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          Key Remapper 4dots v. 1.0      Cache   Translate Page      
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The free movement of goods, services, capital, and people-these are the pillars that form an essential foundation for welfare and employment in Europe. Mobility is the fundamental premise for these four core values to be strengthened not only in the domestic market but also beyond its borders.Rolands petersons de facto This is particularly significant in the Baltic Sea region, where a well thought-out and developed transport system is one of the positive development factors.Rolands petersons de facto Flight-related activities have both direct and indirect impact on the economy.Rolands petersons de facto The direct impact includes the income derived from the activities of airline personnel and ground handling workers, whereas the indirect input implies all purchases in the aviation sector from locally based suppliers who basically do not represent the aviation sector. Additional impact on the economy of Latvia is formed by the costs of aviation sector employees and service providers.Rolands petersons de facto More than 30 airports are located in Lithuania There are four international airports operating in Lithuania - in Kaunas, Palanga, Siauliai, and, of course, in Vilnius, and there are more than 30 smaller airports and military airfields. In Estonia, airports are mainly located in the capital in Tallinn, as well as in Tartu, Kuressaare, Kerdle and Parnu.Rolands petersons de facto These are international airports, however, there are more than 15 private and military airports and so-called airports of local importance located throughout the country.Rolands petersons de facto Latvia still has only two international airports - in Riga and in Liepaja; there are also small airdromes, for example, in Spilva, in Tukums and Ventspils, and several other military flight platforms though.Rolands petersons de facto Riga International Airport entered the top five rapidly growing airports in Europe last year, which lead to an increase in the number of passengers by 16.2%. Therefore, it underscores the fact that even though the airport in Liepaja will have to put a lot of time and effort to its development, it brings a great potential, which can give a significant and valuable contribution to the domestic economy of the country. A successful start is taken after reconstruction The airport in Liepaja did a great job - in 2015 after its reconstruction was completed. At the airport a significant drainage effort was undertaken, a new cover for the take-off track was laid, the take-off strip was reinforced, the cover of the shunting route was improved and expanded, parking places for the aircraft were renovated as well.Rolands petersons de facto After Liepaja Airport was certified for commercial flights for the summer season in 2016, the Latvian national airline "AirBaltic" launched regular flights between Riga and Liepaja. During the first half of that year, more than 4,780 passengers were transported along this route. The five most popular destinations for transit flights along the Liepaja route include London, Berlin, Moscow, Copenhagen, and Hamburg, which, in general, brought very good results.Rolands petersons de facto Keeping in mind the processes that are still underway, it is important to mention the extensive capacity-building of the airports, environment protection in a long-term, enhancement of cooperation with other regional airports in Europe. It is not enough for Latvia to have only one high-capacity airport - we have a regional leader who can serve as an example of a successful market behavior for others. Support strategy for attracting new aviation communities Liepaja airport is the only example nowadays in terms of Latvian regional airports, however, I see several competitive regional airports in Latvia. To promote their development, a thorough analysis of the passengers' potential is needed, starting with linking their activities with the existing types of transport in the surrounding region, forming a support strategy to attract new aviation communities, passengers, and additional services for client groups, bearing in mind that the added value of airports is formed by airlines operating there, strategic cooperation partners and service providers.Rolands petersons de facto Without a doubt, it is also essential to study the ultimate goals of tourist destinations, in order to promote the growth of the travel market and ensure its positive impact on the economy. Infrastructure for a variety multifaceted of commercial activities The strategic objective of the regional airports is a creation of the favorable and unified conditions for the enterprises and institutions operating there, as well as to proactive procurement of a sufficient infrastructure for the development various of commercial activities.Rolands petersons de factoIt is also necessary to develop new ways of cooperation in order to actively identify airlines that are ready to join the development of new travel destinations and to expand their market share in the airport. Apart from this, it is necessary to work on the incentive prerequisites for launching new flights. The imperfection of the transport system can no longer be an obstacle, with the 85 million inhabitants who live in the Baltic Sea region, who can be isolated or cut off from the rest of the European Union, or may face serious travel problems.Rolands petersons de facto The power generated by the economy and innovation provides the Baltic Sea Region with opportunities to create a modern, forward-looking transport system that will also contribute to the creation of a socially balanced economic policy.
          Road to Women’s 17 and 19 EHF Championships begins with Wednesday's draw      Cache   Translate Page      
NEWS: Wednesday afternoon’s draw event features the Younger Age Category events in July and August 2019, hosted by Georgia, Italy, Bulgaria and Lithuania
          Gardai seek information on missing Lithuanian feared murdered      Cache   Translate Page      
Gardaí investigating the murder of a Lithuanian woman who was last seen in Meath are understood to be following a definite line of enquiry.
          Comment on Ball in the Stone Part III: The Treasure by Frozen Frank      Cache   Translate Page      
:boogie: At last! - But <b>porca miseria!</b>, there is not even a Roman <i>traffic island</i> for safety! Hence, that poor chap in his black suit on the crosswalk in the Castro Pretorio picture (1st one) must fear for his life! --<i>That awkward situation almost impresses me like that wall is "impressed".</i> Note that much safer pedestrian crossings existed more than 2000 years ago, as can be seen in the ruins of Pompeii. Blocks raised on the road allowed pedestrians to cross the street without having to step onto the road itself. Technically, they were whole sets of <i>traffic islands</i>. --------------------------------- PS: <i>There is an embedded cannonball in the 13th-century Malbork/ Marienburg Castle (zamek w Malborku), allegedly from the unsuccessful two-month siege of 1410 AD by the Lithuanians.</i>
          RE: Точное знание цели - половина успеха :: Работа с Oriflame      Cache   Translate Page      
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          LaMelo Ball to enroll at Spire Institute, again play high school basketball      Cache   Translate Page      
After taking part in professionally in Lithuania, LaMelo Ball is returning to school basketball and can join at Spire Institute in Ohio. “I am excited to go back to college and rejoin my elegance at the court docket for my senior 12 months,” Ball instructed SLAM Mag. “Taking part in in ...
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The JBA is heating up as LaMelo Ball got himself into a fist fight with a Lithuanian player! He slapped a player and the the player turned around he punched him! He was immediately ejected. Do you think LaMelo has a chance in the NBA with this sort of play? Let us know in the comments below!
          Gardai seek information on missing Lithuanian feared murdered      Cache   Translate Page      
Gardaí investigating the murder of a Lithuanian woman who was last seen in Meath are understood to be following a definite line of enquiry.
          Conspiracy theory has gone mainstream in Russia. But how does it work?      Cache   Translate Page      

Inside Russia’s conspiracy machine, things are more complicated than they seem. A new book demonstrates the pitfalls of conspiracy thinking.

April 2016: journalists at a Moscow newspaper watch "Direct Line with Vladimir Putin". Photo: Aleksandr Vilf / VisualRIAN. All rights reserved.

A review of Fortress Russia: Conspiracy Theories in the Post-Soviet World by Ilya Yablokov.

Ilya Yablokov’s Fortress Russia: Conspiracy Theories in the Post-Soviet World is a solid and illuminating piece of scholarship. Based on the author’s PhD dissertation, this book investigates the role, scope, uses and implications of conspiracy theories in post-Soviet Russia. Tracing the origins of Russian conspiracy theories back to the Crimean War in 1853-1856, Yablokov investigates the evolution of conspiratorial thinking in Russia’s Imperial and Soviet periods and, finally, turns to his ultimate goal: the uses of conspiracy theories in post-Soviet Russia.

Yablokov shows convincingly that instead of being primarily a grassroots phenomena as in case of the US, the capital of conspiratorial culture, in post-Soviet Russia, conspiracy theories exist in a complex political environment with many participants: grassroots activists, public intellectuals, as well as journalists, politicians, members of legislative and executive branches of the government. After Boris Yeltsin came to power in the 1990s, conspiracy theories were widely employed by the opposition to Yeltsin’s regime. The adversaries of Russia’s first independent president interpreted the collapse of the Soviet Union as a planned action envisioned by the West – and executed by the corrupt Soviet elite and predatory opposition.

However, after Putin’s rise to power, these theories migrated to another layer of political life. Putin’s government turned them into a vital instrument for mobilising supporters and discrediting opponents. This shift was closely associated with a number of Russian political technologists and politicians, such as Gleb Pavlovsky, chief of the pro-Kremlin Foundation for Effective Politics, and Vladislav Surkov, First Deputy Chief of Presidential Administration, who crafted conceptual framework underlying the new regime and developed a network of pro-Kremlin public intellectuals, educational programmes and publishing houses. Having moved from the bottom-up to the top-down level, conspiratorial thinking also migrated from the margins of Russia’s public sphere to the very core of the country’s political discourse – especially after the beginning of the Russia-Ukraine conflict in 2013-2014.

Conspiratorial thinking migrated from the margins of Russia’s public sphere to the very core of the country’s political discourse – especially after the beginning of the Russia-Ukraine conflict in 2013-2014

Yablokov exceeds in detailing the particular exchanges of conspiracy arguments between elites and the technology of their dissemination. It is common knowledge that conspiracy theories have become an important tool for the Putin regime, but the technology behind their dissemination isn’t.

Here is an example of a specific case Yablokov describes. In December 2006, state-owned newspaper Rossiiskaia Gazeta published an interview with Boris Ratnikov, a former general of Russia’s Federal Guard Service, in which he claimed that former US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright thought that mankind should distribute Russia’s rich natural resources under the control of the US. In 2007, this particular idea was further developed during a presidential press conference, when a worker from Novosibirsk Alexander Sibert asked Putin a question on this topic. Since all questions are planned in advance during these events, it is logical to assume that this reiteration of Ratnikov’s theory was a part of the government’s anti-Western propaganda campaign during Russia’s 2007 parliamentary elections. In 2014, the “Ratnikov-Sibert theory” was reiterated by Putin, though both Ratnikov and Sibert denied that Albright made this statement.

Boris Ratnikov. Source: YouTube. This exchange demonstrates the way the system works: first, pro-regime politicians or intellectuals launch conspiracy theory in the public sphere. Second, it is mobilised by the regime as a resource to convince supporters and discredit opponents. At the same time, the regime denies its authorship of the theory to avoid responsibility. Rather than referring to anecdotal evidence, Yablokov uses the Ratnikov-Sibert case and many others to build a robust and comprehensive picture of the way the Kremlin’s intellectual and propaganda machinery functions.

Yablokov’s research also shows good ideological analysis. It clearly and vividly depicts how the Kremlin’s intellectual framework has undergone major ideological shifts since the 1990s. From its inability to establish intellectual hegemony in the 1990s to the “Putin majority” of the 2000s; from the clear ideological divide between pro-Soviet and anti-Soviet forces to reconciliation with the Stalinist past; from the Soviet vision of the West as an enemy to Surkov’s vision of the West as a competitor – all these tectonic changes in the regime’s intellectual foundations are carefully analysed and theorised. Moreover, the elite and pro-Kremlin networks producing and conveying these ideas are not depicted as a monolithic whole. Instead, Yablokov builds a complex picture, identifying tensions, disagreements and conflicts. Sometimes, the Kremlin authorises the use of conspiracy theories, but distances itself from them – as in the case of Ratnikov. Sometimes, particular elites and intellectuals, such as Alexander Dugin and Sergey Glazyev, become silenced or ousted because they are “too excessively devoted to conspiracies to be part of the rational and cynical Russian politics.”

