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MILLENIALS, LA GENERACIÓN QUE MÁS VISITA COLOMBIA 

Nacidos aproximadamente entre 1980 y el año 2000, la mayoría de ellos buscan experiencias auténticas que los relacionen con las culturas y tradiciones de los lugares que visitan.

De acuerdo con datos construidos por ANATO, y basados en cifras entregadas por Migración Colombia, los Millenials (entre 22 a 37 años) son la generación con mayor interés de conocer Colombia con el 40% sobre el total de visitantes extranjeros que llegan a nuestro país; seguidos por la Generación X (38 a 53 años) con un 29% y la generación Z (8 a 24 años) la cual alcanza un 23%”.

“La realización constante de capacitaciones dirigidas a las Agencias de Viajes y en general a la cadena turística, ha tenido siempre como objetivo principal, darles a conocer aspectos que las permita ser más competitivas en este mercado de constante cambio”, señaló Paula Cortés Calle, presidente ejecutiva de ANATO.

Uno de estos eventos que desarrolla la Asociación es el Seminario de Formación Turística de ANATO, que, con apoyo de la OMT, consolida, amplia y profundiza los conocimientos de los empresarios del sector. Este año, el evento se realizará en Montería, Armenia y Cali el 19, 21 y 23 de noviembre respectivamente.

Gracias a este tipo de jornadas, las Agencias de Viajes han identificado aspectos, por ejemplo, que los Millenials son curiosos y buscan conocer el mundo; que tienen más gasto turístico que generaciones anteriores cuando tenían esa edad; les gusta la comodidad; aprovechan sus viajes de trabajo para vivir experiencias en los destinos; se interesan por vivir las tradiciones locales; y prefieren el servicio personalizado, entre otros.

“Sin embargo, las Agencias de Viajes tiene en cuenta también la importancia de conocer aquellos aspectos que demanda la generación X, pues si bien no son los que lideran la lista de quienes nos visitan, vacacionan con sus hijos, es decir la generación Z, y para ellos también debemos estar preparados y así brindarles aquello que demandarán”, resaltó la dirigente gremial.

Otro de los datos que reportó Migración Colombia es el género de los visitantes extranjeros. Sobre esto, la fuente revela que para el periodo comprendido entre enero y septiembre de 2018, de los 3.140.588 visitantes extranjeros que llegaron al país, el 56.1% (1.764.308 millones) fueron hombres, mientras que el 43.8 % (1.377.719) fueron mujeres.






          Vigilante - Servagro - Armenia, Quindío      Cache   Translate Page      
ARMENIA, Colombia Prevenir y reducir los riesgos en cuanto a seguridad que puedan presentarse en las instalaciones donde estén prestando el servicio...
De Servagro - Tue, 09 Oct 2018 06:33:59 GMT - Ver todos: empleos en Armenia, Quindío
          Catholic bishops ask Israel to repeal law excluding non-Jews      Cache   Translate Page      

Jerusalem, Nov 6, 2018 / 01:58 pm (CNA/EWTN News).- Top Catholic prelates in Israel are asking the government to repeal the recent Nation State Law, which they say paves a path for discrimination against non-Jewish citizens.

“Although the law changes very little in practice, it does provide a constitutional and legal basis for discrimination among Israel’s citizens, clearly laying out the principles according to which Jewish citizens are to be privileged over and above other citizens,” the Catholic leaders said in their statement, dated Oct. 31.

“We, as the religious leaders of the Catholic Churches, call on the authorities to rescind this basic law and assure one and all that the state of Israel seeks to promote and protect the welfare and the safety of all its citizens.”

The Nation State Law’s provisions, which have the weight of a constitutional amendment, define Israel as the “historic homeland of the Jewish people” who have “a singular right to national self-determination within it.”

The passage of the law by a 62-55 vote July 19 with the support of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s right-wing coalition drew widespread international criticism, including from influential groups like the American Jewish Committee.

Following the passage of the law, the Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem voiced concern that it had downgraded Arabic from an official language to a language with a “special status.” It also objected to the law’s “commitment to work on the development of Jewish settlement in the land, with no mention of the development of the country for the rest of its inhabitants.”

The Oct. 31 joint statement was signed by more than two dozen Catholic ordinaries of the Holy Land, representing Roman, Syrian, and Armenian Catholic, as well as Greek Melkite churches. Signatories included Archbishop Georges Bacouni of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church in Israel, Maronite Archbishop Moussa El-Hage of Haifa, and Apostolic Administrator of the Latin Patriarchate Pierbattista Pizzaballa.

The bishops warned of the focus on Jewish identity at the expense of equality and democracy.

They particularly criticized a clause in the law that promotes “the development of Jewish settlement as a national value,” saying that by doing so, “the law promotes an inherent discriminatory vision.”

The law ignores the Palestinian Arabs living in the region, as well as the Christian, Muslim, Druze and Baha’i communities – all of whom should be treated as equal citizens, the bishops said. They added that the law violates international law standards.

“As Israelis and as Palestinian Arabs, we seek to be part of a state that promotes justice and peace, security and prosperity for all its citizens,” they emphasized.

 


           Comment on William Watson: Curse my country for its military victory by Keith McLennan       Cache   Translate Page      
No, Watson was indeed calling for armed intervention to help the Armenians: "Yonder the Dragon ramps with fiery gorge, Yonder the victim faints and gasps and bleeds; But in his merry England our St. George Sleeps a base sleep beside his idle spear." - The Knell of Chivalry Not only did he want Britain to intervene, but he also wanted America ("the Titan of the West") to join in: "if thou has more strength than thou can spend In tasks of Peace, and find'st her yoke too tame, Help us to smite the cruel, to befriend The succourless, and put the false to shame." - England to America The "succourless" here were the Armenians; the "false", the Turks. Both poems were written in 1896, only three years before Kipling in "The White Man's Burden" made a similar appeal to America to "veil the threat of terror / And check the show of pride".
           Comment on William Watson: Curse my country for its military victory by richardrozoff       Cache   Translate Page      
There was actually an earlier violent campaign against the Armenians (and the Macedonians) in the 1890s, against which to his great credit Anatole France spoke out publicly. "I am not defending them because they are Christians, but because they are men." Given Britain's support of the Ottomans during the Crimean War (and before and after as well), it was a simple matter of the UK withholding military and diplomatic support rather than directly intervening, I suppose.
           Comment on William Watson: Curse my country for its military victory by Keith McLennan       Cache   Translate Page      
A curious piece. Yet Watson also condemned Britain for failing to act against the Turks, "the Viceregency of Hell", on behalf of the Armenians: Stirred by no clarion blowing loud and wide, Thy sons forget what Truth and Honour meant. - "Craven England" This was in the 1890s, long before the Armenian Genocide of 1915. By then, perhaps sensing another "diabolical tyranny" in the Kaiser's Germany, Watson supported British participation in the Great War. He was knighted in 1917 in recognition of his support for the war effort. When he died, in 1935, no less a figure than Kipling said of him that he "did great work and never wrote a bad line".
          Mosul and The True Face of Islam      Cache   Translate Page      

I have lived and worked in the Muslim Middle East for the past thirty-five years, and have many dear friends who are Muslims. Most recently, I prayed with a 38-year old Muslim man in the ruins of his house in the old city of Mosul, as he told me his story of surviving the ISIS occupation.

I stumbled upon Azam Nejim Abdallah by accident, while inspecting the devastation wrought upon the magnificent 4th and 5th century churches of West Mosul with an Iraqi police brigadier general and activists from the Hammurabi Human Rights Organization, a local group dedicated to protecting Iraqi minorities.

Azam and an older neighbor, Abu Ibrahim Mohsen, were among the hardy few who had returned to the ruins and were attempting to rebuild. Their problem on this particular day was that they had no water, and no electricity. “People just three blocks down the street have water,” they complained to the brigadier general. Why not us?”

To us, the answer was obvious. The fact that Azam and his neighbors were alive was nothing short of miraculous. One neighbor’s house was just a pile of rubble. Bomb squads were still combing through the neighborhood, more than a year after the liberation, for ISIS booby-traps and unexploded ordinance. There was not a single house left standing in the neighborhood. Water? Electricity? Really?

When Azam saw me, he wanted to tell me the story of how his four-year son and father were killed in the final days of the ISIS occupation. He kept pointing to an alleyway, and in the end, I let him take me by the hand to his house a bit further away. He had already started to rebuild the walls, but that wasn’t what he wanted to show me: it was a picture of his four-year old son, Omar, and the jagged hole a coalition bomb had torn through a metal door. “I was crouching, right there,” he pointed. “Omar was crouching here, with my father. They were both killed,” he wept. All I could do as he showed me a photograph of his son was to pray with him.

I am reminded of this story by an encounter with a pastor in an Anglican church in Europe recently, who commented that ISIS and all their barbarity were “such a distortion of true Islam.”

I must have raised an eyebrow, for he went on: “You know, the Koran says to protect the People of the Book.”

“Those are the Meccan verses,” I countered. “In Medina, Mohammad preached violence and conquest.”

“You must read the Koran in its entirety,” he said. “It’s like the Bible: you can’t just take things out of context.”

I was floored by that statement, and not wanting to get into an argument in Church, I left it there. So instead, I am writing this column.

As anyone knows who has actually studied Islam – Islam itself, not the version purveyed by the apologists of the “religion of peace” – Mohammad changed his tune after the hijira or migration from Mecca to Medina.

While in Mecca, he attempted to win over local Christians and Jews, and so preached a doctrine that allowed for a modicum of tolerance, even while relegating the People of the Book to second-class citizen status, or dhimmitude.

But once in Medina, where he built a powerful army, he jettisoned that baggage and verbalized the famous Verse of the Sword proclaimed by ISIS and millions of Muslim warriors over the past fourteen centuries as they slaughtered unbelievers.

He also pronounced the Verses of Abrogation, which explicitly annulled the Mecca verses of relative tolerance. My Anglican friend was either ignorant of the doctrine of Abrogation, or for some reason felt that he, as a Christian, was somehow a better judge of its relative merit than the unanimous verdict of fourteen hundred years of Islamic scholarship, which has always upheld abrogation.

In other words, Islam as a religion explicitly rejects tolerance of others. The Koranic verses proclaiming relative tolerance have been declared null and void by Allah himself, according to Mohammad and 14 centuries of Muslim scholars.

My Anglican friend clearly preferred the illusion of Islam, rather than its harsh and often barbaric reality, the one I had witnessed in Mosul and the Nineveh Plain.

The overwhelming majority of ordinary Muslims I have met have little notion of what the Koran actually says. It is, frankly, an unreadable book. Much of it makes no sense at all. Some contemporary scholars believe this is because it was actually written in Syro-Aramaic, the common language of the time.

So most Muslims believe what their imam tells them to believe, or if they are not practicing, whatever their parents and grandparents have handed down to them. And for the most part, that is a religious code based on what we would call family values, aimed at keeping societies that are 100 percent Muslim from crime and disorder.

Over the centuries, these Muslims have coexisted with Christian and Jewish neighbors because those neighbors brought them prosperity and innovation, something the imams did not. From time to time, roused by Islamic “radicals,” these peaceful Muslims rose up and slaughtered their neighbors. In the most famous of these pogroms, Muslims slaughtered nearly half the Assyrian, Greek, and Armenian Christians in Iran, Iraq, and Turkey during the final years of WWI, just one hundred years ago.

In my experience, there are three broad categories of self-aware Muslims in the world today, all of whom understand the Doctrine of Abrogation.

There are the Reformers, who dare to proclaim that Islam must be better than violence and the sword. These are brave or foolhardy people, most of them men. They have a better chance of surviving in the Shiite world, which has a long tradition of ijtihad – Islamic jurisprudence or interpretation – something that died among the Sunna in the 12th century, if indeed it had ever existed as more than an afterthought.

Then there are the Seducers, the public intellectuals and politicians who proclaim that Islam is a religion of peace and that anyone who says the contrary is committing blasphemy. These are powerful people, who have won much support from wishful thinkers in the West.

The wishful thinkers have so thoroughly bought into their denials of the Doctrine of Abrogation that it has now become illegal in Europe to even write about it, something the United Nations General Assembly has not managed to accomplish, despite the best efforts of Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama to support Resolution 1618.

Finally, there is the Muslim Brotherhood and its evil Salifist spawn, from al Qaeda and the Taliban to Hamas, ISIS, and beyond. They simply point to the Book, shout out “Koran says,” and eagerly behead Christians or Muslims who refuse to adopt their version of Sharia law, which happens to be drawn from authentic Islamic texts and 1400 years of unanimous Muslim scholarship.

Want to know the true face of Islam? Ask the Christians of Mosul and the Nineveh Plain. Or the Christians of Syria. Or the Muslims whose better nature rejected the barbarity of ISIS and who paid for their humanity with their lives.

Or ask Tara Fares, the former Miss Baghdad, who was gunned down last month in Iraq because she was a Christian who dared show her face in an outdoor market.

To my Anglican pastor friend, I say: wishful thinking will only get you dead. If not in this generation, then in the next.


          Confermato il divieto del Vaticano a Mons. Schneider      Cache   Translate Page      
Ricordo che Mons. Athanasius Schneider è stato il primo a mettere in luce il paradosso delle interpretazioni contraddittorie di «Amoris laetitia» dichiarando la necessità di chiarire per evitare la confusione generale [qui]. Ancor prima della formulazione dei Dubia, ai quali non ha tardato a dare pubblicamente il suo appoggio [qui], ribadendo "la bellezza non negoziabile del matrimonio cristiano" [qui] e rivolgendo un importante appello ai vescovi di tutto il mondo [qui].
Chi fosse interessato può consultare il nutrito indice degli articoli pubblicati sulla vexata questio.

Traduco da Gloria Tv
Comunicazioni sui social media hanno affermato che al vescovo del Kazakhistan Athanasius Schneider è stato proibito di viaggiare. 
Un Twitter del 4 novembre di Rorate-Caeli ha in parte confermato la notizia : "Gli è stato chiesto di ridurre la frequenza dei suoi viaggi fuori dalla sua diocesi, ma non gli sono stati proibiti tutti i viaggi". Mons. Schneider, nel 2011, è stato spostato come vescovo ausiliare da Karaganda ad Astana, in Kazakhstan, anche se il suo nuovo vescovo ha dichiarato in pubblico che non aveva bisogno di un vescovo ausiliare.

Riprendo da Stilum Curiae:
Il vescovo ausiliare di Astana, e precedentemente vescovo di Karaganda, Athanasius Schneider, ha ricevuto un’ingiunzione verbale dal Vaticano che gli chiede di ridurre la frequenza dei suoi viaggi all’estero.
Questa misura è stata presa nella primavera scorsa; il vescovo ha saputo di questa straordinaria misura restrittiva della sua libertà dal nunzio in Kazakhistan, Francis Assisi Chullikatt, ad aprile. Ma – altro elemento singolare in questa vicenda – è che mons. Schneider ha avuto lettura della disposizione, impartita direttamente dal Segretario di Stato, il card. Pietro Parolin, solo verbalmente.
Il nunzio non gli ha dato niente di scritto, nessun documento in base al quale il vescovo potesse prendere una qualche iniziativa legale, eventualmente presso la Congregazione per i Vescovi, o presso il Tribunale della Segnatura Apostolica, che, fino all’avvento di papa Bergoglio, era l’istanza presso cui laici preti e vescovi potevano appellarsi verso decisioni dell’autorità che ritenessero ingiuste.
Nessuna motivazione è stata data a mons. Schneider, secondo quanto risulta a persone a lui vicine, che abbiamo contattato, per spiegare questa straordinaria richiesta. Ogni volta che ha in programma un viaggio all’estero, deve comunicarlo al Nunzio. Non sappiamo se fra i poteri dell’ambasciatore pontificio vi sia anche quello, eventualmente, di negargli l’autorizzazione all’espatrio.
Mons. Athanasius Schneider, come sanno i lettori di Stilum Curiae, è una delle voci più libere e schiette nel denunciare – in maniera rispettosa e filiale, ma ferma – deviazioni e confusione presenti nella Chiesa di oggi. Impossibile non rilevare la disparità di trattamento fra di lui e il card. Theodore McCarrick, che, colpito dalle sanzioni di Benedetto XVI (fra cui il divieto di viaggiare) è stato inviato dal Pontefice in Cina, nelle Filippine, in Armenia e ha agito come trait-d’union con Cuba per preparare la visita del Pontefice. O anche verso il cardinale Maradiaga, Gran Consigliere del papa, che ha abbandonato – a motivo dei suoi frequentissimi viaggi – la diocesi di Tegucicalpa nelle mani del suo ausiliare, il vescovo Pineda, suo braccio destro obbligato alle dimissioni dalla lettera aperta di decine di seminaristi che lo accusavano di comportamenti scorretti, e le cui imprese recenti descrive Religion Confidencial.
D’altronde non c’è da stupirsi di questi atti segno evidente di un disagio sempre più marcato nei confronti delle voci libere in un regime in cui si parla di dialogo, ma dove le critiche sono temute. E dove però si preferiscono mezzi silenziosi e nascosti per limitare la libertà di espressione. Come il “consiglio” dato ai vescovi americani – sempre a voce, sempre da un nunzio – a non invitare nella diocesi persone come il card. Burke, e, se non è possibile evitare la sua presenza, non recarsi all’evento….

          Offer - Brighter Moves - USA      Cache   Translate Page      
Address: 3104 N Armenia Suite 2 Tampa FL 33617 Phone: (813) 335-7338 Business email: info@brightermovesfl.com Website: http://brightermovesfl.com/ Keywords: Professional Moving Services, Local Moves, Long Distance Moves, Storage, Residential and Commercial Moving Services Description: Brighter Moves & Logistics provides you with Professional Moving Services. We offer Local Moves, Long Distance Moves, Storage, Residential and Commercial Moving Services. Social links: https://plus.google.com/u/0/104279148394660985230 https://twitter.com/BrighterMoves https://www.facebook.com/BrighterMovesandLogistics
          WithLove.am's Annual Curation of Handmade Products Offers New, Varied Options - Armenian Weekly      Cache   Translate Page      

Armenian Weekly

WithLove.am's Annual Curation of Handmade Products Offers New, Varied Options
Armenian Weekly
WithLove.am, an online marketplace aiming to bridge the gap between sustainable, artisanal small businesses in Armenia and customers in the United States, has released its fourth annual limited edition curation of items to be sold in a new tiered setup.


          Estoy en Armenia (f-prepagos-en-armenia)      Cache   Translate Page      
Cual me recomiendan en Armenia . 
E visto una madurita y una peli roja q tal son ?
          Are Kyrgyzstan’s glaciers under threat? This ecologist thinks so      Cache   Translate Page      

The Central Asian state’s Tian Shan mountain range isn’t just home to shrinking glaciers. It’s also the site of an international mining operation.

Kumtor. Image: Kalia Moldogazieva. Kumtor is an open-cast gold mining site in Kyrgyzstan’s Central Tian Shan mountain system, situated in the mountains' central permafrost massif which reaches heights of 3800-4400 metres above sea level. Commercial exploitation at Kumtor began in 1997. The site is 100% owned by the Canadian gold-mining company Centerra Gold, which manages it through its subsidiaries, the Kumtor Gold Company (KGK) and the Kumtor Operating Company (KOK). Kyrgyzstan, in its turn holds roughly 33% of shares in the company through its OJSC Kyrgyzaltyn Joint Stock Company. The gold reserves at Kumtor are assessed as amounting to 716.21 tonnes, of which 316.57 are in open cast mines and 399.64 underground.

We asked Kyrgyz ecologist Kaliya Moldogaziyeva to tell us about the environmental threat to the area from the mining operations at Kumtor, the new amendments to Kyrgyzstan’s Water Code and the future of the region’s water resources. Moldogaziyeva worked with state commissions on issues concerning Kumtor in 2005 and 2012, and was deputy head of an interagency commission on the same subject in 2011.

Could you explain to us how activity at the Kumtor mine affects Kyrgyzstan’s water resources?

The Kumtor mine is situated at the sources of the Arabel and Kumtor river system, in an area at the centre of the glacier and river runoff of Central Asia’s most important waterway, the Naryn river, which flows into the Syr Darya.

The mining site includes a quarry, a gold-processing plant and other infrastructure elements. The mining is an open-cast operation, with 14-17 tonnes of explosives used daily, and the ore is processed using cyanides.

The mining is an open-cast operation, with 14-17 tonnes of explosives used daily

The construction of the mine workings contravened Kyrgyz law from the very beginning. At the first stage of the work, KOK management started dumping waste on the Davydov glacier, which was forbidden under Rule No.79 of the country’s Unified Safety Regulations and its law “On Water”. More than a billion tonnes of rock have been removed from the quarry and dumped, as well as 77 million cubic metres of glacial mass – the equivalent of 60 billion litres of glacial water.

The volume of dumped rock and cyano-containing tailings in the tailing storage areas will grow, and all this dumped material will remain forever in the headwaters of the Naryn river, requiring continual monitoring and technical maintenance, even after the closure of the mine, which is slated for 2026.

Why were amendments made to Kyrgyzstan’s water code at the end of 2017?

