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          Próxima versão do Windows 10 (19H1) vai receber um novo “mixer” de volume      Cache   Translate Page      
Próxima versão do Windows 10 (19H1) vai receber um novo “mixer” de volume

A próxima versão do Windows 10 (conhecida como 19H1) deverá ter uma nova versão do clássico mixer de volume.

Para quem está menos familiarizado com este termo, o mixer de volume permite ao utilizar alterar o nível de volume por aplicação, podendo dessa forma, por exemplo, ter um reprodutor de ficheiros multimédia a um nível sonoro diferente do que é exibido no Windows ou numa janela do navegador enquanto assiste a um video no Youtube…

Na versão atual do Windows 10, o utilizador quando clica com o botão direito do rato no ícone de coluna localizado na área de notificação e optar por “Abrir o Misturador de Volume” verá uma janela clássica.

3.85 USD

My 5X7" (approx.) blank-inside photo greetings come with matching envelopes (A7 Size). This original 4X6" photo reprint is mounted on a CREAM-colored Strathmore Acid-free card. The card has an elegant embossed edge. Photos are printed on "Fujicolor Crystal Archive" paper. (No, watermarks will not appear on your card!) Each card is enclosed in a clear cello packet, and signed on the back. This image is in vertical format. Some of my cards are on black Strathmore stock, as shown. However, this one looks much better on cream. My elephant is also available in an animal variety pack. For savings on a 5-pack of this card or others, go to http://www.etsy.com/view_listing.php?listing_id=8073437 to choose, or for a 10-pack: http://www.etsy.com/view_listing.php?listing_id=15397248 "Your choice" 3-packs are listed here: http://www.etsy.com/view_listing.php?listing_id=8075110 .


I photographed this "Asian ELEPHANT in Don Chedi, Thailand" at a festival with a Minolta X-700. In Don Chedi, elephants are brought in for a re-enactment (show) of an ancient battle with Burma. If you're interested in other images, card packs, or beautiful enlargements, see my other listings. I have many seasonal, floral, Asia, & animal cards, etc. Please VISIT AGAIN soon as my store is new and I'm constantly listing new inventory! Each photo item will come with a small hand-folded origami paper crane, just for fun!

If you can't bear to give this card away, it's frame-able. If you are in any way unsatisfied with your purchase, it has a money-back guarantee. They come from a smoke-free home and will be packed well. On additional purchases, you'll enjoy a shipping and quantity discount. Note: Images are copyrighted! Please contact me with any questions. Thanks for looking.


          Why Do Myanmar Public Hate Rohingya So Much?      Cache   Translate Page      
25 Oct 2018 - During the Q and A at the National Press Club of Japan, the country's ruling class venue, a Japanese reporter asked me this question in English. She had been to Burma and said she found difficult to understand the palpable and pervasive hatred that Burmese public display towards Rohingyas.
          သန္းဝင္းလွိဳင္ - ေဒါက္တာမတ္      Cache   Translate Page      

သန္းဝင္းလွိဳင္ - ေဒါက္တာမတ္
ႁမန္မာ့သမိုင္းတစ္ေကြ႕မွ ႏိုင္ငံႁခားသားမ်ား

(မိုးမခ) ႏို၀င္ဘာ ၇၊ ၂၀၁၈

ေဒါက္တာမာ့က္စ္ (John Ebegen Marks) ကို ႁမန္မာ တို႔က ''ဆရာမတ္''ဟူ၍လည္းေကာင္း၊ ''ဆရာမွတ္ႄကီး'' ဟူ၍လည္းေကာင္း တစ္ခ်ိန္က ႁမန္မာတို႔ႏႈတ္ဖ်ားဝယ္ ေရပန္း စားခဲ့ေသာ ထင္ရွားသည့္ ေက်ာင္းဆရာႄကီးႏွင့္ သာသနာႁပဳ ပုဂိၢဳလ္ႄကီး ႁဖစ္သည္။

သူသည္ ရန္ကုန္ႃမိဳ႕ မင္းရဲေက်ာ္စြာလမ္းရွိ ဒပ္ဖရင္ေဆး႐ံု (ယခုဗဟိုအမ်ိဳးသမီးေဆး႐ံု)ႄကီးအနီး၌ စိန္႔ဂြ်န္းေကာလိပ္ေခၚ စိန္႔ဂြ်န္းေယာက်ာ္းကေလး အထက္တန္းေက်ာင္း (ယခု လမ္းမေတာ္ အထက အမွတ္ ၁) ကို စတင္တည္ေထာင္ႃပီး ေက်ာင္းဆရာလုပ္ကာ၊ ႁမန္မာႏိုင္ငံတြင္ ႁမန္မာလူမ်ိဳးမ်ား အႂကား၌ ႏွစ္ေပါင္း ၄၀ တိုင္ ေနထိုင္သြားခဲ့သူ ႁဖစ္သည္။ သူသည္ ႁမန္မာတို႔ကို အလြန္ခင္မင္တြယ္တာ၍ သံေယာဇဥ္ ႄကီးသူတစ္ဦးလည္း ႁဖစ္သည္။ အလံုေဒသ၌ အေနမ်ားခဲ့ ေသာေႂကာင့္ အလံုရပ္တြင္ရွိေသာ လမ္းတစ္လမ္းကို ''ဆရာ မွတ္ႄကီးလမ္း''ဟူ၍ ေခၚေဝၚသမုတ္ခဲ့ရာ ထိုအမည္မွာ ၁၉၈၉ ခုႏွစ္၊ ဇန္နဝါရီ ၁၇ ရက္ေန႔အထိ တြင္ခဲ့သည္။ ထို႔ေနာက္ ၁၉၈၉ ဇန္နဝါရီလ ၁၈ ရက္တြင္ နဝတေခတ္ မ်ိဳးခ်စ္ စစ္ဗိုလ္ခ်ဳပ္မ်ားက ''ေဝဘာဂီလမ္း''ဟု အမည္ေႁပာင္းလဲ ေသာေႂကာင့္ သူ႕အမည္ ေပ်ာက္ကြယ္သြားခဲ့ရေပသည္။


ဆရာမွတ္ႄကီးသည္ သာမန္ေက်ာင္းဆရာမွ်သာမဟုတ္။ ရတနာပံုႃမိဳ႕တည္နန္းတည္ ပဥၥမသဂၤါယနာ မင္းတုန္းမင္းႄကီး (၁၈၁၄-၁၈၇၈) ကိုယ္တိုင္က လြန္စြာခ်စ္ခင္ႁမတ္ႏိုးေတာ္မူ သႁဖင့္ မႏၱေလးေရႊႃမိဳ႕ေတာ္၌ စာသင္ေက်ာင္းတစ္ေဆာင္၊ ခရစ္ ယန္ ဘုရားရွိခိုးေက်ာင္းတစ္ေဆာင္၊ ဆရာမ်ားႏွင့္ ေက်ာင္း အိပ္ေက်ာင္းစား တပည့္မ်ား ေနစရာေဘာ္ဒါေက်ာင္းတစ္ေဆာင္ အသီးသီး ေဆာက္လုပ္လွဴဒါန္းႁခင္း ႁပဳခဲ့႐ံုမွ်မက ေက်ာင္း စရိတ္ ေက်ာင္းလခမ်ားကိုလည္း ဘုရင္မင္းႁမတ္က အႁမဲမႁပတ္ ေထာက္ပံ့လွဴဒါန္းေတာ္မူခဲ့ေလသည္။ ထို႔အႁပင္ မင္းတရားႄကီး က သူ၏ရင္ေသြးေတာ္မ်ားကိုပင္ ၎ထံတြင္ ယံုမွတ္အပ္ႏွံကာ အဂၤလိပ္စာႏွင့္ အႁခားေလာကဓာတ္စာေပ (သိပၸံပညာရပ္ဆိုင္ ရာ)မ်ားကို သင္ႂကားပို႔ခ်ေစခဲ့သည္။

ဤအေႂကာင္းႏွင့္ပတ္သက္၍ နဂါးဗိုလ္ထိပ္တင္ေထြး၏ ''ရတနာသီခကုန္းေဘာင္မဟာရာဇဝင္အက်ဥ္း'' စာအုပ္ (တတိယအႄကိမ္ ၂၀၁၃) စာမ်က္ႏွာ ၂၉၄ ၌-

ဘဝရွင္ မင္းတုန္းမင္းတရားႄကီးဘုရားသည္ အဂၤလိပ္ပညာကို အမ်ားႁပည္သူတို႔ သင္ႂကားေစရန္ အဂၤလိပ္ ဘုန္းေတာ္ႄကီးရယ္ဘရင္ေဒါက္တာမတ္ကို တစ္လလွ်င္ ေငြ ေတာ္ ၃၀ဝ ေက်ာ္ေပး၍ သံတဲတြင္ ေက်ာင္းဖြင့္၍ သူေဌး သူျကြယ္ကုန္သည္သားမ်ားႏွင့္ မင္းညီမင္းသားတို႔ကို စာသင္ ေစသည္။ တစ္ႏွစ္လွ်င္ ေက်ာင္းသား ၃၀ဝ ထက္ မနည္း ရွိေလသည္''ဟူ၍ ေရးသားေဖာ္ႁပထားသည္။

 ဤကဲ့သို႔ ဘုရင္မင္းႁမတ္၏ ယံုႂကည္စိတ္ခ်ႁခင္းခံရ႐ံုမွ် သာမက ရင္းရင္းႏွီးႏွီး ဆက္ဆံႁခင္း ျပဳခံခဲ့ရဆံုးေသာႏိုင္ငံႁခားသားတစ္ဦးလည္း ႁဖစ္သည္။

ဆရာမွတ္ႄကီးေခၚ ဂြ်န္အီဘင္နီဇာမာ့(က္စ္) (John Ebenezer Marks) ကို ၁၈၃၂ ခုႏွစ္ ဇြန္လ ၄ ရက္တြင္ ႃဗိတိန္ႏိုင္ငံ အဂၤလန္ႁပည္ လန္ဒန္ႃမိဳ႕၌ ဖြားႁမင္ခဲ့သည္။ သူသည္ ဂ်ဴးလူမ်ိဳးမွ ဆင္းသက္ေပါက္ဖြားလာသူ ႁဖစ္သည္။ ငယ္စဥ္ ကပင္ က်န္းမာေရး ခ်ဴခ်ာသည္။ သို႔ေသာ္ နာမက်န္းရွိေနသည္ ကိုပင္ ပဓာနမထားဘဲ အလုပ္ကို ဇြဲေကာင္းေကာင္းႏွင့္ လံု႔လ ဝီရိယရွိရွိ လုပ္ကိုင္တတ္သည့္အႁပင္ အသက္ ၈၃ ႏွစ္တိုင္ မနားမေန တရစပ္ အပင္ပန္းခံ၍ လုပ္ကိုင္ခဲ့ေသာေႂကာင့္ အထူးမွတ္တမ္းတင္ထိုက္ေသာပုဂိၢဳလ္ထူး ႁဖစ္သည္။

သူသည္ ငယ္စဥ္ကပင္ လန္ဒန္ႃမိဳ႕ အိစ္ဒင္းရပ္ရွိ (ယခု ေပ်ာက္ကြယ္သြားႃပီ) စာသင္ေက်ာင္းတစ္ေက်ာင္း၌ ပညာသင္ ခဲ့ရသည္။ ေနာင္တြင္ သူသည္ ထိုေက်ာင္းမွာပင္ လစာမဲ့ တပည့္ဆရာကေလးအႁဖစ္ လုပ္ကိုင္ခဲ့ႃပီးေနာက္ ဒူလ္ဗားဟမ္ တန္၊ ဘာမင္ဂမ္ႏွင့္ အီဗာရွမ္ႃမိဳ႕မ်ားသို႔ ေက်ာင္းဆရာအႁဖစ္ အဆင့္ဆင့္ ေရႊ႕ေႁပာင္းခန္႔ထားႁခင္း ခံခဲ့ရေလသည္။