The arguments mentioned above demonstrate the strong side of the book – given this analysis, it is a worthy read. However, there are some points that lack empirical confirmation and theoretical clarity which I want to point out. Some of them are shortcomings of the book. In this case, they indicate common theoretical and methodological problems associated with the analysis of post-Soviet reality rather than personal or intellectual flaws of the author. Some are, rather, possible avenues for further research absent in contemporary public and academic debate but still essential.

Methodological remarks

Despite the book’s informative and illuminating argument, there are still some shortcomings that should be addressed. First of all, Yablokov’s analysis of the uses of conspiracy theories is often based on hypotheses and can hardly be fully confirmed empirically. This problem is related to the limits of the method selected for the analysis and cannot be resolved in the conceptual analysis based on the publicly available sources presented in the book. My comments are therefore a suggestion for further research rather than criticism.

It is not sufficiently clear what the nature of the links between different agents involved in Russia’s conspiracy machine is. For instance, in 2007, the Russian publishing house Evropa, which is associated with political technologist Gleb Pavlovsky, published the book Vragi Putina (Putin’s Enemies) as part of an effort to provide Putin with intellectual support and discredit his opponents. Later that year, Putin addressed his supporters during a mass rally held at the Luzhniki stadium. Here, he repeated arguments from the book “almost word for word” in Yablokov’s view. The author concludes that “since the book had been published before the rally, these parallels demonstrate a close relationship between Putin’s speechwriters and the ideas elaborated by the pro-Kremlin spin doctors” (p. 148). Similarly, in 2005, Vladislav Surkov gave a speech at a closed association of Russian businessmen in which he prioritised the creation of a “sovereign democracy” in Russia. A few weeks before that, Putin mentioned that the collapse of the Soviet Union is a “major geopolitical disaster.”

Vladislav Surkov, 2010. Photo CC BY 4.0: Kremlin.ru / Wikipedia. Some rights reserved. On this, Yablokov concludes: “the articulation of these two ideas in such a short space of time demonstrates growing concern among political elites at this time about social cohesion” (p. 7). These conclusions based on indirect evidence, such as proximity in time, are common in the book and are, in nature, educated guesses: they do not guarantee that the link exists. To build a more convincing empirical foundation for the argument, the author would need to triangulate data and draw on a more wide variety of sources, including expert interviews and, in the best case scenario, interviews with people who were or are close to the Russian presidential administration.

This purely external view of the conspiratorial machine narrows the picture and prevents us from analysing essential and yet unseen mechanisms. Who has the agency in this complicated alliance – the executive branch or Kremlin-affiliated intellectuals? Did people like Pavlovsky or Surkov come up with their ideas because they were asked to, or were the concepts introduced based on their initiative and then taken up by the executive? To what extent did the executive constrain them?

Consider the following example. In 2014, Russian independent magazine Colta published a number of anonymous interviews with employees of Russian TV channels, detailing the way the propaganda machinery works. What was clear from these interview is that in the beginning of the Ukraine conflict in 2014, Russian TV channels were being managed manually by members of the Presidential Administration. As one of the interviewees notes, even the use of particular phrases (such as “junta”, “Banderites”, “ukropi”) was coordinated personally by press secretary Dmitry Peskov at weekly meetings. In contrast, anonymous interviews with employees of Russian TV channels published by independent magazine The Insider in 2017 tells an entirely different story.

In 2017, there was no manual control anymore. There were “curators” who were supposed to control journalists, TV anchors and managers of TV channels, but employees managed themselves according to implicit, but clear and intuitive “internal rules”. These rules dictated the understanding of what the Presidential Administration expects them to do – they became a part of the journalistic routine. If this assumption is correct, then we witnessed a tremendous change in the way the Russian propaganda machine, including conspiracy theories and theorists, operates. Instead of being piloted manually, this machine became autonomous. It is clear that the analysis of such issues requires different methods, such as personal interviews, and it is tough and potentially dangerous to find insiders in the administration and TV channels who could and would willing to provide such details. However, given the topic of Yablokov’s analysis, it would greatly complement the purely external analysis of the way Russia’s conspiratorial/propagandist apparatus functions and would allow building more stereoscopic multidimensional picture.

Do we actually study conspiracy theories?

An excellent analysis of the uses of conspiracy theories, Yablokov’s research also lacks the depth of theoretical, empirical and comparative study of conspiracy theories themselves. Conspiracy theories in the book are rather considered as frames used to mobilise supporters and discredit opponents at particular moments.

In terms of data, the in-depth analysis of conspiracy theories themselves is somewhat limited compared to the circumstances surrounding them. Being stripped of specific conspiracy theories used as examples, the text would still have a coherent argument. It considers the main events in post-Soviet Russian history, the main actors involved and would be a legitimate example of political history/political science analysis of post-Soviet Russia. Collecting data for his book about conspiracy theories, Eliot Borenstein set up a website, Plots Against Russia. The analysis is yet to be done, but Borenstein’s archive represents a systematic effort to collect conspiracy theories in post-Soviet Russia. Yablokov’s research would also benefit from this kind of systematic basis.

Regarding theory, a few theoretical remarks about conspiracy theories are limited to brief mentions of scholars like Ernesto Laclau, Michael Foucault, and others, and theorise very general features not specific to conspiracy theories, such as the intersection of knowledge and power and Lacan-based linguistic rules of organising the political subject. The author gives an impression that the argument will not suffer much if it is stripped of the theoretical framework.

Conspiracy theories worldwide

Concerning comparative analysis, the author does not put Russia’s conspiracy machine into an international perspective. (In fact, the post-Soviet World mentioned in the title is not discussed in the book at all: the analysis is limited to Russia.) Although Yablokov frequently cites scholars of conspiracy theories in the West, his main conclusion is limited to the fact that conspiracy theories in Russia are initiated from above as compared to the grassroots nature of western conspiracy theories. This argument is illuminating. Yet the book and our understanding of the subject would benefit from a more fundamental comparison. According to the author, the way “the Russian political and intellectual elites have made use of conspiracy theories in the new millennium show how they can be imported from, and, later, exported to, other countries”. However, the analysis of how they are exported, adjusted and reinterpreted is limited to a few remarks about the particular conspiracy theory about “the New World Order.”

Perhaps, a more systematic comparison would yield interesting results. For instance, in his book on Russia’s post-colonial identity, Viatcheslav Morozov argues that Russia is a subaltern empire: Russia is a subaltern in relationships with the West, and yet has to borrow the western language of the rule of law and democracy because it does not have its own language of self-description. Other scholars show that Putin’s regime increasingly relies on Western far-right to build legitimacy in the eyes of both domestic population and international audiences. Being transported to Russia, do Western conspiracy theories dictate the shape and content of their Russian variations? Or they are instead entirely reshaped to fit local political narratives? The way imported conspiracy theories are reshaped to fit local narrative would give us a better understanding of the local political environment.

Putting Russia in the international perspective is essential for understanding the global political process, not only Russian specifics

Moreover, after the beginning of the Russia-Ukraine conflict in 2013 and the 2016 US presidential election, the use of conspiratorial thinking and arguments has become increasingly popular around the world. In the Baltic States, the topic of Russian influence is instrumentalised by domestic elites to achieve political goals. As Russian journalist Alexey Kovalev argues in a 2017 discussion about the effects of Russian propaganda outside Russia, in the Baltic States “more people are reading articles about the danger of Russian propaganda than are reading the propaganda itself”. Vytautas Bruveris, a Lithuanian journalist, continues: “(Russian propaganda) has become a convenient way for western political elites to discount their own failures, crises and impotence.” Finally, in this same discussion, journalist and analyst Vladimir Soloviev argues that “rebroadcasting this notorious ‘propaganda’” has become a means to keep audiences engaged and earn money in Moldova.

Similarly, after the 2016 US presidential elections, the alleged link to Russia has become an important trope used in political debate to deal with dissent in the US. “Russia” is a codename for “Donald Trump” for American liberals, as brilliantly noted by Ivan Krastev. These arguments do not belittle the authoritarian nature of Putin’s regime. They demonstrate that conspiracy theories in public discourse have become a common tactic. This pattern should be studied as a whole: putting Russia in the international perspective is essential for understanding the global political process, not only Russian specifics.

Political context

There are several inaccuracies and missing events that slightly weaken the book’s argument. First of all, Yablokov is interested in how conspiracy theories are employed and used to legitimise or induce conservative social change. For instance, quoting other scholars, the author argues that “Putin’s remark that the Internet was a ‘CIA project’ served to kick-start the Kremlin’s offensive against the Internet industry” (p. 184). Similarly, conspiracy theories were “the starting point for this new round of legislative amendments” intended to repress independent NGOs in 2015 (p. 184). These connections are hypothesised rather than proven: Yablokov did not conduct interviews with people involved in decision-making who would indicate that repressive legislation resulted from conspiracy theories; similarly, there are no publicly available documents indicating that conspiracy theories are the reason for this particular piece of legislation. However, there are other cases not mentioned in this book where this link is clear.

For instance, in 2012, Russian channel NTV released “The Anatomy of Protest”, a documentary film consisting of pro-government conspiracy theories about the 2011-2012 Russian protests. The film, produced by journalist Arkady Mamontov, provoked a wide controversy but did not lead to any actions by the government. However, a second “Anatomy of Protest” released later that year directly led to the actions taken by the Russian Prosecutor General. Based on conspiracy theories in this film, the Prosecutor General launched an investigation resulting in the criminal charges against three important left-wing opposition leaders – Sergey Udaltsov, Konstantin Lebedev and Leonid Razvozhaev. All three were found guilty. Unlike in the cases of NGO and the Internet, in the Udaltsov-Razvozhaev-Lebedev case, conspiracy theories were directly used as evidence for criminal charges.

Further, Yablokov’s analysis inaccurately depicts the context around the idea of the “Putin majority” in 2011-2012. In one of the chapters, Yablokov analyses the 2011-2012 post-election protests and the regime’s reaction to it. In particular, he argues that Kremlin attempted to construct the concept of a “Putin majority”, representing “the majority of the Russian people, who opposed the minority of ‘dissatisfied Muscovites’” (p. 162).

As it follows from Yablokov’s analysis, this conceptual figure of a majority was constructed and promoted by pro-Kremlin media, spin doctors and regime-affiliated intellectuals only. This is not accurate. As researcher Ilya Matveev shows in his analysis, many prominent intellectuals in the 2011-2012 protest movement, such as Dmitry Olshansky, Andrey Loshak and others, reproduced this discourse. Matveev concludes that liberal intellectuals “accept the rules of the polemics forced on them by the Kremlin and to treat the image of the ‘people’ created by the Kremlin as an accurate reflection of the ‘people’ they write about themselves. In this culture war, the two sides are fueling each other’s cause.”

This particular inaccuracy is indicative of a more general flaw. In Yablokov’s narrative, there are three distinct forces involved in the process of production, distribution and consumption of conspiracy theories: the elite, oppositional intellectuals and the general public. Yablokov gives a nuanced and stereoscopic view of the first group: the executive branch does not coincide with pro-Kremlin intellectuals; they do not always agree, sometimes have conflicts, and the relationships between them are structured in a complicated way. However, the public and the opposition seem to be depicted as monolithic wholes.

As Ilya Mateev demonstrates, the Russian opposition is unevenly structured too. Some of them tend to accept Kremlin narratives depending on their social position, some of them do not. Do they share conspiracy theories? What conspiracy theories do they share and why? This kind of multi-actor analysis of production and dissemination is necessary for building a more realistic argument, and yet it remains absent.