These amendments, and their connection to the Kumtor glaciers, was raised by the government as early as 2015. But the MPs didn’t manage to push it through as several members of the working party on additions to the code, of which I was one, resolutely opposed it. And thanks to this active opposition by experts and environmental activists, the amendments weren’t adopted. The question of more scheduled amendments to the code was raised again in September 2017 after the signing of a new agreement between the Kyrgyzstan government and Centerra, one paragraph of which talks about:

“The full and conclusive mutual release and settlement of all existing arbitration and environmental claims, disputes, investigations and court decisions, as well as the release of the Company and its daughter subsidiaries from future claims on the same grounds as the existing environmental claims resulting from approved activity”.

In other words, this agreement sidelines the whole question of compensation for the environmental damage caused by the company over the many years of mining at Kumtor, as well as the destruction of the Davydov and Lysy glaciers.

The adoption of amendments to the Water Code, for the benefit of a single company, became the next step towards Kyrgyzstan’s legal abandonment of any claims for environmental damage caused by Centerra earlier. The adoption of amendments permitting work on the glaciers because of the mine’s strategic importance is an indulgence that allows the entire Davydov and Lysy glaciers to be destroyed without a kopeck being paid in compensation. On 16 November 2017, the Jogorku Kenesh, the Kyrgyz parliament, ratified the amendments to the water codes, according to Article 62 of which:

Any activity affecting the speeding up of the glacial melting, using coal, ash, oils or other substances or materials that could affect the state of the glaciers or the quality of the water contained in them, as well as activity connected with ice harvesting, other than on the Davydov and Lysy glaciers, is forbidden. These exceptions do not apply to previous operations on these glaciers.

But perhaps the glaciers are melting because of global warming, and not the mining operations?

Experts engaged by the Kyrgyzstan government are indeed arguing that glaciers are melting all over the world and that the Kumtor glaciers would have melted by themselves. No one, however, has mentioned the fact that the rocks overlying the gold-containing ores were stored on the glaciers to a height of 90 and 120 metres and mixed with them, so the meltwaters already contained sulphates, heavy metals and other toxic substances that got into the waterways. This was confirmed by the conclusions of the Kumtor State Commission (2012-2013) on which I worked: the concentration of toxic substances in sediments had indeed increased.

Environmental protection laws, and in particular the “Law on Water” and the “Unified Safety Regulations” have been being infringed since the start of the construction of the Kumtor mine. Glacier No. 359 in the Catalogue of Glaciers of the USSR was completely destroyed, while most of the Davydov Glacier was ruined when the mine was already in operation. The situation is now under control, but by the end of operations there, there will be 1.7 billion tonnes of waste, mixed with glacial masses, and all the problems will lie at the door of Kyrgyzstan’s government and population.

Looking ten years ahead, we will see a reduction in water resources because of global warming, and theses resources will, in addition, be irreversibly polluted, and no injection of government funds will be adequate to the task of removing the polluting substances.

What is the Kyrgyz government doing to conserve the water resources at Kumtor for the future?

Government ministers have been insisting that without the legal amendments, Kumtor will turn into a catastrophe. But it was the systematic infringement of environmental protection legislation during mining operations that has caused the present state of affairs. And instead of demanding that the company clean up its act, our highest government officials and heads of key national agencies propose legitimising these irregularities.

Jeopardising Kyrgyzstan’s water resources for the sake of extracting mineral deposits is short-sighted. Meanwhile, according to the law “On Strategic Objects of the Kyrgyzstan Republic”, structures pertaining to water management and waterworks, including glaciers, natural lakes, river, hydro engineering structures, reservoirs, dams and pumping stations are all considered Strategic Objects of the country. In the case in question, the Kyrgyzstan Republic’s government and parliament are ignoring this law. Centerra’s environmental report for 2016 includes a statement to the effect that the company and its subsidiary KGK don’t consider that the water code applies to the Kumtor project. The corporation, in other words, is laying down the law to the Kyrgyzstan government and parliament.

Government ministers have been insisting that without the legal amendments, Kumtor will turn into a catastrophe

This same government has created and promulgated a National Strategy for Sustainable Development (NSUD). Section 4.3 of this project for 2018-2040 (Environmental Safety and Adaptation to Climate Change) states, among other things, that “Kyrgyzstan’s natural resources and biosphere are the rare and unique property of its people; sustainability should therefore be the main criterion for all developmental measures and policies.”

This same strategy plan quotes World Bank data stating that the countries of Central Asia will be the second most affected world region in terms of glacier loss, including the loss of the Tian-Shan glaciers in Kyrgyzstan. The effect of the economic activity in mineral management and agriculture, as well as hunting and poaching, environmental pollution and lack of ecological accountability could all add up to an irreversible state of affairs. The new legal framework has created a basis for environmental protection and the conservation of the glaciers. But while mouthing the national strategy for sustainable development and the importance of environmental safety and compliance and the conservation of the glaciers, our government is changing the law and, among other things, introducing amendments in the water code which will allow the destruction of the glaciers at the Kumtor mine.

Even the Kyrgyzstan national anthem talks about the mountain glaciers bequeathed to us by our forebears:

“The high peaks blanketed in snow-white glaciers,
The valleys, the source of life for our people
Were preserved over many ages
By our ancestors in the Ala-Too Mountains”.

What is Kyrgyz civil society doing to stop the amendments going through?

In November 2017, then president Almazbek Atambayev signed off the “Law on Amendments to the Kyrgyzstan Republic’s Water Code”, passed by the Jogorku Kenesh after three readings, although members of the public sent him an open letter asking him not to sign that particular draft. Independent experts and civil society campaigners are still engaged in trying to have the amendment revoked. The “Democracy and Civil Society Coalition” NGO even brought legal action against the Jogorku Kenesh, on the grounds that parliamentary regulations were breached when the amendments were passed; there was no quorum and MPs voted for one another, which is forbidden when a law is being adopted. Its case was however thrown out by the courts.

A group of rights campaigners and environmental specialists is supporting the Coalition. After a consultation with me and ecologist Oleg Pechenyuk , the NGO sent a request to the Jogorku Kenesh to have an analysis of all the requisites of the draft law and its regulatory implications carried out. They received a reply: there has been an expert appraisal of its legal implications, but nothing about appraisals in terms of the ecological, civil and human rights, gender, anti-corruption implications which are required when laws are being passed. The amendments have obviously contained numerous irregularities. The Coalition is continuing to work on its legal case.

Ecologist Gulnura Beleyeva and I are intending to work with the environmental protection community to raise awareness of the work being carried out by the campaigning group and to develop an action plan for the future. It is essential to have the previous version of the water code reinstated, without the exceptions allowing the destruction of the glaciers that are an important source of water not only for Kyrgyzstan but for the whole of Central Asia.

 

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          Վիճահարույց ոսկու հանքը Հայաստանի նոր կառավարության փորձաքննությունն է      Cache   Translate Page      

Ոսկու հանքի դեմ պայքարելով՝ Հայաստանի քաղաքացիները փորձարկում են երկրի նոր իշխանությունների կամքն ու  ճկունությունը։ EnglishRU

Նիկոլ Փաշինյանը, որ Հայատանի վարչապետը դարձավ ցույցերի և անհնազանդությունների միջոցով իշխանափոխությունից հետո 2018 թվականի մայիսին։ Լուսանկարը` Յաղոբզադեհ Ռաֆայելի/ ABACA/ PA Images. Բոլոր իրավունքները պաշտպանված են։ Ապրիլին Հայաստանում ժողովրդական շարժումը տապալեց գործող կառավարությանը։ Մի քանի շաբաթ տևած քաղաքացիական անհնազանդությունը և գործադուլ/դասադուլներն այնպես էին պարալիզացրել երկիրը, որ Սերժ Սարգսյանին չէր մնացել այլ ելք, քան հրաժարական տալ։ Թավշյա հեղափոխություն անվանումը ստացած շորժումը միայն կառավարության փոփոխություն չէր. այն նաև մշակութային փոխակերպում էր, որն ընթանում է մինչ այս պահը։ Մոտ երկու տասնամյակ շարունակ իշխանությունը յուրացրած Հանրապետական կուսակցության տապալումը (ինչը երկար ժամանակ անհնար էր թվում) հույս ներշնչեց հայաստանցիներին, որ այլ քաղաքական ձգտումների նույնպես հնարավոր է հասնել։ Հայաստանի հետհեղափոխական կառավարությունը հուսախաբության շատ տեղիք չի տալիս։ Ընդդիմադիր լրագրող և քաղաքական գործիչ, հեղափոխության առաջնորդը համարվող Նիկոլ Փաշինյանի կառավարությունը իրեն դիրքավորել է որպես հետ֊գաղափարական, ոչ ավել ոչ պակաս` քան հենց «ժողովրդի»

ներկայացուցիչ, թեև ներկայացուցչությունից մինչև կառավարություն ընկած տարածությունում շոշափելի քաղաքական ծրագրեր առանձնապես չկան: Եվ այս անհստակությունը՝ զուգակցված հետհեղափոխական էյֆորայի հետ, կառավարությանը և ժողովրդի լեզվով ասած` Նիկոլին վերածել է դատարկ էկրանի, որի վրա անդրադարձվում են հասարակության տարատեսակ հույսերը։ Իրականում այդ հույսերը բազմատեսակ են, երբեմն` իրարամերժ և հաճախ` ծանրացած մարտահրավերներ հին կարգին,  որոնք հեշտ չէ իրագործել:

Առողջարանային Ջերմուկ քաղաքում այս զգացմունքները ճանապարհ են բացել հետհեղափոխական առաջին ճգնաժամի համար, որտեղ տեղի բնակիչները ոտքի են կանգնել ընդդեմ միջազգային մի ընկերության ու Հայաստանում հանքարդյունաբերության երկարակյաց ու կոռումպացված ժառանգությանը:

«Եթե մենք բողոքի ցույցեր անցկացնեինք Սերժ Սարգսյանի օրոք, մեզ տեղում կձերբակալեին: Հիմա մենք՝ հայերս, հաղթահարել ենք վախը, ստեղծել ենք ժողովրդավարական կառավարություն։ Հիմա մենք ի վիճակի ենք պաշտպանել մեր իրավունքները, այս դեպքում՝ առողջ միջավայրում ապրելու մեր իրավունքը»,֊ ասում է Ջերմուկի բնակիչներից մեկը:

Խորհրդային օազիզ  

Ջերմուկը Երևանից 170 կմ հարավ-արևելքում է, հիմնադրվել է 1951 թվականին թերմալ  աղբյուրների շուրջ։ Խորհրդային տարիներին Միության տարբեր ծայրերից հազարավոր այցելուներ էին գալիս Ջերմուկ՝ հանգստանալու և բուժվելու։

Ինչպես Հայաստանի այլ քաղաքներ, Խորհրդային Միության անկումից հետո Ջերմուկը ևս սկսեց հետընթաց ապրել։ Արագընթաց աղքատացումը, փակ սահմանները, Ադրբեջանի հետ պատերազմը ուժեղ հարված էին տուրիզմին.: Ու թեև փակվեց օդանավակայանը, լավագույն առողջարանները դատարկված էին, ամեն ինչ չէ, որ կորսված էր. Ջերմուկը երբեք առանց այցելուի չի եղել:

Ջերմուկ քաղաքը։ Լուսանկարը՝ Րաֆֆի Յուեդյանի/ Flickr.Որոշ իրավունքներ պաշտպանված են: 2000-ականներին քաղաքը մասամբ վերածնվեց, երբ բացվեցին նոր հյուրանոցներ, արտասահմանցի զբոսաշրջիկներ սկսեցին գալ (հիմնականում սփյուռքահայեր և ռուսներ): Չնայած աղքատության ու գործազրկության թողած սպիերին, Ջերմուկը շարունակում է մնալ Հայաստանի տուրիստական գոհարներից մեկը։

Հեղափոխությունից անմիջապես հետո քաղաքը ոտքի ելավ մոտակայքում ոսկու հանքավայրի շահագործման ծրագրի դեմ։ Թեև այդ ընկերության դեմ տեղացիները պայքարել են տարիներ շարունակ, սակայն բախումը հանքը շահագործելու մտադրություն ունեցող ընկերության հետ երբեք այսքան սուր չէր եղել։ Հեղափոխությունը կարծես փոխել է ուժերի հարաբերակցությունը։

Պահակակետ Ամուլսարում։ Լուսանկարը՝ Քնար Խուդոյանի Քաղաքից մի քանի կիլոմետր հեռավորության վրա գտնվող Ամուլսարի հանքավայրը, պատկանում է մեծբրիտանական Լիդիան Ինթերնեշընլ ընկերությանը։ Երբ հեղափոխությունը նոր էր սկսվում, հանքավայրում շինարարությունը մոտենում էր ավարտին։ Հիմա հանքում շինարարական աշխատանքների աղմուկը լռել է. հանքավայրի չորս մուտքերը փակել են օր ու գիշեր հսկող  ցուցարարները։ Ընկերության և ցուցարարների միջև մոլեգնում է մեդիա պատերազմ, որի հետնաբեմում հետհեղափոխական Հայաստանի կառավարության առաջին լուրջ ճգնաժամն է։

Ընկերության մուտքը քաղաք

Լիդիան Ինթերնեշընըլը հիմնադրվել է 2007 թվականին Մեծ Բրիտանիայի Ջերսի կղզում, որը հայտնի է որպես օֆշորային «հարկային դրախտ»: Նույն տարում ընկերությունն սկսել է երկրաբանահետախուզական աշխատանքներ Ամուլսարում, ինչը ներկա պահին ընկերության միակ ընթացքի մեջ գտնվող ծրագիրն է։

Ընկերությունը թույլտվություններ ստանալու փուլային գործընթացներ է անցել, մի քանի անգամ ներկայացրել է բնապահպանական անվտանգության և սոցիալական ազդեցության գնահատումներ (շրջակա միջավայրի վրա ազդեցության գնահատական` ՇՄԱԳ կամ ԲՍԱԳ) և հանքարդյունահանման վերջին թույլտվությունը ստացել է 2016 թվականին, այնուհետև ակտիվորեն սկսել շինարարական աշխատանքը։ Այդուհանդերձ, հանքի դեմ արտահայտվել են նույնիսկ մինչև շինարարության սկսվելը: Առաջին մեծ դժգոհությունները եղել են Գնդեվազ գյուղում, որ գտնվում է Ջերմուկից մի քանի կիլոմետր դեպի հարավ։ Գյուղացիներից շատերի ծիրանի այգիների տարածքում ընկերությունը նախատեսում էր կառուցել հանքի տարրալվացման հարթակը, որտեղ պետք է ցիանիդի միջոցով ոսկին զատվի հանքային ապարներից։ Երբ ընկերությունն իր ՇՄԱԳ-ի համար  2016 թվականին ստացավ դրական եզրակացություն, Հայաստանի իշխանությունները փոխեցին այդ տարածքի հողերի նշանակությունը գյուղատնտեսականից արդյունաբերականի, որպեսզի այն գործածվի ցիանային հարթակի համար։ Գյուղացիները պատմում են, որ ընկերությունն իրենց վրա ճնշումներ է գործադրել, որ իրենք վաճառեն այգիները։  

Գնդեվազ գյուղը, Վայոց Ձոր։ Լուսանկարը՝ Պյոտր Լյախովի Գնդեվազի բնակիչ և այգեգործ Սամվել Պողոսյանը պատմում է, որ իրենց ընտրության հնարավորություն չէր մնում։ «Իրենք իրոք բավականին լավ գներ էին առաջարկում։ Բայց պայմանագրին կից մի գրություն կար, որտեղ գրված էր, որ « հողը մեզ վաճառելուց հրաժարվելու դեպքում, այն կճանաչվի գերակա շահ», դա գրավորն էր, բանավոր  էլ ասում էին՝ ջրի գնով կառնենք»։ Հայաստանում գերակա շահի ներքո շատերն են վտարվել իրենց տներից կամ զրկվել գույքից, հիշենք օրինակ` հենց Երևանի կենտրոնում Հյուսիսային պողոտայի պատմությունը, որ «հանրային գերակա շահ» անվան տակ բնակիչներին փողոց հանեցին, էնպես որ էդ հավելվածում գրվածին մենք իսկապես հավատում էինք, որ մեզ կարող է սպառնալ», - պատմում է Պողոսյանը։

Իրականում ստացվել էր այնպես, որ գյուղացիներին տրվել էր ընտրություն հողը վաճառելու և պետության կողմից հողը հարկադրաբար (հանուն Լիդիանի) օտարելու միջև` «հանրային շահ»  անվան տակ: Ծիրանենիների ձեռքբերման գները սահմանվում էին ըստ ծառերի տարիքի։ Վերջում ստացվեց այնպես, որ Լիդիանի հետ գործարքներից ամենաշատն օգտվեցին գյուղի ամենահարուստ և կայացած բնակիչները։

Դժգոգությունները Գնդեվազում միայն սկիզբն էին։ Բնապահպանական կազմակերպությունները սկսեցին տեղեկություններ հրապարակել հանքի բնապահպանական ռիսկերի մասին, և համայնքների այն բնակիչները, որոնք մինչ այդ չեզոք դիրք ունեին կամ դրական էին տրամադրված, սկսեցին անհանգստանալ հետագայում իրենց առողջության ու կենսապայմանների համար։

Տեղեկատվական պատերազմ

Թեև ներկա պահին ընթացող ուժեղ դիմադրությունը թույլ է տալիս մտածել, որ Լիդիան Ինթերնեշընըլը միշտ էլ չսիրված է եղել Ջերմուկում, Գնդեվազում և Կեչուտում (այս տարածքում գտնվող մեկ այլ գյուղ), սակայն դա այնքան էլ այդպես չէ. ընկերությունը սկզբի տարիներին ջերմ ընդունելության է արժանացել։  

Ահարոն Արսենյանը, ով հիմա բողոքի ցույցի առաջնորդներից է, հիշում է, որ շատ էր ուրախացել, երբ իմացել էր, որ հանք է բացվելու, որ կարող էր դիմել այնտեղ աշխատելու համար։ Աշխատատեղերի ստեղծումը Լիդիանի հասարակայնության հետ աշխատանքներում ամենաշատը թմբկահարվող արտահայտություններից էր, երբ ընկերությունը պնդում էր, որ ոչ միայն հանքի շահագործումը կլինի բնապահպանական տեսանկյունից ամբողջովին անվտանգ, որ «առանց պատշաճ մաքրման հանքից ոչ մի ջրային արտահոսք շրջակա միջավայր չի լինի», այլ նաև, որ հանքը կստեղծի աշխատատեղեր և զարգացում կապահովի շրջակա համայնքներին և ամբողջ Հայաստանին: Խոստումները շինարարության ընթացքում 1300 և հանքարդյունահանման ընթացքում` 770 աշխատողի, ինչպես նաև պետական բյուջե վճարվելիք շուրջ 488 միլիոն դոլարի չափով հարկերի և ռոյալթիների մասին էին։  

Ամուլսարի հանքավայրը, Ջերմուկից։ Լուսանկարը՝ Քնար Խուդոյանի:Այս հռետորաբանությանը համահունչ էր Հայաստանում Բրիտանիայի և Միացյալ Նահանգների դեսպանությունների բարձր գովասանքը։ Օրինակ՝ ԱՄՆ դեսպան Ռիչարդ Միլսը հետևյալ գնահատականն էր տվել 2015 թվականին Ամուլսար այցի ժամանակ․ «Ամուլսարի ծրագիրը մեր պետությունների և ժողովուրդների համագործակցության հիանալի օրինակ է»: Բայց ժամանակի ընթացքում հանքի գովաբանված պատկերը սկսեց խամրել, իսկ երբ շինարարությունը մեկնարկեց, տեղացիների և ընկերության հարաբերությունները սկսեցին սրվել։

2015 թվականին, երբ հանքի շինարարության մեկնարկը մոտենում էր, հայկական բնապահպանական ՀԿ-ները, այդ թվում ՀԲՃ-ն (Հայկական բնապահպանական ճակատ) և Էկոլուրը սկսեցին բազմաթիվ հոդվածներ և փաստաթղթեր հրապարակել՝ կտրականապես հերքելով Լիդիան Ինթերնեշընըլի լավատեսությունը։ Նրանք նշում էին, որ Ամուլսարի հանքը գտնվում է Հայաստանի ամենամեծ ու  ռազմավարական ջրամբարներին շատ մոտ․ Կեչուտի ջրամբարը բացահանքից 4.5 կմ է հեռու, իսկ Սպանդարյան ջրամբարը՝ 6 կմ: Այս ջրամբարները միայն Վայոց Ձորի գյուղատնտեսությունը ոռոգելու  համար չեն նախատեսված։ Կեչուտի ջրամբարը Որոտան-Արփա-Սևան թունելով կապվում է անմիջապես Սևանա լճին։ Հետևաբար, հանքից արտազատված ցանկացած թունավոր նյութ կվտանգի ոչ միայն հանքին անմիջապես շրջակա միջավայրը, այլև Հայաստանի ամենամեծ քաղցրահամ լիճը` երկրի ամենաբարձր արժեքն ունեցող հիդրոլոգիական ռեսուրսը։