အီဗာရွမ္ႃမိဳ႕တြင္ ေက်ာင္းဆရာလုပ္ေနစဥ္ တစ္ေန႔၌ ၎အား ဘုန္းေတာ္ႄကီး တီ၊ အို၊ ဂြတ္ခ်ိဳင္း (T.O. Good-child) က လန္ဒန္ႃမိဳ႕ အေရွ႕ေႁမာက္ပိုင္း မဲယာလမ္းရွိ ဟကၠနီ အခမဲ့ေက်ာင္းသို႔ ေရႊ႕ေႁပာင္းလုပ္ကိုင္ရန္ ဖိတ္ႂကားႁခင္း ခံရ ေလသည္။ အဆိုပါေက်ာင္းမွ ေက်ာင္းသားကေလးမ်ားမွာ အလြန္ဆိုးသြမ္းေသာ လူေပကေလးမ်ားမ်ား ႁဖစ္သည္။ ယင္း တို႔ကို အရပ္ထဲက ဟကၠနီေခြးဘီးလူးမ်ား (Hackney Bulldogs) ဟု အမည္ေပးထားႂကသည္။ ဆရာမွတ္ႄကီးသည္ ထို ေက်ာင္းသို႔ ေရာက္လွ်င္ အဆိုပါေက်ာင္းသားမ်ားကို အေတာ္ပင္ ႄကိဳးစားသြန္သင္ဆံုးမခဲ့ရသည္။ သို႔ေသာ္ ေက်ာင္းသားေလး မ်ားအေပၚ ႃပိဳင္ဘက္ကင္းေလာက္ေအာင္ စာနာတတ္ေသာ သူ၏ စိတ္ထားေႂကာင့္လည္းေကာင္း၊ ထူးႁခားေႁပာင္ေႁမာက္ ေသာ သင္ႂကားမႈ အတတ္ပညာေႂကာင့္လည္းေကာင္း မ်ား မႂကာမီပင္ ထိုေက်ာင္းသားမ်ား၏ ခ်စ္ေႂကာက္႐ိုေသသမႈကို ခံယူရရွိခဲ့ရသည္။ သူသည္ တစ္ေန႔လံုးလိုလိုပင္ ေက်ာင္း၌ပင္ အခ်ိန္ကုန္ခဲ့သည္။ ညေနပိုင္းတြင္ ပ်က္စီးေနေသာေက်ာင္းကို ႁပင္ဆင္ရႁခင္းႏွင့္ လူပ်ိဳလူရြယ္ေက်ာင္းသားမ်ားကို ညေန သင္တန္းဖြင့္လွစ္သင္ႂကားေပးႁခင္းႁဖင့္သာ သူ႕အခ်ိန္ကို ကုန္ လြန္ေစခဲ့သည္။

ထို႔ေနာက္ ၁၈၅၉ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ သမၼာက်မ္းစာအသင္းမွ ေမာ္လႃမိဳင္တြင္ ဖြင့္လွစ္ထားေသာ စာသင္ေက်ာင္း၌ အလုပ္ လုပ္ရန္ ဖိတ္ႂကားခဲ့ေသာေႂကာင့္ လူဝတ္ေႂကာင္တစ္ဦး အေနႁဖင့္ ထြက္ခြာလာခဲ့ရသည္။ သံုးႏွစ္တာမွ် လူဝတ္ေႂကာင္ ႏွင့္ ေက်ာင္းဆရာအလုပ္ကို ေအာင္ႁမင္စြာ လုပ္ကိုင္ခဲ့ႃပီးေနာက္ အိႏိၵယႁပည္ ကလကတၲားႃမိဳ႕ (ယခု ကိုးလ္ကတၲား)ရွိ ဂိုဏ္းအုပ္ ဘုန္းေတာ္ႄကီးေကာ့တြန္း (Bishop Colton) ၏ သာသနာ့ ေဘာင္ သြတ္သြင္းပြဲ၌ ပါဝင္ရန္ အေရြးခံရ၍ ဂိုဏ္းအုပ္ႄကီး ၏ ေကာလိပ္ေက်ာင္း (ရဟန္းေက်ာင္း)တြင္ ပညာဆက္လက္ သင္ယူရန္ ကလကတၲားႃမိဳ႕သို႔ ဖိတ္ေခၚႁခင္းခံရသည္။ သို႔ႁဖင့္ သူသည္ ၁၈၆၃ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ကလကတၲားႃမိဳ႕၌ ခရစ္ယာန္ သူေတာ္စင္အလံုးစံုအတြက္ က်င္းပေသာပြဲေတာ္ေန႔၌ ခရစ္ယာန္ သင္းေထာက္အႁဖစ္ ခ်ီးႁမႇင့္ႁခင္းခံရေလသည္။ ထို႕ေနာက္ အသည္းတြင္ ႁပည္တည္ေနမႈကို ကုသရန္ အဂၤလန္ႁပည္သို႔ ေခတၲႁပန္ခဲ့သည္။ ေဆးကုသႃပီးေနာက္ ကလကတၲားသို႔ႁပန္၍ ၁၈၆၆ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ခရစ္ယာန္ရဟန္းေဘာင္သို႔ ဝင္ေရာက္ခဲ့ေလ သည္။ သူသည္ သိကၡာတင္ ဘုန္းေတာ္ႄကီးအႁဖစ္ ခ်ီးႁမႇင့္ခဲ့ ရသည္။


ထို႔ေနာက္ ႁမန္မာႏိုင္ငံသို႔ ႁပန္လာခဲ့သည္။ ဆရာမွတ္သည္ ၁၈၆၄ ခုႏွစ္ မတ္လ ၁၄ ရက္ကပင္ စိန္ဂြ်န္းေက်ာင္း (ယခု အထက ၁ လမ္းမေတာ္)ကို စတင္တည္ေထာင္ေပးခဲ့သည္။ ေက်ာင္းစတင္စဥ္က စိန္႔ဂြ်န္းလမ္း (ယခု မင္းရဲေက်ာ္စြာလမ္း) ရွိ အိမ္တစ္အိမ္ကို တစ္လလွ်င္ ေငြ ၁၀ဝ က်ပ္ႁဖင့္ ငွားရမ္း ကာ ဖြင့္လွစ္ခဲ့ရသည္။ ယင္းအိမ္၌ ေန႔ေက်ာင္းသားမ်ား သာမက ေက်ာင္းအိပ္ေက်ာင္းစားမ်ားကို လက္ခံသင္ႂကားခဲ့ရာ ေက်ာင္းသားေပါင္း ၂၂၀ အထိ လက္ခံခဲ့သည္ဟု သိရသည္။ စိန္ဂြ်န္းကို တည္ေထာင္ႃပီး၍ မ်ားမႂကာမီပင္ မက်န္းမာ ႁဖစ္ လာသႁဖင့္ ဆရာမတ္သည္ အဂၤလန္ႁပည္သို႔ ေခတၲႁပန္ခဲ့သည္။

အဂၤလန္ႁပည္မွ ႁပန္လာေသာအခါ ဆရာမတ္ႏွင့္အတူ သာသနာႁပဳလုပ္ငန္းႏွင့္ ပညာေရးလုပ္ငန္းတို႔ကို လုပ္ေဆာင္ ႏိုင္ရန္ အမ်ိဳးသားသံုးေယာက္ႏွင့္ အမ်ိဳးသမီးတစ္ဦးတို႔ပါ လိုက္ ပါလာခဲ့ႂကသည္။ အမ်ိဳးသားမ်ားမွာ ဆရာမတ္၏ေက်ာင္း၌ ဝင္ေရာက္လုပ္ကိုင္၍ အမ်ိဳးသမီးမွာ ၁၈၆၈ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ စိန္ေမရီ မိန္းကေလးေက်ာင္းကို စတင္တည္ေထာင္ခဲ့သည္။


ထို႔ေနာက္ မင္းတုန္းမင္းတရားႄကီးလက္ထက္မႏၱေလး ရတနာပံုေရႊႃမိဳ႕ေတာ္၌ ႃဗိတိသွ်ႏိုင္ငံေရးရာ ကိုယ္စားလွယ္ အႁဖစ္ႁဖင့္ ေဆာင္ရြက္ေနသူ ေမဂ်ာစေလဒင္၏ ဖိတ္ေခၚခ်က္ အရ ၁၈၆၈ ခုႏွစ္ ေအာက္တိုဘာလ ၈ ရက္ေန႔တြင္ ဆရာမတ္ သည္ မႏၱေလးႃမိဳ႕သို႔ ေရာက္ရွိခဲ့သည္။
ေမဂ်ာစေလဒင္က ဆရာမတ္ကို မႏၱေလးေနႁပည္ေတာ္သို႔ ဖိတ္ေခၚရႁခင္းမွာ အႁခားမဟုတ္၊ မႏၱေလး၌ ႁပင္သစ္ႏွင့္ အေမ ရိကန္တို႔ သာသနာႁပဳလုပ္ငန္းကို အေႂကာင္းႁပဳကာ ႏိုင္ငံေရး တြင္က်ယ္ေနမႈကို ထိပ္တိုက္ယွဥ္ႃပိဳင္ႏိုင္ရန္အတြက္ ေခၚယူႁခင္း ႁဖစ္သည္။ ေအာက္ႁမန္မာႏိုင္ႏိုင္ငံ ေကာ္မရွင္နာမင္းႄကီးကာနယ္ ဖိုက္ခ်္ႏွင့္ ကလကတၲားႃမိဳ႕ ဂိုဏ္းခ်ဳပ္ႄကီးတို႔ကလည္း အႂကံေပး ခဲ့ႂကသည္။

မင္းတုန္းမင္းတရားႄကီး၏ေရွ႕ေတာ္သို႔ ဝင္ေရာက္ခစား ႃပီးေသာအခါ ဆရာမတ္က မင္းတရားႄကီးအား-
(က) မႏၱေလးရတနာပံုေရႊႃမိဳ႕ေတာ္၌ အဂၤလီကန္ ခရစ္ ယာန္သာသနာႁပဳလုပ္ငန္း ေဆာင္ရြက္ခြင့္ႁပဳရန္၊
(ခ) ခရစ္ယာန္ဘုရားရွိခိုးေက်ာင္းတစ္ေဆာင္ ေဆာက္ လုပ္ေပးရန္၊
(ဂ) ခရစ္ယာန္ဘာသာဝင္တို႔ႁမႇဳပ္ႏွံရန္သခ်ႋဳင္းေႁမ ရရွိရန္၊
(ဃ) ႁမန္မာကေလးသူငယ္မ်ား ပညာသင္ႂကားရန္ အတြက္ ခရစ္ယာန္စာသင္ေက်ာင္း တည္ေထာင္ ေပးရန္၊
တို႔ကို ေတာင္းဆိုခဲ့သည္။ မင္းတရားႄကီးကလည္း ဘုရားရွိခိုး ေက်ာင္းႏွင့္ စာသင္ေက်ာင္းအေဆာက္အဦ တည္ေဆာက္ေပး မည္ဟု ျမြက္ႂကားခဲ့သည္။ ထို႔ေနာက္ ဆရာမတ္သည္ မႏၱေလး ေရႊႃမိဳ႕ေတာ္သို႔ သံုးပတ္မွ်သာ ေနထိုင္၍ ရန္ကုန္ႃမိဳ႕သို႔ ႁပန္လာ ခဲ့သည္။

မင္းတရားႄကီးကလည္း သူ႕ကတိအတိုင္း အဂၤလိပ္စာသင္ ေက်ာင္းႏွင့္ ခရစ္ယာန္ဘုရားရွိခိုးေက်ာင္း ေဆာက္လုပ္လွဴဒါန္း ခဲ့သည္။ အဂၤလိပ္စာသင္ေက်ာင္းကို ေရႊတေခ်ာင္းအေနာက္ ဘက္ ထိပ္ရွိ ႃဗိတိသွ်သံတဲဝင္းအတြင္း၌ ေဆာက္လုပ္ႁခင္း ႁဖစ္သည္။ စာသင္ေက်ာင္းေဆာက္လုပ္ႃပီးေနာက္ ၁၈၆၉ ခု ႏွစ္ ဇြန္လ ၇ ရက္တြင္ ဆရာမတ္သည္ မႏၱေလးသို႔ ႁပန္လည္ ေရာက္ရွိလာသည္။ ဆရာမတ္သည္ မင္းတုန္းမင္းတရားႄကီး ေဆာက္လုပ္လွဴဒါန္းေသာေက်ာင္းကို S.P.G Royal School  ဟု အမည္ေပးကာ ဖြင့္လွစ္သည္။ ယင္းေက်ာင္းကို ႃဗိတိသွ် သံတဲဝင္းအတြင္း တည္ရွိေသာေႂကာင့္ ''သံတဲေက်ာင္းေတာ္'' ဟုလည္း ေခၚေဝၚႂကသည္။ ယင္းသို႔ မင္းတရားႄကီး ေက်ာင္းေဆာက္လုပ္လွဴဒါန္း သည့္ သတင္းကို လန္ဒန္ႃမိဳ႕ထုတ္သတင္းစာမ်ားက ဝမ္းသာ အားရ ေရးသားေဖာ္ႁပခဲ့ႂကသည္။ ႁမန္မာသကၠရာဇ္ ၁၂၃၃ ခု၊ ႁပာသိုလဆန္း ၁၁ ရက္ (ခရစ္ ၁၈၇၁ ခုႏွစ္ ဒီဇင္ဘာလ ၂၁ ရက္) ထုတ္ ႁမန္မာေဂဇက္သတင္းစာ၌လည္း-
''မႏၱေလးေရႊႃမိဳ႕ေတာ္မွာ အဂၤလိပ္လူမ်ိဳးတို႔ ေက်ာင္းတည္ ရန္ ႁမန္မာေရႊနန္းရွင္ဘုရားက ေငြေတာ္ ၃၀ဝ၀ဝိ (သံုးေသာင္း) ထည့္ဝင္လွဴဒါန္းေတာ္မူေလသည္။ ၎ေက်ာင္းပံုကိုလည္း အဂၤလိပ္ဗိသုကာႄကီး ေပးသည့္အတိုင္း ႁမန္မာလက္သမားတို႔ က ေဆာက္လုပ္ႂကေလသည္ဟု လန္ဒန္ႃမိဳ႕ေတာ္မွာ ႏွစ္သက္ ရႊင္လန္းဖြယ္ သတင္းဖြယ္ သတင္းစာ႐ိုက္ေလသည္'' ဟူ၍ ေဖာ္ႁပခဲ့သည္။ ႁမန္မာေဂဇက္သတင္းစာမွာ မင္းတုန္းမင္း လက္ထက္ ေအာက္ႁမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ ရန္ကုန္ႃမိဳ႕မွ အပတ္စဥ္ ေသာ ႂကာေန႔တိုင္း ႁမန္မာဘာသာႁဖင့္ ထုတ္ေဝေသာ တစ္ပတ္တစ္ ႄကိမ္ထုတ္ သတင္းစာ ႁဖစ္သည္။


