the same principle should apply to contraceptives. Nations have the right to make them legal, but the United Nations is not seeking to establish a basic right to their availability. And then at the conference himself – he said, “Let’s take a false issue off the table. The United States does not seek to establish a new international right to abortion. We do not believe abortion should be encouraged as a method of family planning. We also believe that policy making in this matter should be the province of each government.”

So that’s what the U.S. position was going in. The text of the Cairo Declaration says, “Women who have unwanted pregnancies should have access to reliable information and compassionate counseling. Any measures or changes related to abortion within the health system can only be determined at the national or local level, according to national legislative process. In circumstances where abortion is not against the law, such abortion should be safe.”

Now, so that’s the international – the background on where that term comes from in international practice. The term “reproductive rights” was first introduced into the Human Rights Report’s instructions, not in the report itself, in 2009. And that instruction read, “Reproductive Rights: this includes the basic right of couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing, and timing of their children, and to have the information and means to do so free from discrimination, coercion, and violence.” So that was what we were being asked to report on. There was no mention of abortion.

In the 2011 report, subheadings were included in the section on women, because they were – the section was long, so we put subheadings in – and reproductive rights was one of them, covering the information that I just mentioned. In 2016, the instructions expanded and did include a mention of abortion, but only in this context. Emergency health – we’re supposed to report on emergency health care, including services for management and – of complications arising from abortion regardless of whether abortion is legally permitted.

So the upshot here is the United States did not seek and did not obtain international consensus that there is a human right to abortion. When the term was used in the Human Rights Report context, it was not defined as including any right to abortion, and that was the position of the United States Government under successive administrations, including the previous administration, that there was no internationally recognized right to abortion. Instead, the position has always been it’s up to each sovereign state to make a policy decision on whether to allow or prohibit abortion or have restrictions on it, and that was the position enunciated by Vice President Gore and it remains the position to this day.

The reason we stopped using the term in the reports was that some advocates had begun to claim that, notwithstanding the history I’ve just given you, that the term “reproductive rights” did include the right to abortion. And so rather than using a term that now has two completely divergent meanings to it, we decided to go back and use the U.S. statutory standard that we report on coercive population practices such as forced and coerced abortion and involuntary sterilization. So that is why we got away from using that term. It’s just become a term that people are ascribing their own meanings to and we don’t like to --

QUESTION: But is there any evaluation of access to kind of women’s health practices in your evaluation of human rights?

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: Yeah, in – on that, we did for some years carry things like maternal mortality rate, availability of contraceptive information, and so on. And at one time that probably was very useful because you couldn’t access it other ways, but we figured out – I mean, what we said in the instructions was go look at these websites that – there’s one group that is sponsored by USAID; it’s called demographic health – I’ve forgotten the name. It’s DHS, but it doesn’t mean Department of Homeland Security. And then there’s a World Health Organization website. So rather than trying to summarize what was in those, we’ve just put those – links to those data sets into the annex of the report so people can look it up on their own.

And by the way, we’ve done the same thing on other sections. We used to summarize in the Human Rights Report what the contents of the International Religious Freedom Report were. We would summarize the Trafficking In Persons Report. Now, thanks to the wonders of Vice President Gore’s internet, we are able to just put hyperlinks in so people can go find those things on their own, and that’s --

QUESTION: That’s an interesting reference because – (laughter) – you held him up to be the standard-bearer of what the U.S. position is on abortion, now you --

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: All right.

MR PALLADINO: (Inaudible.) Let’s go – red tie right there, (inaudible).

QUESTION: Yeah. I would like to have a review about the situation in Latin America, especially Venezuela, and also I would like to have this opportunity to talk about Venezuela. One of the biggest challenges are to get the humanitarian aid into the country. What if Nicolas Maduro approved that U.S. aid can go into the country? What would be the U.S. response about that? Thank you.

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: Yeah. Well, I think that has – and I would refer you – I think my friend, Special Representative Abrams, was here yesterday commenting on all of this. But our position has been that they should let the aid into the country. What we have not been willing to do is to turn aid over to the Maduro government because we’ve seen what happens with the so-called CLAP program they have that’s supposed to feed people. By most estimates, 70 percent of the funding of that gets stolen by officials in the government, so it’s not an efficient way, and it only goes to people that they favor politically.

QUESTION: (Inaudible) Venezuela human rights?

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: Human rights situation in Venezuela is terrible. I think it’s well documented in this report, and of course it’s only – this report goes through the end of last year, and it’s gotten only worse since then. So – but I think I’ll leave – we had a very good briefing on this yesterday, so I’ll leave you to – refer you back to that.

MR PALLADINO: ABC.

QUESTION: In the report, on the section on Myanmar, it mentions the vast majority of such abuses continued with impunity. Would you agree that that could be perhaps in part because the United States still has not designated the violence against the Rohingya as a genocide, and because the sanctions against Myanmar have been limited to two military units and only a handful of senior officers?