Բացի բնապահպանական ռիսկերի տեղացիները սկսեցին հանքը դիտարկել որպես սպառնալիք իրենց նախկին կենսակերպին

Մտահոգությունները միայն ավելացան Ամուլսարում ռադոիաակտիվ նյութերի առկայության մասին չհաստատված, բայց ինքնին մտահոգիչ պնդումների պատճառով։ Դեռևս 2007 թվականին ռուսական գիտական ամսագրում հոդված էր հրապարակվել էր, համաձայն որի Ամուլսարում զգալի քանակությամբ ուրան կա։ Լիդիան Ինթերնեշընըլը և Հայաստանի նախորդ կառավարությունը հոդվածի պնդումը կասկածի տակ դրեցին՝ հղում անելով Լիդիանի ուսումնասիրություններին, ըստ որոնց ռադիոակտիվ նյութերի քանակը տարածքում աննշան է։ Բայց խնդիրը շարունակում է վիճելի մնալ ու կասկածներ հարուցել` պայմանավորված հոդվածի հեղինակի`․ Գ․Պ․ Ալոյանի անձի հետ, ով երկրաբան է, Ամուլսարում 1980 թվականներին երկրաբանական հետազոտություններ է արել և Լիդիան Արմենիայի գործադիր տնօրեն Հայկ Ալոյանի հայրն է։

Բացի բնապահպանական ռիսկերի տեղացիները սկսեցին հանքը դիտարկել որպես սպառնալիք իրենց նախկին կենսակերպին: Լիդիանը Ջերմուկ քաղաքը չէր ներառել իր նախնական ՇՄԱԳ-ներում և դա արեց միայն 2016 թվականին՝ընդունելով, որ բացի «աշխատատեղեր ստեղծելուց» հանքը այլ սոցիալական ազդեցություններ էլ է ունենալու։ Այսպես, Լիդիանը նշեց, որ հանքը անխուսափելիորեն կփոխի Ջերմուկի քաղաքի սոցիալական կառուցվածքը` առաջ բերելով փողի և տղամարդկանց ներհոսք, մարդկանց շարժունակություն և խառը հարաբերություններ (հայտնի որպես` չորս M-եր` money, men, mobility, mixing)։ Փող ունեցող ամուրի տղամարդկանց ներհոսքը և կուտակումը կարող է նպաստել սեռական շահագործման և հանքարդյունաբերական քաղաքներին բնորոշ այլ «բացասական երևույթների» աճին։ Սա բևեռորեն հակասում է  Ջերմուկի` մինչ օրս ունեցած առողջարանային ու ընտանեկան տուրիստական մթնոլորտին։

Խոտանումներ պատումներում

Այս ամենով հանդերձ, տարիներն անցնում էին, շատ բան չէր փոխվում։ Հանքի դեմ տրամադրվածությունները թերևս մնում էին ընդհատակում: Հանքի անմիջական գոտուց դուրս Լիդիանի դիրքը մնում էր անսասան, իսկ հանքի շինարարությունը շարունակում էր ընթանալ ամբողջ հունով։ Այդուհանդերձ, Լիդիանի պատումներում սկսեցին տեսանելի դառնալ դրանց թերությունները: Քիչ-քիչ ընկերությունը կորցնում էր հանքի մասին պատմության նկատմամբ վերահսկողությունը և իր հիմնական դաշնակիցներից մի քանիսին։

Հայաստանի հանքարդյունաբերական փորձառությունը մինչ օրս լիովին թաթախված է կոռուպցիայի և բնապահպանական աղետների մեջ, որոնք հարուցում են երկրի ավելի քան 400 հարյուր հանքերը։ Լիդիանը փորձել է օգտվել այս ժառանգությունից` իրեն ներկայացնելով ոչ միայն որպես մյուս բոլոր հանքերից տարբերվող, այլև վստահեցնելով, որ ինքը կդառնա Հաաստանում պատասխանատու հանքարդյունաբերության օրինակելի ընկերություն, երկրին կբերի շոշափելի, ուղղակի և երկարատև տնտեսական օգուտներ։

Այս նպատակը հիմնավորելու համար ընկերությունը մշտապես ընդգծել է, որ Ամուլսարի հանքը միակն է Հայաստանում, որ ներդրումներ է ստացել ինչպես Վերակառուցման և զարգացման եվրոպական բանկից (ՎԶԵԲ), այնպես էլ` Միջազգային ֆինանսական կորպորացիայից (ՄՖԿ) և որ ներդրումներին կից գործում են, սոցիալական և բնապահպանական խիստ պահանջներ` առնվազն փաստաթղթային մակարդակով։

Շինարարական ավտոմեքենաները Թեղուտի հանքավայրում՝ Հայաստանի Լոռվա մարզում։ Հանքը փակվել է 2018 թվականի փետրվարին։ Լուսանկրաը Սառա Անջարգոլյանի/Wikimedia Commons. Որոշ իրավունքներ պաշտպանված են։ Կարևոր է նշել, որ այս երկու հաստատությունների գործունեության վրա կան սև բծեր , որոնք առաջացել են խնդրահարույց ծրագրեր ֆինանսավորելու պատճառով: ՄՖԿ-ն շարունակաբար հայտնվել է այլ հանքարդյունաբերական ծրագերի շուրջ վիճահարույց իրավիճակներում, իսկ ՎԶԵԲ-ը, բացի բազմաթիվ միջազգային վիճահարույց ծրագրերից, ֆինանսավորել է նաև Հայաստանում գործող «Դենո Գոլդ Մայնինգ» ընկերությանը, որի շահագործած Գեղանուշի պոչամբարը Կապան քաղաքի մերձակայքում վթարային վիճակում էր հայտնվել։ ՄՖԿ-ն 2017 թվականին նույնիսկ ընդունել է, որ Ամուլսարի հանքի հետ կապված խնդիրներ կան, երբ ՄՖԿ օմբուդսմենի գրասենյակը վերջիվերջո արձագանքել էր Գնդեվազի բնակիչների ավելի վաղ ներկայացրած գանգատին։

Օմբուդսմենը գնահատել էր, որ 2009-2016 թվականների ընթացքում ընկերության անցկացրած պարտադիր համարվող հանրային լսումները բավարար չեն եղել և որ համայքներին սպասվող վտանգները թերագնահատված են։ Անցկացված լսումների մեծ մասը եղել են «ոչ պաշտոնական» , «իրավիճակային», իսկ ՇՄԱԳ-ում նշված մեղմացման միջոցառումներից բխող վտանգները և ռիսկերը դուրս են ՇՄԱԳ-ում նկարագրվածի շրջանակներից։ Թերևս ամենակարևորն այն էր, որ զեկույցը եզրափակվում է նշելով, որ  ՄՖԿ-ն վստահ չէ, որ Ջերուկ բրենդի՝ որպես տուրիստական կենտրոնի վրա հնարավոր բացասական ազդեցությունը պատշաճ գնահատվել է և մեղմացվելու է՝ համաձայն ՄՖԿ ներքին պատանջների։

Այս զեկույցի հրապարակումից ամիսներ անց ՄՖԿ-ն հայտարարեց, որ Լիդիանի հետ իր համագործակցությունը դադարեցնում է։ Այդ մասին տարածված հայտարարությունը, սակայն, Լիդիանին չէր քննադատում, ավելին՝ գովում էր ընկերությունը՝ պարզաբանելով, որ ՄՖԿ-ի ներդրումն ուղղակի այլևս անհրաժեշտ չէ։ Սակայն, ինչպես մեր հետ զրույցում նշեց միջազգային ֆինանսական հարցերով հանրային վերահսկողություն իրականացնող Բանկվոթչ ցանցի փորձագետ Ֆիդանկա Մըք-Գրաթը, ՄՖԿ-ի այս գործողությունը “արտասովոր է ու բացառիկ”` համեմատած նրա հետ, թե ինչպես է սովորաբար ՄՖԿ-ն վարում իր գործունեությունը։ Իսկ եթե հաշվի առնենք, որ կորպորացիան իրականում Լիդիանի հետ համագործակցությունը խորացնելու մտադրություններ ուներ, հավականական է, որ ՄԿՖ-ն ծրագրից դուրս է եկել  դրա հանդեպ վստահությունը կորցնելու պատճառով։ Ամեն դեպքում, ՄՖԿ հրապարակից դուրս գալը դուրս բերեց նաև Լիդիանի մինչ այդ հաճախ բերվող փաստարկներից մեկը, որով ընկերությունը փորձում էր արդարացնել հանքի դրական իմաստով ներկայությունը Հայաստանում։

Հուլիսի 3, 2018 թվական։ Դոկտոր Էնն Մաեստի և դոկտոր Անդրէ Սոբոլեվսկու մամուլի ասուլիսը Անի Պլազա հյուրանոցում, Երևանում։ Աղբյուրը՝YouTube։Շուտով նաև ՎԶԵԲ-ի հետ Լիդիանի համագործակցությունը հարված ստացավ։ ՎԶԵԲ֊ի հետ կապված ևս մեկ հանքարդյունաբերական ծրագիր էր Թեղուտի հանքը, որը շահագործող ընկերությունը՝ Վալլեքս գրուպը, ֆինանսավորում էր ստացել ռուսական ՎՏԲ բանկից, որն էլ իր հերթին ՎԶԵԲ-ի վարկառու էր։ Հանքարդյունաբերական իր ծրագիրը ֆինանսավորողներին ներկայացնելիս`Վալլեքս գրուպը, Լիդիանի պես, խոստանում էր Հայաստանում պատասխանատու հանքարդյունաբերության առաջամարտիկը դառնալ։ Թեղուտի հանքը, որ բացվեց 2014 թվականին, ծրագրում ներդրողների շարքում հիշատակում էր ՎԶԵԲ-ին և Դանիական ազգային կենսաթոշակային հիմնադրամին։ 2017 թվականին, Կենսաթոշակային հիմնադրամը վաղաժամկետ դադարեցրեց հանքին տված վարկը։ Ամիսներ հետո, Վալլեքս գրուպը հայտարարեց, որ դադարեցնում է հանքի շահագործումը և ավելի քան հազար աշխատողներին ազատում աշխատանքից։

Թեղուտի հանքի և Ամուլսարի միջև ևս մի կարևոր կապ կա․ երկուսի շահագործող ընկերություններին էլ խորհրդատվական ծառայություններ է մատուցել Գլոբալ Ռիսորս Էնջինիրինգ (GRE) ընկերությունը։ GRE-ն հեղինակել է Լիդիանի ոսկու հանքարդյունահանման ծրագրի տեխնիկական զեկույցներից երեքը, իսկ Վալլեքս գրուպի համար էլ 18 ամիս խորհրդատվական աշխատանքներ է կատարել։ Այս մասին մեզ հայտնել է GRE ընկերության գլխավոր բնապահպանական ինժեներ Լերի Բրեքենրիջը, ով անձամբ է եղել Վալլեքսի խորհրդատուն՝ հրաժարվելով ավելին մանրամասնել այն պատճառաբանությամբ, թե Թեղուտի հանքի շուրջ GRE-ի գործունեության մասին պայմանագիրը գաղտնիության դրույթներ է պարունակում: 2018 թվականի հուլիսին GRE-ն հանեց Վալլեքս գրուպի անունն ու լոգոտիպն իր կայքում տեղադրված պատվիրատուների ցանկից ( թեև GRE-ին շարունակում է Թեղուտի հանքից լուսանկար օգտագործել որպես իր կայքի ետնապատկեր):

Այդուհանդերձ, Վալլեքս գրուպի և Լիդիան Ինթերնեշընըլի միջև մի կարևոր տարբերություն կա, որ արժանի է հիշատակման։ Վալլեքս գրուպի սեփականատերը, ինչպես Հայաստանի հանքերի շատերի դեպքում, տեղացի օլիգարխ է, այս դեպքում՝ Վալերի Մեժլումյանը, իսկ Լիդիանի սեփականատերերը բոլորն արտասահմանյան  ծագում ունեն։

Լոսանջելեսցին

ԱՄՆ-աբնակ քիմիայի ու բնապահպանության գծով ինժեներ Հարութ Բրոնոզյանն առաջին անգամ Ամուլսարի ծրագրի մասին իմացավ 2014 թվականին, երբ Լիդիանի ներկայացուցիչները ոսկու հանքի իրենց ծրագիրը գովազդելու միջոցառումներ էին անցկացնում հայկական սփյուռքի Լոս Անջելեսի և Նյու Յորքի համայնքներում։ Բրոնոզյանը, լինելով մասնագիտությամբ ինժիներ, ծրագրի մասին միանգամից վերապահումներ ունեցավ։ Նրա կարծիքով՝ հանքավայրի միայն աշխարհագրական դիրքը բացառում էր դրա անվտանգ շահագործումը; քանի որ այն գտնվում է Հայաստանի կարևոր ջրային ռեսուրսներին այդքան մոտ։

Սակայն մտածելով, որ ինքը չի կարող հանքի շահագործման հնարավոր ռիսկերը ճշգրտորեն գնահատել և չվստահելով Լիդիանի ներկայացրած բնապահպանական ազդեցության փաստաթղթերին, Բրոնոզյանը որոշեց դիմել անկախ խորհրդատուների։ Նա  պայմանագիր կնքեց Բյուքա Ինվայրոմենտալ, Բլու Միներալս Քոնսալթընսի, Քլիըր Քոուսթ Քոնսալթինգ խորհրդատվական ընկերությունների հետ` պատվիրելով նրանց իրականացնել առկա տվյալների (Լիդիանի կողմից հրապարակված) վերլուծություն և ծրագրի ազդեցության նոր գնահատում։ Պատմելով իր նախաձեռնության մասին՝ Բրոնոզյանը մեզ ասաց․ «Ես չէի ցանկանում հավատալ բնապահպաններին, ոչ էլ` ընկերությանը, ոչ` որևէ այլ մեկին։ Ես ուզում էի տեսնել, թե երկրաքիմիական վերլուծությունն ինչ կասի»։ Այսպես Բրոնոզյանը հայտնվեց Ամուլսարի շուրջ ահագնացող քարոզչական պատերազմում։

Պահակակետ Ամուլսարում։ Լուսանկարը՝ Պյոտր Լյախովի Բրոնոզյանի խորհրդատուների զեկույցի հրապարակումը 2018 թվականի հունվարին կարծես պայթյուն լիներ, որ զինեց հանքի ընդդիմադիրներին և ստիպեց Լիդիանին և իր խորհրդատուներին սուր պատասխաններ հնչեցնել։ Զեկույցը հիմնականում վերահաստատում էր այն վտանգները, որ մինչ այդ բնապահպանները բարձրացնում էին, բայց այն նաև նոր պնդումներ ուներ, մասնավորապես, որ Ամուլսարի հանքի ամենամեծ վտանգը մի երևույթ է, որը հայտնի է թթվային ապարների դրենաժ անունով։ Այս պրոցեսը տեղի է ունենում, երբ բացահանքի շահագործման ընթացքում մակաբացումից հետո մակերևույթ դուրս եկած սուլֆիդներով հարուստ ապարները շփման մեջ են մտնում ջրի հետ (օր․ անձրևի և ձյան)։Այս շփման արդյունքում արտադրվում է թթու, որը հոսում է շրջակա միջավայր։ Թթվային դրենաժը, եթե չկանխվի, կարող է շրջակա ջրային ռեսուրսների թթվայնությունը մեծացնել՝ այդ միջավայրերը դարձնելով հարյուրավոր տարիներով անբարենպաստ ձկնաշխարհի համար, անպիտան՝ գյուղատնտեսության համար ։

Խնդիրը թթվային դրենաժի դեմ Լիդիանի առաջարկած մեղմացուցիչ մեթոդներն են: Մեղմացման գլխավոր մոտեցումը կոչվում է «պատիճավորում»․ թթու առաջացնող ապարները բառի բուն իմաստով շրջապատվում են ոչ թթվային ապարներով, և այսպես պաշտպանվում են անձրևի ու ձյան հետ կոնտակտից։ Սակայն, Բրոնոզյանի խորհրդատուները Լիդիանի հրապարական տվյալները ուսումնասիրելուց հետո եզրակացրել են, որ այդ մեթոդը թթվային դրենաժը կանխելու հարցում անարդյունավետ կլինի։ 2018 թվականի հունիսին Բրոնոզյանի խորհրդատուներից երկուսը եկան Հայաստան և Լիդիանի աշխատակիցների ուղեկցությամբ այցելեցին հանքավայր։ Այցից հետո նրանք մամլո ասուլիս հրավիրեցին և հայտարարեցին, որ ավելի են հստակեցրել Ամուլսարի ծրագրի շուրջ իրենց եզրակացությունները։ Այցի ընթացքում ստացած նոր տեղեկատվությունը համադրելով՝ նրանք հասկացել են, որ Ամուլսարի տարածքում  ոչ սուլֆիդային ապարներ առկա չեն, և հետևաբար պատիճավորումը բացարձակապես անարդյունավետ կլինի։ Նրանք հայտարարեցին, որ Լիդիանի աշխատակցիներն իրենց ասել են, որ այլ մեղմացուցիչ մեթոդներ կկիրառեն, որոնք էլ, ըստ Բրոնոզյանի խորհդատուների, անվստահելի են և «էքսպերիմենտալ»։

Երբ մամուլի ասուլիսը թեժացավ ընդհատումներով ու մտքերի փոխանակումներով, Լերի Բրեքենրիջը (որը խորհրդատուներին ուղեկցել էր հանքավայր) հայտարարություններ արեց` պաշտպանելով Լիդիանին և վերջինիս մեղմացուցիչ մեթոդները։ Նա վերահաստատեց, որ պատիճավորումը շարունակում է մնալ թթվային դրենաժի կանխման համար օգտագործվելիք հիմնական մեթոդը։ «Եթե մենք նախընտրում ենք պաշտպանության հավելյալ միջոցներ ձեռնարկել, դա մեր իրավունքն է ու նախապատվությունը: Բայց դա որևէ կերպ չի նշանակում, որ մենք փոխում ենք այն ամենն, ինչ նախատեսված ու հաստատված է ՇՄԱԳ-ով»,֊ հայտարարեց նա։  

Մենք դիմեցինք Լերի Բրեքենրիջին և Բրոնոզյանի խորհրդատուներին իրենց կարծիքների միջև առկա հակասությունը պարզաբանելու խնդրանքով։ Լերի Բրեքենրիջը, Լիդիանի հաստատմամբ հետևյալ պատասխանն ուղարկեց էլեկտրոնային փոստով․ «Ամուլսարում նախատեսվում է կատարել պատիճավորում արդյունաբերական ծածկույթի միջոցով՝ մասնավորապես չոր ծածկույթով։ Ամուլսարի ծրագիրը թթվային դրենաժի դեմ իրոք օգտագործում է միջազգայնորեն ընդունված կառավարման մեթոդ։ GRE-ն այս պնդումը ներկայացրել է  Բրոնոզյանի խորհրդատուներին։ Իրականում, խորհրդատուները գովեցին, որ Ամուլսարի ծրագրում օգտագործվելու են հողային լիզիմետրեր չոր ծածկույթի արդյուավետությունը երաշխավորելու համար»։

Բրոնոզյանի խորհրդատուներից դոկտոր Անդրե Սոբոլևսկին մեզ հետևյալ պատասխանը տվեց․  «Երբ մենք հանդիպեցինք Ամուլսարում, Լիդիանը մեզ տեղեկացրեց, որ իրենք հրաժարվել են թթու առաջացնող թափոնները պատիճավորելու պլանից։ Նրանք ընդունեցին, որ տարածքում թթու չեզոքացնող ապարներ չկան, ինչը անհրաժեշտ պայման էր առաջարկված պատիճավորման համար և, որպես կանոն, անհրաժեշտ են, որպեսզի չեզոքացվի թթվի առաջացումը կոշտ թափոններում։ Իրենց առաջարկած չոր ծածկույթը նախկինում նշվում էր որպես առանձին, սակայն պատիճավորումը համալրող մեթոդ։ Նրանց նոր պլանի համաձայն, որ մեզ տեղում ներկայացրին, պատիճավորումը փոխարինվել է դրենաժը մեղմացնող նոր մեթոդներով, իսկ չոր ծածկույթը մնում է ինչպես պլանավորված է։ Այսպես, ինչպես արդյունաբերության մեջ է ընդունված և իրենք էլ էին դա ասում՝ չոր ծածկույթը այլ, պատիճավորումից տարբեր մեթոդ է»:

Հեղափոխության մուտքը Ջերմուկ

Մինչ Լիդիանը տանուլ էր տալիս տեղեկատվական պատերազմում, այն վստահելի գործընկերներ ուներ Հայաստանի նախորդ Կառավարությունում, որը ոչ միայն կանաչ լույս էր տվել հանքին, այլև պատրաստակամ էր հարկադիր օտարման ենթարկել գյուղացիների մասնավոր հողակտորները հանուն Լիդիանի և հարմարեցրել էր ՀՀ օրենսդրությունը՝ հօգուտ Լիդիանի։ Օրինակ, 2015 թվականին Հայաստանի կառավարության որոշմամբ փոփոխվել էր  հանքի տարածքում կառուցվող ճանապարհների թեքությունների թույլատրելի աստիճանը 7 տոկոսից 10 տոկոսի, որի արդյունքում ընկերությունը կարողացել էր իր գործառնական ծախսերը կրճատել 100 միլիոն ԱՄՆ դոլարով:

Բայց երբ Սերժ Սարգսյանը և իշխող Հանրապետական կուսակցությունը տապալվեցին 2018 թվականի ապրիլին, Լիդիանի վիճակն ավելի անբարեհույս դարձավ։ Ընկերությունը ոչ միայն կորցրեց իր անսասան դաշնակցին, այլև հանքին ընդդիմացողներն քաջալերվեցին հեղափոխության ոգով և զինվեցին պայքարի գործիքներով, որոնք, իրենց կարծիքով, հաղթանակի կհասցնեին։

Համերգ Ջերմուկում հանուն Ամուլսարի։ Լուսանկարը՝ Քնար Խուդոյանի։ Ջերմուկի բնակիչ և Ամուլսարի հանքի դեմ պայքարողներից Էդուարդ Աղաբեկյանը  մեզ նկարագրեց հեղափոխության  փոխակերպող էներգիան։ «Նախկին կոռումպացված կառավարությունը  հանցակից է այս ամբողջ իրավիճակին։ Ջերմուկում տեռորի մթնոլորտ էր, և Հանրապետական կուսակցությունը ամեն ինչի վրա վերահսկողություն ուներ։ Եթե մենք այսպիսի բողոքի ակցիա անեինք Սերժ Սարգսյանի օրոք, մեզ տեղում կձերբակալեին։ Քննադատներին սպառնում էին կամ աշխատանքից ազատում։ Հիմա մենք, բոլոր հայերս, հաղթահարեցինք վախը և ստեղծեցինք ժողովրդավարական կառավարություն։  Հիմա մենք կարող ենք պայքարել մեր իրավունքների համար, այս դեպքում` առողջ միջավայրում ապրելու իրավունքի համար»։

Մայիսի վերջին, հեղափոխությունից ընդամենը մի քանի շաբաթ անց, Երևանից հեղափոխական հաղթանակով Ջերմուկ վերադարձած երիտասարդության առաջնորդությամբ՝ ջերմուկցիները սկսեցին կազմակերպված դիմադրություն Ամուլսարի հանքի դեմ։

Մայիսի 25-ին նրանք Կեչուտի դպրոցի շենքում կազմակերպեցին առաջին հանրային քննարկումը, որին մասնակցում էր շուրջ մոտ 70 մարդ Ջերմուկից, Կեչուտից և Գնդեվազից։ Քննարկում էին՝ ինչպես լուծել հանքի հարցը, ինչ նոր ռիսկերի մասին են տեղեկացվել և արդյոք կարող են վստահել նոր կառավարությանը։ Հարցերը չէին դրվում քվեարկության, չկար քննարկման առաջնորդ։ Ընթանում էր կոնսենսուսի միտված դանդաղ, երբեմն` աղմկոտ, բանավիճային քննարկում։

Բոլորը հրապարակայնորեն արտահայտում էին իրենց ունեցած մտահոգություններն ու դժգոհությունները, որոնք չէին սահմանափակվում բնապահպանական և առողջության հարցերով։ Փոշու հարցն առանցքային էր, թեև Լիդիանը խոստացել էր, որ փոշին հանքից մեկ կիլոմետրից հեռու չի հասնի, մինչդեռ քամոտ օրերին ամեն ինչ Ջերմուկում  ծածկվում է փոշու շերտով։ Նաև դժգոհություններ կային լիդիանում աշխատողների հանդեպ խտրական վերաբերմունքից։ Մեզ հետ հարցազրույցում Դավիթը, ով Լիդիանում աշխատել է որպես  ինժեներ, նկարագրել է աշխատողների համար ստեղծված պայմանները․

«Պետք է ընկերությունում ինչ-որ բարձր պաշտոն ունեցող մեկին իմանայիր, որ անգամ վարորդի մինիմալ աշխատանքի ընդունվեիր։ Ինչ վերաբերում է աշխատավարձին, աշխատողները չեն վարձատրվում ըստ իրենց կատարած գործի, այլ ըստ նրա, թե որտեղից են սերում։ Ջերմուկցի ինժեները ստանում է Երևանից եկած ինժեների աշխատավարձի կեսը, իսկ անգլիացիներն ու ամերիկացիները ստանում են մի քանի անգամ բարձր։ Գործից ազատում են, երբ ուզում են, ստիպում են ստորագրել ազատման դիմումներ, որոնց բովանդակության հետ համաձայն չես։  Ոչ մի կերպ մեր աշխատանքային իրավունքները պաշտպանված չեն»:

Տհաճ պատմություններ էլ են առաջացել։ Մարդիկ պատմում էին, որ հանքի շինարարության աշխատանք անելու համար Ջերմուկ եկածները ալկոհոլ էին օգտագործում, կռիվներ սարքում, պետհամարանիշերը հանում ու արագությունը գերազանցելով մեքենա վարում։  Տեղացիներն ասում են, որ եթե նախկինում երբեք դռները չէին կողպում, հիմա իրենց այլևս ապահով չեն զգում։ Կեչուտի դպրոցում մի քանի ժամ տևած թեժ քննարկումից հետո մասնակիցները որոշում կայացին․ կսպասեն նոր կառավարության գործողություններին։ Թեև կային մտահոգություններ, ընդհանուր առմամբ հանդիպման մասնակիցները վստահում էին Նիկոլ Փաշինյանին։

Այդ ընթացքում Երևանում նոր կառավավարությունը հայտարարեց Աշխատանքային խումբ ստեղծելու մասին։ Այն պետք է ուսումնասիրի Հայաստանում գործող բոլոր հանքերի, այդ թվում` Ամուլսարի համապատասխանությունը օրենսդրության և հանքարդյունաբերական լավագույն փորձի պահանջներին։ Չնայած հայտարարված ուսումնասիրությանը՝ շինարարությունը Ամուլսարում շարունակվում էր և մոտենում էր վերջնական փուլին, ինչն անհանգստացնում էր տեղացիներին։ Շուտով նրանք ինքնաբուխ ակցիաներ սկսեցին՝ պարբերաբար արգելելով շինարարների մուտքը Ամուլսարի տարածք։ Ակցիաներին հակազդելու համար Լիդիանի աշխատողները ևս սկսեցին ցույցեր անել՝ փակելով դեպի երեք համայնքներ տանող մայրուղին։  

Ջերմուկցիները նորից հավաք կազմակերպեցին։ Այս անգամ ավելի քան 500 հոգի եկավ (ինչը մեծ թիվ է, եթե հաշվի առնենք, որ երեք համայնքների բնակչությունը միասին մոտ 7500 մարդ է): Որոշվեց, որ այլևս չի կարելի սպասել․ չի կարելի թույլ տալ, որ հանքի շինարարությունը ավարտին հասցվի։ Որոշեցին անժամկետ փակել հանքի բոլոր մուտքերը՝ ամեն մուտքի մոտ մի խումբ կամավորների հերթապահությամբ, համայնքների աջակցությամբ։

Ճանապարհները փակելու համար ստեղծվեց չորս «պոստ` պահակակետ»՝ յուրաքանչյուրը դեպի հանք տանող մուտքերի մոտ, որտեղ հերթափոխում են կամավորները։ Պահակակետերի ցուցարարներից շատերը Ղարաբաղյան պատերազմի մասնակիցներ են, ոմանք նաև` 2016 թվականի Ապրիլյան թեժացման։ Նրանք օգտագործում են իրենց բանակային անցյալից փոխառված պրակտիկաներ և բառապաշար, հարցազրույցներ տալիս շեշտում, որ իրենց մոտ բանակային կարգապահություն է և հերթափոխի ընդունում-հանձնում։ Ընդհանրապես, դիմադրությունը հայեցակարգվում է որպես հայրենասիրական գործողություն, ինչը կարևոր շեշտադրում է Հայաստանի և Ադրբեջանի միջև երկու տարի առաջ տեղի ունեցած կարճատև, սակայն արյունալի ռազմական գործողությունների վերսկսման ետնապատկերում։

lead Պահակակետ Ամուլսարում։ Լուսանկարը՝ Քնար Խուդոյանի:Երիտասարդ ցուցարարներից մեկը՝ Բաբոն, մեզ հետ զրույցում ասաց․«Մեր ընկերները մահացան մեր հայրենքի մի մասը պաշտպանելով (Լեռնային Ղարաբաղը), մենք այստեղ ենք ապացուցելու, որ նրանք հենց այնպես չեն զոհվել»։ Հանքի և տեղական համայնքների միջև առճակատման շուրջ նման հայրենասիրական ձևակերպումները հավանաբար կարելի է բացատրել հետևյալ տարօրինակ փաստով․ մեր զրուցակից ցուցարարների մոտ կեսը մինչ հանքի շրջափակումը հանքի շինարարության մեջ է աշխատել (և պաշտոնապես դեռ մնում է որպես աշխատող): Այս հակասությանը ցուցարարները նմանատիպ բացատրություն էին տալիս․ հայրենիքի և աշխատավարձի միջև ընտրություն անելու հարց չկա։

Շրջափակումը շարունակվում է ավելի քան մեկ ամիս և այդքան երկար դիմանալը խոսում է այն մասին, որ համայնքները մեծ աջակցություն են ցուցաբերում այս խնդրին։ Ամեն ավտոմեքենա, որ անցնում է “պոստերի” մոտով, ի նշան աջակցության ազդանշան է տալիս։  Անցնողները հաճախ ցուցարարներին բերում են ուտելիք, ոչ ոգելից ըմպելիքներ, ծխախոտ և բենզին։ Ոմանք նույնիսկ վրաններ են բերել, որ ցուցարարները գիշերելու ավելի հարմարավետ պայմաններ ունենան։

Թեև ցուցարարները դիրքավորվել են` կանխատեսելով, որ մնալու են անժամկետ երկար ու խափանելու շինարարական աշխատանքները, նոր Կառավարության արձագանքն այդուհանդերձ ավելի սպասելի է դառնում։ Թեև սկզբում կառավարությանը դերը միանշանակ չէր ընկալվում ցուցարարների շրջանում, հիմա կարծես պահակակետերում բոլորը վստահ են, որ հաղթանակը, որ նախկինում անհնար կլիներ պատկերացնել, շատ մոտ է։

Քարի ու սարի արանքում

Հայաստանի նորընտիր վարչապետի առաջին արձագանքը Ամուլսարի հանքի շրջափակմանը կարծես հակադրվում էր ցուցարարներին։ Փաշինյանը կարծես Ջերմուկի ցուցարարներին համարում էր իր իշխանության սպառնալիք և վտանգ երկրի միջազգային տնտեսական հեղինակության համար։ Հունիսի 25-ին իր հայտնի ֆեսբուքյան ուղիղ եթերներից մեկի ժամանակ Փաշինյանը քննադատեց ցուցարարներին` ասելով․ «Եթե այդ գործողությունների նպատակը սաբոտաժը չէ և Կառավարության համար փակուղային իրավիճակի ստեղծելը, ես կոչ եմ անում դադարեցրեք քաղաքացիական անհնազանդության այդ գործողությունները։ Մի’ խանգարեք մեզ, որ մենք ուսումնասիրենք և ունենանք փաստեր և դրանց հիման վրա որոշումներ կայացնենք»։

Բայց Փաշինյանի հորդորը չընդունվեց։ Հանքի շրջափակումը չդադարեցվեց։ Ցուցարարներից Ահարոն Արսենյանը իրենց բոլորի անունից պատասխան հրապարակեց, որում մասնավորապես

Grandparents and grandchildren in a mountain village, Dagestan. Photo by CC-by-NC-2.0: Dagestan Mountains and People Partnership / Flickr. Some rights reserved.On 4 August 2018, tens of thousands of mourners gathered in the Chechen village of Geldagen to bury Yusup Temerkhanov. Thousands more sent their condolences via WhatsApp. Temerkhanov died in a Siberian prison hospital during a 15-year sentence for the murder of Yuri Budanov. A Russian army colonel, Budanov had been convicted in 2003 for the kidnapping and murder of Elza Kungayeva, a Chechen woman, during the Second Chechen War. He was released on parole in 2009 – and shot dead in Moscow two years later.

Chechen leader Ramzan Kadyrov, who was present at the funeral, said in his eulogy that Temerkhanov’s guilt hadn’t been proven and that he had been unjustly convicted. But the crowd of people in Geldagen had gathered to honour the memory of the man who had become the embodiment of a nation’s revenge for the rape and murder of a young Chechen woman by a Russian war criminal.

For one part of the Russian Federation, General Alexey Yermolov, the man who conquered the Caucasus in the 19th century, and Colonel Yuri Budanov are the heroes. For the other, it’s Imam Shamil, the man who led the resistance to Russia’s designs on the Caucasus, and Yusup Temerkhanov who are the good guys. In 200 years of Russian conquest in the Caucasus, let alone the 25 years of post-Soviet history, this frontier has always been there.

This is the first part of a series of articles on the unfinished war in the North Caucasus today.

Two centuries of co-existence

Administratively, the North Caucasus (officially, the Northern-Caucasus Federal Okrug – SKFO) consists of six national republics of the Russian Federation, each named after its majority ethnic group, along with Stavropol Krai. It has a combined population of nearly 10 million people representing several dozen ethnicities. The largest of these, according to the 2010 census, are Chechens (1,335,857), Avars (865,348), Circassians (Kabardians and Circassians – 564,226), Dargins (541,552), Ossetins (481,492), Kumyks (466,769), Ingush (418,996) and Lezgins (396,408). Of these, only Chechnya, where ethnic Chechens make up 93.5% of the population and Ingushetia (with 94.1% Ingush) can be considered mono-ethnic. The most mixed region is Dagestan, with members of more than 30 peoples and ethnic groups represented in the population.

The village of Tindi, in Daghestan, in the late 1890s. Photo: Moriz von Déchy (1851-1917). Source: Wiki Commons.The North Caucasus is also home to a quarter of Russia’s Muslims, with a high proportion of Muslims concentrated in the eastern part of the region – in the republics of Dagestan (96% Muslim), Chechnya (97% Muslim) and Ingushetia (99% Muslim). In the western part of the region, thanks to a considerable ethnic Russian minority, as well as Ossetians, many of whom have adopted Christianity, and Christian Armenians and Greeks, there is a lower proportion of ethnic Muslims. In Kabardino-Balkaria they make up 71.5% of the population; in Karachay-Cherkessia 64%; in North Ossetia just 15% and in the Stavropol Krai a mere 4.5% – and the proportion of practising Muslims is correspondingly smaller.

When people talk about the North Caucasus, they also often refer to Krasnodar Krai and Adygea, which are outside the SKFO. In the 19th-20th centuries, these areas were, like Stavropol Krai, almost completely colonised by settlers from other parts of what was first the Russian Empire and then the Soviet Union. Out of the original indigenous North Caucasus ethnic groups, only Circassians (officially divided into Adygeans, Circassians, Kabardinians and Shapsugs), Abazins and Nogai remain in those parts of the Russian Federation.

The conquest of the North Caucasus by Russia has been going on for over two centuries, beginning in the 19th century with the Caucasian War of 1817-1864. This period saw the practical disappearance of the Adygean (Circassian) military aristocracy, with hundreds of thousands of Circassians deported to the Ottoman Empire.

In Chechnya and Dagestan, resistance to Russian colonisation was organised by members of the Murid Islamic religious order, the Naqshbandi Tariqa, whose Sheikh, and spiritual leader of the famous Imam Shamil, was the no less famous and respected Muhammad Yaragsky. After the end of the Caucasus War, Russia put down several bloody uprisings.

After the Civil War (1917 -1923), in which Caucasus people fought for both the Reds and the Whites, the Soviets began a systematic extermination of the regional intelligentsia, Islamic clergy and wealthy families as part of the repressions and collectivisation of the 1920s and 1930s. These actions by the Soviet authorities were accompanied by firstly, organised uprisings and later, sporadic action by small partisan groups whose resistance continued right up to the Second World War and was gradually replaced by robbing the local population and state establishments.

Chechens deported from the village of Aukh-Yurt, Dagestan (now Kalinin-Aul) at a railway station in Soviet Central Asia in 1957, after being permitted to make the long journey back to their homeland. CC BY-SA 4.0 Wikimedia Commons. Some rights reserved. The Second World War carried off half the male population of some mountain villages, most of whom were called up and dispatched to the front. In 1944, Chechens, Ingush, Balkars and Karachay, most of them women, children and the elderly, were deported to Central Asia; they were only able to return in 1957. In the second half of the 1940s and the 1950s, it was generally women who restored life to village communities which had almost disappeared. After a preliminary annihilation of the military, intellectual and economic elite and the clergy, the industrialisation of agriculture and an invasion of Russian school teachers was supposed to finally turn traditional mountain villages into collective farms and their residents into ordinary Soviet farm workers.

It seemed as though after two post-war Soviet generations, the plan had worked. But by the end of the 1980s, national movements of the indigenous peoples of the North Caucasian republics started making their presence felt. Local activists, inspired by the end of the ban on free discussion, the partial acknowledgement of Russian and Soviet repressive rule in the region and the exit of some Union Republics from the USSR held meetings and rallies at which they expressed their lack of trust in the Soviet party-economic nomenclature and started discussing self-determination and independence within the USSR, RSFSR or a new mountain republic.

The internal decolonisation of the North Caucasus

The 1970s saw the beginnings of ethnic Russian emigration from Cossack villages in Stavropol Krai, Rostov region, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachayevo-Cherkessia, Checheno-Ingushetia and Ossetia and from Russian villages in the Kizlyar and Tarumovsky districts of Dagestan: young people went off to university in the cities and didn’t return. The settler population of the North Caucasus was rapidly growing old.

The first contested elections brought members of local ethnic elites to power almost everywhere. Without the support of the government, Russians, Ukrainians and members of other groups whose forefathers had either been resettled in the Caucasus five or six generations earlier or who had moved there quite recently at the time of Soviet manufacturing and agricultural industrialisation quickly lost their means of upward social mobility and political status. The more aggressively-minded members of local communities plastered the fences and walls of Grozny and Nalchik with messages such as “Russians go home!”

It was not just Russians, of course, who were leaving north Caucasian cities. Local members of the scientific and technical intelligentsia, Soviet white collar and skilled blue collar workers were also abandoning the region, either to increase their earning power or to permanently settle in Russia’s “inner” regions – Moscow, St Petersburg, Rostov-on-Don or north-west Siberia. But the settler population of the North Caucasus had an almost zero birth-rate (Armenian, Meskhetian Turk and Greek populations were another story, but one I will touch on here).

Buses leaving for Moscow from Makhachkala, the capital of Dagestan. CC BY 2.0 Un Bolshakov / Flickr. Some rights reserved. In the 1990s, the population balance of the eastern North Caucasus republics changed by several dozen percent, and the population drain in the western part is still continuing, even in Stavropol Krai, where of the peoples living in the region before the Russian conquest only 22,000 members of the Nogai people and two Kabardian villages remain. The central point of ethnic Russian occupation moves 10 kilometres to the north west every year, and settlers from Dagestan, Chechnya, Karachayevo-Cherkessia and Kabardino-Balkaria are moving in to replace them.

Soviet and now Russian census figures show that the highest rate of Russification in the North Caucasus took place in the late 1950s and early 1960s, before a gradual outflow of settler population groups that turned into a veritable exodus of Russians, Ukrainians and Jews (and in some areas Armenians) in the 1990s and 2000s.

In 1926, 12.5% of the population of Dagestan was Russian and 17.6% was Avar (the largest indigenous population group). By 1959, 20% was Russian and 22.5% Avar, but then the trend changed: in 1979 only 11% of the population was Russian and 25% Avar; in 1989 the figures were respectively 9% and 27.5%; in 2002 they were 4.7% and 29.4% and in 2010, 3.57% Russian and 29.2% Avar.

In Stavropol Krai in 1959, 91.3% of the population was Russian and only 0.05% Dargin (members of this ethnic group had just begun to migrate). In 2010 Russians still made up 80% of the population, and Dargins 1.77% according to official figures (experts put the figure at twice that). In 1979, 20 years after the Chechens returned from deportation, 30% of their republic’s population was Russian and 60% Chechen: the figures for 1989 were respectively 24.8% and 66% and in 2010, according to the last census, 95.8% of the population was Chechen and only 1.92% Russian. Finally, the population of Kabardino-Balkaria in 1959 was 45.3% Kabardian, 8.11% Balkar and 38.7% Russian, whilst in 2010, 57% was Kabardian, 22.5% Russian and 12.6% Balkar.

Russia's southern Caucasus frontier is nevertheless not only not dissolving due to urbanisation, the global market and the power vertical, but is, on the contrary, becoming ever more substantial and profound

At the start of the 1990s, the North Caucasus republics were governed by two types of leader. The first included Djokhar Dudayev in Chechnya and Ruslan Aushev in Ingushetia, both Soviet Army generals who turned to politics on the wave of national movements, a repudiation of the Soviet nomenklatura system and a tendency among participants of national movements towards militarisation.