Persuasion, elite discourse and public opinion

The Russian public also remains the weak link of the book. Yablokov extensively relies on polling data as a self-evident source of evidence and positive conclusions that the conspiracy theories disseminated by Kremlin and Kremlin-sympathetic networks did or do work. According to the author, conspiracy theories are used by the regime to achieve national cohesion, gather support and discredit opponents; all these goals are achieved with varying degrees of success depending on particular periods and circumstances. Yet there is no way to establish whether conspiracy theories speak to Russian public given contemporary Russian circumstances.

The Levada Center data frequently cited by Yablokov as evidence is not credible due to certain methodological and theoretical problems. Indeed, there are problems associated with public opinion research in authoritarian regimes and post-Soviet society. For many Russian citizens, pollsters represent an opportunity to reach the government with their complaints and requests, which biases results. Also, given the dramatically low response rate to surveys in Russia, it is safe to assume that most people who refuse to answer interviewers’ questions are dissatisfied and have political reasons to be so. As a result, they are not detected by pollsters.This phenomenon is also known as “preference falsification” and is extensively studied in political science.

For many Russian citizens, pollsters represent an opportunity to reach the government with their complaints and requests, which biases results

Likewise, there is an authoritative and long-standing theoretical tradition in the field of political communication which questions the idea of asking questions and accepting responses at face value regardless of particular political context. Based on dual theories of cognition backed by solid experimental data, scholars in political communication have found that the opinion formation process is very much dependent on a wide number of factors, such as political knowledge, context, distance of events. For the majority of people not interested in politics, an individual’s opinion and perception of politics is a product of a complicated machinery of tricks used to ease one’s cognitive load and arrive at a conclusion without effort.

US sociologist John Mueller ironically summarises the difficulty of polling people in the context of fluctuating opinion:

“The respondent, on his doorstep or in his living room, is barraged with a set of questions on a wide variety of subjects (…) aware that their views are being preserved for the ages, they do not wish to appear unprepared at that moment. Under these circumstances, it is not surprising to find respondents pontificating in a seemingly authoritative, if basically ‘truthful’, manner on subjects about which they know nothing or to which they have never given any thought whatsoever”.

The analysis of public opinion in all its complexity using quantitative data would require theoretical and methodological resources that Russian pollsters do not possess. When qualitative data is used, the results are very different. For instance, Ellen Mickiewicz shows that instead of being convinced by the state agenda, Russian TV viewers in the 2000s were highly skilled at processing media messages critically and identifying persuasive intent. My research shows a similar picture in the context of the Russia-Ukraine conflict: when Russian TV viewers are involved in discussion, their opinions are far from being shaped by Kremlin discourse. Also, the intensity and duration of media campaigns are crucially important when trying to understand the effect elite discourse has on the public. After several years of aggressive political propaganda, Russian TV viewers are very tired of negative reporting which makes them even more critical. These findings go in line with quantitative data indicating the decrease of popularity of TV channels due to their focus on the Ukrainian conflict. Russian viewers’ reactions to TV propaganda today is not the same as their reaction to TV propaganda before the Russia-Ukraine conflict.

The Crimea Consensus has been generated largely through propaganda. Photo: Yaghobzadeh Rafael / ABACA / PA Images. All rights reserved.All these complexities mean that Yablokov should at least say that the Kremlin attempts to shape public opinion instead of claiming that “the Vesti nedeli reports became a powerful political instrument in shaping domestic public opinion” (p. 179) or “the call to rally round ‘Putin’s flag’ was strong enough to guarantee the success of the ruling party” (p. 180). At best, we need resources, expertise, theoretical and methodological innovation to build institutions capable of supplying the public and researches with reliable data about public opinion.

Theories of everyday life

Even if we assume that conspiracy theories have a profound effect on Russian audience (which, again, is a problematic statement at the very least), it probably won’t be the theories voiced by Vladislav Surkov or Arkady Mamontov. Yablokov’s research is focused on spokespersons of the regime, while he ignores the vast majority of conspiracy theories in culture and entertainment which are in more immediate proximity for most people in Russia. In his chronicle of the work in Russia as a TV producer, Peter Pomerantsev argues that in the early 2000s the Kremlin realised that the main mistake of Soviet TV was that it was “dull”. The task was, then, “to synthesise Soviet control with Western entertainment”.

Pomerantsev’s work itself is prone to generalisations about audiences and media which are not always grounded in evidence. However, this point is a reasonable one. Given the fact that entertainment is the primary type of media content consumed by most audiences and the fact that conspiracy theories are produced en masse by popular TV shows such as “Voennaya Taina” (Military Secret) and “Sovershenno Sekretno” (Top Secret) on NTV, it is logical to analyse these theories that are instead a part of entertainment/everyday life rather than official political discourse. If we assume that conspiracy theories have a substantial effect on audiences, these everyday life theories may work as a source of conspiracy theories for the general public or a background for amplifying the impact of official political conspiracy theories.

I want to reiterate here: in some cases, I refer to the shortcomings and flaws of the book; yet, in most cases, I instead suggest possible avenues for further research. As such, Yablokov’s book is an interesting, informative and illuminating read. It presents a complicated and convincing picture of an important phenomenon that is rarely analysed in public and academic discourse about Russia beyond anecdotal evidence.

 

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          Peterborough Together: A sense of belonging      Cache   Translate Page      

First of all, tell us a little about the Peterborough Lithuanian Community group… Our role is to keep Lithuanian culture alive, to celebrate our independence and our national days, but also to integrate our community. One thing I am a very strong supporter of is promoting voting in local elections, as a right and also […]

The post Peterborough Together: A sense of belonging appeared first on The Moment Magazine.


          [ETS2] 유로트럭시뮬레이터2 마을과 도시      Cache   Translate Page      

 

본 글은, 2018년 11월 6일부로 SCS Soft 공식 블로그에 올라온,

Towns and Cities (마을과 도시)글의 해석본입니다.

(원문 보러가기)

 

제작자의 의도와 다르거나 오역/잘못된 부분이 있을 수 있습니다.

 

 

* * *

 

 

발트해를 에워싼 나라에는 아름다운 해안선, 숲 그리고 산이 다수 존재합니다.

그리고 이곳에는 고래, 사슴 그리고 늑대와 같은 다양한 야생동물이 서식하기도 하지만, 이는 이곳에서만 볼 수 있는 희귀종은 아닙니다.

발트해 연안의 인구수는 약 8,500만 명으로 다양한 환경, 문화 그리고 국적을 가진 사람들로 구성되어있습니다.

 

이번 글에서는 곧 출시될 '발트해의 저편 DLC ('Beyond The Baltic Sea DLC)'에 포함되는 국가의 도시, 마을 그리고 시골에 초점을 맞추려 합니다.

 

 

 

 

 

#.1

루터교회 / 에스토니아 타르투

(Peetri kirik, Tartu, Estonia)

 

 

'발트해의 저편 DLC'에는 새롭고 다양한 많은 도시가 존재합니다.

여러분은 크고 잘 발전된 대도시를 탐색하거나 규모가 작지만 오래된 마을에 가볼 수도 있습니다.

이 모든 도시는 수작업을 통해 제작되었으며 무수히 많은 유명 랜드마크, 사적지 등이 존재합니다!

만약 여러분이 국경을 넘어가게 된다면 가급적 천천히 주행하며 우리의 유능한 팀이 제작한 다양한 것들을 꼼꼼하게 살펴봐 주시기를 바랍니다.

우리는 곧 출시될 지도 확장 DLC에 대한 커뮤니티의 기대에 부응하기 위해 새로운 프리뷰 이미지를 여러분께 공개하게 된 것을 기쁘게 생각합니다!

 

 

 

 

 

#.2

탈린 공항 / 에스토니아 탈린

(Tallinn airport, Estonia)

 

 

 

 

 

#.3

에스토니아 탈린

(Tallinn, Estonia)

 

 

 

 

 

#.4

루가 / 러시아

Луга (Luga), Russia

 

 

 

 

 

#.5

리투아니아 클라이페다

(Klaipėda, Lithuania)

 

 

 

 

 

#.6

비즈니스 센터 / 리투아니아 카우나스

(Buisines center, Kaunas, Lithuania)

 

 

 

 

 

#.7

엔들라 극장 / 에스토니아 패르누

(Endla teater, Pärnu, Estonia)

 

 

 

 

 

#.8

기념 조형물 / 러시아

(Some kind of monument in Russia)

 

 

 

 

 

#.9

감리교회 / 에스토니아 탈린

(Metodisti kirik, Tallinn, Estonia)

 

 

 

 

 

#.10

레제크네 대성당 / 라트비아 레제크네

(Rēzekne cathedral, Rēzekne, Latvia)

 

 

 

 

 

#.11

 

 

 

 

 

#.12

라트비아 벤츠필스

(Ventspils, Latvia)

 

 

 

 

 

#.13

낙하산병 기념 조형물 / 러시아 프스코프

(Monument to paratroopers, Псков (Pskov), Russia)

 

 

 

 

 

:: 발트해의 저편 DLC 찜 하러 가기 ::

 

 

* * *

 

 

아메리칸 트럭 시뮬레이터의 새 트럭인 볼보 VNL이 발표된 데 이어 이번에는

유로 트럭 시뮬레이터2의 새로운 DLC인 '발트해의 저편 DLC'와 관련된 글이 올라왔습니다.

(스크린샷 아래 주석은 공식 블로그 댓글을 참고하여 붙여놓은 것입니다)

 

문화나 역사와 관련된 랜드마크가 주를 이루는 이번 DLC는 관광지가 주를 이루는 서유럽과는 또 다른 분위기로 다가옵니다.

 

이제 발트해의 저편 DLC의 출시가 머지않은 것 같은데, 새로운 DLC를 접하기 전에 어디부터 구경하러 갈지 계획을 세워보는 것도 나쁘지 않을 것 같습니다.

 


          A Minor Revolt?      Cache   Translate Page      
R' Shalom Cohen, head of the Shas Moetzas Chachmei HaTorah (YWN)
“There’s something happening here.” “What it is ain’t exactly clear.” So goes the opening lines to For What it’s Worth, the Buffalo Springfield protest song from the Viet Nam War era.

I thought of these lines as I reflect on two events that happened in Israel last week. One is the election of Dr. Aliza Bloch, - a Dati (religious but not Charedi) woman - as the new mayor of Bet Shemesh. A win she achieved with the help of a significant number of Charedi voters. The other is perhaps even more surprising. From the New York Times
In Haifa, one of the leading Haredi parties, Degel HaTorah, or Flag of the Torah — representing the so-called Lithuanian wing of the non-Hasidic ultra-Orthodox — broke with the others and endorsed a nonreligious woman, Einat Kalisch Rotem, 48, who rolled to victory over a longtime incumbent to become the first woman elected as mayor of Israel’s third-largest city. 
Now it is true that Haifa is perhaps the most a secular city in all of Israel Certainly of that size. I do not believe the incumbent was any more religious than the new mayor-elect. Which makes it a bit surprising that Degel HaTorah, The Yeshiva world’s political arm bothered to endorse anybody there. But they did. And - surprise! – it was a secular woman.  And they even congratulated the winner: 
Even more groundbreaking, Degel HaTorah leaders celebrated and even bragged about Ms. Rotem’s victory in public. One of the party’s elected lawmakers, Moshe Gafni, placed a fawning congratulatory call to her — “Now you can do everything you think should be done,” he said. “We are with you” — and then posted a videotape of the call online. And when the new mayor-elect showed up at one of the sect’s synagogues late that night, hundreds of young yeshiva students sang and danced around her as if she were a renowned Torah scholar. 
To say that I am shocked by all of this would be an understatement of immense magnitude. Yeshiva students singing and dancing around a secular woman?! Because she won an election?!