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: Yeah, look, the sanctions that had been on Burma previously were taken off because of the election of the Aung San Suu Kyi government and so on. So you don’t want to go back and penalize the elected civilian government for the behavior of the military. So I think what we tried to do this time was to be a little more targeted in the sanctions, but it’s not limited to that. You’re correct, there’s five generals that have had financial sanctions put on them, two divisions of the Burmese army – I think it’s the 33rd and 99th, if I recall correctly – who make a specialty of the kinds of atrocities that were being committed in Rakhine State.

But in addition to that, we have revoked the visas of large quantities of people. We cut off what little bit of mil-mil cooperation was beginning to occur. There – this has had really serious consequences for the relationship and we’re not done yet. We’re not satisfied with their response. I mean, yes, at this point the active phase of the atrocities are at least in a lull, but they’re still – there are a lot of Rohingya – 700,000 or so are left in Burma. So we’re trying to navigate how do we get humanitarian relief to them, to the people who had to flee, and how do we persuade the government to let people come back in a voluntary way where they would be safe. Right now you’ve got the same commanders in place, and I think people rightly conclude they wouldn’t be safe from another assault like what they got. But we keep working the problem.

I think what you’ve seen, too, is we have been one of the ones to put major effort into exposing the problem. We did a study that our bureau financed that did a very good job of polling people in a scientific method in the refugee camps and figuring out just what had happened to them and what were the trends and practices there. But we’ve also been very supportive of the effort, for example, the UN made, the independent fact-finding mission that they had there, and I think what we’ve said is our conclusions and theirs coincide very much.

So this business of making a designation, it’s a messaging management tool. It’s not a – it has no legal effect. And what we were trying – I mean, the usual reason you say something like that is you’re trying to call attention to it. Our feeling is we’ve called plenty of attention. What we’re trying to do now is to get people to take action and put more pressure on. We’re very heartened by the fact that there is a movement stirring within Burma right now to go back in and relook at the constitution and hopefully downgrade the political power of the military and upgrade that of the civilian elected government. Because in the end, it’s going to be that that’s going to make a change on the ground, is you’ve got to get where they – where the military doesn’t feel that it has complete charter to be able to rampage around and do whatever it wants, and it needs to be accountable civilian political leaders who have control over it.

So that’s where our policy is aiming. That’s what we’re trying to achieve, and we’ve mentioned some of the tools we’re using.

MR PALLADINO: Final question. Right back there, please.

QUESTION: On North Korea. Is North Korea making progress as they engaged in talks with the United States?

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: No. We haven’t noticed any progress on human rights, so we keep – that’s why we’re calling out their practices and we keep pushing on this. I mean, what we have done over the years is – I think the U.S. has been in the forefront of trying to expose what North Korea is doing and bring international attention to it. Also trying to help those who are trying to get information back into North Korea so that people there start to realize what the standard in the rest of the world is and how the rest of the world views their country. But it’s still one of the worst human rights situations in the world. It has not improved, and that’s going to be part of our effort for some time to come, I’m afraid, is how do you try to convince a regime like that to change its behavior.

MR PALLADINO: Great. Ambassador Kozak, thank you very much for being with us today.

AMBASSADOR KOZAK: Okay, thank you.


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          On Anniversary of Students’ Deaths, Suu Kyi Says Democracy a Work in Progress      Cache   Translate Page      

In a message honoring the two who were shot dead by police at Rangoon Institute of Technology 31 years ago, she urges the nation to learn the lessons of their sacrifice.

The post On Anniversary of Students’ Deaths, Suu Kyi Says Democracy a Work in Progress appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          USDP Lawmaker Proposes Abolishing Charter Amendment Committee      Cache   Translate Page      

U Thaung Aye told Parliament that a committee now discussing potential amendments to the Constitution should be abolished because it was in violation of the law.

The post USDP Lawmaker Proposes Abolishing Charter Amendment Committee appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Take Statue Down by March 17 or We Will, Activists Warn Kayah Gov’t      Cache   Translate Page      

Karenni rights advocates issue deadline for dismantling Gen. Aung San monument in a letter to state officials.

The post Take Statue Down by March 17 or We Will, Activists Warn Kayah Gov’t appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          Dozens Interviewed in Tanintharyi Graft Case, Commission Says      Cache   Translate Page      

The ACC says it interviewed more than 90 sources over a month before filing corruption charges against Tanintharyi Region Chief Minister Daw Lei Lei Maw and three businessmen.

The post Dozens Interviewed in Tanintharyi Graft Case, Commission Says appeared first on The Irrawaddy.


          U.S. Military Retrieves Possible World War Two Remains From Myanmar      Cache   Translate Page      

MANDALAY — The United States on Tuesday retrieved the possible remains of service members who went missing in Myanmar during the Second World War, marking the first such mission to Myanmar carried out by U.S. military aircraft, American officials said. After a brief ceremony, the remains were taken from Myanmar’s second-largest city, Mandalay, to a laboratory in the United […]

The post U.S. Military Retrieves Possible World War Two Remains From Myanmar appeared first on The Irrawaddy.




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