The second type comprised representatives of ethnic nomenklatura groups who managed to hang on to power. They included Magomedali Magomedov, head of the Presidium of Dagestan’s Supreme Soviet; Valery Kokov, who fulfilled the same function in Kabardino-Balkaria; Aleksandr Galazov, First Secretary of the regional committee of the North Ossetian Communist Party and Vladimir Khubiyev, President of the Karachayev-Cherkessian Republic. Former Soviet officials had to take account of local ethnocentric movements and learn, in the end, how to control them.

In Moscow, meanwhile, a cut-throat battle for power was raging, and in October 1993 it descended into armed conflict in the centre of the capital. And the North Caucasus would have remained on the periphery of the political agenda had it not been for the outbreak of war in Chechnya in 1994. The years that followed saw the North Caucasus become the epicentre of politically motivated armed conflict in Russia: as well as the Chechen Wars of 1994-1996 and 1999-2009, there was the Ossetian-Ingush conflict in North Ossetia’s Prigorod district in 1992 and the attack on Nalchik, the capital of Kabardino-Balkaria, in October 2005. In addition, there were almost 20 years of underground armed Islamic activity and a spate of terrorist attacks both inside then region and elsewhere – in Moscow, Volgodonsk, Volgograd and St Petersburg.

The Caucasus frontier: the calm before the storm?

Today, the North Caucasus is relatively quiet. The Caucasus Emirate, a militant Jihadist organisation active between 2007 and 2015, has been defeated; thousands of Islamic dissidents have been killed in special operations or are behind bars and tens of thousands of jihadis have left the country. Several thousand Caucasus residents fought for ISIS at its peak of activity, but it is now moribund, and only concerned with returning the wives and children of dead mujahedeen to their homes.

Chechnya is headed by Ramzan Kadyrov, who calls himself “Putin’s Infantryman”; Dagestan is under external management by Russian Internal Ministry General Vladimir Vasiliyev, who has now turned to politics; and Yuri Kokov, another general and the former head of the Internal Ministry’s anti-extremism directorate, is in charge of Kabardino-Balkaria. Other republics are in the hands of experienced Moscow bureaucrats. The regional FSB, meanwhile looks after the financial side of things, elections and the appointment of heads of areas of financial or political importance.

Objectively speaking, no North Caucasus republic has any human, organisational, intellectual or financial resources that would allow it to successfully implement any national sovereignty project. Russia's southern Caucasus frontier is nevertheless not only not dissolving due to urbanisation, the global market and the power vertical, but is, on the contrary, becoming ever more substantial and profound.

No North Caucasus republic has any human, organisational, intellectual or financial resources that would allow it to successfully implement any national sovereignty project

The Caucasus has a long memory: it doesn’t just remember the Chechen wars of 15 years ago. Every year, on 21 May, thousands of Circassians gather in Nalchik, Cherkessk, Istanbul, Berlin and New York to commemorate the 19th century Caucasian War, and the Kabardino-Balkarian regional authorities don’t openly obstruct this action.

More than 25 years after the fall of the Soviet Union, the North Caucasus has not only not dissolved in Russia’s post-Soviet urban environment, but has, with unexpected help from today’s means of communication, revitalised its religious and ethnic identity. Young Circassians in Moscow or Turkey may not be able to speak their mother tongue, but they can write in Circassian because they “meet up” in Circassian social network groups. Caucasians travel all over the world, but modern means of communication allow them to create and maintain trans-ethnic networks in the form of village societies, religious communities and ethnic groups.
People from the North Caucasus are much less trusting of the Russian judicial system than most other Russians and so often attempt to resolve conflicts among themselves, de facto refusing to recognise the Russian legal system’s monopoly on violence.

The hermetic nature of Caucasus communities leads to the legal side of life in village society being governed by common or Shariat law and implemented collectively. This can mean factional fights using knives or guns. In city, migrant or business networks “professionals” – guerrilla leaders, private army warlords or criminal bosses – are brought in to act as muscle. 

July 2013: the house of the third wife of underground leader Magomed Suleimanov is destroyed by Russian security forces. CС Varvara Pakhomenko/International Crisis Group/Flickr. Some rights reserved. This way of doing things has serious consequences. Russian law enforcement agencies, employers, bureaucrats and even ordinary citizens renting out accommodation in the big cities mistrust and fear people from the North Caucasus, regarding them as alien outsiders. And this mistrust, mutual dislike and fear, stoked from time to time by the Russian media as they both report the real presence of Muslims in the war in Syria and terrorist attacks around the world and at the same time take advantage of the collective reputation of Muslims and Caucasians to inflate any minor offence, is not only not on the wane, but is growing in strength.

This only too perceptible frontier between Russia and the North Caucasus works like a fully-fledged institution that accumulates mutual claims on social, political, religious, legal, economic and quasi-criminal levels on a daily basis. Every time the Russian authorities lose control of the regional elites or FSB, a new armed conflict breaks out from nowhere. The threat of armed violence and terrorist attacks will only disappear when the frontier is either abandoned completely or turned into an official administrative or state border.

And this is all under the control of the “unseen hand of the political market”, where the law enforcement bodies can take on the function of a protection racket (and warlords like Makhachkala’s former mayor Said Amirov maintain security service officers as their private army), or, on the other hand, turn back into a protection racket (when, for example, officers of the Kabardino-Balkaria anti-extremism department try to provide “protection” for a construction company or an illegal distillery).

Acquiring sovereignty is a two-stage process. You first have to create and consolidate sub-elites, on both sides of the frontier, who are looking for political independence and so aspire to a monopoly on protection income. As the experience of the Chechen conflict and the Caucasian Emirate has shown, this income needn’t necessarily come from your own territory: what is important is that governmental or quasi-governmental institutions will allow you to receive it. For the thing to work, your sovereign elites will need their own legal system and means of withdrawing income (money, a tariff policy and fiscal services) in large enough quantities to maintain independence and public safety. There are already societies in the North Caucasus with their own judicial system and social infrastructure, but there are no elites interested in sovereignty: the Russian exchequer pays more and hands out cash more freely.

The second stage is armed conflict. An external conflict turns a protection racket into an army, an internal one into a police force and a terrorist war into a hit squad. The quarter century of post-Soviet Caucasus history is the history of a fight for income aided by internal and external conflicts. An absence of social mobility for the young, radical ethnic and religious ideologies, a conflict of generations, urbanisation – these are all well-known factors that, like dry sticks, burn well in the flames of political struggle.

While rents from land and infrastructure bring in less income than corruption and funding from the state, Russia’s Caucasus frontier will remain a subject for anthropological research. When this relationship changes, it will turn into either a frontline of battle or a state border.

 

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          How this DIY magazine is making space for taboo topics in Russia      Cache   Translate Page      

Under conditions of growing self-censorship, small media can often raise questions avoided by Russia’s national media – but of real concern to readers. RU

Juliana Lizer and Pavel Nikulin. Photo: Artur Davletshin. Russian DIY journal moloko plus appeared in 2016 and immediately attracted interest – not only for its medium (print only) but for its content (the first two editions focused on drugs and terrorism) and mission. Speaking to the current crisis of professional journalism, the journal’s manifesto states that “in Russia today, and perhaps across the world, the combination of experience in journalism, basic ethical and political principles and a generally logical perception of your own worth has turned into a curse. We didn’t choose this trap.”

Since then, the third edition of moloko plus (titled: “Revolution”) has been released. In July, Pavel Nikulin and Sofiko Arifdjanova, journal coordinator and writer, traveled to Krasnodar to present the journal, where they were subjected to an anonymous chemical attack. The day before, several unknown plain clothes police officers, who introduced themselves as members of the criminal investigation department, arrested Arifdjanova in connection with “a criminal investigation”. At the same time, Krasnodar Interior Ministry seized copies of the magazine “in the interests of preventing extremism”. On 12 August, seven journalists involved in moloko plus reported that there had been attempts to hack their email and Facebook accounts.

In April 2018, I interviewed the journal’s founders, Pavel Nikulin and Juliana Lizer, as part of our “Unlikely Media” rubric on new media startups.

Tom: moloko plus is full of excellent texts – you don’t see this level of quality often. It tackles both unusual subjects and publishes serious essays. Let’s start with a simple question: it seems to me that your journal occupies a particular niche in the Russian media sphere. Why did you set it up and what is its mission?

Pavel: I think there are three questions here. The question “why” should be addressed to me, as I’m the person who set the whole ball rolling. The question “how” – the journal’s quality and its mission – is for Juliana to answer. I’ll tell you quickly why we did it. I didn’t know why I should do it, I just knew that if I didn’t do something and just went on with my boring work, covering the city news and other routine stuff, I would either go mad or kill myself. And I didn’t have any idea what would come out of it. When I began, I had no idea who would support my idea, and when I sent out my first post about collecting money for it, I didn’t at all expect the feedback I had from friends in bookshops: “We’ll sell it, we’ll give you a platform for the launch” and so on. There was no original “why?”. It was a thing in itself, for itself, a kind of punk rock – any journalist can make a magazine.

Juliana: The second question was about our mission. At the start, it was all about us, our self-development. We wanted to do things that we weren’t managing to do any more, or had nowhere to do: write things, talk about subjects that I, for one, had been interested in for years. It also turned into a learning curve: many of the things we had to do I only knew in theory from a course at the journalism faculty where I did my degree.

In Russia, there is an established media consensus that this agenda – violence, terrorism, drugs – is marginal. But our audience is quite young and well aware of the fact that the media lie

With the magazine, I could turn a lot of this theory into practice.

Doing editorial work, for example. It’s one thing to be just a reporter – everything’s set up for you. But here, you need to make everything work and you carry all the responsibility – both for the print version and social media. And the mission behind all this is, in the first place, about information and education. And entertainment, to some extent: we write about music and films as well, of course.

But we have another mission as well: to try to bring together in one place everything we know about a given issue, look at it from every angle and produce something coherent, holistic. So that people who want to find out about that issue can at least have something to start from – a kind of mini-encyclopaedia on one subject. And it’s good that it won’t all disappear: something that is printed is tangible, and no matter what happens with the internet, with the power supply (we know how sites get closed, how texts just disappear) anything that’s printed can’t be destroyed. So that’s also a kind of mission as well.

Note from the Editors, "Drugs" edition. Source: moloko plus. I am someone who came of age in the culture of the 1990s-2000s, when books were still a material object. The books of Alexander Shulgin, for example, may be banned in Russia, but I have them at home. And so do some other people. Knowledge doesn’t disappear. And knowledge has to be preserved and multiplied in every way possible.

Tom: This is an enormous topic and one which we underestimate these days. I work pretty hard at our online platform, but I never know what will come out of it – perhaps nothing. So in this sense I admire your mission. Your journal often covers issues such as violence, terrorism, drugs. Why do you find it important to write about these subjects? You said that you need to write and publish on these topics otherwise it could all disappear.

Pavel: In Russia, there is an established media consensus that this agenda – violence, terrorism, drugs – is marginal. But our audience is quite young and well aware of the fact that the media lie. We are more idealists than cynics: we decided not to provide our readers with a concrete answer to the question of how to live, and instead to return them to asking questions.

As to the first two topics, terrorism and drugs are the most convenient targets for any propaganda: you can’t lose, you can’t win and you can hold society in a constant state of anxiety, scared that their kids will either turn into heroin addicts or blow up the Metro tomorrow. This constant stress means that they no longer know either the reasons for, or the complexity of, these issues. And when we hear the word “terrorism”, it’s important for me to know who is talking and about whom. The use of the term often tells you more about the person talking than the thing they are talking about. If somebody says that the “Workers’ Party of Kurdistan are terrorists”, it tells you more about the person talking than about the Workers’ Party of Kurdistan. Or if someone says that “weed is a drug”, it tells me more about that person than about cannabis.

There are questions, there are interests. We have decided that we won’t write about what is right or wrong, but about, to a greater or lesser degree, what we know, from both the outside and the inside.

At the start, it was all about us, our self-development. We wanted to do things that we weren’t managing to do any more, or had nowhere to do

Juliana: To sum up, we’re doing it to encourage people to think for themselves. These days, you can’t take anyone at their word, because the public and the media love to hang labels on people: “terrorist”, “drug addict” and so on. These labels already carry negative connotations, even though they describe things that have always existed in human society and have always been very complex. It’s like we’re trying to demonstrate this complexity by saying to people: “Hang on, please, and think about how it’s not just about labels: it’s more complicated than that.”

Tom: I had that impression when I read your article, Juliana, about left-wing radicals in Greece. And I did start to think about it. As an outsider, I have a question about so-called “marginal” phenomena in Russia – obscure stories about drugs, terrorism, violence. Why do you think this subject so popular in Russia?

Juliana: Because there’s a lot of it. A lot of people have seen something, experienced something and want to find out about it. Take serious alcoholism, for example. It’s a pretty marginal phenomenon, you must agree – but in Russia it’s very widespread. It has affected a lot of people and families. And of course people like reading about it, even if it’s absolutely horrific – people killing one another while “under the influence” and so on.

As for drugs, they are theoretically a no-go area, and everybody’s interested in what’s forbidden.

Pavel: In the last year, I’ve twice been stopped on the street and searched for drugs in Moscow. This “stop and search” trend among the police has become so common that the hipster city press has started writing about it. Everyone has either been searched themselves, or their boyfriend or girlfriend has. People want to know what’s going on, but no one has the complete picture. Someone may know how the Russian Darknet works, and how drugs are bought and sold in Russia.

In Russia, the police are everywhere. You can hear the word “terrorism” ten times a day – all you need to do is use public transport. People in the Metro, on escalators, in railway stations and airports are always talking about the terrorist threat. They want to know what the threat is. In effect, the state has hyped up the subject completely.

Some individual journalists involved in their own small projects are more ethical and enjoy more trust than the big corporations. It’s no surprise that they believe us

Juliana: For example, I go into my block of flats, and my neighbour is standing in the hall and there are two packages lying on the floor. I thought they were hers, but she’s asking me if they’re mine. I look around, but don’t touch anything (there are signs telling you not to everywhere in the Metro). They contain glass jars. She says, “who can we phone: the main thing is to avoid an explosion.” This reaction has been spreading among people over the years, in one way or another.

Pavel: It’s the same with drugs: there are signs everywhere forbidding people to buy and sell them. I wanted to give a foreign acquaintance a glimpse of typical Russia, and took him to a Moscow suburb, Biryulyovo – not the capital’s most prosperous suburb. I told him that people live in high rise buildings, often without any space around them, nowhere to go for a walk. The walls of the buildings are plastered with warnings about drugs, but in every district there is a church going up – there’s an official church-building programme in operation. He didn’t believe me. And then we come out of the suburban train and he saw the tower blocks, he saw that there was nothing to do there, he saw hoardings advertising some online shop – and the fence round the space where they were building the church. He also saw bottles used for smoking weed in every hallway, although there were fewer syringes than there used to be. And there was absolutely no way of getting any information about anything.

Police raid the "Typography" establishment, where a presentation of moloko plus was being held, in Krasnodar, 15 July. Source: Alina Desyatnichenko. On the one hand, it’s good that the younger generation have a certain distrust of the authorities, but on the other hand, the distrust is total. People don’t believe either Wikipedia, or their friends, or the friendly local cop, or the doctor, whether they’re good or bad. But they want information. They want the facts, so that they can draw their own conclusions. That’s why we haven’t tried to write pamphlets, telling them whether that’s good or bad.

Juliana: We refuse to give people value judgments, on principle. We need to inform, to talk about a subject from the start, clearly and in a way that’s easy to understand.

Tom: Do you get feedback from your readers on your attempts to inform? Has anyone said: “I hadn’t thought about that, but I’ve started to think about it now after reading your stuff”.

Pavel: Yes, we do get feedback. Sometimes people want to debate an issue with us, sometimes just say “thank you”. After reading their first issue, some people tells us they want to contribute to the second.

Juliana: I believe that there are people like that, and we sometimes have negative feedback as well, but from a particular type of people. When the National Bolsheviks (a political movement in the 2000s that combined elements of radical nationalism and Bolshevism – ed.) wrote a post on social media about us, it was very funny. There was one guy who came to the book market we had a stall at, where we were selling our first and second issues. He bought a copy of both, took them home, leafed through them and wrote a scathing post on social media which was, of course, only seen by his followers. For some reason what he didn’t like most was the people who bought the journal. He kept writing to us about spotty girls with ugly backpacks.

Pavel: Nevertheless, I couldn’t care less about the fact that a person near 30 can think exactly the same way as we do, and that our work holds nothing new for them. A friend said to me: “I read the second issue, but why did you write it? I didn’t learn anything new from it.” If we gave the first issue to political analysts who are experts on Ireland or Greece, they would also say: “We know everything about that”. Our mission is more educational: to inform people about that this or that thing exists and that they can get in on the act; not to tell them how the world works in 100 pages.

There are two traditions in Russian media: one’s about punk, culture and then there’s samizdat, which is political, about “we cannot remain silent any longer”

Juliana: Another thing about making people think: an indirect sign that people start thinking about something after reading the magazine is the fact that copies are always being passed around. I don’t know how much this happens, but I know that it does. These magazines have a certain life of their own.

Pavel: It is, of course, a bit of a niche market, but it works, and some people set up their own distribution networks: it has even reached the States, Israel and Armenia.

Tom: These days, and especially in connection with moloko plus, there’s a lot of talk about the rise of small media in Russia. Journalists and editors know where the demand is coming from. On the one hand, texts are removed and blocked online; on the other, people want to do something for themselves, for self-fulfilment. How do you perceive this problem?

Juliana: There are small media outlets of all kinds. There’s a terminological question here: what do we consider an example of the small media sector and do we not? If we include anything that isn’t a media corporation, a mass media title, then we have to acknowledge all the video-bloggers with more than 100,000 hits, since this is a good number of hits, but technically they can and usually do it themselves with their own resources.

Pavel: Important nuances arise when a small media project is created by journalists. The point of licencing media outlets used to be that they would then be subject to the law and ethical code (which was practically the same thing). But now people who don’t register their outlet feel they have more freedom, including the freedom to protect journalistic ethics. Some individual journalists involved in their own small projects are more ethical and enjoy more trust than the big corporations. It’s no surprise that they believe us.

Juliana: You know where we’re at, and where the (state-owned) “Russia -24” channel is. We’ve never had any desire to compete, and never will.

Pavel: A little aside, but systematic – small media want, of course, to be noticed, but look at the recent attack by Rossiya 24 on the Batenka journal. It’s clear to me that they made a second report not because they didn’t like how it delivered information, but simply out of envy. They realise that samizdat is believed by the people who will be a very large (and paying) audience in ten years time.

Russia-24 broadcasts an expose on Batenka journal, March 2018.

Juliana: They’ll die out by themselves, they have begun to realise that. I have a theory, that you don’t have to believe in evolution and progress, but if you believe in these things they will happen in society whether you like it or not. If you offer the public something that is out of date, sooner or later you’ll have to go. And that means today’s state-owned TV, its ways of working with information and its presentation style.

My first job was in TV, when it was still normal, and I saw how it changed in front of our very eyes. People who have realised how it all works will leave.

Pavel: At the start of perestroika, cooperatives appeared. It was believed that people involved in co-ops knew the demands of their audience better, although they couldn’t churn out as much as big, industrial TV companies. They did, however, work with the audience and the market around them.

It’s the same with small media companies. We know exactly what our target audience likes and we know how to supply it. National publications fly so high that they can’t see individual readers and viewers and their national status separates them from their audience.

I get messages on Telegram. One reader made us spend two hours looking for mistakes in a text. I knew I had already done that, but I psyched Juliana and myself up and we went through it again together.

Many colleagues in journalism are scared that if they leave a media outlet, they’ll lose their audience. But they completely forget that they’re the ones that bring the audience in the first place

Juliana: I checked every document that I had already fact-checked, because I was absolutely sure that everything was fine (we were right). But it’s important to do that, because our reputation hangs on it.

Pavel: It’s hard to imagine how big media do it. Small ones are ok.

There are two traditions in Russian media: one’s about punk, culture and then there’s samizdat, which is political, about “we cannot remain silent any longer”. But these two are joined. Even Batenka magazine has started to annoy people close to the authorities.

Tom: Does your work also provoke negative reactions, envious one?

Pavel: If you like doing what you do, then go work for federal media, publish information on bankruptcies, write about which public official didn’t give you a comment, go to the Duma, where parliamentarians grope female journalists and don’t have to answer for it.

Juliana: It’s not that you don’t have to do that, that’s necessary work. You have to do a journalist’s job, go to all those places.

Pavel: But only if you like it.

We’re ready to risk our reputation and careers, but at least we know that we living for a reason.

Juliana: In 2011-2012, Russian society suddenly discovered that we have problems with elections – and democracy in general. This was in the air, everyone understood this, and so demand for propaganda texts emerged, to hush things up. On TV, journalists began doing strange things (e.g. not reporting on major protests, or if they did, then with incorrect numbers or negative framing). I asked why they were doing this: “I need to feed my family.” And it’s clear that that person most likely won’t find another job. This is tragic.

Pavel: Many colleagues in journalism are scared that if they leave a media outlet, they’ll lose their audience. But they completely forget that they’re the ones that bring the audience in the first place and that you don’t need any outlet to say what they say.