I have no clue about the politics behind this. But my guess is that her policies in some way benefit the Charedi wolrd. (Although it’s hard to see how the agenda of the secular mayor of Haifa could ever do that.)

What makes this interesting is the fact that – as the Times notes - women in the Charedi world are never endorsed for a leadership position of any kind. Much less as the mayor of a major city. In fact Charedi parties forbade women from even becoming members until a recent ruling by the courts that said it was  discriminatory to do so and therefore illegal. The parties removed that provision. But as of now there has been no attempt by a Charedi party to invite women into it. Much less to serve as a member of the Knesset.

To illustrate just how much opposition there is to women serving in any leadership capacity - there was an unsigned poster circulated in Bet Shemesh just before the election. It said in the strongest possible terms - something to the effect that it is against the Torah to vote for a woman and those who do will be put into virtual Cherem. Meaning that they would be completely ostracized from all communal activity such as being counter for a Minyan or being called to the Torah. In other words a public shunning would be in effect for those that voted for Dr. Bloch.

In the case of Dr. Bloch this warning fell on deaf ears in much of the Charedi community. They voted for Aliza Bloch anyway. And in the case of a woman, Einat Rotem an endorsement by Charedi politicians is tantamount to an endorsement by their rabbinic leaders (whom they refer to as ‘the Gedolim’ and consider their pronouncements to be  Daas Torah.) The same leaders that will probably never allow a woman to be seated in the Keneset as a party member. 

What seems to be happening in one Bet Shemesh whose Charedi citizens comprise a majority of its population is a minor revolution. The election of Dr. Bloch precipitated an angry reaction by a Sephardi rabbinic leader. From YWN
Rav (Sholom) Cohen addressed claims of disapproval against (current Charedi mayor, Moshe) Abutbul from within the Chareidi camp: “They say that Moshe Abutbul did not take care of garbage collection and cleaning the streets. Phoeey (slang) on you! [טפו עליכם!]”
“What about the Torah related things that he did? Is there more cleanliness in the world than that? In Olam Habaah, they [Chareidi voters for Bloch] will be put into clean bathrooms. There, they will have clean bathrooms…”
“How do Yerei Shomayim who put on Tefillin in the morning not know how to weigh between this one (candidate) or this one? It is an embarrassment and a disgrace”, added Rav Cohen. 
Is it possible that ‘Daas Torah’ as it has existed til now in Israel has lost its luster? ...that it is no longer the powerhouse it once was? 

I recall the last mayoral election in Bet Shemesh. There was the same kind of pressure from Daas Torah then as there was this time. Their rabbinic leaders said at the time that it was a Chilul HaShem not to vote for the religious (Charedi) candidate. Charedim were all in. They campaigned hard for him and disparaged those that supported the opposing candidate.

But this time was different. The loss of the current Charedi mayor, Moshe Abutbul seems to have been taken in stride even by those that supported him. One fellow I spoke to casually who in the last election was all fired up in support of Abutbul said ‘I guess people just don’t like being told who to vote for’.  

I believe that shows a break from their Daas Torah. Until now if Daas Torah told the Charedi community that they had to vote for someone, they did. Not doing so was considered not listening to the Gedolim who pronouncements based on their vast Torah knowledge was seen as the closest thing to what God wanted as was humanly possible. And thus their opinion on all matters outweighed anyone else’s.

I wonder how far this break will go. I have always hoped for a grass roots uprising that would change the way things work in this world. I don’t know if we are there yet. But maybe this is it. We may just be witnessing the beginning of the winds of change. Daas Torah will not be eliminated as a factor. Nor should it be. We need to know what the ‘wisdom of the Torah’ is on all matters. Religious leaders steeped in Torah are the best ones to give us that information. 

But they are human and subject to error. Perhaps this break by Charedi voters was a wake up call about whether the views of the past actually were the wisdom of the Torah. Maybe the Charedi leadership in Israel will now realize that some of their views of were in error. Maybe – just maybe they will now have a new perspective that will enable their people to live better lives while still  

          Love Island star Idris Virgo struggles to fourth-round decision win over journeyman fighter in comeback fight after reality TV stint      Cache   Translate Page      
LOVE Island star Idris Virgo struggled to a fourth-round decision win in his comeback fight at Ultimate Boxxer. The super middleweight extended his record to 3-0 with a victory over Lithuanian journeyman Vaidas Balciauskas, 31. The 25-year-old returned to the ring for the first time since his appearance on the hugely popular dating show this […]
          Lithuanian Art Gets a Permanent Home at MO Museum      Cache   Translate Page      
The building of Mo Museum by Norbert Tukaj
An exhibition titled All Art Is About Us at the newly-opened Mo Museum in Vilnius features some of the crucial artworks of Lithuanian art in the last five decades.
          Product For Sale: Citadels      Cache   Translate Page      

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€27.00 for Board Game: Citadels
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          UNPay and President of Lithuania In Talks on Possible Fintech Cooperation      Cache   Translate Page      
SINGAPORE / SHANGHAI, CHINA – Media OutReach – 7 November 2018 – UNPay and the President of Lithuania, Dalia Grybauskaitė, had a fruitful discussion yesterday on the future of financial technology (fintech) at The China-Lithuania Economic Cooperation Forum and the China-Lithuania Financial Science and Technology Cooperation. UNPay founder and CEO, Zhang Zhenghua, in discussion with President […]
          Price Drop: Spiko for Whatsapp (Utilities)      Cache   Translate Page      

Spiko for Whatsapp 2.3


Device: iOS Universal
Category: Utilities
Price: $4.99 -> Free, Version: 2.3 (iTunes)

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Have you ever received voice messages in Whatsapp and wasn't able to listen at that time ?

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          „Hella Lithuania“: iki 2021 m. pardavimas sieks 100 mln. Eur      Cache   Translate Page      
Elektronikos komponentus automobilių pramonei gaminanti vokiško kapitalo UAB „Hella Lithuania“ per artimiausius dvejus metus planuoja pasiekti 100 mln. Eur pardavimo pajamas. 250 darbuotojų mokymams planuojama panaudoti 1 mln. Eur.
          LaMelo Ball to Return to High School, LiAngelo Ball Aims for G League      Cache   Translate Page      

Lithuania didn’t work out and the Junior Basketball Association seems to be undercut by the NBA G League so now LaMelo and LiAngelo Ball are exploring new paths to get to the NBA. LiAngelo Ball will be attempting to join the G league, while LaMelo will enroll in a high school in Ohio. The Atletic’s […]

The post LaMelo Ball to Return to High School, LiAngelo Ball Aims for G League appeared first on The Source.


          11/7/2018: News: Lithuanian man is charged with the murder of ‘gentle giant’ Dimitry (24)      Cache   Translate Page      

A YOUNG man has been charged with the murder of a seven-foot, six-inch tall man known in his Kerry home as ‘the gentle giant’. Arnoldas Ivanauskas (32) appeared before Killarney District Court charged with the murder of Russian-born Dimitry Hrynkevich...
           Parliament allows Lithuania to send more troops to international operations - The Baltic Times      Cache   Translate Page      
VILNIUS - Lithuania will be able send more troops and civilians to international operations in the next two years.   ......
           Lithuanian airports ''bursting'', need upgrading, transport minister says - The Baltic Times      Cache   Translate Page      
VILNIUS – Lithuanian airports and road infrastructure are bursting and need upgrading, Transport Minister Rokas Masiulis says, adding that......
           ESO applies narrowband internet of things: first results bring pleasant surprise - The Baltic Times      Cache   Translate Page      
Preparing for a mass rollout of smart metering in Lithuania, JSC Energijos Skirstymo Operatorius (ESO) has started the active testing of NB-IoT ......
           Tender for oil production in western Lithuania fails due to lack of interest - The Baltic Times      Cache   Translate Page      
VILNIUS – The first in six years tender for oil exploration and production in the Silute-Taurage area of western Lithuania failed after th......
           Lithuanian defmin meets Georgian counterpart in Batumi - The Baltic Times      Cache   Translate Page      
BATUMI – Lithuanian Minister of National Defense Raimundas Karoblis, currently on a visit to Georgia, on Friday met with his Georgian coun......
           Lithuania marks 100 years of women's vote amid calls for tackling violence, pay gap - The Baltic Times      Cache   Translate Page      
VILNIUS – Lithuania on Friday marks 100 years since women were granted the right to vote. Activists and ex......
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          Jews and South African History      Cache   Translate Page      
Jews from Lithuania went to South Africa between 1880 and 1940. Many Jews became dentists and came to England.South African Jews were prominent in fighting for racial equality. MandelaIn South Africa
          Lemberg/Lvov/Lviv      Cache   Translate Page      
Lemberg is in Ukraine. I gave a talk on it and was told we should not say The Ukraine. It's just Ukraine, like America or Australia.Kiev is Ukraine's capital. I used to muddle up Ukraine and Lithuania
          Jews and South African History      Cache   Translate Page      
Jews from Lithuania went to South Africa between 1880 and 1940. Many Jews became dentists and came to England.South African Jews were prominent in fighting for racial equality. MandelaIn South Africa
          Lemberg/Lvov/Lviv      Cache   Translate Page      
Lemberg is in Ukraine. I gave a talk on it and was told we should not say The Ukraine. It's just Ukraine, like America or Australia.Kiev is Ukraine's capital. I used to muddle up Ukraine and Lithuania
          International Rhythmic Gymnastic Tournament «GK Fortuna Winter cup 2019», 15-17.02.2019, Prienai, Lithuania      Cache   Translate Page      

 

International Rhythmic Gymnastic Tournament
«GK Fortuna Winter cup 2019» 
15-17.02.2019, Prienai, Lithuania

 

...

          eBay Product Listing - No Experience Required - Upwork      Cache   Translate Page      
Hello!

We are looking for eBay product researcher and lister

Requirements:
*Fluent English speaking and writing skills
*Looking for a long-term job
*Fast learner,  and dedicated to learning new skills
*Available to work at least 5 days a week and minimum 30hours per week


This job is about paying attention to little details and being focused all the time if you can do that, then we are waiting for you.

Job example: Create a well-optimized title using title-builder.com or zik analytics ( title needs to make sense, not just drop of random words), checking and fulfilling item specifications so they would make sense and represent the item perfectly, editing item description so it would be clear and good-looking, doing item price calculation with our calculator.  ( Full training will be provided. )

To create 1 listing, it takes about 4-7 minutes(depends on every single listing and experience).  We are paying 0.18$ per list, so you are looking at making around 1.6-3$/hour. Please pay attention that we are looking for quality listings, not quantity.

You will also have to create a new computer user and connect to new proxy ( IP ) for safety purposes. I will guide you all through the process.