ယင္းသို႔ ဆရာမတ္ မေရာက္ရွိမီကပင္ မႏၱေလးေရႊႃမိဳ႕ ေတာ္၌ အေမရိကန္ႏွစ္ခ်င္းသာသနာႁပဳဂိုဏ္းမွ ေဒါက္တာ ကင္းကိတ္ႏွင့္ ႐ိုမန္ကက္သလစ္ဂိုဏ္းမွ ဘရင္ဂ်ီဂိုဏ္းခ်ဳပ္ ႁပင္သစ္ဘုန္းေတာ္ႄကီး အီဂန္ဒက္တို႔ ေရာက္ရွိေနႂကႃပီ ႁဖစ္ သည္။ ေဒါက္တာကင္းကိတ္သည္ သာယာဝတီမင္းလက္ထက္ ကပင္ ေရာက္ရွိေနသူ ႁဖစ္သည္။

သို႔ေသာ္လည္း ဆရာမတ္သည္ သူ၏ဦးတည္ခ်က္အတိုင္း မႏၱေလးရတနာပံုေရႊႃမိဳ႕ေတာ္၌ အဂၤလီကန္ခရစ္ယာန္သာသနာ ႁပဳလုပ္ငန္းႏွင့္ ပညာေရးလုပ္ငန္းတို႔ကို ပူးတြဲလုပ္ကိုင္ႏိုင္ခဲ့ရာ ေအာင္ႁမင္သည္ဟု ဆိုေပမည္။

မင္းတုန္းမင္းတရားသည္ မူလကပင္ သားေတာ္၊ သမီး ေတာ္မ်ားကို အဂၤလိပ္စာသင္ႂကားေပးရန္ ဆႏၵရွိခဲ့သည္။ ထို႔ ေႂကာင့္လည္း ဆရာမတ္ကို မႏၱေလးေနႁပည္ေတာ္သို႔ ေခၚယူ ခဲ့ႁခင္း ႁဖစ္သည္။)
သားေတာ္မ်ားအား အဂၤလိပ္စာသင္ႂကားေရးအတြက္ မင္း တရားႄကီးက ဆရာမတ္အား ''အသက္ဆယ့္ႏွစ္ႏွစ္အရြယ္ ရွိသည့့္ မင္းသားကေလးမ်ားကို ေက်ာင္းပို႔ေပးရမလား''ဟု ေမးႁမန္းခဲ့ရာ၊ ဆရာမတ္က-
''အသက္ ၁၂ ႏွင့္ အထက္ ၁၄ ႏွစ္အတြင္း မင္းသား ကေလးမ်ားကိုသာ ေက်ာင္းပို႔ဖို႔ သင့္ေလ်ာ္ပါမည္''ဟု ႁပန္လည္ေလွ်ာက္ထားခဲ့သည္။ သို႔ေသာ္ အမ်ားစုမွာ ၁၄ ႏွစ္ေက်ာ္ ေနႃပီႁဖစ္၍၊ အသက္ ၁၄ ႏွစ္အတြင္းရွိ မင္းသား ၉ ပါးကိုသာ ဆရာမတ္ထံ အပ္ႏွံခဲ့သည္။ မင္းသား ၉ ပါးဟုဆိုေသာ္လည္း အစပထမတြင္ သီေပါမင္းသား အပါအဝင္ မင္းသား ၄ ပါး ကိုသာ လက္ခံ၍ ပညာသင္ႂကားေပးခဲ့သည္။ အဆိုပါ မင္းသားမ်ား ေနသားတက်ရွိမွ မင္းသား ၉ ပါးစလံုးကို လက္ခံသင္ႂကားသည္။
မင္းသားမ်ားမွာ ေက်ာင္းတက္ရာ၌ ဆင္ေပၚတြင္ ေရႊထီး ႏွစ္လက္စီမိုးကာ စီးနင္း၍ ေနာက္မွ လူပ်ိဳေတာ္သား ၄၀ စီက ႁခံရံလိုက္ပါခဲ့ႂကသည္။ သို႔ႁဖစ္ရာ မင္းသား ၉ ပါးႏွင့္ လူပ်ိဳေတာ္သားမ်ားမွာ စုစုေပါင္း ၄၀ဝ နီးပါး တခမ္းတနားပင္ ႁဖစ္၍ စိတ္ဝင္စားဖြယ္ေကာင္းလွပါသည္ဟု ဆိုသည္။


ဤအေႂကာင္းကို ဆရာမတ္က သူ၏ ဗမာႁပည္ဝယ္ ႏွစ္ေလးဆယ္ (Forty Years in Burma) စာအုပ္၌-

... မင္းသား ၉ ပါးစလံုး ေက်ာင္းတက္လာႂကေသာ အခါ အလြန္ဝမ္းေႁမာက္ဝမ္းသာ ႁဖစ္ခဲ့ရပါသည္။ မင္းသား ကိုးပါး ေက်ာင္းသို႔လာႂကသည္မွာ တပည့္မ်ား ေက်ာင္းတက္ ရန္ လာႂကသည္ႏွင့္ မတူ။ ဆန္ဂါ၏ဆပ္ကပ္ပြဲ (Sanger's Circus)) လွည့္လည္လာသည္ႏွင့္ ပို၍ တူလွပါသည္။ မင္း သားတို႔ကို ပညာသင္ေပးရာ၌ အႁခားတပည့္ေက်ာင္းသားတို႔ ကို သင္ႂကားေပသည့္အတိုင္း တစ္ထပ္တည္း သင္ႂကားေပး ရန္ မင္းႁမတ္က ႏႈတ္မွ မိန္႔ျြမက္မွာႂကားထားခဲ့ပါသည္။ အထူး သႁဖင့္ ကြ်ႏု္ပ္၏ ဘာသာေရးသင္ခန္းစာကိုပင္ သင္ႂကားေပး ရမည္။ သို႔မွသာ သူတို႔ အရြယ္ေရာက္လာ၍ စဥ္းစားဆင္ႁခင္ တတ္ေသာအခါ၌ ဗုဒၶဘာသာႏွင့္ ခရစ္ယာန္ဘာသာတြင္ ဘယ္ ဘာသာ ပိုမိုေကာင္းမြန္သည္ကို ပိုင္းႁခားေဝဖန္ႏိုင္လိမ့္မည္ဟု မိန္႔ေတာ္မူပါသည္''ဟူ၍ ေရးသားထားေလသည္။


SPG သံတဲေက်ာင္းတြင္ ဆရာမတ္သည္ မင္းတရား ႄကီး၏ သားေတာ္မ်ားအႁပင္ အႁခားမွဴးႄကီးမတ္ႄကီးမ်ား၏ သားေတာ္မ်ားကို ပညာသင္ႂကားေပးခဲ့သည္။ သီေပါမင္းသား ၏ လူပ်ိဳေတာ္သားမ်ားႁဖစ္သူ ေတာင္သမန္လယ္စားေမာင္ေဖ ငယ္ႏွင့္ ေနာင္တြင္ ဟံသာဝတီပံုႏွိပ္တိုက္ပိုင္ရွင္ ႁဖစ္လာသူ ရစ္ပလီ စသည္တို႔မွာ ဆရာမတ္၏ ေက်ာင္းထြက္မ်ားပင္ ႁဖစ္သည္။ ရစ္ပလီကို မင္းတုန္းမင္းက ေမြးစားထားသည္။

ထိုစဥ္က ဆရာမတ္၏ SPG သံတဲေက်ာင္းေတာ္မွ တစ္ႏွစ္လွ်င္ ေက်ာင္းသားေပါင္း ၃၀ဝ ထက္မနည္း ေမြးထုတ္ ႏိုင္သည္ဟု သိရွိရသည္။

မင္းတုန္းမင္းသည္ ဆရာမတ္ကို မႏၱေလးေနႁပည္ေတာ္ သို႔ ေခၚယူႁခင္းမွာ သားေတာ္မ်ား၏ ပညာေရးကို အေႂကာင္း ႁပဳႃပီး ေနာက္ကြယ္မွ ႏိုင္ငံေရးရည္ရြယ္ခ်က္လည္း ပါသည္ဟု ဆိုရေပမည္။ အေႂကာင္းမွာ မင္းတုန္းမင္းတရားႄကီးက ဆရာ မတ္အား အဂၤလန္သို႔သြားကာ ရန္ကုန္သေဘၤာဆိပ္ကိုႁဖစ္ေစ၊ ပုသိမ္သေဘၤာဆိပ္ကိုႁဖစ္ေစ ႁမန္မာအစိုးရအား ႁပန္လည္ေပး အပ္ရန္အတြက္ ဝိတိုရိယဘုရင္မႄကီးထံ ပန္ႂကားေပးရန္ ေစခိုင္း ခဲ့သည္။ သို႔ေသာ္ ဆရာမတ္ ႏိုင္ငံေရးလုပ္ငန္း၌ ပါဝင္ပတ္သက္ႁခင္း မႁပဳလိုေသာေႂကာင့္ ႁငင္းဆန္ခဲ့သည္။ ထိုအခ်ိန္မွ စ၍ မင္းတရားႄကီးသည္ ဆရာမတ္ကို ယခင္ကကဲ့သို႔ အခြင့္ အေရးမ်ား မေပးေတာ့ေခ်။ ထို႔ေနာက္ အတန္ႂကာ မင္းသားမ်ား ႏွင့္ မွဴးမတ္မ်ား၏ သားေတာ္မ်ားကို ပညာသင္ႂကားခဲ့ႃပီး ေနာက္ ဘုန္းေတာ္ႄကီး ဂ်ိမ္းစ္ေကာလဘတ္ (James Colbeck) ထံသို႔ လႊဲအပ္အုပ္ခ်ဳပ္ေစလ်က္ ရန္ကုန္ စိန္႕ဂြ်န္း ေက်ာင္းသို႔ ႁပန္လည္ သြားေရာက္ခဲ့ေလသည္။ ဆရာမတ္သည္ ၁၈၆၈ မွ ၁၈၇၄ ခုႏွစ္အထိ စုစုေပါင္း ၁၄ ႏွစ္ႂကာ မႏၱေလး ႃမိဳ႕၌ ေနထိုင္၍ ေက်ာင္းသားမ်ားကို ပညာသင္ႂကားေပးခဲ့ သည္။