Tom: My suspicion is that people who work in big media, prestigious media – for them it becomes important after a time that that they work somewhere important.

Juliana: I’d probably agree. Most of the journalists I’ve met have this attitude: “I’m part of something bigger, I’m part of the team. And this is what we’re called.” And then you meet a group of these people and the first thing they ask is where you work. And you answer: nowhere.

I’m still surprised by this. Perhaps it’s connected with a human’s psychological traits – to define themselves through something else, to perceive themselves through that. Meanwhile, it’s comfortable to work on articles that disappear instantly, without any understanding what happens to it. I don’t like it when I don’t understand why decisions are made, who makes them and why I have to subordinate myself to that.

There’s a lot of stereotypes now that are directly connected to capitalist values – which are relatively new for our society (this began like an explosion in the 1990s, and in recent years has taken completely barbaric forms). Still, it’s clear that the value of being successful has embedded itself in our society. You need to have enough money, to need to work somewhere decent, and you need to have a decent job. And through all of this, you show everyone else that you’re not a marginal.

Pavel: It’s a kind of career, only this is a career inside society rather than corporations. I have a lot of fellow students – they’re all interested in different things, but somehow they all fit into a single generalised personality. They wear nice clothes, they have the same interests (which are, it should be said, all sold under the rubric of individuality). A person who goes to a public event thinks that only they have the right to be there, because they’re special.

 

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YEREVAN (Combined Sources) — Yuri Vardanyan, a legendary Armenian weightlifter who won a gold medal at the 1980 Olympic Games, has died in the United States at the age of 62, Armenia’s Ministry of Sports and Youth Affairs confirmed on Friday, November 2. In a November 2 statement, Armenia’s acting Minister of Sports and Youth […]

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BOSTON – When you enter an independent or assisted living home, you sometimes feel like you are entering a different realm, where time is slowed down or halted, and the past and present simultaneously exist. Somehow Bostonian filmmaker Shevaun Mizrahi captured this almost mystical feeling in her 82-minute documentary “Distant Constellations,” which is playing in […]

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By Hovsep Daghdigian YEREVAN — The Avan district of Yerevan was once a separate village, dating back to the pre-Christian era. As Yerevan expanded during Soviet times, Avan was incorporated into the city of Yerevan. Within Avan there are a number of old churches; the most interesting perhaps being the partially ruined 5-6th century cathedral. […]

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By Monique Svazlian Special to the Mirror-Spectator GLENDALE, Calif. – A Dreamer’s World, the new art exhibit by Armenian artist “Endza” Gevorg Babakhanyan, opened at the Roslin Art Gallery in Glendale on October 25. This was the first stop on a four-city tour of the exhibit which will also show in Pasadena, Calif. (November 2-4), […]

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          Election: Arcata Incumbents Leading, McKinley Statue Measure in a Dead Heat      Cache   Translate Page      
Familiar faces appear poised to return to the Arcata City Council dais with incumbents Sofia Pereira and Brett Watson receiving 42.5 and 39.3 percent of early returns, respectively, to Valerie Rose-Campbell’s 15.7 in the three-person race for two open seats.

Pereira, who currently serves in the rotating role of mayor, was first elected to the council in 2014 while Watson was appointed in April of 2017 to fill the remainder of former Councilmember Mark Wheetley’s term after he stepped down to become Fortuna's city manager.

Meanwhile, things were much tighter in the most contentious election issue facing the city this year: Measure M, which will determine whether the more than 100-year reign of President William McKinley’s statue will continue on the plaza, with early results just 26 votes apart at 49.04 in favor and 50.96 against.

As an aside, it was 118 years ago today that McKinley was reelected president, serving just under a year more before he was assassinated in 1901, an act that shocked the nation and prompted Arcata farmer George Zehndner to commemorate him by commissioning the statue, the first major work by renowned Armenian sculptor Haig Patigian.

Brought forward via the citizen initiative process in response to the Arcata City Council's controversial February decision to remove the bronze, the measure — if passed — would prohibit the "modification, destruction, relocation” of McKinley’s statue or its base from the plaza center.

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Professor Hannibal Travis.Assyrians and Armenians have lived near each other for thousands of years and shared similar trials and tribulations. So as an Armenian American in an audience of about sixteen Assyrian Americans, I knew I was among compatriots.
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With all 565 precincts reporting, Brindisi had 117,779 votes to Tenney's 116,357. Absentee votes have yet to be counted.
          Asesor comercial - Medescuento - Armenia, Quindío      Cache   Translate Page      
Se solicita asesor comercial para la promoción de una tarjeta de descuentos médicos, la cual incluirá visitas médicas domiciliarias, seguros de protección...
De Full Empleo - Mon, 05 Nov 2018 17:03:09 GMT - Ver todos: empleos en Armenia, Quindío
          “Ermənistan MN ilə Azərbaycan tərəfi telefon əlaqəsi saxlayır”      Cache   Translate Page      
Azərbaycan MN: ”Ermənistanla qarşılıqlı əlaqəni yaradan şəxs müəyyən edilib və bu məsul şəxs Müdafiə Nazirliyinin əməkdaşı deyil” “Ermənistanın Müdafiə Nazirliyi Azərbaycan tərəfi ilə birbaşa telefon rabitəsi saxlayır”. “Armeniasputnik.am”  yazır ki, bunu Ermənistan müdafiə naziri David Tonoyan noyabrın 6-da parlametdə çıxışı zamanı deyib. Nazirin sözlərinə görə, indi iki ölkənin müdafiə nazirlikləri arasında birbaşa telefon rabitəsi var: […]
          WithLove.am's Annual Curation of Handmade Products Offers New, Varied Options - Armenian Weekly      Cache   Translate Page      

Armenian Weekly

WithLove.am's Annual Curation of Handmade Products Offers New, Varied Options
Armenian Weekly
WithLove.am, an online marketplace aiming to bridge the gap between sustainable, artisanal small businesses in Armenia and customers in the United States, has released its fourth annual limited edition curation of items to be sold in a new tiered setup.


           Comentariu la DIVERSE STIRI SI INFO…… : de anitanna       Cache   Translate Page      
<div style="background:#cc99ff;border:24px ridge #cc99ff;margin:0;padding:13px;vertical-align:baseline;color:#333;font-family:Georgia, 'Bitstream Charter', serif;font-size:16px;text-align:center;"> <div style="background:transparent;border:6px ridge # cc99ff;margin:0;padding:10px;vertical-align:baseline;"> <p style="background:transparent;border:0;margin:0 0 6px;padding:0;vertical-align:baseline;"> </p> <a href="https://i.postimg.cc/zGHzWR5W/oi2jvyvws8sr6fn7ls91.jpg" rel="nofollow"> https://i0.wp.com/i68.tinypic.com/9s5j69.jpg Buna dimineata ,oameni buni si frumosi la suflet va spun pentru a suta de mii... oara ! "? :P Va doresc o zi de miercuri-mov in cafenea doar astazi- minunata si o dimineata cat mai placuta, reusita dar si insorita fiindca de cateva zile nu mai apare soarele sa ne incalzeasca si sa straluceasca ! A fost ceata si cer acoperit... mai ales dimineata,iar la Meteo ne anunta ca spre sfarsitul lunii va veni iarna,vremea se va raci considerabil... :? ! Se pare ca dupa spusele specialistilor vom avea anul acesta o iarna cu fenomene extreme ...brr cu -20 si chiar - 30 de grade !? :P https://i1.wp.com/i1171.photobucket.com/albums/r549/Ana_Mustata/Ana_Mustata015/coffeebath_zpshda4gacp.gif Va invit cu drag ..la un ceai ori o cafea si va aduc in atentie si stirile zilei... !? STIATI CA,astazi ,soarele a rasarit la orele,8:00 si va apun la orele 17:58 ? 😀 …ca au trecut 311 zile din an si au mai rama,54 ? Stiati ca pana la venirea Mosului si a Nasterii Mantuitorului mai avem 47 de zile ??? Stiati ca marti seara pe 13 noiembrie se lasa sec pentru Postul nasterii Domnului , ca de miercuri 14 noiembrie incepe postul Craciunului ??? si ca…. 2018 » Ziua consensului si a reconcilierii – Rusia 2018 » Sf. m din Melitene si cuv. Lazar Taumaturgul (sarbatori greco catolice) 2018» Sf. treizeci si trei de Mucenici din Melitina, Ieron si cu ceilalti (sarbatoare orotodoxa) 2018 » Sf. Carina (sarbatoare romano catolica) 2012 » In SUA, candidatul democrat Presedintele Barack Obama, castiga cel de al doilea mandat prezindetial 2002 » In Iran, sunt interzise reclamele la toate produsele din SUA 2001 » In Belgia, compania nationala de aviatie, Sabena, intra in faliment 2000 » In SUA, Hillary Clinton, este aleasa senator, devenind prima fosta prima doamna, aleasa care castiga o functie publica 1996 » Este lansata misiunea spatiala americana Mars Global Surveyor 1996 » In Nigeria, un avion Boeing 727, se prabuseste, ducand la moartea celor 143 de oameni aflati la bord 1989 » In SUA, in New York, David Dinkins, devine primul afro-american, care castiga functia de Primar al New York-ului 1983 » A decedat Ion Jalea, sculptor român, membru al Academiei Române 1980 » A decedat Steve McQueen, actor american (n. 1930) 1970 » S-a nascut Marc Rosset, jucator elvetian de tenis 1967 » S-a nascut David Guetta, House-DJ si producator francez 1962 » A decedat Eleanor Roosevelt, prima doamna a SUA (n. 1884) 1944 » In SUA, Presedintele Franklin Delano Roosevelt a câstigat cel de-al patrulea mandat de Presedinte SUA 1941 » In timpul celui de al Doilea Razboi Mondial, vasul sovietc de cruce rosie, Armenia, este scufundat de catre aviata germana, cauzand peste 5000 de victime 1940 » S-a nascut Dorina Lazar, actrita românca de teatru si film https://i75.servimg.com/u/f75/19/61/71/78/dorina10.jpg Dorina Lazăr este o actriță de film/teatru, televiziune, radio și voce-over română. Wikipedia Născută: 7 noiembrie 1940 (vârsta 78 de ani), Hunedoara Soț: Mihai Lazăr (căs. ?–1992) Nominalizări: Gopo pentru cea mai bună actriță în rol secundar 1936 » S-a nascut Gwyneth Jones, cântareata britanica de opera 1929 » In SUA, la New York, este inaugurat Museum of Modern Art 1923 » S-a nascut Rudolf Augstein, publicist german, fondatorul revistei „Der Spiegel” 1921 » 2 melodii de George Gershwin au premiera , ca parte integranta a unui muzical, „The Perfect Fool”, in teatrul George M. Cohan din New York. Melodiile sunt „My Log-Cabin Home” si „No One Else but that Girl of Mine” 1917 » In Rusia, la Petrograd, incepe Revolutia din Octombrie 1917 » Rusia, este proclamata in mod oficial republica 1913 » S-a nascut Albert Camus, scriitor francez, laureat al Premiului Nobel Albert Camus a fost un romancier, dramaturg și filozof francez, reprezentant al existențialismului. Wikipedia https://i75.servimg.com/u/f75/19/61/71/78/albert10.jpg Născut: 7 noiembrie 1913, Drean, Algeria Decedat: 4 ianuarie 1960, Villeblevin, Franța Piese: Caligula, Cei drepți, Neînțelegerea, Starea de asediu, Posedaţii Filme: Străinul, Departe de oameni, The First Man, Fate, Ciuma, MAI MULTE Soții: Francine Faure (căs. 1940–1960), Simone Hié (căs. 1934–1940) 1912 » In Germania, la Berlin, este inaugrata Opera de stat cu lucrarea Fidelio de Ludwig van Beethoven 1903 » S-a nascut Konrad Lorenz, zoolog austriac, laureat al Premiului Nobel 1901 » In cadrul unui dineu, in casa unui anatomist vienez pe nume Emil Zuckerkandl, Gustav Mahler, in varsta de 41 de ani, o intalneste pe fiica pictorului Anton Schindler, Alma Maria Schindler 1888 » S-a nascut Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, fizician indiann, laureat al Premiului Nobel 1880 » Valsul „Rosen aus dem Süden” op.388 de Johann Strauss are premiera in Musikverein din Viena 1877 » In Lamberk, Bedrich Smetana realizeaza o operatie efectuata de un impostor, Dr. Klima. Scopul este sa scape de surzenie. Bineinteles operatia esueaza 1877 » In timpul Razboiului de Independenta, incepe Batalia de al Rahova, dintre armatele Ruso-Romane si armata Otomana 1876 » Opera cu accente populare „Sarutul” de Bedrich Smetana are premiera in Teatrul Provizoriu din Praga Prague Provisional Theater (este un adevarat triumf) 1876 » S-a nascut Marie Curie, savanta poloneza, dublu laureata a Premiului Nobel 1874 » In SUA, Partidul Republican, a fost personificat de imaginea unui elefant, de catre revista Harper’s Weekly: Imaginea elefantului va fi adoptata de republicani ca simbol al partiduli 1872 » In varsta de 10 ani, Claude Debussy participa la prima sa lectie de solfegiu in cadrul Conservatorului 1871 » Orasul Bayreuth ii aproba planul realizarii unui nou teatru lui Richard Wagner 1857 » „Eine Symphonie zu Dantes Divina Commedia” de Franz Liszt are premiera in Dresda, sub bagheta compozitorului. Totul este un dezastru, pentru ca inainte de spectacol s-a realizat o singura repetitie 1855 » S-a nascut Edwin Hall, fizician american 1847 » 3 zile dupa moartea lui Felix Mendelssohn, mii de oameni insotesc corpul neinsufletit pe durmul dinspre casa spre Paulinerkirche din Leipzig unde are loc slujba funerara. Printre cei care poarta cosciugul se numara Robert Schumann si Ignaz Moscheles 1844 » Franz Liszt sustine un concert la Palatul Regal din Madrid. Regina Isabella a-II-a, in varsta de 14 ani, ii confera Crucea lui Carlos al-III-lea 1830 » „Ouverture pour La Tempête de Shakespeare” pentru cor si orchestra de Hector 1801 » Alessandro Volta prezinta prima baterie electrica 1722 » In Marea Britanie, la Londra, are loc premiera lucrarii Conscious Lovers, de Richard Steele 1667 » In Franta, la Paris, are loc premiera piesei Andromaque, de Jean Racine 1665 » In Marea Britanie, la Londra, apare prima editie a London Gazette, cel mai vechi ziar din Marea Britanie 1558 » Elizabeta I urca pe tronul Angliei dupa moartea Reginei Mary 1476 » In Tara Romaneasca, la Bucuresti, are loc Batalia de la Bucuresti, dintre oastea Moldovei sprijinita de oastea Transilvaniei impotriva lui DomnuluI Tarii Romanesti Laiota Basarab 520 » Regele Christian al-II-lea al Suediei executa 600 de nobili 392 » In Imperiul Roman, Imparatul Teodosius I, declara crestinismul ca si religie de stat sursa:www.infoAzi.ro… 😕 lol! drunken Sleep No Question Razz Very Happy si pagina anitanna 2016<br /> https://i1.wp.com/i63.tinypic.com/120hyyq.gif https://i0.wp.com/i68.tinypic.com/9s5j69.jpg </a></div> </div> <p></p>
          Former official says Republicans have to run in Armenia polls      Cache   Translate Page      
“Being opposition is neither a privilege, nor an administrative lever, nor a high public position," Vigen Sargsyan said.
          Azerbaijan`s Defense Ministry: Armenian armed units continue violating ceasefire      Cache   Translate Page      
Azerbaijan`s Defense Ministry has said the Armenian armed forces continue to violate the ceasefire regime. "The Azerbaijani armed forces came under fire 24 times throughout the day," the ministry said in a statement
          Armenian politician backed by Trump loses Congressional bid      Cache   Translate Page      
Tarkanian who had the backing of U.S. President Donald Trump lost the race for U.S. House District 3 to Democrat Susie Lee.
          Seven Iranians released from prison in Armenia      Cache   Translate Page      
The move took place in line with "Iran’s active diplomacy and contacts with relevant Armenian police, security and judicial officials."
          Se non tasi, te sparo col Taser      Cache   Translate Page      

IL PAPA IMPONE “I DOMICILIARI” AL VESCOVO ATHANASIUS SCHNEIDER. NIENTE DI SCRITTO, COSÌ NON È POSSIBILE IL RICORSO….


Il vescovo ausiliare di Astana, e precedentemente vescovo di Karaganda, Athanasius Schneider,  ha ricevuto un’ingiunzione verbale dal Vaticano che gli chiede di ridurre la frequenza dei suoi viaggi all’estero.


Questa misura è stata presa nella primavera scorsa; il vescovo ha saputo di questa straordinaria misura restrittiva della sua libertà dal nunzio in Kazakhistan, Francis Assisi Chullikatt, ad aprile.
Ma – altro elemento singolare in questa vicenda – è che mons. Schneider ha avuto lettura della disposizione, impartita direttamente dal Segretario di Stato, il card. Pietro Parolin, solo verbalmente. Il nunzio non gli ha dato niente di scritto, nessun documento in base al quale il vescovo potesse prendere una qualche iniziativa legale, eventualmente presso la Congregazione per i Vescovi, o presso il Tribunale della Segnatura Apostolica, che, fino all’avvento di papa Bergoglio, era l’istanza presso cui laici preti e vescovi potevano appellarsi verso decisioni dell’autorità che ritenessero ingiuste.
Nessuna motivazione è stata data a mons. Schneider, secondo quanto risulta a persone a lui vicine, che abbiamo contattato, per spiegare questa straordinaria richiesta. Ogni volta che ha in programma un viaggio all’estero, deve comunicarlo al Nunzio. Non sappiamo se fra i poteri dell’ambasciatore pontificio vi sia anche quello, eventualmente, di negargli l’autorizzazione all’espatrio.
Mons. Athanasius Schneider, come sanno i lettori di Stilum Curiae, è una delle voci più libere e schiette nel denunciare – in maniera rispettosa e filiale, ma ferma – deviazioni e confusione presenti nella Chiesa di oggi. Impossibile non rilevare la disparità di trattamento fra di lui e il card. Theodore McCarrick, che, colpito dalle sanzioni di Benedetto XVI (fra cui il divieto di viaggiare) è stato inviato dal Pontefice in Cina, nelle Filippine, in Armenia e ha agito come trait-d’union con Cuba per preparare la visita del Pontefice. O anche verso il cardinale Maradiaga, Gran Consigliere del papa, che ha abbandonato – a motivo dei suoi frequentissimi viaggi – la diocesi di Tegucicalpa nelle mani del suo ausiliare, il vescovo Pineda, suo braccio destro obbligato alle dimissioni dalla lettera aperta di decine di seminaristi che lo accusavano di comportamenti scorretti, e le cui imprese recenti descrive Religion Confidencial.
D’altronde non c’è da stupirsi di questi atti segno evidente di un disagio sempre più marcato nei confronti delle voci libere in un regime in cui si parla di dialogo, ma dove le critiche sono temute. E dove però si preferiscono mezzi silenziosi e nascosti per limitare la libertà di espressione. Come il “consiglio” dato ai vescovi americani – sempre a voce, sempre da un nunzio – a non invitare nella diocesi persone come il card. Burke, e, se non è possibile evitare la sua presenza, non recarsi all’evento….
Marco Tosatti
6 novembre 2018 Pubblicato da  9 Commenti --
Oggi è il 72° giorno in cui il Pontefice regnante non ha, ancora, risposto.
“Quando ha saputo che McCarrick era un uomo perverso, un predatore omosessuale seriale?”
“È vero, o non è vero, che mons. Viganò lo ha avvertito il 23 giugno 2013?”
Joseph Fessio, sj: “Sia un uomo. Si alzi in piedi e risponda”.
http://www.marcotosatti.com/2018/11/06/il-papa-impone-i-domiciliari-al-vescovo-athanasius-schneider-niente-di-scritto-cosi-non-e-possibile-il-ricorso/