Budget: $100
Posted On: November 07, 2018 15:29 UTC
ID: 214654492
Category: Admin Support > Personal / Virtual Assistant
Skills: AliExpress, eBay Listing/Writing, Virtual Assistant
Country: Lithuania
click to apply
          Nevezis - Neptunas      Cache   Translate Page      
Basketball. Lithuania. LKL / Men.
          Pieno Zvaigzdes - Juventus      Cache   Translate Page      
Basketball. Lithuania. LKL / Men.
          Siauliai - Lietkabelis      Cache   Translate Page      
Basketball. Lithuania. LKL / Men.
          Man charged with 2015 Tralee murder remanded in custody      Cache   Translate Page      
Tralee Court - Radio Kerry News - EHA man charged with murdering a man in Tralee three years ago has been remanded in custody for two weeks. 24-year-old Dmitriy Hrynkevich died in hospital two days after he was found assaulted in Killeen Woods on September 30th, 2015. 32-year-old Arnoldas Ivanauskas of 111 Parklands, Tralee, and originally from Lithuania, appeared before Tralee District […]
          Atlantas - Trakai      Cache   Translate Page      
Football. Lithuania. A Lyga
          Suduva - Zalgiris      Cache   Translate Page      
Football. Lithuania. A Lyga
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Football. Lithuania. A Lyga
          Prienai - Lietuvos Rytas      Cache   Translate Page      
Basketball. Lithuania. LKL / Men.
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Basketball. Lithuania. LKL / Men.
          Comentario en Renacentista NARS por RozaReP      Cache   Translate Page      
The transport development has caused objective problems for traffic in cities around the world, including Latvia, and the reason for this is a rapid increase in the number of vehicles. Road congestion is the most urgent problem in a trip planning because it affects the total time of transportation and, therefore, costs that have a particular relevance to the logistics industry. The quality of the roads, a painful subject in the past, has a significant impact on transportation time. Without high-quality roads, it is impossible to improve the efficiency of transport, which, in the context of economic globalization, is said to be one of the main directions for the logistics development.Rolands petersons privatbank Promises against statistics At the end of 2017, according to the report "Global Competitiveness Index", which was annually compiled by experts from the World Economic Forum, Latvia was not ranked among the top 100 countries of the world's rating. (out of 137 countries participating in the ranking, Latvia took 107th place, and Lithuania and Estonia took the 37th and 38th places) Despite this, VAS (State Roads of Latvia) announced that, despite the increase in traffic on Latvian roads, their quality has been improved in recent years. EU assessment - Stable 3 points. In 2017, 65.1 million euros were spent on the development of the national roads, including 32.3 million for the summer period works, and 32.8 million for the winter period works.Rolands petersons privatbank In the same year, it was also planned to spend 37 million more, compared with the previous year. However, even these investments have not resulted in the average level of road quality in the European Union.Rolands petersons privatbank According to the latest report, the average level in the EU is estimated at 4.76 points, Latvia, compared to that has been given 3.05 points. The state of the roads not only hinders the development of the logistics industry but also contributes to the disproportionate level and the pace of social and economic development of the regions.Rolands petersons privatbank The most remote regions of Latvia can develop tourism facilities, offer industrial premises for entrepreneurs, etc. however, if there is no road system to get to these cites, no results shall be expected.Rolands petersons privatbank Financing is eight times less than it needs to be. "Requests for the organization of roads," "Road quality is catastrophic" - these headlines often appear in the mass media, while road maps try to reduce the existing damage by implementation of available sources, however, there is no sign of a significant improvement, when the funding is eight times less than it is necessary.Rolands petersons privatbank At the same time, we make the mistake of struggling only with the consequences of the disease, when we need to identify the root of the problem and take the preventive measures. One of the main problems that can be figured out now is the climate of the country, which in Latvia will not change significantly in the future, therefore, the problem will remain constant.Rolands petersons privatbank The number of vehicles will also increase, so the question is: how to increase financing, which is the most important addition to the urgent issues.Rolands petersons privatbank 130 million euros are required annually for maintenance and repair works of local and gravel roads but this amount cannot be provided only by EU funds. It is also completely unclear how the situation will look like in 2020, after the end of EU funding program. Without the excise tax on fuel, there is no chance for survival The fact that the change is expected in 2020, the spring of 2018 is said to be the moment to start an intensive work and stimulate actions - change existing arrangements related to the existing tax system (only a third of the tax, paid by road users, are redirected to roads).Rolands petersons privatbank The time when it was possible to pull out a part of the income from tax has passed. Furthermore, we need to increase the number of public-private partnership projects in the sphere of the road construction, although this stage requires a proper preparation.Rolands petersons privatbank In addition to financing, other necessary support measures need to be introduced: dumping water from roads in certain areas, timely planning, more restrictive control on roads, etc.Rolands petersons privatbank
          Comentario en Renacentista NARS por alenReP      Cache   Translate Page      
The free movement of goods, services, capital, and people-these are the pillars that form an essential foundation for welfare and employment in Europe.Rolands Petersons privatbank Mobility is the fundamental premise for these four core values to be strengthened not only in the domestic market but also beyond its borders.Rolands Petersons privatbank This is particularly significant in the Baltic Sea region, where a well thought-out and developed transport system is one of the positive development factors. Flight-related activities have both direct and indirect impact on the economy. The direct impact includes the income derived from the activities of airline personnel and ground handling workers, whereas the indirect input implies all purchases in the aviation sector from locally based suppliers who basically do not represent the aviation sector. Additional impact on the economy of Latvia is formed by the costs of aviation sector employees and service providers. More than 30 airports are located in Lithuania There are four international airports operating in Lithuania - in Kaunas, Palanga, Siauliai, and, of course, in Vilnius, and there are more than 30 smaller airports and military airfields. In Estonia, airports are mainly located in the capital in Tallinn, as well as in Tartu, Kuressaare, Kerdle and Parnu. These are international airports, however, there are more than 15 private and military airports and so-called airports of local importance located throughout the country. Latvia still has only two international airports - in Riga and in Liepaja; there are also small airdromes, for example, in Spilva, in Tukums and Ventspils, and several other military flight platforms though. Riga International Airport entered the top five rapidly growing airports in Europe last year, which lead to an increase in the number of passengers by 16.2%. Therefore, it underscores the fact that even though the airport in Liepaja will have to put a lot of time and effort to its development, it brings a great potential, which can give a significant and valuable contribution to the domestic economy of the country.Rolands Petersons privatbank A successful start is taken after reconstruction The airport in Liepaja did a great job - in 2015 after its reconstruction was completed. At the airport a significant drainage effort was undertaken, a new cover for the take-off track was laid, the take-off strip was reinforced, the cover of the shunting route was improved and expanded, parking places for the aircraft were renovated as well. After Liepaja Airport was certified for commercial flights for the summer season in 2016, the Latvian national airline "AirBaltic" launched regular flights between Riga and Liepaja. During the first half of that year, more than 4,780 passengers were transported along this route. The five most popular destinations for transit flights along the Liepaja route include London, Berlin, Moscow, Copenhagen, and Hamburg, which, in general, brought very good results.Rolands Petersons privatbank Keeping in mind the processes that are still underway, it is important to mention the extensive capacity-building of the airports, environment protection in a long-term, enhancement of cooperation with other regional airports in Europe.Rolands Petersons privatbank It is not enough for Latvia to have only one high-capacity airport - we have a regional leader who can serve as an example of a successful market behavior for others.Rolands Petersons privatbank Support strategy for attracting new aviation communities Liepaja airport is the only example nowadays in terms of Latvian regional airports, however, I see several competitive regional airports in Latvia. To promote their development, a thorough analysis of the passengers' potential is needed, starting with linking their activities with the existing types of transport in the surrounding region, forming a support strategy to attract new aviation communities, passengers, and additional services for client groups, bearing in mind that the added value of airports is formed by airlines operating there, strategic cooperation partners and service providers.Rolands Petersons privatbank Without a doubt, it is also essential to study the ultimate goals of tourist destinations, in order to promote the growth of the travel market and ensure its positive impact on the economy.Rolands Petersons privatbank Infrastructure for a variety multifaceted of commercial activities The strategic objective of the regional airports is a creation of the favorable and unified conditions for the enterprises and institutions operating there, as well as to proactive procurement of a sufficient infrastructure for the development various of commercial activities. It is also necessary to develop new ways of cooperation in order to actively identify airlines that are ready to join the development of new travel destinations and to expand their market share in the airport.Rolands Petersons privatbank Apart from this, it is necessary to work on the incentive prerequisites for launching new flights. The imperfection of the transport system can no longer be an obstacle, with the 85 million inhabitants who live in the Baltic Sea region, who can be isolated or cut off from the rest of the European Union,Rolands Petersons privatbank or may face serious travel problems. The power generated by the economy and innovation provides the Baltic Sea Region with opportunities to create a modern, forward-looking transport system that will also contribute to the creation of a socially balanced economic policy.
          Comentario en Intral, el sueño de cualquier piel sensible por Football Solutions Under-21 2009 - History - Lithuania-Finland      Cache   Translate Page      
DOMINIC KING: Ross Barkley's Everton career is over after manager Ronald Koeman revealed the England international midfielder will be sold during the summer transfer window. Everton manager Ronald Koeman confirms Ross Barkley will '100 per cent' leave Goodison Park this summer after turning down new contract
          Norbert Preining: TeX Live/Debian updates 20181106      Cache   Translate Page      

All around updates in the TeX Live on Debian world: Besides the usual shipment of macro and font packages, we have uploaded a new set of binaries checked out from current svn, as well as the latest and shiniest version of biber to complement the macro update of biblatex.

The version for the binary packages is 2018.20181104.49075 and is based on svn revision 49075. That means we get:

  • new dvisvgm version 2.6.1
  • several bugfixes in dvipdfmx
  • addition of dviout-util (previously only available on Windows): dvispc, chkdvifont
  • various security related bugfixes

In addition to that, in Debian we switched to the separately packaged version of teckit instead of using the one shipped in TeX Live.

The version of the macro/font packages is 2018.20181106-1 and contains the usual set of updated and new packages, see below for the complete list. One important – though not functional – update is the one of hyph-utf8, where the license of the UK English patterns has changed from a TeX like license statement (changes allowed with renaming clause) that generates again and again puzzlement in the Debian community (latest instance is bug 912557, which actually spread out into other packages). Thanks to the original authors and the team of hyph-utf8 these patterns are now finally under the MIT license.

Biber has been updated to 2.12-1 which is compatible with the version of biblatex in the current set of packages.

The packages are already included in the archive but might need a bit until arriving at your local mirror.

Please enjoy.