မည္သို႔ဆိုေစ ... မႏၱေလးမွ ႁပန္လည္ထြက္ခြာလာခဲ့ေသာ္ လည္း အဂၤလီကန္ဂိုဏ္းေခၚ အဂၤလန္သာသနာႁပဳဂိုဏ္း (Church of England) က ခ်ီးက်ဴးမွတ္တမ္းတင္ခဲ့ေလ သည္။ သူသည္ သာသနာႁပဳအုတ္ႁမစ္ကို ခ်ရာ၌ မူလဦးတည္ ခ်က္အတိုင္း ပညာေရးလုပ္ငန္းႏွင့္ပါ တြဲဖက္ေဆာင္ရြက္ႏိုင္ ခဲ့သႁဖင့္ ပိုမိုေအာင္ႁမင္ခဲ့သည္ဟု ဆိုရေပမည္။ ႁမန္မာႏိုင္ငံ အရပ္ရပ္၌ ဆရာမတ္သည္ SPG သာသနာႁပဳေက်ာင္းမ်ား ကို အေႁမာက္အႁမား ဖြင့္လွစ္ခဲ့ရာ ယင္းတို႔အနက္ ထင္ရွား ေသာ ေက်ာင္းမ်ားမွာ ၁၈၆၄ ခုႏွစ္က ဖြင့္လွစ္ခဲ့ေသာ ရန္ကုန္ ႃမိဳ႕ စိန္႔ဂြ်န္းေက်ာင္း (ေနာင္ အထက ၁ လမ္းမေတာ္)၊ ၁၈၆၇ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ဟသၤာတႃမိဳ႕တြင္ ဖြင့္လွစ္ခဲ့ေသာ စိန္ပီတာ အင္ဒ႐ူး ေက်ာင္း၊ ၁၈၆၉ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ဖြင့္လွစ္ေသာ မႏၱေလးႃမိဳ႕ရွိ ွ"SPG" သံတဲေက်ာင္း၊ ၁၈၇၈ ခုႏွစ္တြင္ ဖြင့္လွစ္ခဲ့ေသာ ႂကည့္ႁမင္တိုင္ စိန္႔မိုက္ကယ္ေက်ာင္းတို႔မွာ ထင္ရွားလွေပသည္။

မႏၱေလးႃမိဳ႕မွ ထြက္ခြာသြားခဲ့ႃပီးေနာက္ ၄ ႏွစ္ႂကာ ၁၈၇၉ ခုႏွစ္၌ ဂိုဏ္းခ်ဳပ္ႄကီး ကင္းတိတ္  ((Bishop Tait) က ဆရာ မတ္အား အယူဝါဒ ပညာရပ္ဆိုင္ရာ ပါရဂူဘြဲ႕ (ဒီ၊ဒီ) Doctor of Divinity ကို ေပးအပ္ခ်ီးႁမႇင့္ခဲ့ေလသည္။ ထိုအခ်ိန္မွစ၍ ဆရာမတ္ဟူေသာအမည္မွ ေဒါက္တာမတ္ဟူ၍ ထင္ရွားလာ ခဲ့ေလသည္။ ႁမန္မာတို႔ကမူ ဆရာမတ္၊ ဆရာမွတ္ႄကီးဟူ၍သာ ႏႈတ္က်ိဳး ေခၚေဝၚခဲ့ႂကသည္။

ေဒါက္တာမတ္သည္ ၁၉၀ဝ ႁပည့္ႏွစ္တြင္ သာသနာႁပဳ လုပ္ငန္းအဝ၀မွ အနားယူ၍ အဂၤလန္ႁပည္ လန္ဒန္ႃမိဳ႕၌ ေနထိုင္ ေနစဥ္အတြင္း ၁၉၁၅ ခုႏွစ္ အသက္ ၈၃ ႏွစ္၌ ကြယ္လြန္သြား ခဲ့ေလသည္။

စာကိုး
၁။ ႁမန္မာ့စြယ္စံုက်မ္း အတြဲ ၁၀၊ ရန္ကုန္၊ စာေပဗိမာန္ ပထမအႄကိမ္၊ ၁၉၆၆
၂။ ဦးလွဒင္ (ႁမန္မာႁပန္)၊ ဗမာႁပည္ဝယ္ႏွစ္ေလးဆယ္၊ ရန္ကုန္၊ အ့န ဃသကစူန စာအုပ္တိုက္၊ ဒုတိယအႄကိမ္၊ ၂၀ဝ၆
၃။ သတင္းေထာက္အုန္းေဖ၊ ''ခင္ႄကီးမတ္ သံတဲေက်ာင္း''၊ မိုးဂ်ာနယ္ ၁၉၉၃၊ ဒီဇင္ဘာလ
၄။ ေမာင္ေကာင္းႁမင့္ ''ေဒါက္တာမတ္ေခၚ ဆရာမွတ္'' ႐ႈမဝမဂၢဇင္း တြဲ ၃၇၊ မွတ္ ၄၃၉ (၁၉၈၃၊ ဒီဇင္ဘာလ)
၅။ ႁမင့္ေဆြ ''မင္းတုန္းမင္းႏွင့္ ေဒါက္တာမတ္'' ႁမဝတီ မဂၢဇင္း တြဲ ၂၄၊ မွတ္ ၈၊ (၁၉၇၆ ဇြန္လ)

          Trump’s Plan to End Birthright Citizenship Has Been Tried Elsewhere. The Human Rights Abuses Were Horrific.      Cache   Translate Page      

Last week during an interview with Axios, President Donald Trump revealed that he would like to try to end birthright citizenship (jus soli) through an executive order. The implications of this threat, which would primarily affect children of undocumented persons and noncitizens, are incredibly dark. In establishing his desire to unilaterally overturn about 120 years of established practice—and the Constitution and federal law—Trump is adopting the playbook of some of the most vicious nationalists from other parts of the world. Stateless people are among the most invisible in the world. This condition has historically enabled the commission of atrocities with impunity. Trump’s xenophobic rhetoric, and his government’s actions, has created fertile ground for state-sanctioned abuse to flourish.

Burma and the Dominican Republic offer two of the most dramatic examples of what mass denationalization actually looks like in practice. Over the years, Burmese military rulers have used mass denationalization to target the Rohingya—an ethnic and religious minority, perceived by most Burmese as illegal immigrants from Bangladesh. In 1982, the junta’s Citizenship Law stripped the Rohingya of their citizenship. Overnight, about 1 million people became stateless. In 2013, meanwhile, the Dominican Constitutional Court revoked the nationality of more than 200,000 people, primarily those of Haitian descent.

In the United States, mass statelessness is already not that far off. A study by the Migration Policy Institute, a nonpartisan, nonprofit think tank, indicates that denying birthright citizenship to babies with at least one unauthorized parent would inflate the unauthorized population from 11 million to 24 million by 2050. Much of this population is unlikely to have ties to any other country. Many others have no proof of citizenship from their country of origin and so cannot pass nationality to their children. Trump’s executive order would cast hundreds of thousands into a self-perpetuating class of de facto statelessness.

If this happens, these stateless people will face the potential for severe civil rights abuses. Nationality is one of the main ways people are bestowed with political rights. Countries face little pressure to care for the stateless, meanwhile. Take the Dominican Republic, which abolished jus soli citizenship in 2013, with retroactive application. The court’s ruling that children born in the country to undocumented foreign parents after 1929 had never been entitled to Dominican nationality stripped 200,000 Dominicans—mainly of Haitian descent but without any connections to Haiti—of their citizenship. Activists and international organizations condemned the move as the culmination of a long history of anti-Haitian racism and xenophobia.

In the Dominican Republic, stripping these people of their nationality has served to solidify their “other” status and legitimize abuse. The Georgetown Law Human Rights Institute found that children without documentation in the DR have been denied access to schools and universities, despite a constitutionally guaranteed right to education. Consequently, they have had no access to the formal labor market and are unable to strive to improve their standards of living. They cannot vote and are denied access to public services like health care. They are also at high risk of arbitrary arrest and deportation. In 2016, a scorching report from Amnesty International revealed that more than 40,000 of these stateless persons—including children—were swept up in a wave of arbitrary, unending, and illegal deportations. In 2015, unsanitary conditions created a deadly cholera outbreak in makeshift camps, where thousands continue to suffer.

Nowhere has the horror of statelessness been more evident than in Burma. That country’s denationalization policy has affected at least 1.5 million of the estimated 2 million Rohingya, leaving them homeless and with no legal recourse. Statelessness has directly enabled human rights atrocities, including the widespread rape of Rohingya women and girls, and murder of Rohingya babies. This escalated into a genocidal pogrom that has claimed the lives of at least 10,000 Rohingya in one of the most appalling human rights crises of our time. Human Rights Watch reported in 2015 that about 8,000 Rohingya who have undertaken perilous journeys in attempt to flee the country were stranded at sea; hundreds died. Indonesian, Thai, Bangladeshi, and Malaysian authorities have been accused of pushing boats carrying Rohingya back. Today, nearly 1 million Rohingya continue to live in squalid refugee or internally displaced person camps in Burma and Bangladesh, malnourished, with no access to water.

In America, birthright citizenship has prevented the creation of stateless people. If it is revoked, Mexicans and Central Americans, who account for about three-quarters of all unauthorized immigrants, will be hit the hardest. Immigration and Customs Enforcement agents already terrorize local communities with impunity. Imagine what they’d do if millions more people in this country were turned stateless. The U.S. does not have a good legislative or legal framework for recognizing or addressing the needs of stateless persons. The smallest infraction or interaction with police could result in expulsion. Attorney General Jeff Sessions has already indicated he intends to speed up deportation cases to ease clogged courts. With thousands more potentially on the dockets, immigrants’ due process protections will likely be stripped bare.

The stateless live in purgatory. They will have no right to vote or to a fair wage. They will have no access to health care. Their ability to travel will be severely restricted. Creating or validating the “outsider” status of people born in the U.S. will have calamitous effects on the integration of immigrants into society, causing generational damage, with profound psychological effects, especially on the young. U.S.-born children will be unable to sponsor their undocumented parents, tearing families apart. Atrocities do not occur in a vacuum. Trump’s nationalist dog whistling has surged in advance of the midterms, culminating in Trump’s racist call for an end to birthright citizenship. From “separating” babies from their parents, to disallowing survivors of domestic violence from seeking asylum in the U.S. (a policy that particularly affected Hondurans, Guatemalans, and Nicaraguans), to stoking hysteria about caravans of Latin American migrants, Trump has weaponized racism and xenophobia against immigrants in real and devastating ways. So, while the Rohingya’s and Dominican’s experience with statelessness seems extreme, there is far less reason than in the past to think that this horror can’t be replicated here. In June, Trump tweeted, “When somebody comes in, we must immediately, with no Judges or Court Cases, bring them back from where they came.” Creating a class of stateless persons will expose hundreds of thousands—including children and infants—to the threat of such mass expulsions. With no “home country” to return to, they could easily languish indefinitely in camps or detention centers, without a right to counsel. (Trump has already promoted the idea of these “tent cities.”) We need only look at other countries that have gone down this road to see how antithetical to America’s purported values—and how truly ugly—that would be.


          Tomar vino, café, té y chocolate ayudaría a prolongar la vida si se agrega este suplemento      Cache   Translate Page      

Tomar vino, café, té y chocolate ayudaría a prolongar la vida si se agrega este suplemento

Científicos de varios países han descubierto que consumir vino, café, té y chocolate puede tener efectos positivos en la esperanza de vida si se ingieren adicionándoles un suplemento de zinc, informa el portal científico EurekAlert. Activación de hidroquinona La doctora Ivana Ivanovi-Burmazovi, de la Universidad de Erlangen-Núremberg (Alemania) fue la encargada de dirigir el estudio, y junto con su […]

La entrada Tomar vino, café, té y chocolate ayudaría a prolongar la vida si se agrega este suplemento aparece primero en Grandes Medios.


          Product For Sale: Merrill's Marauders: Commandos in Burma 1943-1944      Cache   Translate Page      

by richterkosim15

€14.99 for Board Game: Merrill's Marauders: Commandos in Burma 1943-1944
Condition: New
Location: Germany
          Dingzhou Yongsheng Grain and Oil Machinery Co., Ltd      Cache   Translate Page      
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          Trick or Treating at Stockman Bank      Cache   Translate Page      
Consumer Loan Department Manager Pam Burman hands out candy to a young cowboy on October 31 during the trick or treating event held at Stockman Bank in Sidney. (Photo by Kory...
          Comment on In India, Initially Who Implemented Traffic System? by Anonymous      Cache   Translate Page      
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          George Orwell as Essayist: The Democratic Socialist Who Never Sought a Safe Space      Cache   Translate Page      


None


The word Fascism has now no meaning except in so far as it signifies "something not desirable."

-- George Orwell, "Politics and the English Language" (1945)

English author George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair, 1903 – 1950) is most widely known for his novels. Animal Farm (1945) and 1984 (1949) comprise the twin pillars of his legacy as a writer of dystopian fiction, a genre he was instrumental in developing. Phrases from 1984 have become common ways to describe totalitarianism: Big Brother, doublethink, the Thought Police. Though he described himself as an advocate of democratic socialism, so far-reaching is Orwell's influence and esteem that pundits of all political stripes have effectively claimed he espoused views at least partly in line with their own. In these two volumes of essays, the reader in introduced to Orwell's thoughts on a wide range of topics.