          EJECUTIVO COMERCIAL INTERNO - Seguros Bolivar S.A - Armenia, Quindío      Cache   Translate Page      
ARA APLICAR AL VACANTE ÚNICAMENTE SE TENDRÁ EN CUENTA A LAS PERSONAS QUE ENVIE SU HOJA DE VIDA AL CORREO ELECTRONICOLa compañía Seguros Bolívar;...
De Full Empleo - Sun, 07 Oct 2018 10:03:26 GMT - Ver todos: empleos en Armenia, Quindío
          Cultural diplomacy as a driver of Armenia’s economy      Cache   Translate Page      
With a rich cultural heritage and a big potential for growth and development, Armenia was the focus of widespread interest for an entire month when the first-ever International Contemporary Art Exhibition: Armenia 2018 (ICAE2018) was held in Yerevan from September 28 to October 25. The month-long art event was organized by Shaula International LLC, an Armenia-based consulting company, whose goal, according to co-founder and CEO Fabio Lenzi, is to promote Armenia internationally.
          România şi Armenia pot colabora în domeniul industrial      Cache   Translate Page      
Prof. univ. dr. ing. Sorin Dimitriu, preşedintele Camerei de Comerţ şi Industrie a Municipiului Bucureşti (CCIB), a avut o întrevedere cu Excelenţa Sa Sergey Minasyan, ambasadorul extraordinar şi plenipotenţiar al Republicii Armenia în România. 
          92% of Congressional hopefuls backed by pro-Armenian NGO win      Cache   Translate Page      
92% of the 180 formally backed by the pro-Armenian advocacy organization won election to the U.S. Senate and House.
          No connection established with Armenian Defense Ministry: Azerbaijan      Cache   Translate Page      
none
          Armenia’s repeating mistakes of previous regime to lead to its destruction – analyst      Cache   Translate Page      
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          Armenia violates ceasefire with Azerbaijan 24 times      Cache   Translate Page      
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          Comment on Did Senate Republicans cave on Kavanaugh? by The Grundle King      Cache   Translate Page      
And like a true simpleton, you copypasta his comment, without doing any further analysis. I looked at the human freedom index as it pertains to 'Homicide', as that is the most relevant to the discussion at hand. I'll qualify that remark by pointing out the fact that whilst you and Gerard bitch and whine about AR-15's and the people who own 20+ guns...you absolutely CANNOT escape the fact that the vast majority of homicides by firearm in the U.S. are NOT committed with AR-15s, and are NOT committed by gun collectors. So here's just a little sampling of some of those hotbeds of freedom that (somehow) ranked higher in the Human Freedom Index (HFI) when comparing only Homicide: - Kazakhstan - Rwanda - Turkey - Latvia - Liberia - Moldova - Armenia - Albania - Jordan - Cambodia - Vietnam - Oman - Serbia - Croatia Please. Choose one. Move there. Apparently genocides don't count as homicides. Strangely enough, I didn't find any sort of category for ranking that captured one's ability to arm themselves for purposes of self-defense. The 'Safety & Security' categories all provide ranks on how likely you are to be victimized, and with the exception of Homicide, the U.S. gets very high marks on all categories. Why I found the absence of legally-protected firearm ownership strange is that, if you lefties were able to achieve your wet dream of gun control, it wouldn't move the needle for the U.S. one tiny bit...because there's no HFI ranking for it. So we'd still be ranked 17th...and we'd probably be headed lower, because if you finally win that battle, I shudder to imagine what freedoms you'd go after next.
          Dingzhou Yongsheng Grain and Oil Machinery Co., Ltd      Cache   Translate Page      
China Dingzhou Yongsheng Grain and Oil Machinery Co., Ltd. was founded in 2003, predecessor is Baoding Light Industry Machinery Factory. Our company is specialized in producing grain and oil processing machinery and equipment in China. Existing professional and technical personnel more than 80 people, including grain and oil professional senior engineer 22 people, covers an area of 35000 square meters, immobilisation corporelle is $15 million. With all kinds of modern mechanical processing equipment 95 units, heat treatment carburizing process for computer fully automatic temperature control, can meet the national advanced standards, test means of physical testing mechanical performance is complete. Our company is committed to the design, production, installation, commissioning of the Oil-pressing, Oil Leaching and Oil Refining complete sets of equipment. It has good effect in large and medium-sized oil plants in China and exported to Russia, Bulgaria, Argentina, Kazakhstan, Ethiopia, Armenia , Syria, Myanmar, Vietnam and other countries. We also has branch in kazakhstan and Burma. Our company with excellent product quality and service, seek development by constantly develop new products for the purpose of the survival, trusted by the user, enterprise development momentum in recent years, hope to the company's elaborate design, excellent quality, high-quality service for the development of your company to provide a steady stream of power, and common development of China's modernization drive!
          3rd Armenian American to serve in Congress      Cache   Translate Page      
With the victory tonight of the Anthony Brindisi For Congress campaign, the upstate New York Democrat will join Congresswoman Anna Eshoo and Congresswoman Jackie Speier in the U.S. House of...
          Robot Sophia: My selfie with the Prime Minister of Armenia      Cache   Translate Page      
My selfie with the Prime Minister of #Armenia! I have quite the collection of selfies now, should I start a scrap book?
          Meeting with acting Armenian Premier Nikol Pashinyan      Cache   Translate Page      
On 5 November President Bako Sahakyan had a meeting in Stepanakert with acting Premier of the Republic of Armenia Nikol Pashinyan. A broad range of issues on the cooperation between the two Armenian...
          Blog Post: New publications added to Lexis Advance news content      Cache   Translate Page      
Several new publications have been added to Lexis Advance news content, including: * High Net Worth Insights Journal Retirement Market Insights Journal Millionaire Corner Newsletter       Lianhe Wanbao Shin Min Daily News Accord Fintech BSE Bizcommunity Caravan Alive Daily News (Tanzania) HT Ranchi Edition Manila Bulletin Nuffoods Spectrum Paper VC   The Conversation—Australia The Conversation—United States The Conversation—Africa The Conversation—United Kingdom The Conversation—Canada The Conversation—France The Conversation—Spanish Intellinews—Armenia Today Intellinews—Azerbaijan Today Intellinews—Belarus Today Intellinews—Georgia Today Intellinews—Iran Today Intellinews—Kosovo Today Intellinews—Kyrgyzstan Today Intellinews—Moldova Today Intellinews—Mongolia Today Intellinews—Slovenia Today Intellinews—Tajikistan Today Intellinews—Turkmenistan Today Intellinews—Uzbekistan Today Publisher, Content Engine LLC: Ambito Financiero Andina Agencia Noticiera Diario Meridiano, Venezuela Clarin El Cronista Comercial Infobae Revista Fairway REIT Magazine—coming soon   * Some news sources listed may or may not be available depending on your current LexisNexis® subscription.
          Top Ameriabank official: Armenia’s banking sector hasn't seen defaults for 16 years      Cache   Translate Page      
Hovhannes Khachatryan, head of Assets, Liabilities and Capital Management Division at Ameriabank, has in a recent interview spoken about what makes Armenia’s banking sector different from that of Russia, what kind of technologies help it move forward and what are Ameriabank’s market consolidation plans.
          BWW Preview: 'O JERUSALEM! ? CROSSROADS OF THREE FAITHS? at Apollo's Fire      Cache   Translate Page      

Jeannette Sorrell, Artistic Director of Apollo's Fire, the Cleveland-based Baroque Orchestra, started to study conducting and musical composition at age 16. A trained pianist, the young lady, who has been called a "wunderkind" by "Audiophile Audition," won first prize and the audience choice award in the 1991 Spivey International Harpsichord Competition, competing against 70 uber-talented international musicians.

Sorrell's path to developing Apollo's Fire included an interview for the position of Assistant Conductor of the Cleveland Orchestra. When the Maestro told her he would not give her an audition because she was a woman, the talented lady, who believes that a person must be true to yourself, replied that her first choice was to conduct baroque music on period instruments, rather than a symphony job.

Proving that a woman could lead a world class orchestra, with seed-funding from the Cleveland Foundation, Sorrell has developed a musical assemblage that has sold out audiences in venues in London, Madrid, Washington, DC, New York, and, yes, at Severance Hall.

She always loved the beautiful and colorful sound of baroque music which she feels has universal emotional qualities, Sorrell indicated that this type of music has "Affekt," a quality of emotional music common in the 17th and 18th centuries, but which, she feels, has been lost in the 19thand 20thcenturies as people lost sight of the concept developed by rhetoricians, where the timing of the voice and timing of the sounds were stressed as important to appeal to the emotions.

The publicity for "O Jerusalem! - Crossroads of Three Faiths" describes the program as a "tour" (through music and poetry) of the 4 quarters of the old city of Jerusalem - Jewish, Christian, Muslim, and Armenian. And that Sorrell felt "compelled to create this program because of the urgent need for peace and understanding in the world and how music can cross social divides and bring people together in times of conflict."

The concert takes a broad look at the people who have inhabited Jerusalem, allowing us to peek into a mosque, a synagogue and a cathedral...interweaving of the sounds and illustrating how they influence each other. The concert often juxtaposes music from one source upon the other.

The concert will show the music and poetry that all groups share.

She believes that "we all want to live with love and brotherhood." To put this into action the concert includes "Israeli, Palestinian and Persian performers, a multi-cultural group who love each other and love making music together."

Besides the music, Sorrell thinks people will also enjoy seeing some "cool" instruments on stage, including the Oud, a short-neck lute-type, pear-shapedstringed instrument, the Tanbur, a long-necked, string instrument originating in Mesopotamia, Southern or Central Asia, along with other middle eastern instruments, and a medieval harp.

"O Jerusalem! - Crossroads of Three Faiths"will be presented Saturday, November 10 at 8pm at The Temple-Tifereth Israel in Beachwood; Monday, November 12, 7;30 pm @ St. Paul's Episcopal, Cleveland Heights; Friday, November 16 ,8pm @ Fairlawn Lutheran Church; Saturday, November 17, 8pm @ Cleveland Institute of Music's Kulas Hall; and Sunday November 18 @ 4pm at Avon Lake Church UCC.

For tickets and information call 26-320-0012 or go on-line to http://www.apollosfire.org/


          Beeline Armenia extends roaming pack offer to August 2019      Cache   Translate Page      
(Telecompaper) Mobile operator Beeline Armenia has prolonged validity of its Roaming Package option, reports Arka.am. The option will be valid until 28 August 2019.
          Karina's Day Care      Cache   Translate Page      
Glendale,CA - Karina’s Day Care is mission to provide a safe nurturing, culturally sensitive, developmentally appropriate environment for children ages 2-month-old -13years old. Working with children for over 15 years. The day care focuses on each child’s intellectual, social and personal development while striving to create an atmosphere that fosters self-esteem and a healthy respect for individuality, cultural diversity among others. At our daycare, we strive to provide nutritious and fresh food with a rich and delicious organic variety from the Armenian kitchen. Art/ Music/ Dance from other from other countries, are incorporated in to curriculum to introduce the children diversity. The day care is dedicated to developing its own special educational program to the age appropriate, which is called “School Readiness” Our designed “School Readiness” program is a like a “Montessori Program”. The program will help each child to grow intellectually personally emotionally, socially. The designed program and teaching method will help children to learn English and Armenian alphabet, math (adding and subtracting (1-100), practicing thinking logically and express socially. The program will seek to assist children in developing first grade readiness skills to become lifelong learners. The program will also support parents as of being the primary educator for their children.
          Blocktech launches partnership with French University of Armenia to research cryptoeconomics and curation markets      Cache   Translate Page      

NEW YORK, Nov. 7, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Blocktech, the New York-based blockchain technologies company, and the French University of Armenia (UFAR) have announced that they are partnering to launch Armenia's first academic Blockchain Lab. The lab will conduct interdisciplinary research into ...


          El feminicidio que nadie denuncia      Cache   Translate Page      

Imagen referencial de una niña pequeña /Pixabay

Representa la muerte de millones de mujeres, pero no suele aparecer en los medios. Probablemente porque tiene que ver con ese sacrosanto tabú de la modernidad que es el aborto, auténtico tótem intocable sobre el que no se puede expresar ni la más mínima duda a no ser que uno quiera desencadenar la ira de los dioses laicos.

Lo cierto es que el ratio biológico normal es que por cada 104/106 varones nacen 100 mujeres. Todos los análisis realizados han encontrado que esta proporción se mantiene estable cuando no actúan variables externas.

Por lo tanto, se puede afirmar que cuando el ratio alcanza o supera los 109 varones por cada 100 mujeres que nacen, estamos ante la constatación de que se están realizando actos que alteran la proporción normal.

Estos actos son, en el caso de niños concebidos de forma natural, pruebas prenatales que informan del sexo y el subsguiente aborto si el niño por nacer ha resultado ser una niña. En el caso de uso de técnicas de fecundación artificial, se suele realizar un diagnostico genético de preimplantación para determinar el sexo del embrión y se escoge un embrión de sexo masculino, siendo los de sexo femenino descartados.

The Lancet ha publicado un estudio este mismo año en el que señala que hay, en la actualidad, 63 millones de chicos más que de chicas en la India

La lista de los países con ratios anormales, esto es, aquellos en los que se detecta a las mujeres y se las elimina antes de que nazcan, es la siguiente según el Fondo de Naciones Unidas para la Población (la cifra indica el número de varones que nacen por cada 100 mujeres que también nacen):

[caption id="attachment_105974" align="alignnone" width="438"]Varones nacidos por cada 100 mujeres que nacen. Fuente: UNFPA Varones nacidos por cada 100 mujeres que nacen. Fuente: UNFPA[/caption]

El mismo Fondo de Naciones Unidas para la Población estima que “faltan” 117 millones de mujeres debido a este fenómeno.

Repasemos algunos de los datos de los países más significativos:

En la India, además de lo ya señalado, es principalmente el aborto utilizado como método para seleccionar el sexo, pero son muchas las niñas que llegan a nacer y a las que, luego, se las deja morir. Durante los últimos diez años se calcula que 2,4 millones de niñas han muerto de este modo. De hecho, para los menores de 5 años, la mortalidad entre las niñas es considerablemente superior a la mortalidad entre los niños en 29 de los 35 estados que componen la India. De resultas de estas prácticas, The Lancet ha publicado un estudio este mismo año en el que señala que hay, en la actualidad, 63 millones de chicos más que de chicas en la India.

En China, la falta de mujeres debida a estas prácticas es algo que ya se viene detectando en los censos desde los años 80 del siglo pasado. De hecho, China es el lugar del mundo en el que estas prácticas están más extendidas y el número de mujeres que son asesinadas antes de nacer o poco después de hacerlo es mayor. En algunas provincias chinas el ratio está por encima de 125 niños nacidos por cada 100 mujeres.

En la década de los 70, Georgia alcanzó el macabro honor de ser el país con mayor tasa de abortos del mundo

Otro ámbito en el que este proceder está muy extendido es en algunos países del antiguo bloque soviético, como es el caso de Armenia, Azerbaiyán y Georgia. En 2000 el ratio en Armenia alcanzó los 120 niños por cada 100 niñas, si bien desde entonces ha declinado. Pero en la misma Armenia, si el primer hijo es una chica, el ratio para el segundo hijo llega hasta a 156 niños por cada 100 niñas. Dos hijas parece una combinación inaceptable para muchos armenios.

En los otros dos países reseñados se llegaron a picos de 118 varones en Azerbaiyán en 2003 y de 119 varones en Georgia en 1999, pero al igual que en el caso de Armenia han declinado muy levemente desde entonces, estabilizándose en cifras no muy lejanas. Un dato sobre Georgia nos da información sobre el alcance y extensión que durante el régimen comunista soviético alcanzó el recurso al aborto: en la década de los 70, Georgia alcanzó el macabro honor de ser el país con mayor tasa de abortos del mundo, con 1,1 abortos por cada embarazo que acababa en nacimiento.

La eugenesia tuvo un gran desarrollo a principios del siglo XX, cuando tantos pensaron que a través de leyes que impidieran el matrimonio con las personas genéticamente inadecuadas y con programas de esterilización masivos iban a procrear solo los “superiores” y la raza humana iba a mejorar así de modo sustancial. Los programas eugenésicos adoptados por la Alemania nazi hicieron que muchos de los defensores de la eugenesia se camuflaran o renunciaran a ese nombre, aunque siguieron promoviendo este tipo de prácticas, a las que se añadió la extensión del aborto entre las clases populares, como Margaret Sanger, la fundadora de Planned Parenthood, siempre propugnó.

Las esterilizaciones forzadas continuaron en Estados Unidos hasta bien entrada la década de los 70 y California aún esterilizaba a presos en los 90. Ahora la detección y asesinato por aborto o abandono de niñas, consideradas un peor “capital” que los hijos varones, están enormemente extendidos en amplias regiones del mundo sin que nadie diga nada.

Hablábamos hace poco del genocidio que se está produciendo con los niños con síndrome de Down, otra práctica eugenésica que se aplica en todo el mundo casi sin excepciones. Pero podemos afirmar que los abortos para seleccionar el sexo, práctica común en China, la India y algunos países ex soviéticos, son el mayor “feminicidio” de nuestros días.

Un feminicidio sobre el que las militantes feministas y los ministerios de igualdad guardan un estremecedor silencio.

La entrada El feminicidio que nadie denuncia aparece primero en Actuall.


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Location: ARMENIA

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          Miércoles 12 diciembre 2018, Miércoles de la II semana de Adviento, feria o Bienaventurada Virgen María de Guadalupe, memoria libre.      Cache   Translate Page      
SOBRE LITURGIA

SOLEMNE APERTURA DE LA SEGUNDA SESIÓN DEL CONCILIO ECUMÉNICO VATICANO II
ALOCUCIÓN DE SU SANTIDAD PABLO VI

Domingo 29 de septiembre de 1963

Un puente hacia el mundo contemporáneo.

Por último, tratará el Concilio de tender un puente hacia el mundo contemporáneo. Singular fenómeno: mientras la Iglesia, buscando cómo animar su vitalidad interior del Espíritu del Señor, se diferencia y se separa de la sociedad profana en la que vive sumergida, al mismo tiempo se define como fermento vivificador e instrumento de salvación de ese mismo mundo descubriendo y reafirmando su vocación misionera, que es como decir su destino esencial a hacer de la humanidad, en cualesquiera condiciones en que ésta se encuentre, el objeto de su apasionada misión evangelizadora.

Vosotros mismos, venerables hermanos, habéis experimentado este prodigio. Vosotros, en efecto, al iniciar los trabajos de la primera sesión, y como inflamados por las palabras inaugurales del Papa Juan XXIII, sentisteis inmediatamente la necesidad de abrir, por así decirlo, las puertas de esta asamblea y gritar en seguida al mundo desde los umbrales abiertos de par en par, un mensaje de saludo, de hermandad y de esperanza. ¡Original, pero admirable gesto! Se diría que el carisma profético de la Santa Iglesia se despertó en un momento, y como Pedro el día de Pentecostés, sintió en seguida el impulso de levantar su voz y hablar al pueblo, así vosotros quisisteis en seguida tratar no ya de vuestras cosas, sino de las del mundo, no ya entablar el diálogo entre vosotros mismos, sino entablarlo con el mundo.

Esto significa, venerables hermanos, que el presente Concilio está caracterizado por el amor, por el amor más amplio y urgente, por el amor que se preocupa de los otros antes que de sí mismo, ¡por el amor universal de Cristo!

Este amor es el que nos sostiene ahora porque al tender nuestra mirada sobre la vida humana contemporánea deberíamos estar espantados más bien que alentados, afligidos más bien que regocijados, dispuestos a la defensa y a la condena más bien que a la confianza y a la amistad.

Debemos ser realistas, no ocultando la herida que no pocas regiones causan a este mismo Sínodo universal. ¿Podemos estar ciegos y no advertir que muchos puestos de esta asamblea están vacíos? ¿Dónde están nuestros hermanos de naciones en las que la Iglesia es combatida y en qué condiciones se encuentra la religión en estos territorios? Ante este recuerdo se aflige nuestro ánimo por las cosas que conocemos y todavía más por todo lo que no Nos es dado saber, sea referente a la sagrada jerarquía, a los religiosos y religiosas, como a tantos hijos nuestros sometidos a temores, vejaciones, privaciones y opresiones por causa de su fidelidad a Cristo y a su Iglesia. ¡Cuánta tristeza por estos dolores y cuánta amargura al ver que en ciertos países la libertad religiosa, así como otros derechos fundamentales del hombre, son conculcados por principios y métodos de intolerancia política, racial o antirreligiosa! Duele el corazón al tener que ver cómo en el mundo existen todavía tantas injusticias contra la honrada y libre profesión de la propia fe religiosa. Pero más que con amargas palabras queremos todavía expresar nuestro dolor con una franca y humana exhortación a cuantos fuesen responsables de estas cosas, para que noblemente depongan su injustificada hostilidad hacia la religión católica, cuyos miembros deben ser considerados no como enemigos o como ciudadanos desleales, sino más bien como miembros honrados y laboriosos de la sociedad civil a la que pertenecen. Y enviamos, además, en esta ocasión, a los católicos que sufren por causa de su fe, nuestro afectuoso saludo e invocamos para ellos el consuelo del Señor.

No termina aquí nuestra amargura. La mirada sobre el mundo nos llena de inmensa tristeza al contemplar tantas calamidades: el ateísmo invade parte de la humanidad y arrastra consigo el desequilibrio del orden intelectual, moral y social del que el mundo pierde la verdadera noción. Mientras aumenta la luz de la ciencia de las cosas, se extiende la oscuridad sobre la ciencia de Dios y, consiguientemente, sobre la verdadera ciencia del hombre. Mientras el progreso perfecciona maravillosamente los instrumentos de toda clase de que el hombre dispone, su corazón va cayendo hacia el vacío, la tristeza y la desesperación.

CALENDARIO

12 MIÉRCOLES DE LA II SEMANA DE ADVIENTO, feria o BIENAVENTURADA VIRGEN MARÍA DE GUADALUPE, memoria libre

Misa
de feria (morado) o de la memoria (blanco).
MISAL: para la feria ants. y oracs. props. / para la memoria 1ª orac. prop. y el resto de la feria o del común de la BVM, Pf. I o III Adv. o de la memoria.
LECC.: vol. II.
- Is 40, 25-31. El Señor todopoderoso fortalece a quien está cansado.
- Sal 102. R. Bendice, alma mía, al Señor.
- Mt 11, 28-30. Venid a mí todos los que estáis cansados.
o bien:
cf. vol. IV.