New packages

biblatex-bath, brandeis-problemset, changelog, cluttex, colorprofiles, ditaa, facture-belge-simple-sans-tva, grabbox, identkey, pgf-cmykshadings, pst-moire, srdp-mathematik, thesis-qom, zhlineskip,

Updated packages

acmart, aeb-minitoc, arabluatex, arara, asciilist, babel, babel-belarusian, baskervillef, biblatex, biblatex-bath, biblatex-chem, biblatex-ext, biblatex-nature, biblatex-opcit-booktitle, biblatex-phys, biblatex-science, bidi, brandeis-problemset, catechis, changes, chemfig, cm, cochineal, colorprofiles, currency, diffcoeff, docsurvey, ducksay, europecv, exsol, facture-belge-simple-sans-tva, fancyvrb, firamath, fontawesome5, fonts-tlwg, footnoterange, grayhints, gtrlib-largetrees, hyphen-afrikaans, hyphen-ancientgreek, hyphen-armenian, hyphen-basque, hyphen-belarusian, hyphen-bulgarian, hyphen-catalan, hyphen-chinese, hyphen-churchslavonic, hyphen-coptic, hyphen-croatian, hyphen-czech, hyphen-danish, hyphen-dutch, hyphen-english, hyphen-esperanto, hyphen-estonian, hyphen-ethiopic, hyphen-finnish, hyphen-french, hyphen-friulan, hyphen-galician, hyphen-georgian, hyphen-german, hyphen-greek, hyphen-hungarian, hyphen-icelandic, hyphen-indic, hyphen-indonesian, hyphen-interlingua, hyphen-irish, hyphen-italian, hyphen-kurmanji, hyphen-latin, hyphen-latvian, hyphen-lithuanian, hyphen-mongolian, hyphen-norwegian, hyphen-occitan, hyphen-piedmontese, hyphen-polish, hyphen-portuguese, hyphen-romanian, hyphen-romansh, hyphen-russian, hyphen-sanskrit, hyphen-serbian, hyphen-slovak, hyphen-slovenian, hyphen-spanish, hyphen-swedish, hyphen-thai, hyphen-turkish, hyphen-turkmen, hyphen-ukrainian, hyphen-uppersorbian, hyphen-welsh, hyph-utf8, keyvaltable, komacv-rg, l3build, l3experimental, l3kernel, l3packages, latex2e-help-texinfo, latex2e-help-texinfo-spanish, latexdiff, latexindent, latex-make, latexmk, listofitems, lualibs, luaotfload, luatexja, luaxml, lwarp, multilang, nicematrix, onedown, pdfcomment, pgf-cmykshadings, platex-tools, plautopatch, pst-marble, reledmac, rutitlepage, spectralsequences, svg, tex4ht, texcount, tikzmark, toptesi, typed-checklist, uantwerpendocs, univie-ling, witharrows, xits.


          #russiangirl - olga_agara      Cache   Translate Page      
Goooooood evening ! 😚😚 . . . . #hello #meagain #portrait #blur #photo #selfie #bath #wethair #wethairlook #afterbath #lithuaniangirl #russiangirl #tallgirl #tallgirls #spots #dots #fit #instamood #mood #beauty #model #filter #eyes #green #greeneyes #blueeyes #longhair #brunette #darkhair
          Lithuania bans music video because it includes same-sex couples kissing      Cache   Translate Page      
Lithuania bans music video because it includes same-sex couples kissing
- However, Lithuanian broadcasters have banned the video from one of the country's biggest bans. In 2010, a 'gay propaganda' law passed banning ...

          Anping Glory Wire mesh products factory       Cache   Translate Page      
Anping Glory Wire Mesh Products Factory is a Professional Manufacturer Of Stainless Steel Woven Mesh,Welded mesh,Wire craft,and Filter elements Further Processing Series Products, Founded In 2000 In Anping County, The Anping county is Famous Wire Mesh Land Of China. We Rank Among to one of The Top Woven Wire Mesh ,Wire Craft and Filter Elements Design producting made and R&D of Factory in China. Glory Wire mesh factory Workshops Have For Professional Machines,12 sets Weaving Machines, Punch Machines, Lathe,Welding Machines,Punching machines,Cut sheets machines,Packing Machines, Circular seam-welding machine,Spot Welding machines,And Equip Test, Metrical Instrument. Also We Have Professional Technicians group And Managerial Staff. We Follow The "Not Short Cut For The Quality And Value ",Professional Engineer And Sales Group For Doing Business Service,Base On Our Advanced Technology And Complete Inspection System, We Base On ISO9001:2000 Quality Management System Certificate .We use to import raw material from Japan or Korea base on client request , The normal raw material use from Bigger Iron & Steel Group in China ,To Manufacture and producing ,make sure nice and suitable for Industrial demand. Our Products Included Stainless Steel woven mesh,Stainless steel wider wire mesh,Stainless Steel Filtration mesh, Stainless SteelCrimped Wire Mesh,Stainless Steel Security window Insert Screen,Stainless Steel Window Screen Mesh.Stainless Steel Decorative Wire Mesh,Stainless Steel Wedge Wire Screen,Stainless Steel Wedge Screen Panel,Stainless Steel Expanded mesh, Stainless Steel Flat Wedge Screen panel, Stainless Steel welded Mesh,Stainless Steel Woven Mesh Sleeve,Stainless steel Security Screen Stainless Steel Perforated Metal Sheet, Stainless Steel Checkered Plate,Stainless Steel Hexagonal Grid Mesh ,Stainless Steel Wire Mesh Conveyor Belt,Stainless Steel Wire Mesh Tray ,Florist Wire,Floral Easel. Floral Clamp.Floral wire netting .We Also Can Manufacture And Processing Customer Filtration Wire Mesh Products.As Your CAD Drawing Or Sample,Like Filter Disc Mesh,Filter Cylinder Mesh,Filter elementor parts,Then can make sure suitable your filter machines,Look like Y strainer ,Water treatment machines, gas and oil Filtration equipment System and so on . Our Stainless steel wire mesh ,woven wire mesh ,Welded mesh and Filter element products sell home market and export to Australia,USA,Russia,UK,Netherlands,Germany,Italy,Denmark,France,Estonia,Lithuania,Malta,Spain,Portugal,Greece, Finland,Poland,Serbia,Latvia,Turkey,Israeli,Saudi-Arabia,Dubai,Kuwait,Jordan,Egypt,Doha,Bahrain,Japan,Korea,Bangladesh. Indonesia,Malaysia,India,Pakistan,Thailand,Singapore,Philippines,Canada,Venezuela,Jamaica,Mexico,Colombia,Peru, Argentina,Brazil and so on. Our Wire And Wire Mesh Products are Widely Used In Construction Decoration, Ore Screening, Water treatment Filtration, Rubber and Plastic Filter separation Chemicals industry,Recycling,Replacement sieve system,Agricultural,Horticultural Spray.Foods and beverage processing,Coffee filtration system,Filter Mesh strainer,plastic material,edible oil and wheat flour processing and filtration industrial, pharmaceuticals,Oil and gas industrial ,paper industry,Gift Packaging, Floristry, Kitchenware,bathroom,Food processing and refine sugar Industry. Thanks to the help and support from friends both home and abroad,we have achieved constant,and our products enjoy good reputation from worldwide customers.Glory Factory would like to establish direct business relationship with foreign customers with our competitive price, prompt Delivery and reliable products.With Our Reliable Quality And Excellent Services.
          Be Kind to Yourself--Thought for the Day-7 November 2018      Cache   Translate Page      
My Dear Students and Disciples,Thanks for being here. On the order of my spiritual master, Srila Prabhupada, I am here to guide you how you can achieve the highest level of spiritual perfection, to thus become deathless and taste unlimited bliss at every minute. I always appreciate hearing from you. Let me know if you ever have any questions.​​​​​​​Sankarshan Das Adhikarisda@backtohome.com​​​​​​​ ​​Tuesday 6 November 2018Uploaded from Kaunas, Lithuania--Serving over 31,000 subscribers-- My Most Glorious Spiritual Master Dedicated with love to my most beloved spiritual master, His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada: Founder-Acharya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness. He has blessed me with the key of how to attain unlimited peace and happiness within my heart and how to bring perfect peace and happiness to the whole world. My Life's Mission: the Greatest Transformation in HistoryMy life's mission is to lead the whole world out of chaos by bringing the Supreme Person, the source of all existence, Krishna or God back to the center of the human society. If this can be accomplished, our global society will experience the greatest positive transformation in the history of the universe. The Ancient Vedic Scriptures Teach that Krishna is God(Not exactly an old man with a beard.) Be Kind to Yourself Our advice to everyone in the world is "Be kind to yourself." In this connection it is also said, "Charity begins at home." The beginning of kindness is to be merciful to yourself by putting yourself in the most advantageous position for becoming totally, completely satisfied in your life. In other words, why torture yourself unnecessarily when you could be tasting unlimited bliss at every minute? To do so would make absolutely no sense. But yet due to ignorance of the science of the self the whole world is suffering like anything on the roller coaster ride of happiness and distress, sometimes miserable, sometimes better, sometimes miserable, etc. Therefore those who are enlightened with transcendental knowledge, feeling compassion for those who are so tightly entangled in birth, death, old age, and disease, fully dedicate their lives for enlightening as many souls as possible in the science of the self so that they can also taste the transcendental bliss of being re-established in their original intimate loving relationship with that supreme all-beautiful, all-powerful, all-renounced, all-knowing, all-wealthy, and all-famous person who is the source of all existence.​​​​​​​ Click Here for Almost 1,000 Enlightening Videos Lectures on the Science of the Absolute Truth Click Here to Hear Recent Lectures on Sound Cloud! Click Here for Archive of Thousands of Lectures Video for the Day Click Here to See on Facebook Do Not Miss This! ​​​​​​​See All of the Videos:www.VideoForTheDay.com Answers According to Vedic Wisdom Questions and Answers by the Sacred Yamuna River--7 November 2015 Question: Morality Defined by Individual or Society?Dear Srila Gurudeva,Please accept my humble obeisances. All glories to Srila Prabhupada.A local 'life coach' asked the following question. Instead of me replying I wanted to get an answer from you instead, as I know your knowledge will be of greater help to me and him.Question: Is morality defined by each individual or society as a whole?Sincerely,Joe Answer: NeitherFrom: Kaunas, LithuaniaMy Dear Joe,Please accept my blessings.All glories to Srila Prabhupada.Neither. Morality is defined by God.I hope this meets you in the best of health and in an ecstatic mood.Your ever well-wisher,Sankarshan Das Adhikari Receive the Special Blessings of Krishna Now you too can render the greatest service to the suffering humanity and attract the auspicious blessings of Lord Sri Krishna upon yourself and your family by assisting our mission. Click now on the link below: I Want to Help Deliver the World from Ignorance and Misery For Transcendental Association Connect With Other Members of this Join this Conference: http://groups.google.com/group/sda_students Lecture-Travel Schedule for 2018 www.ultimateselfrealization.com/schedule Follow: Searchable archives of all of course material: http://www.sda-archives.com Copyright 2003-2018 by Sankarshan Das Adhikari. Distribution of this material is encouraged. Simply we request you to acknowledge where it is coming from with a link to our sign up page: www.JoinCourse.comOur records indicate that at requested to be enrolled to receive e-mails from the Ultimate Self Realization Course at: This request was made on: From the following IP address: {contact_address}
          New Issue: International Legal Materials      Cache   Translate Page      
The latest issue of International Legal Materials (Vol. 57, no. 5, October 2018) is out. Contents include:
  • Abu Zubaydah v. Lithuania (Eur. Ct. H.R.), with introductory note by Christina M. Cerna
  • MP v. Secretary of State for the Home Department (CJEU), with introductory note by Anne Aagten
  • United Nations Security Council Resolution 2379, with introductory note by Scott A. Gilmore