Perhaps more than any other writer of his time, Orwell's work is characterized by both an impassioned advocacy of free speech and warnings against any leanings toward totalitarianism. For Orwell, the latter commonly meant Stalinism and its apologists in the West. While he strongly condemned the views of those he considered advocates of tyranny, never did he call for their silencing. In this crucial sense, Orwell "walked the talk". In doing so, he exemplifies a principle perhaps best expressed by Noam Chomsky when he said "If we don't believe in freedom of expression for people we despise, we don't believe in it at all." It's a principle sadly lost on those who, in our time, seek to "de-platform" those they disagree with rather than engage in open debate, as well as those in authority who either enforce or acquiesce such demands. Thus, Orwell's essays (as well as his fiction) have at least as much relevance now as they did about 75 years ago, though I fear that those who most need to read these works probably won't.

While his novels stand as a lasting and brilliant contribution to 20th century literature, the essay was the form by which Orwell honed his fictionally expressed ideas. As compiler George Packer states in the introduction to the narrative essay volume, "Orwell's writing began with essays, and his essays began with experience." He cites the example of Burmese Days (1934), Orwell's novel of colonial Burma; it was preceded by his essay "A Hanging" (1931), an account of an execution in Burma which Orwell, at the time a member of the Indian Imperial Police, was required to attend. His experience in Burma was to contribute to his disillusionment and antipathy toward imperialism, an attitude evident in both works. Thus, for those whose introduction to Orwell has been through his novels, some of the essays may feel a bit like nonfictional prequels, and are all the more fascinating for that.

None


The two volumes are divided broadly into narrative essays (Facing Unpleasant Facts, Compiled by George Packer. New York: Mariner Books, 2009) and critical essays (All Art Is Propaganda, Compiled by George Packer. New York: Mariner Books, 2009). It's quite an eclectic mix. Among the narrative essays: Orwell deliberately getting arrested for public drunkenness (apparently so he could write about it); memories of serving with anti-fascist forces in the Spanish Civil War; a description of the ideal pub. Among the critical essays: an in-depth analysis of boys' weekly magazines (it sounds boring, but it's not); the question of whether socialists can be happy; the trials and tribulations of being an impoverished book reviewer.

In the narrative essay volume, of particular interest to enthusiasts of World War II history will be Orwell's "War-time Diary" of his life in London, covering May to December 1940. Britain was regularly under attack from German air raids, France was under Nazi occupation, and America had not yet entered the war. As philosopher Nassim Nicholas Taleb has noted about William L. Shirer's Berlin Diary (1941), we can get a special insight into history by reading accounts that were written not in hindsight, but as events were unfolding.

Perhaps the most fascinating of the critical essays are those describing Orwell's views of other artists, mainly his fellow authors. He expresses a brutally honest combination of tremendous praise and scathing criticism of Charles Dickens, Henry Miller, Rudyard Kipling, H.G. Wells, and Jonathan Swift; a devastating critique of Leo Tolstoy's opinions on Shakespeare; and a mixture of supreme artistic praise and absolute moral condemnation of Salvador Dali. He assesses Edgar Allan Poe's state of mind as "at best a wild romanticism and at worst not far from being insane in the literal clinical sense." In his critique of T.S. Eliot, Orwell suggests that Eliot's conversion to Anglicanism negatively affected his work, arguing that the writings of the orthodoxly religious "usually show the same cramped, blinkered outlook as books by orthodox Stalinists or others who are mentally unfree." The man pulls no punches.

None


It's safe to assume that among Orwell's fictional works, 1984 in particular was an expression of insights he had first conveyed in essay form. In "The Prevention of Literature" (1946), he argues that those he terms "friends of totalitarianism" tend to insist that "absolute truth is not attainable" and that "a big lie is no worse than a little lie." Orwell then posits that in order to continue existing, a totalitarian society would require "a schizophrenic system of thought" by which facts could be selectively "disregarded by the politician, the historian, and the sociologist."

Here (as in several of the other essays) we perceive echoes of doublethink, the Ministry of Truth, and the memory hole from1984. It seems no accident that the novel's protagonist, Winston Smith, is a ministry apparatchik whose primary job is to continually rewrite history to conform to whatever version the government currently requires. For Orwell, then, to deny the existence of objective reality is to facilitate oppression. As Packer states in his introduction to the narrative essay volume, "It would be perverse to assume that Orwell subscribed to the postmodern literary doctrine of the constructedness of reality and the unknowability of truth. A fear that facts could materialize or vanish on command lay at the heart of the totalitarian nightmare that preoccupied the last decade of his life."

Orwell doesn't always hit the mark, as it were. In "England Your England" (1941), he's critical of Winston Churchill's alleged inability to "grasp that only Socialist nations can fight effectively." A dubious assertion at best, regardless of where one stands on socialism. In "In Front of Your Nose" (1946), he asserts the possibility that by 2016 Britain's population "will amount to about eleven millions, over half of whom will be Old Age Pensioners." This obviously didn't happen, though of course prognostication is always a tricky business which is best avoided if possible.

None


In "Politics and the English Language" (1945), Orwell argues that political terms like fascism, democracy, socialism, etc. often have no agreed-upon definitions and are thus used in a "consciously dishonest way" by politicians or ideologues. A country that is praised will be called "democratic", for example, regardless of what its government does, thus giving maximum latitude for those doing the praising. In Orwell's view, they "fear they might have to stop using the word if it were tied down to any one meaning."

In the course of condemning racism in the West (including the US South's Jim Crow laws) in "As I Please, 2" (1943), Orwell also notes with dismay that there's little effort on the part of journalists to learn which terms for race are resented or not (e.g., "Chinaman" vs. "Chinese"). This may be interpreted by some as a sort of incipient admonition to PC-type language policing. However, Orwell is essentially making an appeal not for coerced speech but for human decency, noting that the English "do not like being called 'Limeys' or 'Britishers.'"

Whether one agrees with Orwell's views or not, there seems no reason to doubt that he was committed to producing as honest and as accurate a portrayal of the world around him as possible. I have here referred to Orwell as an artist, though he might well have objected to the term. In his narrative essay "Why I Write" (1946), while acknowledging that writing is "an aesthetic experience," he also asserts:

When I sit down to write a book, I do not say to myself, "I am going to produce a work of art." I write it because there is some lie that I want to expose, some fact to which I want to draw attention, and my initial concern is to get a hearing.

None


This, I would say, is the key element underlying so much of Orwell's work. If attempting to convey something true about the human condition is an essential element of art, then Orwell was among other things an artist, whatever objections he might have posed to such an assessment.

In "Inside the Whale" (1940), Orwell describes the Western literary scene of the '30s as constrained by an ideological and verbal straitjacket in which a sort of voluntary censorship ('Ought I to say this? Is it pro-Fascist?') was at work in nearly everyone's mind… Good novels are written not by orthodoxy-sniffers, nor by people who are conscience-stricken by their own unorthodoxy. Good novels are written by people who are not frightened. [Emphasis Orwell's]

This impassioned and uncompromising insistence on the need for freedom of conscience and speech is repeated in various essays. In his critique of Swift's Gulliver's Travels, for example, Orwell describes the society of the Houyhnhnms (the intelligent horse species with whom Gulliver lives for a time) as both benevolently depicted by Swift and exhibiting tendencies toward totalitarianism. He points out that a Houyhnhnm "is never compelled to do anything, he is merely 'exhorted' or 'advised.'" Orwell, however, argues that this is a form of compulsion, but Swift refuses to acknowledge it as such. Orwell also points out that there is no law in the Houyhnhnms' society, just their collective "exhortation", and that this is a malevolent feature. (Indeed, in Oceania, Orwell's fictional dystopian mega-nation of 1984, all laws have been abolished.) Orwell writes of the Houyhnhnms:

This illustrates very well the totalitarian tendency which is implicit in the anarchist or pacifist vision of Society. In a Society in which there is no law, and in theory no compulsion, the only arbiter of behaviour is public opinion. But public opinion, because of the tremendous urge to conformity in gregarious animals, is less tolerant than any system of law. When human beings are governed by "thou shalt not," the individual can practise a certain amount of eccentricity: when they are supposedly governed by "love" and "reason," he is under continuous pressure to make him behave and think in exactly the same way as everyone else.

None


Upon reading the above passage, I was immediately reminded of the conformity pressures and public shaming that are increasingly common on today's social media networks; if Orwell were alive today, would he perhaps consider such tendencies to be "totalitarianism lite?" He sums up the attitude represented by the Houyhnhnms with "In other words, we know everything already, so why should dissident opinions be tolerated?"

Yet despite this condemnation of Swift's apparent political and social views, Orwell goes on to say that Gulliver's Travels is one of his favorite books, noting that "This raises the question: what is the relationship between agreement with a writer's opinion, and enjoyment of his work?" It's always possible that a creator's work may be mercilessly trashed by critics, supposedly on the basis of artistic or academic demerit, but in fact solely on ideological grounds. Thus, Orwell's admission shows both intellectual honesty and conveys something of the larger picture we sorely need to look at.

Orwell was, of all 20 th century writers, perhaps the most passionately committed advocate of "democratic socialism, as I understand it" (his words). He literally risked his life fighting against fascism in the Spanish Civil War and nearly died after getting shot in the throat by a sniper. He survived the London Blitz. He openly spoke out against Stalinism when, by his own account, it was trendy to spout apologia for it in Western literary circles. It is no exaggeration to say that he directly and physically experienced the effects of totalitarian ideology, and he never sought a "safe space" in the process; that is, he never sought to escape from exposure to ideas he considered morally reprehensible. So it should come as no surprise that while he considered Gulliver's Travels to be ideologically abhorrent, he also said he loved it so much that it was one of six books he would keep if all others in the world were destroyed.

If Orwell could do this, then perhaps the rest of us can resist the urge to scream in people's faces, "de-platform" them, physically prevent them from publicly speaking, or seek to destroy their careers simply for expressing views we don't like. Can we not – as Orwell was so obviously willing to do – agree to disagree? What might he think, I wonder, of those who argue today that an opinion is itself a form of violence which must be met with pepper spray or a truncheon instead of a better argument?

At the very least, these two volumes offer a fascinating insight into the views of one of the 20 th century's greatest authors. At best, they may inspire us – whether in the realm of the arts or simply in everyday life – to be neither "orthodoxy-sniffers" nor "conscience-stricken by our own unorthodoxy."


          Karácsonyi ametiszt mobildísz harang medál jadeval - Jelenlegi ára: 1 700 Ft      Cache   Translate Page      
Nagyszerű karácsonyi ajándék!
Mesés mobildísz fehér jade, ametiszt, hókvarc és swarovski kristály gyöngyökből ( bővebben a swarovski medál aukcióimnál olvashatsz róla ) tibeti ezüsttel kombinálva mely egészen biztosan nem jön szembe az utcán!
Hossza: 8 cm
A többfunkciós levehető függődísz használható mobildíszként, kulcstartóként és táska zipzárjára akasztva is.
 