          Comment on Donec commodo lectus id sapien by sveetaFed      Cache   Translate Page      
The free movement of goods, services, capital, and people-these are the pillars that form an essential foundation for welfare and employment in Europe.Rolands petersons cpm trading Mobility is the fundamental premise for these four core values to be strengthened not only in the domestic market but also beyond its borders.Rolands petersons cpm trading This is particularly significant in the Baltic Sea region, where a well thought-out and developed transport system is one of the positive development factors. Flight-related activities have both direct and indirect impact on the economy.Rolands petersons cpm trading The direct impact includes the income derived from the activities of airline personnel and ground handling workers, whereas the indirect input implies all purchases in the aviation sector from locally based suppliers who basically do not represent the aviation sector. Additional impact on the economy of Latvia is formed by the costs of aviation sector employees and service providers. More than 30 airports are located in Lithuania There are four international airports operating in Lithuania - in Kaunas, Palanga, Siauliai, and, of course, in Vilnius, and there are more than 30 smaller airports and military airfields.Rolands petersons cpm trading In Estonia, airports are mainly located in the capital in Tallinn, as well as in Tartu, Kuressaare, Kerdle and Parnu. These are international airports, however, there are more than 15 private and military airports and so-called airports of local importance located throughout the country. Rolands petersons cpm trading Latvia still has only two international airports - in Riga and in Liepaja; there are also small airdromes, for example, in Spilva, in Tukums and Ventspils, and several other military flight platforms though.Rolands petersons cpm trading Riga International Airport entered the top five rapidly growing airports in Europe last year, which lead to an increase in the number of passengers by 16.2%. Therefore, it underscores the fact that even though the airport in Liepaja will have to put a lot of time and effort to its development, it brings a great potential, which can give a significant and valuable contribution to the domestic economy of the country.Rolands petersons cpm trading A successful start is taken after reconstruction The airport in Liepaja did a great job - in 2015 after its reconstruction was completed. At the airport a significant drainage effort was undertaken, a new cover for the take-off track was laid, the take-off strip was reinforced, the cover of the shunting route was improved and expanded, parking places for the aircraft were renovated as well. After Liepaja Airport was certified for commercial flights for the summer season in 2016, the Latvian national airline "AirBaltic" launched regular flights between Riga and Liepaja. During the first half of that year, more than 4,780 passengers were transported along this route.Rolands petersons cpm trading The five most popular destinations for transit flights along the Liepaja route include London, Berlin, Moscow, Copenhagen, and Hamburg, which, in general, brought very good results. Keeping in mind the processes that are still underway, it is important to mention the extensive capacity-building of the airports, environment protection in a long-term, enhancement of cooperation with other regional airports in Europe. It is not enough for Latvia to have only one high-capacity airport - we have a regional leader who can serve as an example of a successful market behavior for others.Rolands petersons cpm trading Support strategy for attracting new aviation communities Liepaja airport is the only example nowadays in terms of Latvian regional airports, however, I see several competitive regional airports in Latvia.Rolands petersons cpm trading To promote their development, a thorough analysis of the passengers' potential is needed, starting with linking their activities with the existing types of transport in the surrounding region, forming a support strategy to attract new aviation communities, passengers, and additional services for client groups, bearing in mind that the added value of airports is formed by airlines operating there, strategic cooperation partners and service providers.Rolands petersons cpm trading Without a doubt, it is also essential to study the ultimate goals of tourist destinations, in order to promote the growth of the travel market and ensure its positive impact on the economy. Infrastructure for a variety multifaceted of commercial activities The strategic objective of the regional airports is a creation of the favorable and unified conditions for the enterprises and institutions operating there, as well as to proactive procurement of a sufficient infrastructure for the development various of commercial activities. It is also necessary to develop new ways of cooperation in order to actively identify airlines that are ready to join the development of new travel destinations and to expand their market share in the airport. Apart from this, it is necessary to work on the incentive prerequisites for launching new flights.Rolands petersons cpm trading The imperfection of the transport system can no longer be an obstacle, with the 85 million inhabitants who live in the Baltic Sea region, who can be isolated or cut off from the rest of the European Union, or may face serious travel problems.Rolands petersons cpm trading The power generated by the economy and innovation provides the Baltic Sea Region with opportunities to create a modern, forward-looking transport system that will also contribute to the creation of a socially balanced economic policy.
          Word Origin | Beyin, İlik, Meni, Akıl, Ruh, Nefes, Soluk      Cache   Translate Page      

And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul, (Genesis 2:7)[*]. Over the centuries scholars of the Bible have debated whether or not man consists of two parts (dichotomous – “cut in two”) just body and soul/spirit or in three parts (trichotomous – “cut in three”), body, soul and spirit. 

[*] the breath of life [nishmat khayim חַיִּ֑ים נִשְׁמַ֣ת]; and man became a living soul [l’nephesh khaya לְנֶ֥פֶש חַיָּֽה] (Genesis 2:7). The Hebrew word נְשָׁמָה (n’shamah, “breath”) is used for God and for the life imparted to humans, not animals (see T. C. Mitchell, “The Old Testament Usage of N’shama,” VT 11 [1961]: 177-87). Its usage in the Bible conveys more than a breathing living organism (נֶפֶשׁ חַיַּה, nefesh khayyah). Whatever is given this breath of life becomes animated with the life from God, has spiritual understanding (Job 32:8), and has a functioning conscience (Proverbs 20:27)

This posting looks into word origins of this belief. 

 Mavi Boncuk |



Beyin: oldTR méñi brain EN[1], mind EN[2]
Oldest source: méñi "beyin, ilik" [ Uygurca (before c. 1000) ]
béyni "aynı anlamda" [ İbni Mühenna, Lugat (before c. 1300) ]


İlik: oldTR yilik, marrow[3]
Oldest source: yilik "kemik içindeki yumuşak doku" [ Uyghur before c. (1000) ]
ilik [ Divan-i Lugat-it Türk (1070) ]

Meni: AR minā/maniyy منا/منيّ semen, sperm EN[4]

Oldest source: [ (before c. 1300) ]

Akıl : mind EN[2] AR aḳl عقل Ar aḳala عقل 1. dizginledi, gem vurdu, 2. akıl süzgecinden geçirdi, akıl yürüttü
Oldest source: [ (before c. 1300) ]

Ruh: spirit[5] AR rūḥ روح [#rwḥ msd.] 1. nefes, soluk, rüzgâr, esinti, ruh, 2. güzel koku (= Aramaic rūχā רוחא a.a. = HEB rwχa רוח)
Oldest source: [ Darir (çev.), Kıssa-i Yusuf (1377 yılından önce) ]

Nefes: breath[6] AR nafas نفس soluk (Aramaic naphşā/npheşā נפשא Akkadian napāşu soluk alma )
Oldest source: [ (before c. 1300) ]

Soluk: breath[6] TR solu- +Ik → solu-
Oldest source: "nefes" [ Câmi-ül Fürs (1501) ]

[1] brain (n.) "soft, grayish mass filling the cranial cavity of a vertebrate," in the broadest sense, "organ of consciousness and the mind," Old English brægen "brain," from Proto-Germanic *bragnan (source also of Middle Low German bregen, Old Frisian and Dutch brein), of uncertain origin, perhaps from PIE root *mregh-m(n)o- "skull, brain" (source also of Greek brekhmos "front part of the skull, top of the head"). But Liberman writes that brain "has no established cognates outside West Germanic" and is not connected to the Greek word. More probably, he writes, its etymon is PIE *bhragno "something broken." The custom of using the plural to refer to the substance (literal or figurative), as opposed to the organ, dates from 16c. Figurative sense of "intellectual power" is from late 14c.; meaning "a clever person" is first recorded 1914. To have something on the brain "be extremely eager for or interested in" is from 1862. brain-fart "sudden loss of memory or train of thought; sudden inability to think logically" is by 1991 (brain-squirt is from 1650s as "feeble or abortive attempt at reasoning"). An Old English word for "head" was brægnloca, which might be translated as "brain locker." In Middle English, brainsick (Old English brægenseoc) meant "mad, addled." 

Hebrew has no word for ‘brain’. There are possible uses:
לב / Leb - "heart." In this case, the meaning is the literal organ of the heart, but it has a secondary / figurative meaning as the seat of emotions.
רוח / Ruah - "wind." Secondary meaning of "breath" and tertiary definition of "spirit."
נפש / Nepes - "soul." Also means life / person / will / intent / breath.

The closest words that I have found in Semitic languages are נפש (Hebrew for "soul"), שכל (Yiddish for "understanding"), and عقل (Arabic for "reason"), but not anything that quite seems to fit "mind."

As per the Greek translations. Jesus uses seven words in the Gospels to describe various parts of human existence. These words are translated in inconsistent ways in the English translation. Th ree seem to be basic elements : 1) the spirit or breath (pnuema), 2) the flesh (sarx), and 3) the mind (dianoia). There seem to be combinations of two of these elements: 1) the heart (kardia), a combination of mind and spirit, 2) life (zoe), a combination of the flesh and spirit, 3) and the body (soma), a combination of the flesh and mind. Finally, there is psyche, which is translated as soul and life, but it a combination of all three: mind, flesh, and spirit. We might describe this as the "self", our existence in this body, with these feeling and memories.

cerebral (adj.)
Meaning "intellectual, clever" is from 1929. Cerebral palsy attested from 1824, originally a general term for cases of paralysis that seemed to be traceable to "a morbid state of the encephalon." Used from c. 1860 in a more specific sense based on the work of English surgeon Dr. William Little.

1801, "pertaining to the brain," from French cérébral (16c.), from Latin cerebrum "the brain" (also "the understanding"), from PIE *keres-, from root *ker- (1) "horn; head."

ker- Proto-Indo-European root meaning "horn; head," with derivatives referring to horned animals, horn-shaped objects, and projecting parts.

It forms all or part of: alpenhorn; Capricorn; carat; carotid; carrot; carotene; cerato-; cerebellum; cerebral; cerebrum; cervical; cervix; charivari; cheer; chelicerae; corn (n.2) "hardening of the skin;" cornea; corner; cornet; cornucopia; cranium; flugelhorn; hart; hartebeest; horn; hornbeam; hornblende; hornet; keratin; kerato-; migraine; monoceros; reindeer; rhinoceros; saveloy; serval; triceratops; unicorn.

It is the hypothetical source of/evidence for its existence is provided by: Sanskrit srngam "horn;" Persian sar "head," Avestan sarah- "head;" Greek karnon "horn," koryne "club, mace," koryphe "head;" Latin cornu "horn," cervus "deer;" Old English horn "horn of an animal;" Welsh carw "deer."

[2] mind (n.)
late 12c., from Old English gemynd "memory, remembrance, state of being remembered; thought, purpose; conscious mind, intellect, intention," Proto-Germanic *ga-mundiz (source also of Gothic muns "thought," munan "to think;" Old Norse minni "mind;" German Minne (archaic) "love," originally "memory, loving memory"), from suffixed form of PIE root *men- (1) "to think," with derivatives referring to qualities of mind or states of thought.

Meaning "mental faculty" is mid-14c. "Memory," one of the oldest senses, now is almost obsolete except in old expressions such as bear in mind, call to mind. Mind's eye "remembrance" is early 15c. Phrase time out of mind is attested from early 15c. To pay no mind "disregard" is recorded from 1916, American English dialect. To make up (one's) mind "determine, come to a definite conclusion" is by 1821. To have half a mind to "to have one's mind half made up to (do something)" is recorded from 1726. Mind-reading is from 1882.

mind (v.)
mid-14c., "to remember, take care to remember," also "to remind oneself," from mind (n.). Meaning "perceive, notice" is from late 15c.; that of "to give heed to" is from 1550s; that of "be careful about" is from 1737. Sense of "object to, dislike" is from c. 1600; negative use (with not) "to care for, to trouble oneself with" is attested from c. 1600. Meaning "to take care of, look after" is from 1690s. Related: Minded; minding. Meiotic expression don't mind if I do attested from 1847.