Jade
Csakra :
szakrális csakra, napfonat csakra, szívcsakra
Tulajdonságai:
Szín: zöldesfehér, zöld, szürke, sárgás Átlátszóság: Porszín: fehér Mohs-keménység: 6, 4 Sűrűség: Képlet: NaAl(Si2O6) Ásványtanilag: a piroxéncsoportKristályszerkezet: Keletkezés módja: Előfordulás: Burma, Japán, Kína Nyugati csillagjegy: Bika, Rák, Mérleg, Halak Indián csillagjegy: Kínai csillagjegy: Kígyó, Bárány, Kutya, Nyúl Elem: föld áttetsző, átlátszatlan 3, 2-3, 3 monoklin átalakult Farkas láncszilikátja
Gyógyhatása:
A jadeit erős hatással van a hólyag és a vese működésére. Nemcsak a sav - bázis háztartást vízháztartást is. Emellett segít a méreganyagok kiválasztásában és elvezetésében, ezért remekül használható elhízás esetében is.
A jadeit erősíti az idegeket, feszültség és kimerültség esetén élénkítő hatású, a feszültség és az oldottság közötti kiegyensúlyozottság érzését kelti.
Visszaadja a belső békét és nyugalmunkat.
-Ametiszt:
Tulajdonságai:
Tulajdonságai; Szín: világostól a sötétliláig, sápadt lilásvörös Átlátszóság: az átlátszótól az áttetszőig Porszín: fehér Mohs-keménység: 7 Sűrűség: 2, 65 Képlet: SiO2 Ásványtanilag: sötétibolyaszínű kvarckristály Kristályszerkezet: trigonális Keletkezés módja: vulkáni Előfordulás: Németország, Románia, Brazília, Uruguay, Madagaszkár Nyugati csillagjegy: Kos, Szűz, Skorpió, Nyilas, Vízöntő, Halak Indián csillagjegy: Kígyó Kínai csillagjegy: Sárkány, Kakas, Disznó, Patkány, Tigris, Nyúl Elem: tűz, levegő
Gyógyhatása:
Az ametiszt felhasználási területe rendkívül széleskörű. Már az ókori görögök is olyan kőként ismerték, amely segít megőrizni a józanságot ( használója olyannak látja a dolgokat, amilyenek).
Az idegsejtekre kifejtett hatása révén javítja az agy koncentrációs képességét, segít a migrénes rohamok esetében.
Mivel az ametiszt elősegíti az ellazulást, használata javallott alvászavarok ellen. Kiegyensúlyozó hatással van a túlzott hyperaktivitásra, illetve a belső nyugtalanságra. Kiválóan használható a meditáció elmélyítésére.
Tisztítja a vért és kiegyenlíti a vérnyomást, oldja a vérrögöket, ezért hatásos érproblémák és görcsök esetében. Gyorsítja a vérömlenyek felszívódását.
Segíti a látást, sőt a színvakság gyógyítására is használják.
Élénkíti a hasnyálmirigy működését, serkenti az immunrendszert, enyhíti a torokfájást.
Erősíti a légutakat és segít a tüdő megbetegedéseinek leküzdésében.
Hat az idegekre és az ízületekre, elősegíti a kötőszöveti húzódások gyógyulását.
Az ametisztet a "szenvedélyek kövének" is nevezik, azt mondják róla, hogy a mániás viselkedések mindegyikére pozitív hatással van.
A térenergia harmonizálására is gyakran használják .
-Hókvarc (Tejkvarc)
Csakra:
torokcsakra, köldökcsakra
Tulajdonságai:
Ásványtanilag: fehér durva kvarc
Ásványtani osztály: szilícium-dioxid
Kristályszerkezet: trigonális
Keletkezés módja: vulkáni
Gyógyhatása:
Hatása hasonló, mint a hegyikristály, de gyógyító ereje később érződik. Gyógyítja az energiával rosszul ellátott területeket, itt erőt ad. Erősíti a gernicoszlopot, ízületeket.
A tejkvarc a torokcsakrába, a kettes csakrába, és a köldökbe (gyermekség) kapcsolódik be. Ez a kő feltárja előttem gyermekségem mikéntjét, játékosságom! Szembesít vele, hogy a játszás, a gyermekség játékosságának milyen fokán állok! Szemlélet módom gyermeki-e? Rácsodálkozás a világra, és önmagamra, vagy pedig a kis én, az egó a játszótársam. Feltárja előttem a kettő közötti különbséget. Ha elegem van az egóból és a gyermeket választom kézen fog és vezet. Megtanít az öröm játékaira, mert kinyitja bennem az emlékezetet és én újra gyerek leszek.
-Tibeti Ezüst:
A tibeti ezüst egy fémötvözet, amely 38% ezüstöt tartalmaz, és hagyományos tibeti technológiával készül. Garantáltan allergia mentes, leteszteltük. Nem feketedik, nikkelmentes, hordás hatására csak fényesedik.
Különleges féldrágakőből készült ékszerek, egyenesen a készítőtől!
Nézd meg a többi termékemet is, biztosan találsz neked tetsző darabokat : )
Karácsonyi ametiszt mobildísz harang medál jadeval
Jelenlegi ára: 1 700 Ft
Az aukció vége: 2018-11-07 16:10
          Karácsonyi mobildísz! Cukorka medál jadeval - Jelenlegi ára: 1 700 Ft      Cache   Translate Page      

Nagyszerű karácsonyi ajándék!
Mesés mobildísz gyönyörű fazettált fehér jade és swarovski kristály gyöngyökből ( bővebben a swarovski medál aukcióimnál olvashatsz róla ) tibeti ezüsttel kombinálva mely egészen biztosan nem jön szembe az utcán!
Hossza: 5 cm
A többfunkciós levehető függődísz használható mobildíszként, kulcstartóként és táska zipzárjára akasztva is.
 
Jade
Csakra : szakrális csakra, napfonat csakra, szívcsakra
Tulajdonságai:
Szín: zöldesfehér, zöld, szürke, sárgás Átlátszóság: Porszín: fehér Mohs-keménység: 6, 4 Sűrűség: Képlet: NaAl(Si2O6) Ásványtanilag: a piroxéncsoportKristályszerkezet: Keletkezés módja: Előfordulás: Burma, Japán, Kína Nyugati csillagjegy: Bika, Rák, Mérleg, Halak Indián csillagjegy: Kínai csillagjegy: Kígyó, Bárány, Kutya, Nyúl Elem: föld áttetsző, átlátszatlan 3, 2-3, 3 monoklin átalakult Farkas láncszilikátja
Gyógyhatása:
A jadeit erős hatással van a hólyag és a vese működésére. Nemcsak a sav - bázis háztartást vízháztartást is. Emellett segít a méreganyagok kiválasztásában és elvezetésében, ezért remekül használható elhízás esetében is.
A jadeit erősíti az idegeket, feszültség és kimerültség esetén élénkítő hatású, a feszültség és az oldottság közötti kiegyensúlyozottság érzését kelti.
Visszaadja a belső békét és nyugalmunkat.
-Tibeti Ezüst:
A tibeti ezüst egy fémötvözet, amely 38% ezüstöt tartalmaz, és hagyományos tibeti technológiával készül. Garantáltan allergia mentes, leteszteltük. Nem feketedik, nikkelmentes, hordás hatására csak fényesedik.
Különleges féldrágakőből készült ékszerek, egyenesen a készítőtől!
Nézd meg a többi termékemet is, biztosan találsz neked tetsző darabokat : )

Karácsonyi mobildísz! Cukorka medál jadeval
Jelenlegi ára: 1 700 Ft
Az aukció vége: 2018-11-07 16:25
          Karácsonyi mobildísz! Szánkó medál jadeval - Jelenlegi ára: 1 700 Ft      Cache   Translate Page      

Nagyszerű karácsonyi ajándék!
Mesés mobildísz gyönyörű fazettált fehér jade és swarovski kristály gyöngyökből ( bővebben a swarovski medál aukcióimnál olvashatsz róla ) tibeti ezüsttel kombinálva mely egészen biztosan nem jön szembe az utcán!
Hossza: 6 cm
A többfunkciós levehető függődísz használható mobildíszként, kulcstartóként és táska zipzárjára akasztva is.
 
Jade
Csakra : szakrális csakra, napfonat csakra, szívcsakra
Tulajdonságai:
Szín: zöldesfehér, zöld, szürke, sárgás Átlátszóság: Porszín: fehér Mohs-keménység: 6, 4 Sűrűség: Képlet: NaAl(Si2O6) Ásványtanilag: a piroxéncsoportKristályszerkezet: Keletkezés módja: Előfordulás: Burma, Japán, Kína Nyugati csillagjegy: Bika, Rák, Mérleg, Halak Indián csillagjegy: Kínai csillagjegy: Kígyó, Bárány, Kutya, Nyúl Elem: föld áttetsző, átlátszatlan 3, 2-3, 3 monoklin átalakult Farkas láncszilikátja
Gyógyhatása:
A jadeit erős hatással van a hólyag és a vese működésére. Nemcsak a sav - bázis háztartást vízháztartást is. Emellett segít a méreganyagok kiválasztásában és elvezetésében, ezért remekül használható elhízás esetében is.
A jadeit erősíti az idegeket, feszültség és kimerültség esetén élénkítő hatású, a feszültség és az oldottság közötti kiegyensúlyozottság érzését kelti.
Visszaadja a belső békét és nyugalmunkat.
-Tibeti Ezüst:
A tibeti ezüst egy fémötvözet, amely 38% ezüstöt tartalmaz, és hagyományos tibeti technológiával készül. Garantáltan allergia mentes, leteszteltük. Nem feketedik, nikkelmentes, hordás hatására csak fényesedik.
Különleges féldrágakőből készült ékszerek, egyenesen a készítőtől!
Nézd meg a többi termékemet is, biztosan találsz neked tetsző darabokat : )

Karácsonyi mobildísz! Szánkó medál jadeval
Jelenlegi ára: 1 700 Ft
Az aukció vége: 2018-11-07 16:36
          Osprey Elite №151 - World War II Jungle Warfare Tactics      Cache   Translate Page      
Название: World War II Jungle Warfare Tactics Author: Stephen Bull Illustrator: Steve Noon Издательство: Osprey Publishing Год издания: 7 Feb 2007 Серия: Elite series ISBN: 9781846030697 Страниц: 64 pages Язык: english Формат: pdf в rar Размер: 51 Мб This book describes and illustrates, in fascinating detail, the slow and painful learning curve followed by the Allies in the mid-war years as they attempted to end the Japanese stranglehold on Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Based on the actual wartime training documents and front-line memoirs, it shows how the British, Australian and US armies transformed their tactics, attitudes and equipment to master the art of jungle warfare. In 1944-45 the Allies finally conquered the jungle environment, exploiting their new strengths and their enemy's weaknesses, to win crushing victories in Burma and on the Pacific islands.
          Descubre cómo el vino, café, té y chocolate te pueden brindar bienestar      Cache   Translate Page      
CN COLIMANOTICIAS México.- Científicos de varios países han descubierto que consumir vino, café, té y chocolate puede tener efectos positivos en la esperanza de vida si se ingieren adicionándoles un suplemento de zinc, informa el portal científico EurekAlert. Activación de hidroquinona La doctora Ivana Ivanovi-Burmazovi, de la Universidad de Erlangen-Núremberg (Alemania) fue la encargada de dirigir el estudio, y junto con […]
          Democrats win New York state Legislature elections in Onondaga County      Cache   Translate Page      

Rachel May defeated Republican Janet Burman in the election for the State Senate’s 53rd District seat on Tuesday. Incumbent Bill Magnarelli also held onto his state assembly seat over Republican challenger Edward Ott. Continue reading

The post Democrats win New York state Legislature elections in Onondaga County appeared first on The Daily Orange - The Independent Student Newspaper of Syracuse, New York.


          Vom Label verführt -      Cache   Translate Page      
Es diskutieren: Prof. Dr. Christoph Burmann - Lehrstuhl für innovatives Markenmanagement, Universität Bremen, Prof. Dr. Gert Gutjahr - Institut für Marktpsychologie, Mannheim, Kirsten Juchem - Marktforschungsinstitut Rheingold-Salon, Köln Gesprächsleitung: Matthias Heger
          Warum kaufen wir Marken?      Cache   Translate Page      
Vom Label verführt. Gesprächsleitung: Matthias Heger. | Es diskutieren: Prof. Dr. Christoph Burmann ? Lehrstuhl für innovatives Markenmanagement, Universität Bremen, Prof. Dr. Gert Gutjahr ? Institut für Marktpsychologie, Mannheim, Kirsten Juchem ? Marktforschungsinstitut Rheingold-Salon, Köln
          Kiara Advani Upcoming Movies List 2018-2019 and Release Dates      Cache   Translate Page      

Kiara Advani Upcoming Movies List 2018-2019 With Release Dates

Latest Update: Kiara Advani Next Upcoming Movies List 2018 - 2019 and New Release Dates. Below are complete list of new movies releasing of Bollywood (Hindi) Movie Actress Kiara Advani. Including his Films, release date, actor and other lead star cast name.

Bollywood Actress Kiara Advani Upcoming Movies List of 2018 and 2019.