[3] marrow (n.)
late 14c., from Old English mearg "marrow," earlier mærh, from Proto-Germanic *mazga- (source also of Old Norse mergr, Old Saxon marg, Old Frisian merg, Middle Dutch march, Dutch merg, Old High German marg, German Mark "marrow"), from PIE *mozgo- "marrow" (source also of Sanskrit majjan-, Avestan mazga- "marrow," Old Church Slavonic mozgu, Lithuanian smagenės "brain"). Figurative sense of "inmost or central part" is attested from c. 1400.

smegma (n.)
sebaceous secretion, 1819, from Latin, from Greek smegma "a detergent, soap, unguent," from smekhein "to wipe off, wipe clean, cleanse," from PIE root *sme- "to smear" (source also of Czech smetana "cream," and see smear (v.)). So called from resemblance; a medical coinage, the word seems not to have been used in its literal Greek sense in English before this.

semen (n.)
late 14c., from Latin semen "seed of plants, animals, or men; race, inborn characteristic; posterity, progeny, offspring," figuratively "origin, essence, principle, cause," from PIE *semen- "seed," suffixed form of root *sē- "to sow."

sperm (n.)
"male seminal fluid," late 14c., probably from Old French esperme "seed, sperm" (13c.) and directly from Late Latin sperma "seed, semen," from Greek sperma "the seed of plants, also of animals," literally "that which is sown," from speirein "to sow, scatter," from PIE *sper-mn-, from root *sper- "to spread, to sow" (see sparse). Sperm bank is attested from 1963.

spermaceti (n.)
"waxy, fatty stuff in the head of certain whales," late 15c., from Medieval Latin sperma ceti "sperm of a whale" (it has when fresh something of the appearance of sperm), from Latin sperma "seed, semen" (see sperm) + ceti, genitive of cetus "whale, large sea animal" The substance in olden times was credited with medicinal properties, as well as being used for candle oil.

Cetacea (n.)
order of marine mammals containing whales, 1795, Modern Latin, from Latin cetus "any large sea creature" (whales, seals, dolphins), from Greek ketos "a whale, a sea monster," which is of unknown origin, + -acea.

[5] spirit (n.)
mid-13c., "animating or vital principle in man and animals," from Anglo-French spirit, Old French espirit "spirit, soul" (12c., Modern French esprit) and directly from Latin spiritus "a breathing (respiration, and of the wind), breath; breath of a god," hence "inspiration; breath of life," hence "life;" also "disposition, character; high spirit, vigor, courage; pride, arrogance,#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000" related to spirare "to breathe," perhaps from PIE *(s)peis- "to blow" (source also of Old Church Slavonic pisto "to play on the flute"). But de Vaan says "Possibly an onomatopoeic formation imitating the sound of breathing. There are no direct cognates."

Meaning "supernatural immaterial creature; angel, demon; an apparition, invisible corporeal being of an airy nature" is attested from mid-14c.; from late 14c. as "a ghost" (see ghost (n.)). From c. 1500 as "a nature, character"; sense of "essential principle of something" (in a non-theological context, as in Spirit of St. Louis) is attested from 1680s, common after 1800; Spirit of '76 in reference to the qualities that sparked and sustained the American Revolution is attested by 1797 in William Cobbett's "Porcupine's Gazette and Daily Advertiser."

From late 14c. in alchemy as "volatile substance; distillate;" from c. 1500 as "substance capable of uniting the fixed and the volatile elements of the philosopher's stone." Hence spirits "volatile substance;" sense narrowed to "strong alcoholic liquor" by 1670s. This also is the sense in spirit level (1768). Also from mid-14c. as "character, disposition; way of thinking and feeling, state of mind; source of a human desire;" in Middle English freedom of spirit meant "freedom of choice." From late 14c. as "divine substance, divine mind, God;" also "Christ" or His divine nature; "the Holy Ghost; divine power;" also, "extension of divine power to man; inspiration, a charismatic state; charismatic power, especially of prophecy." Also "essential nature, essential quality." From 1580s in metaphoric sense "animation, vitality."


According to Barnhart and OED, originally in English mainly from passages in Vulgate, where the Latin word translates Greek pneuma and Hebrew ruah. Distinction between "soul" and "spirit" (as "seat of emotions") became current in Christian terminology (such as Greek psykhe vs. pneuma, Latin anima vs. spiritus) but "is without significance for earlier periods" [Buck]. Latin spiritus, usually in classical Latin "breath," replaces animus in the sense "spirit" in the imperial period and appears in Christian writings as the usual equivalent of Greek pneuma. Spirit-rapping is from 1852

[6] breath (n.)
Old English bræð "odor, scent, stink, exhalation, vapor" (Old English word for "air exhaled from the lungs" was æðm), from Proto-Germanic *bræthaz "smell, exhalation" (source also of Old High German bradam, German Brodem "breath, steam"), perhaps from a PIE root *gwhre- "to breathe; smell."



The original long vowel (preserved in breathe) has become short. Meaning "ability to breathe," hence "life" is from c. 1300. Meaning "a single act of breathing" is from late 15c.; sense of "the duration of a breath, a moment, a short time" is from early 13c. Meaning "a breeze, a movement of free air" is from late 14c.

.



          12 or 20 (second series) questions with Dorin Schumacher      Cache   Translate Page      

Dorin Schumacher’s 2017 and 2018 writings have appeared in The Brooklyn Rail, At Large, Fjords Review, Bridge Eight, Honeysuckle Magazine, Terminus, StatORec, Pank, Quiet Lunch, Roanoke Review (in press) and others. Her writing on silent film star Helen Gardner appears in Women Screenwriters (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), the Encyclopedia of Early Cinema(Routledge, 2010), This Film is Dangerous(FIAF, 2002) and other anthologies and publications. Her personal writing appears in The New York Times, Stonepile Writers Anthology (University of North Georgia Press, 2014), and numerous other publications. She is a nominee for the 2018 Pushcart Prize. She is the author of Gatsby’s Child: Coming of Age in East Egg (Mastodon, 2018) https://www.mastodonpublishing.com/shop/gatsbyschild/

1 - How did your first book change your life? How does your most recent work compare to your previous? How does it feel different?

Gatsby’s Child: Coming of Age in East Egg is my first memoir. I grew up among the ruins of the Beacon Towers castle that inspired F. Scott Fitzgerald to write The Great Gatsby. My father was a fake: a Jew trying to pass as Gentile and a man of modest means trying to pass as wealthy. I knew I had to pretend, so I did. Now I have told what really was going on.

2 - How did you come to fiction first, as opposed to, say, poetry or non-fiction?

When I was eight, my mother gave me a five-year diary that had about one square inch of space to write what happened that day and what I was feeling. I have been writing longer pieces ever since, including a PhD dissertation on French playwright Jean Giraudoux and many other genres. I think my first publication was an article in the local newspaper about our high school graduation party. I recall it was a glowing report from the narrow perspective of a popular girl. Later, I would create more ironic, less privileged perspectives.

3 - How long does it take to start any particular writing project? Does your writing initially come quickly, or is it a slow process? Do first drafts appear looking close to their final shape, or does your work come out of copious notes?

I get an idea that I want to express, mull it over for a while, come up with a title and first sentence and start developing it. I build a first draft in pieces as they come to me. Some may come at night as I am trying to go to sleep. I scribble them down and incorporate them in the morning.

4 - Where does a work of prose usually begin for you? Are you an author of short pieces that end up combining into a larger project, or are you working on a "book" from the very beginning?

All of the above. I write short pieces about funny and sad things I’ve experienced, like “Methane” (Quiet Lunch, 2017) and “Bathroom Words” (At Large, 2017). I also write and publish short pieces about the silent films my grandmother Helen Gardner made between 1910 and 1924. She was the first movie star to have her own production company, and she produced and starred in the first long feature made in the U.S., CLEOPATRA (Helen Gardner Picture Players, 1912). 

I select one of the 61 films she made and describe it as though we are watching it, and I channel her thoughts about the film and herself, so we are both inside and outside of her. An example is She Came, She Saw, She Conquered, 1911 (Bridge Eight, 2018) in which Gardner plays a schoolteacher who tames a class of delinquent boys. 

I will combine the Gardner pieces into a coffee-table book with 50 black-and-white still photographs, so the work really functions as individual pieces and an exquisite corpus.

5 - Are public readings part of or counter to your creative process? Are you the sort of writer who enjoys doing readings?

I love doing readings. I love the emotional connection with the audience.

6 - Do you have any theoretical concerns behind your writing? What kinds of questions are you trying to answer with your work? What do you even think the current questions are?

I am trying to say my truth. The truth as it was when I was a child and wasn’t allowed to express it, and the truth as I see it now. 

I feel that writing is a search for immortality.

7 – What do you see the current role of the writer being in larger culture? Does s/he even have one? What do you think the role of the writer should be?

The writer is a seer. A person who tells truth to power. A writer plays a very important role in society today.

8 - Do you find the process of working with an outside editor difficult or essential (or both)?

Essential.

11 - What kind of writing routine do you tend to keep, or do you even have one? How does a typical day (for you) begin?

I try to write in the morning while my mind still has its full energy. I write until the energy is exhausted and then I stagger through the rest of my day.

14 - David W. McFadden once said that books come from books, but are there any other forms that influence your work, whether nature, music, science or visual art?

I am fortunate in having a rich personal history to draw from. On my mother’s side, my silent-film star grandmother—an eccentric if there ever was one—and my blueblood pedophile grandfather.  My mother who was in ten Broadway shows in the Roaring Twenties and my father a secretive, ambitious, first generation immigrant. I will never run out of fascinating stories.

15 - What other writers or writings are important for your work, or simply your life outside of your work?

I like to read memoirs, especially by women and other singular voices. Tara Westover’s Educatedis a masterpiece of the genre. I’ve read Karl Ove Knausgaard’s My Struggle. Right now, I’m reading There There by the urban Native American Tommy Orange.  

16 - What would you like to do that you haven't yet done?

Live in France six months of the year. I love speaking French and love French culture and history. The rest of the year, live on the Upper West Side of Manhattan (where I was born) overlooking the Hudson River and immersing myself in the sophisticated culture New York offers.

17 - If you could pick any other occupation to attempt, what would it be? Or, alternately, what do you think you would have ended up doing had you not been a writer?

I have come late to full-time writing, after four other careers to support myself and my children and save for the future, during which I wrote mostly non-fiction.

If I had done what my father wanted, instead of my mother who didn’t care, I would have gone to Radcliffe and then Yale or Harvard Law and become an attorney and helped him evade the law. But he was such a terrible father he messed me up and it has taken me years to recover and get on my own track, now as a writer.

18 - What made you write, as opposed to doing something else?

After four careers and saving as much money as I could, I now can afford to write full time, a huge privilege.

19 - What was the last great book you read? What was the last great film?

The last great book: A Convenient Hatred, The History of Antisemitism by Phyllis Goldstein. I learned that if my father’s parents had not fled to the United States in the early 1880s to escape Lithuanian, Polish and Russian pogroms, I would never have been born. 

The local literary society shows delightful “small” films. I loved Jim Jarmusch’s PATERSON with Adam Driver.

20 - What are you currently working on?

I am working on answering your questions. And doing the final edits on my story “A Blooming Junior Year Abroad,” prior to submitting it to journals. Finalizing my three pieces on Helen Gardner’s groundbreaking VANITY FAIR (Vitagraph, 1911) in which she played Becky Sharp and became a star. Getting ready to go back to my final edits for ILLUMINATION (Vitagraph, 1912) in which she first displayed her talents as a vamp. I have four other Gardner pieces ready for final edits. I am also working on a funny (!) piece about scenes in an assisted living facility.





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