Movie Name Release Date Lead Star cast (Actor & Actress name) Poster
RC12 (Telugu)2019Kiara AdvanKiara upcoming 2018 Telugu film remake of movie Wiki, Poster, Release date, Songs list wikipedia
Bhushan Kumar's next Arjun Reddy Remake (hindi)2019Kiara Advani, Shahid KapoorKiara, Shaid upcoming 2018 Bollywood film remake of tamil movie Arjun Reddy Wiki, Poster, Release date, Songs list wikipedia
Vinaya Vidheya Rama (Telugu)2019Kiara Advani, Ram CharanKiara, Ram Charan upcoming 2018 Kollywood film of Vinaya Vidheya Rama Wiki, Poster, Release date, Songs list wikipedia
List of Kiara Advani Recently Released Films in 2016-2018.
Machine (hindi)24 Mar, 2018Kiara, MustafaKiara Advani, Mustafa Burmawalla upcoming 2017 Bollywood film Machine Wiki, Poster, Release date, Songs list wikipedia
Bharat Ane Nenu (Telugu)20 Apr 2018Mahesh, Kiara
M.S.Dhoni (hindi)30 Sep 2016Kiara, Sushant
Also Check Out:-
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Bollywood Movies Budgets & Profits 2018
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          Guardian Obituaries | Süleyman Demirel, Kenan Evren, Yasar Kemal, Mehmet Aksoy and John Freely      Cache   Translate Page      
Mavi Boncuk |


Süleyman Demirel obituary
Dominant figure in Turkey’s politics and seven times its PM
Wed 17 Jun 2015 

Süleyman Demirel in Helsinki, Finland, in 1975. Photograph: AFP
In 1983, three years after a coup, Süleyman Demirel, previously five times Turkish prime minister, was still being held prisoner in a military camp. Distressed at the glowing publicity the country’s military junta was receiving in the west, Demirel and his fellow prisoners sent a secret emissary to Britain, hoping to contact the Conservative government, drawing attention to the dark side of military rule and accusing western politicians of “clapping until their hands were red”.
Despite Demirel’s eminence, no notice was taken of the letter by the Conservatives, who simply redirected its bearer to Edward Mortimer, at the time a foreign policy commentator on the Times. This was the one time during Demirel’s 35-year political career that he made a direct appeal to western liberals and politicians. But, detecting no charisma in Demirel, they paid him little attention, despite his obvious survival skills.
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Yet between 1965 and the close of the century, Demirel, who has died aged 90, waged a largely successful battle for democratic politics and rapid economic development in Turkey amid incessant turbulence. Though at times he made serious mistakes, he not only made comebacks after two military coups but also lived to see Turkey become a prosperous middle-income industrial country, though under an Islamist government that more or less obliterated the former tradition of centre-right politics.
Born into a family of peasant farmers in Islamköy, a village in Isparta province in south-western Turkey, Demirel graduated as an engineer from Istanbul Technical University. While there he was a classmate of Necmettin Erbakan, the future leader of Turkey’s Islamist revival and attended his prayer meetings. Demirel’s technical ability attracted the attention of the prime minister, Adnan Menderes, and at the age of 31 he became director general of the state hydraulic works agency, after a period studying in the US on a scholarship from the Eisenhower foundation. Turkey’s network of hydropower projects in the south-east was his brainchild.
After the military coup in 1960 that deposed Menderes’s government, Demirel emerged as winner in the contest to lead Turkey’s centre right, first becoming prime minister after the 1965 general election. Though he and his Justice party seemed to have a natural majority in the country, Demirel was hard pressed, even with his considerable skills, to stay on top of a stormy situation. Leftists plotted with the military to set up a government along the lines of the Ba’athist administrations of Arab countries to the south, while his own followers were riven by feuds, and annual population growth of 3% produced urban chaos and protests at the nation’s economic backwardness.
Demirel was forced to devalue the lira. In June 1970 there were massive protests in Istanbul and martial law was introduced. Inflation began to rise into double and sometimes triple digits and was used to finance major economic and infrastructural projects. This mixture of pressures set the prevailing pattern in Turkish life until the end of the century.
In March 1971 the military unexpectedly ordered Demirel and his government to resign but did not shut parliament down. The withdrawal of the military from politics coincided with the rise of Bülent Ecevit on the centre left. Demirel allied with the Islamists and nationalist right fringes – thus inadvertently gıvıng them a permanent place in national politics – and became prime minister again in 1975 at the head of an anti-left “nationalist front” government. The polarisation that he fostered led to political paralysis, culminating in the military coup of 12 September 1980 with Kenan Evren at its head.
In detention, Demirel was held with his left-of-centre rivals, with whom he found himself on surprisingly good personal terms. When civilian politics returned, Turkish centre left and centre right for the first time found it easy to co-operate.
After 1981 Turkey moved away from protectionist economic policies to a market economy and renewed growth, as Demirel’s rival Turgut Özalpursued bolder policies than his. Demirel was banned from politics by the military until a referendum in 1987 reinstated him. By 1991 he was prime minister again, though now at the head of a coalition, and in 1993 he was elected president, retiring after seven years.
His most controversial act as head of state came in 1997, when he evicted Erbakan, by this time the Islamist prime minister, from power by leading him to expect he would still be part of a new coalition if he resigned, but then appointing a rival. This blocked the Islamist movement from power in Turkey until its comeback in 2002. Though the Turkish military are frequently blamed for this, the decision seems to have been Demirel’s own.
Widely read, he could talk easily both to farmers and visiting foreign professors. He was an ebullient but also in some ways a personally shy man. The Islamist course of Turkish politics after 2002 disappointed him and he made few public statements in the final years of his life. He is likely to be remembered as an arch-compromiser who steered Turkey through critical decades.
In 1948 he married Nazmiye Demirel, a cousin. She died in 2013.
• Sami Süleyman Gündoğdu Demirel, politician, born 1 November 1924; died 17 June 2015


 --------------------------


Kenan Evren obituary
Leader of Turkey’s military coup of 1980 and president of the country for seven years


 Kenan Evren in his presidential office in 1982. Last year he was given a life sentence for crimes against the state and stripped of his ranks, honours and medals. Photograph: Depo Photos/EPA
In June last year, a Turkish court in Ankara wrote a final humiliating postscript to the career of the former president Kenan Evren, who has died aged 97. Evren, permanently hospitalised after the removal of his large intestine five years earlier, received a life sentence for crimes against the state, along with the sole surviving member of the junta he had once headed.
Unable to attend court in person, the former general received news of the judgment via closed-circuit television. He was stripped of all his ranks, medals, and honours. It is not clear how much impact these rulings had. According to his relatives, Evren was no longer able to understand the proceedings.
For many Turks, particularly on the left, the condemnation of Evren in a now mainly Islamist Turkey helped bring closure to painful wounds suffered in 1980 at the hands of military coup-makers, who threw out an elected but feeble civilian government and ruled the country directly for more than two years.
However, the judgment ignored the fact that during its short period in power, Evren’s regime had restored law and order to a country where at the time of the coup about two dozen people a day were being killed in political clashes. It also set the stricken and paralysed Turkish economy of 1980 on the road not just back to stability, but also to a vastly more prosperous era, the largely inadvertent outcome of Evren’s style of government.
He was born in the western Anatolian town of Alaşehir. His father was an imam, but Evren was educated in military schools as an army officer and grew up as a secularist. His family background gave him a less unfriendly view of the religious establishment than most Kemalist bureaucrats. His early career, which included a spell in Korea in the second half of the 1950s, was successful but not notable until August 1977 when the then prime minister, Süleyman Demirel, promoted him to be chief of general staff over the head of a more liberal general. It was a fateful decision. Three years later Evren would lead a military coup which deposed Demirel and sent him, along with senior ministers and opposition colleagues, into detention.
Evren was more the figurehead than the architect of the coup. Bluff, cheerful, and surprisingly considerate of others, he lacked intellectual forcefulness at a time when Turkey’s future hung in the balance and the military were expected to decide the outcome. Bitter polarisation between right and leftwing parliamentarians had spilled over into street violence between revolutionary Marxists and ultra-nationalist “Grey Wolves”. The daily death toll grew steadily and even the imposition of martial law in Turkey’s major cities failed to restore order.
The military dragged their feet in backing the civilian government, allowed the situation to ripen to ensure support for a coup and put out feelers to the US and Britain about their intentions. In the summer of 1980, parliament was unable to agree on the election of the head of state, impeached the foreign minister and left a minority government in office which was powerless.
On 12 September, Evren and his colleagues moved and declared him head of state with a junta of top generals exercising legislative power. Order was restored within a few weeks. The price was high – and became more severe in the second year of the junta as its composition changed. The generals hanged 35 militants (one of them a boy of 17) and placed many thousands of others, particularly journalists and academics, on trial in martial-law courts. Torture was ubiquitous. A long-standing personal foe of the Grey Wolf leader, Alparslan Türkeş, Evren jailed ultra-nationalists as well as leftists.
Two years of redesigning Turkey’s institutions followed, intended to reshape the country’s political system along semi-authoritarian but outwardly democratic lines. The new system was intended to proscribe all political activity outside the narrow limits the generals regarded as permissible. Evren also revived Islamic religious education in schools, believing it would curb the growth of the left, and made it compulsory.
He and his colleagues intended that a pro-army conservative party should run the country. A dubious referendum in June 1982 endorsed a new constitution, followed 17 months later by a general election in which only three approved parties competed. Evren had formally become president in the June 1982 referendum and watched helplessly as Turgut Özal, whom he disliked, won the general election in November 1983 and set Turkey on the path to greater political and economic freedom.
Evren himself served out a seven-year term as a figurehead president without fuss before retiring to a life of painting by the seaside at Bodrum, making only very occasional (and usually poorly judged) public remarks.
Evren’s wife, Sekine, died in 1982. He is survived by three daughters.
• Kenan Evren, military officer and statesman, born 17 July 1917; died 9 May 2015\

-------------------

Yasar Kemal obituary
Turkish writer best known for his novel Memed, My Hawk
Sun 1 Mar 2015 13.22 

 Yasar Kemal at his home in Istanbul, Turkey, in 2008. Photograph: Yoray Liberman
The Turkish writer Yaşar Kemal, who has died aged 91, found fame after the publication of his first novel, Ince Memed (1955), translated into English as Memed, My Hawk (1961). It became known around the world in other translations, the first Turkish novel to make a big impact internationally. Kemal was then working as a journalist in Istanbul, but the story dealt with the harsh life of farmers and ordinary people in the Çukurova plain and Taurus mountains around Adana in southern Turkey.
Memed, My Hawk is a sort of Robin Hood tale, rich in autobiographical elements. Its hero, Memed, grows up in a village cut off from the rest of the world and owned by an oppressive landowner, Abdi Agha, who viciously exploits the farmers and their families. A feud springs up between Memed and Abdi: Memed, accompanied by the young woman he loves, Hatche, is driven into the mountains as a bandit and eventually kills Abdi, though only after Hatche has been killed and he himself betrayed.
It is an extraordinarily violent story, told with great vividness and simplicity in language that not only brings the luckless villagers to life but also evokes very strongly the sounds, smells, and colours of Turkey’s Taurus region. The message is clear – the oppressed need to stand up firmly against oppression and fight injustice rather than endure it uncomplainingly. The novel became a classic, even though some Turkish readers do not think it is necessarily Kemal’s best.
Not everyone approved. When a leading Hollywood producer contemplated a film version, he was warned that the Turkish authorities considered Kemal to be a communist and he backed off. It was not until 1984 that Peter Ustinov directed and starred (as Abdi) in a film version of Memed My Hawk. Even then Ustinov was denied permission to film in Turkey.
Kemal was born in the village of Hemite (now renamed Gökçedam) a couple of weeks before the demise of the Ottoman Empire and the declaration of the Republic of Turkey. He was named Kemal Sadık, after his father, and in 1934 the family took the surname of Gökçeli. His parents, Sadık and Nigâr, were Kurdish peasant farmers who had escaped from the first world war by trekking a few years earlier from their home on the shores of Lake Van to live in what is now Turkey’s Osmaniye province, near the north-east corner of the Mediterranean. The only Kurdish family in the village, they spoke Kurdish at home and Turkish with their neighbours.
A childhood knife accident left Kemal blind in one eye, and when he was five years old his father was murdered before his eyes by his stepbrother. His interest in literature began with folksongs. Unable to play the saz – the Turkish long-necked lute – well, he became interested in the world of ballads, and their stories of bandits and protests. Working part-time as a casual labourer in the cotton fields around Adana, he put himself through some secondary schooling but was forced to leave in his mid-teens.
In 1943, he published a book of folk ballads locally, and while doing his military service in Ankara a year later his first short story. For the next few years he combined working as a labourer with offering his services as a public letter writer, moving gradually into journalism and in 1950 served a short spell in prison for alleged communist activities.
A year later, on the advice of several of Turkey’s leading leftist writers, he went to Istanbul and was given a job as a reporter on Cumhuriyet newspaper. It was at this point that he adopted the pen name of Yaşar Kemal.
From then onwards his life was a story of high-profile success: three travel books based on his work as a reporter, and more than 20 novels between 1955 and 2013, continuing to deal with the people of the southern Turkish countryside whom he had known in his earlier life and their sufferings and feuds. He won a stream of Turkish and international awards, though he seems to have been more appreciated outside the English-speaking countries. He was particularly liked in France, becoming in 2011 a grand officier of the Légion d’Honneur. But though nominated for the Nobel prize in 1973, he never won it.
Kemal’s lifelong passion for social justice led him to join the newly legalised Workers’ Party of Turkey in 1962. He also always publicly affirmed his Kurdish identity even when tensions between Ankara and the PKK, the Kurdistan Workers’ party, were at their height.
In the late 1970s he moved temporarily to Sweden at a time when there was a spate of political assassinations in Turkey. In 1996 he was sentenced to 20 months for an article he wrote for Index on Censorship, but although he asked the court not to suspend it, he did not actually go to jail.
Kemal married his first wife, Thilda Serrero, in 1952, and they had a son, Rasit. Thilda died in 2001, and the following year he married Ayşe Semiha Baban. She and Rasit survive him.
• Yaşar Kemal (Kemal Gökçeli), writer, born 6 October 1923; died 28 February 2015

--------------------

Mehmet Aksoy obituary

Rahila Gupta is a writer and journalist. Her last book, Enslaved: The New British Slavery explores the role of immigration controls in enslaving people with no formal status here

Mehmet Aksoy was the programme director of the annual London Kurdish film festival


My friend Mehmet Aksoy, who has died aged 32, was a film-maker, journalist and prominent figure in the Kurdish community in the UK. He was killed in an Isis ambush while documenting the fight between Kurdish forces and Isis in Raqqa in northern Syria.
I met Mehmet in 2015 after he had given a rousing speech about an unbelievable place in northern Syria called Rojava (now known as the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria), where a self-governing, Kurdish-led democracy based on the principles of gender, race and class equality had been set up in 2012 with a special focus on women’s liberation. Such were Mehmet’s persuasive powers that I travelled to Rojava to have a look for myself. Everything he had said was true. Over the next two years I was also to discover his vast range of achievements in such a short life.
Mehmet was born in Istanbul, Turkey, the oldest child of Zeynep (nee Konca) and Kalender Aksoy. When he was four his family moved to London, where his parents now run an off-licence. Educated at Leyton college and then Barnet college, he started going to the Kurdish Community Centre in central London as a teenager and there became increasingly aware of the Kurdish freedom struggle. Important milestones in his political development were the writings of the Black Panther activist George Jackson and ideas on democratic federalism put forward by Abdullah Öcalan, the Kurdish leader now imprisoned in Turkey.
After gaining a first class degree in film studies from Queen Mary University of London in 2007, Mehmet worked as editor of the Kurdish.com website, but was also founding editor of an internet-based news portal called The Region and of the website Kurdishquestion.com, the place for information, news and analysis on all things Kurdish.
In tandem with his journalistic efforts he maintained his interest in film and in 2014 completed an MA in film-making at Goldsmiths, University of London: his 2014 film, Panfilo, an apocalyptic fairytale about three generations of men coming to terms with loss and death in rural Italy, won prizes at the Italian Short Film festival and the UK Student Film Awards. He was also the programme director of the annual London Kurdish film festival, and at other times could be seen wielding a megaphone or a placard in support of Kurdish self-government.
In his search for answers to the Kurdish question, he tragically paid with his life.
Mehmet is survived by his parents, his sister, Gonca, and his brother, Ali.

John Freely obituary
Brooklyn-born historian of science and passionate traveller whose 1973 book, Strolling Through Istanbul, became a classic
Mon 5 Jun 2017 

 In 1960 a chance encounter with a former teacher at Robert College, Istanbul, persuaded John Freely to move his young family to Turkey, where he took up a post teaching theoretical physics at the college
In books such as Before Galileo (2012), Light from the East (2010) and Aladdin’s Lamp (2009), John Freely, a historian of science and inveterate traveller, who has died aged 90, showed how much modern science and indeed modern thought in the west owes to ideas forged in the eastern past. His non-scientific works, including The Grand Turk (2009), Storm on Horseback (2008) and Jem Sultan (2004), range widely throughout Turkish history.
Istanbul, at the crossroads between east and west, was the locus of his life and his work; and John’s travel book Strolling Through Istanbul (1973, with Hilary Sumner-Boyd), has established itself as a classic. As a guide to the city, John was peerless; it is doubtful whether any westerner in the late 20th century had a better understanding of it than he.
What makes Strolling Through Istanbul so unusual is its combination of erudition and first-hand observation. The New YorkTimes described it as reading like a novel. Of the Topkapi Saray (palace), for instance, he wrote: “In all the Saray there could have been no more agreeable place for the Sultan to enjoy his keyif than from his balcony, cooled by the gentle breezes from the Bosphorus, watching the lights twinkling like captive constellations on the hills of his beautiful city.”
John was a born storyteller, and his encyclopedic knowledge of history and culture enabled him to treat Istanbul in an informed but very personal way; the book is shot through with anecdotes as well as facts. This applied to all his travel books, which included volumes on Athens, Venice and the islands in teh Aegean known as the Cyclades. He was an indefatigable walker – nothing escaped his eye when he was touring a place, and he was able to situate the things he saw in a human as well as a historical context. He was also highly irreverent.
Born in Brooklyn, New York, John was the son of Peg (nee Murphy) and John Freely. His mother took him for two periods to live in her native Dingle, in County Kerry, Ireland, while his father, whose jobs included trolley conductor, gardener and gravedigger, tried to find steady work in Brooklyn. By the time he was six, John had crossed the Atlantic four times, thus setting the pattern for his restless life.
After being expelled from high school in Brooklyn, for neglecting all studies except the humanities that interested him, he enlisted in the US navy just in time to have adventures on the Burma Road and in China before the second world war ended. The GI Bill enabled him to study physics at Iona College and New York University, and from there he went on to carry out thermonuclear research at the Forrestal Research Center, Princeton University.
In 1947 John had married Dolores Stanley (affectionately nicknamed “Toots”); in 1960 a chance encounter with a former teacher at Robert College, Istanbul, persuaded them to move with their young children to Turkey, where John took up a post teaching theoretical physics at the college.
Over the course of the following 50 years, and inspired by the example of the Ottoman traveller and historian Evliya Çelebi, he became steeped in the history and cultures of the eastern Mediterranean. The young family took extensive trips in college vacations; the inspiration was often Homer and the Odyssey, and by the end of his travelling days John had easily outdistanced his mythical precursor.
John’s life in Istanbul in the 1960s was both scholarly and hedonistic, the expatriate crowd he hung out with being noted for hard drinking and party-going, and for inebriated midnight swims in the Bosphorus. John’s elder daughter, the novelist and translator Maureen Freely, dramatised this in her novels The Life of the Party (1984) and Sailing Through Byzantium (2013). Alcohol later became a grave problem, however, and John eventually quit drinking altogether.
At Robert College, which has since become Bosphorus University, John devised a course in the history of science that over the years attracted countless devoted students. Recently the institution named one of its principal halls after him.
Dolores died in 2015. John is survived by his daughters, Maureen and Eileen, and son, Brendan.
• John Freely, writer, born 26 June 1926; died 20 April 2017



          Finding Light in Darkness: The Myanmar Tragedy      Cache   Translate Page      

Darkness, in its many intimidating and frightening modes, is not the final word.

As I walked among the glistening gold-plated stupas of the Shwedagon Pagoda in Yangon, Myanmar (formerly Burma), it was hard to believe that just miles north, a genocide took place masterminded by the country’s military.

The Rohingyas, a people-name once unknown, is now a common point of our conversations. But even as we assume the worldwide accusations are self-evident behind the genocide of these ethnic Muslims in the heart of a Buddhist country, complexity rules—a fact of which the small Christian community there is well aware.

We wonder at the silence of the country’s de facto leader Aung San Suu Kyi, who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. What are the factors in the social architecture of Myanmar that have contributed to this seemingly unforgiveable tragedy?

To begin, Myanmar is a country of 54 million people, divided into eight major ethnic races grouped by region, more so than language or ethnic affiliation. These regions camouflage its actual 135 distinct ethnic groups!

We too quickly assume that globalization is good, unifying people of all kinds of cultural strands. Democracy and human rights we value so highly are not necessarily embraced. Tribalism often rules, and Myanmar is a prime example. Mistreatment of ethnic or religious minorities is nothing new in what was formerly Burma. Internally, there are some 600,000 displaced persons, not counting the tens of thousands still in camps in Thailand and other surrounding countries.

The Military Rules

Although Myanmar is, nominally speaking, a country with a government of an elected parliament, it is still the military who rules. Myanmar held general elections in 2015; however, 25 percent of the seats in parliament are controlled by the military. ...

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          Why Leaving NYCB to Pursue an Economics Degree Was the Right Decision for Freelance Dancer Shoshana Rosenfield      Cache   Translate Page      


Shoshana Ronsenfield's career has not followed a straight path. In a surprising move, the born-and-raised New Yorker left a burgeoning career at New York City Ballet in 2012 to study economics at Barnard College. Upon graduating, Rosenfield spent six months freelancing with companies including New Chamber Ballet and Tom Gold Dance before spending two years working in global management at Goldman Sachs (and dancing on the side).

Now Rosenfield is on to a new chapter: She's just completed a boot camp in computer coding, and is currently doing a coding teaching fellowship. But she's still dancing. This weekend, Rosenfield will appear in Tom Gold Dance's fall season at Florence Gould Hall. We caught up with Rosenfield to hear all about how she's balanced college and career and how she's learned that it is possible to do it all.


Why did you leave New York City Ballet?

I was there for three years. I danced with the company as an apprentice during my senior year of high school and two years afterwards in the corps. I had an offer from Barnard College and deferred for two years, but then it was a now-or-never moment: I could either attend Barnard, or I'd need to reapply to an alternative college program that would allow me to take more than two years off. So I decided to go to college.

While you were training at School of American Ballet, were you always preparing to go to college afterward?

I will be honest and say that I have extremely great parents who made sure that my horizons stayed open for as long as possible, to give me as much flexibility as possible down the road. So it was with their encouragement and help and advice that I applied to colleges when I was a senior.

Rosenfield with James Shee in Tom Gold's "Apparitus Hominus" at TurnPark Art Space. Photo by Beau Bernatchez Photography, Courtesy Rosenfield.

When you left NYCB did you think that you would keep dancing?

I wasn't sure. I left the company in July, and took some time off to figure it out, but by the time I started college in early September I was itching to get back in the studio. I took a ballet class and a modern class at Barnard and then found myself dancing Nutcracker in a studio showing that December with Columbia Ballet Collaborative, a student run ballet company that I became involved in. I always come back to it; I've found that if I'm not dancing, I feel like something is wrong.

After having been in the professional ballet world, what surprised you about college life?

I loved the feeling of dancing at Barnard because the students who were there were there for their love of dance, and that was the only thing driving them. It wasn't a job. That reinvigorated the love of dance for me as well.


How did you fit dance into your schedule while you were working at Goldman Sachs?

It was difficult to keep it going. I was lucky enough to do a Nutcracker with Dances Patrelle in the fall of 2016, when I joined Goldman Sachs, and I did alumni shows with Columbia Ballet Collaborative that fall and spring as well. But for the remainder of my time there I wasn't able to do any other gigs. At that point I understood that my time was dedicated to work. Part of the reason why I left was to be able to continue dancing, and to explore other facets of myself.

What are the best and most challenging parts of freelancing?

What I love about freelancing is that dancers come from a lot of different backgrounds. In Tom's group now there's one dancer from NYCB, another from American Ballet Theatre, a dancer from St. Louis and one who's working on his PhD. Having all of those different backgrounds coming together for the love of dance is really nice.


Rosenfield (second from left) in Tom Gold's "Poetic Episodes." Photo by Ani Collier, Courtesy Tom Gold Dance.

How long have you been dancing with Tom Gold?

I've known Tom since I started taking class at Steps on Broadway with Willy Burmann when I was 12. I had seen him from afar since then, but we started working together in 2016.

What will you be dancing with the company this weekend?

We're bringing back a piece that we worked on over the summer called Apparatus Hominus. Tom choreographed it based off a sculpture garden that he'd seen in the Berkshires, and we performed it there this summer on an outdoor stage with the Green Mountains in the background. The last time that I'd performed outside was in Saratoga with NYCB, so it was super special.

Since leaving NYCB your career has taken so many twists and turns, but you've been able to keep dancing the whole time. If you could give your younger self a piece of advice about the future, what would it be?

When I left NYCB I was looking at my decision as very black and white: either dance or school, with nothing in between. I imagined I'd go into a career completely separate from the ballet world. It would have relieved some of the pressure to have known that you can marry the two. Sometimes it's a bit of a struggle, or even entertaining, to run from coding school to rehearsal, put your pointe shoes on, and be up and moving. But it is possible.




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