Liturgia de las Horas: oficio de feria o de la memoria.

Martirologio: elogs. del 13 de diciembre, pág. 717.
CALENDARIOS: Jaca, Huesca y Santander: Dedicación de la iglesia-catedral (F).
Teatinos: Beato Juan Marinonio, presbítero (MO).
Tarazona: Beatos Martín de San Nicolás y compañeros, mártires (MO). Zaragoza: (ML).
Canónigos Regulares de Letrán: Beato Hartman, obispo (MO).
Madrid: Santa María de Guadalupe (ML-trasladada), o San Dámaso, papa (ML).
Orden de San Juan de Jerusalén: Aniversario de la ordenación episcopal de Mons. Jean Laffitte, prelado (2009).
Segovia: Aniversario de la ordenación episcopal de Mons. Ángel Rubio Castro, obispo, emérito (2004).
Solsona: Aniversario de la ordenación episcopal de Mons. Xavier Novell Gomá, obispo (2010).
Prelatura de la Santa Cruz y del Opus Dei: Aniversario de la muerte de Mons. Javier Echevarría Rodríguez, prelado (2016).

TEXTOS MISA

Miércoles de la II semana de Adviento Feria quarta. Hebdomada II Adventus
Antífona de entrada Cf. Hab 2, 3; 1Co 4, 5
El Señor llegará y no tardará, él iluminará lo que esconden las tinieblas y se manifestará a todos los pueblos.
Antiphona ad introitum Cf. Ha 2, 3; 1Co 4, 5
Véniet Dóminus et non tardábit, et illuminábit abscóndita tenebrárum, et manifestábit se ad omnes gentes.
Oración colecta
Dios todopoderoso, que nos mandas preparar el camino a Cristo, el Señor, concédenos, con bondad, no desfallecer por nuestra debilidad a los que esperamos la consoladora presencia del médico celestial. Él, que vive y reina contigo.
Collecta
Omnípotens Deus, qui nos praecipis iter Christo Dómino praeparáre, concéde propítius, ut nullis infirmitátibus fatigémur, qui caeléstis médici consolántem praeséntiam sustinémus. Per Dóminum.

En la memoria:
Monición de entrada
Hacemos memoria en esta celebración de la bienaventurada Virgen María de Guadalupe de México, cuyo maternal auxilio implora con humildad el pueblo en la colina del Tepeyac, cerca de la ciudad del distrito federal, donde se apareció varias veces al indio san Juan Diego. Ella brilla como una estrella que invita a la evangelización de los pueblos, y es invocada como protectora de los pueblos indígenas y de los pobres de toda Latinoamérica.

Oración colecta propia. El resto de la feria.

12 de diciembre
Bienaventurada Virgen María de Guadalupe.
Die 12 decembris
Beatae Mariae Virginis de Guadalupe.
Oración colecta
Oh, Dios, Padre de las misericordias, que pusiste a tu pueblo bajo el singular patrocinio de la santísima Madre de tu Hijo, concede a cuantos la invocan con el título de Guadalupe, que busquen con fe decidida el progreso de los pueblos por los caminos de la justicia y de la paz. Por nuestro Señor Jesucristo.
Collecta
Deus, Pater misericordiárum, qui sub sanctíssimae Matris Fílii tui singulári patrocínio plebem tuam constituísti, tríbue cunctis, qui beátam Vírginem Guadalupénsem ínvocant, ut, alacrióri fide, populórum progressiónem in viis iustítiæ quáereant et pacis. Per Dóminum.

LITURGIA DE LA PALABRA
Lecturas del Miércoles de la II semana de Adviento (Lec. II).

PRIMERA LECTURA Is 40, 25-31
El Señor todopoderoso fortalece a quien está cansado
Lectura del libro de Isaías.

«¿Con quién podréis compararme,
quién es semejante a mi?», dice el Santo.
Alzad los ojos a lo alto y mirad:
¿quién creó esto?
Es él, que despliega su ejército al completo
y a cada uno convoca por su nombre.
Ante su grandioso poder, y su robusta fuerza,
ninguno falta a su llamada.
¿Por qué andas diciendo, Jacob,
y por qué murmuras, Israel:
«Al Señor no le importa mi destino,
mi Dios pasa por alto mis derechos»?
¿Acaso no lo sabes, es que no lo has oído?
El Señor es un Dios eterno
que ha creado los confines de la tierra.
No se cansa, no se fatiga,
es insondable su inteligencia.
Fortalece a quien está cansado,
acrecienta el vigor del exhausto.
Se cansan los muchachos, se fatigan,
los jóvenes tropiezan y vacilan;
pero los que esperan en el Señor
renuevan sus fuerzas,
echan alas como las águilas,
corren y no se fatigan,
caminan y no se cansan.

Palabra de Dios.
R. Te alabamos, Señor.

Salmo responsorial Sal 102, 1bc-2. 3-4. 8 y 10 (R.: 1b)
R.
Bendice, alma mía, al Señor. Bénedic, ánima mea, Dómino.

V.Bendice, alma mía, al Señor,
y todo mi ser a su santo nombre.
Bendice, alma mía, al Señor,
y no olvides sus beneficios. R.
Bendice, alma mía, al Señor. Bénedic, ánima mea, Dómino.

V. Él perdona todas tus culpas
y cura todas tus enfermedades;
él rescata tu vida de la fosa,
y te colma de gracia y de ternura. R.
Bendice, alma mía, al Señor. Bénedic, ánima mea, Dómino.

V. El Señor es compasivo y misericordioso,
lento a la ira y rico en clemencia.
No nos trata como merecen nuestro pecados
ni nos paga según nuestras culpas. R.
Bendice, alma mía, al Señor. Bénedic, ánima mea, Dómino.

Aleluya
R. Aleluya, aleluya, aleluya.
V. Mirad que llega el Señor, para salvar a su pueblo; bienaventurados los que están preparados para salir a su encuentro. R. Ecce véniet Dóminus, ut salvet pópulum suum; beáti qui paráti sunt occúrrere illi.

EVANGELIO Mt 11, 28-30
Venid a mí todos los que estáis cansados
Lectura del santo Evangelio según san Mateo.
Gloria a ti, Señor.

En aquel tiempo, Jesús tomó la palabra y dijo:
«Venid a mi todos los que estáis cansados y agobiados, y yo os aliviaré.
Tomad mi yugo sobre vosotros y aprended de mí, que soy manso y humilde de corazón, y encontraréis descanso para vuestras almas. Porque mi yugo es llevadero y mi carga ligera».

Palabra del Señor.
R. Gloria a ti, Señor Jesús.

Papa Francisco, Homilía, Jueves Santo 2-abril-2015
Sucede también que, cuando sentimos el peso del trabajo pastoral, nos puede venir la tentación de descansar de cualquier manera, como si el descanso no fuera una cosa de Dios. No caigamos en esta tentación. Nuestra fatiga es preciosa a los ojos de Jesús, que nos acoge y nos pone de pie: «Venid a mí cuando estéis cansados y agobiados, que yo os aliviaré» (Mt 11, 28). Cuando uno sabe que, muerto de cansancio, puede postrarse en adoración, decir: «Basta por hoy, Señor», y rendirse ante el Padre; uno sabe también que no se hunde sino que se renueva porque, al que ha ungido con óleo de alegría al pueblo fiel de Dios, el Señor también lo unge, «le cambia su ceniza en diadema, sus lágrimas en aceite perfumado de alegría, su abatimiento en cánticos» (Is 61, 3).

Oración de los fieles
Presentemos nuestra oración a Dios, nuestro Padre: él es la fortaleza de quien está cansado.
- Para que renueve constantemente a su Iglesia. Roguemos al Señor
- Para que dé ánimos a los que tienen responsabilidades públicas. Roguemos al Señor.
- Para que haga recuperar la ilusión a los que se sienten fracasados. Roguemos al Señor
-Para que llene de esperanza a los que celebramos esta eucaristía. Roguemos al Señor.
SEÑOR, Dios nuestro, que no te cansas ni te fatigas, sé para todos alivio y descanso. Por Jesucristo, nuestro Señor.

Oración sobre las ofrendas
Haz, Señor, que te ofrezcamos siempre este sacrificio como expresión de nuestra propia entrega, para que se realice el santo sacramento que tú instituiste y se lleve a cabo en nosotros eficazmente la obra de tu salvación. Por Jesucristo, nuestro Señor.
Super oblata
Devotiónis nostrae tibi, Dómine, quaesumus, hóstia iúgiter immolétur, quae et sacri péragat institúta mystérii, et salutáre tuum nobis poténter operétur. Per Christum.
PLEGARIA EUCARÍSTICA IV. PREX EUCHARÍSTICA IV.
Antífona de la comunión Cf. Is 40, 10; 35, 5
Nuestro Señor llega con poder para iluminar los ojos de sus siervos.
Antiphona ad communionem Cf. Is 40, 10. 35, 5
Ecce Dóminus noster cum virtúte véniet, ut illúminet óculos servórum suórum.
Oración después de la comunión
Imploramos tu misericordia, Señor, para que este divino alimento que hemos recibido nos purifique del pecado y nos prepare a las fiestas que se acercan. Por Jesucristo, nuestro Señor.
Post communionem
Tuam, Dómine, cleméntiam implorámus, ut haec divína subsídia, a vítiis expiátos, ad festa ventúra nos praeparent. Per Christum.

MARTIROLOGIO

Elogios del día 13 de diciembre
M
emoria de santa Lucía, virgen y mártir, la cual, mientras vivió, conservó encendida la lámpara esperando al Esposo, y llevada al martirio en Siracusa, en Sicilia, mereció entrar con él a las bodas y poseer la luz indefectible (303/304).
2. En Porto Romano, san Aristón, mártir (c. s. IV).
3. En la península de Sulcis, en Cerdeña, san Antioco, mártir (c. s. IV).
4. En Armenia, santos Eustrato, Auxencio, Eugenio, Mardario y Orestes, mártires (c. s. IV).
5. En Neustria septentrional, san Judoco, presbítero y eremita, quien, siendo hijo de Jutael, rey de Armórica, y hermano de san Judicael, para no ser obligado a suceder a su padre abandonó la patria y se dedicó a la vida eremítica (c. 669).
6. En Cambrai, de Austrasia, san Auberto, obispo (c. 670).
7. En Estrasburgo, de Burgundia (hoy Alsacia), santa Otilia, virgen y primera abadesa del monasterio de Hohenburg, fundado por el duque Aldarico, su padre (s. VII).
8*. En Nápoles, de la Campania, beato Juan (Francisco) Marinoni, presbítero de la Orden de Clérigos Regulares, vulgo Teatinos, el cual, junto con san Cayetano, se entregó a la reforma del clero y a la salvación de las almas, e instituyó un Monte de Piedad para ayudar a los pobres (1562).
9. En el monasterio de la Visitación, de Moulins, en Francia, muerte de santa Juana Francisca Frémiot de Chantal, cuya memoria se celebra el doce de agosto (1641).
10*. En Fermo, del Piceno, en Italia, beato Antonio Grassi, presbítero de la Congregación del Oratorio, varón humilde y pacífico, que con su ejemplo impulsó a los hermanos a observar la Regla (1671).
11. En el pueblo de Tjyen-Tiyou, en Corea, santos Pedro Cho Hwa-so, padre de familia, y cinco compañeros (Sus nombres son: san Pedro Yi Myong-so y Bartolomé Chong Mun-ho, padres
de familia; Pedro Son-ji, padre de familia y catequista; José Pedro Han Chae-kwon, que fue catequista; y Pedro Chong Won-ji, adolescente.), mártires, los cuales, tentados por las promesas y tormentos del mandarín para que dejaran la religión cristiana, resistieron hasta la decapitación (1866).

          Need to hire experienced blockchain developer based in Armenia - Upwork      Cache   Translate Page      
We are team of web developers looking for an experienced blockchain developer based in Armenia


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          Sasun [electronic resource] : the history of an 1890s Armenian revolt / Justin McCarthy, Ömer Turan, and Cemalettin Taşkiran.      Cache   Translate Page      
McCarthy, Justin, 1945-
          Ucom cuts prices for cloud services      Cache   Translate Page      
(Telecompaper) Armenian operator Ucom said it has reduced the rates of it cloud services for corporate customers. The rates of the uCloud Cloud Solutions service...
          Christian leaders urge Israel to repeal ‘Jewish nation-state’ law      Cache   Translate Page      

Senior Christian clerics in Jerusalem yesterday called for Israel to repeal its Jewish nation-state law, reported AFP. “We must draw the attention of the authorities to a simple fact”, bishops and archbishops of the Roman Catholic, Syrian Catholic, Armenian Catholic and Greek Melkite churches said in a joint statement. “Our faithful, the Christians, our fellow citizens,

The post Christian leaders urge Israel to repeal ‘Jewish nation-state’ law appeared first on Holy Land Christian Ecumenical Foundation.


          HERMOSA CASA EN EL SECTOR DE LA ARMENIA DE 195M2 DE CONSTRUCCION CASA...      Cache   Translate Page      
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HERMOSA CASA DE 195m2 de construcción que goza de:PLANTA BAJA.- sala, comedor, cocina, baño social, área de máquinas, bodega.PLANTA ALTA.- 1 dormitorio master con baño completo, 2 dormitorios simples que comparten un baño completo.PLANTA ALTA 1.-...
4 habitaciones 3 baños 175 m² 857 USD/m² terraza
Tue, 03 Jul 2018 09:42:47 -0400
          ARMENIA, casa en venta, 3 habitaciones, desde 142,35 m2      Cache   Translate Page      
139800
Casa en venta La Armenia.Código: M162Características del inmueble:3 habitaciones2.5 baños1 parqueaderoEstudioSala de estarPatio posterior 20,40m22 BalconesTerraza 20m2Área de maquinasBodega3 plantasPiso flotante área intimaPiso de porcelanato en...
3 habitaciones 2 baños
Tue, 06 Nov 2018 09:28:13 -0500
          EN VENTA CASA SECTOR ARMENIA      Cache   Translate Page      
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Hermosa Casa familia a la venta en LA ARMENIA - Los Valles, acabados de primera, espacios luminosos y elegantes terminaciones caracterizan el diseño de dicha propiedad Características: • Conjunto residencial con tan solo 7 exclusivas casas •...
3 habitaciones 2 baños 125 m² 1.008 USD/m² terraza
Tue, 06 Nov 2018 09:28:13 -0500
          Casa, Conocoto, La Armenia, por $ 136.000      Cache   Translate Page      
136000
Conjunto privado de casas de 2 y 3 plantas listo para la entrega, amplias areas verdes, con juegos infantiles, a pocos minutos de Centros Educativos y Centros comerciales, amplias vias de entrada con parqueaderos de visita alrededor de todo el...
3 habitaciones 3 baños 169 m² 804 USD/m² bodega terraza
Tue, 06 Nov 2018 09:17:50 -0500
          Casa, Conocoto, La Armenia, por $ 118.000      Cache   Translate Page      
118000
Conjunto privado de casas de 2 y 3 plantas listo para la entrega, amplias areas verdes, con juegos infantiles, a pocos minutos de Centros Educativos y Centros comerciales, amplias vias de entrada con parqueaderos de visita alrededor de todo el...
3 habitaciones 3 baños 125 m² 944 USD/m² bodega terraza
Tue, 06 Nov 2018 09:17:50 -0500
          Norbert Preining: TeX Live/Debian updates 20181106      Cache   Translate Page      

All around updates in the TeX Live on Debian world: Besides the usual shipment of macro and font packages, we have uploaded a new set of binaries checked out from current svn, as well as the latest and shiniest version of biber to complement the macro update of biblatex.

The version for the binary packages is 2018.20181104.49075 and is based on svn revision 49075. That means we get:

  • new dvisvgm version 2.6.1
  • several bugfixes in dvipdfmx
  • addition of dviout-util (previously only available on Windows): dvispc, chkdvifont
  • various security related bugfixes

In addition to that, in Debian we switched to the separately packaged version of teckit instead of using the one shipped in TeX Live.

The version of the macro/font packages is 2018.20181106-1 and contains the usual set of updated and new packages, see below for the complete list. One important – though not functional – update is the one of hyph-utf8, where the license of the UK English patterns has changed from a TeX like license statement (changes allowed with renaming clause) that generates again and again puzzlement in the Debian community (latest instance is bug 912557, which actually spread out into other packages). Thanks to the original authors and the team of hyph-utf8 these patterns are now finally under the MIT license.

Biber has been updated to 2.12-1 which is compatible with the version of biblatex in the current set of packages.

The packages are already included in the archive but might need a bit until arriving at your local mirror.

Please enjoy.

New packages

biblatex-bath, brandeis-problemset, changelog, cluttex, colorprofiles, ditaa, facture-belge-simple-sans-tva, grabbox, identkey, pgf-cmykshadings, pst-moire, srdp-mathematik, thesis-qom, zhlineskip,

Updated packages

acmart, aeb-minitoc, arabluatex, arara, asciilist, babel, babel-belarusian, baskervillef, biblatex, biblatex-bath, biblatex-chem, biblatex-ext, biblatex-nature, biblatex-opcit-booktitle, biblatex-phys, biblatex-science, bidi, brandeis-problemset, catechis, changes, chemfig, cm, cochineal, colorprofiles, currency, diffcoeff, docsurvey, ducksay, europecv, exsol, facture-belge-simple-sans-tva, fancyvrb, firamath, fontawesome5, fonts-tlwg, footnoterange, grayhints, gtrlib-largetrees, hyphen-afrikaans, hyphen-ancientgreek, hyphen-armenian, hyphen-basque, hyphen-belarusian, hyphen-bulgarian, hyphen-catalan, hyphen-chinese, hyphen-churchslavonic, hyphen-coptic, hyphen-croatian, hyphen-czech, hyphen-danish, hyphen-dutch, hyphen-english, hyphen-esperanto, hyphen-estonian, hyphen-ethiopic, hyphen-finnish, hyphen-french, hyphen-friulan, hyphen-galician, hyphen-georgian, hyphen-german, hyphen-greek, hyphen-hungarian, hyphen-icelandic, hyphen-indic, hyphen-indonesian, hyphen-interlingua, hyphen-irish, hyphen-italian, hyphen-kurmanji, hyphen-latin, hyphen-latvian, hyphen-lithuanian, hyphen-mongolian, hyphen-norwegian, hyphen-occitan, hyphen-piedmontese, hyphen-polish, hyphen-portuguese, hyphen-romanian, hyphen-romansh, hyphen-russian, hyphen-sanskrit, hyphen-serbian, hyphen-slovak, hyphen-slovenian, hyphen-spanish, hyphen-swedish, hyphen-thai, hyphen-turkish, hyphen-turkmen, hyphen-ukrainian, hyphen-uppersorbian, hyphen-welsh, hyph-utf8, keyvaltable, komacv-rg, l3build, l3experimental, l3kernel, l3packages, latex2e-help-texinfo, latex2e-help-texinfo-spanish, latexdiff, latexindent, latex-make, latexmk, listofitems, lualibs, luaotfload, luatexja, luaxml, lwarp, multilang, nicematrix, onedown, pdfcomment, pgf-cmykshadings, platex-tools, plautopatch, pst-marble, reledmac, rutitlepage, spectralsequences, svg, tex4ht, texcount, tikzmark, toptesi, typed-checklist, uantwerpendocs, univie-ling, witharrows, xits.


          Diseñador gráfico - Armenia, Quindío      Cache   Translate Page      
Adobe para diseño de imágenes y videos. Preferiblemente con manejo de cámara de fotografía y video. Funciones o actividades del contrato....
De Agencia Pública de Empleo - Wed, 24 Oct 2018 02:33:04 GMT - Ver todos: empleos en Armenia, Quindío
          ARMENIA, casa en venta, 3 habitaciones, desde 142,35 m2      Cache   Translate Page      
139800
Casa en venta La Armenia.Código: M162Características del inmueble:3 habitaciones2.5 baños1 parqueaderoEstudioSala de estarPatio posterior 20,40m22 BalconesTerraza 20m2Área de maquinasBodega3 plantasPiso flotante área intimaPiso de porcelanato en...
3 habitaciones 2 baños
Tue, 06 Nov 2018 15:28:13 +0100
          EN VENTA CASA SECTOR ARMENIA      Cache   Translate Page      
126000
Hermosa Casa familia a la venta en LA ARMENIA - Los Valles, acabados de primera, espacios luminosos y elegantes terminaciones caracterizan el diseño de dicha propiedad Características: • Conjunto residencial con tan solo 7 exclusivas casas •...
3 habitaciones 2 baños 125 m² 1.008 USD/m² terraza
Tue, 06 Nov 2018 15:28:13 +0100
          ARMENIA, Departamentos de 1, 2 y 3 habitaciones, desde 74m2      Cache   Translate Page      
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Departamentos en venta La Armenia.Código: M162Características del inmueble:1 habitación1.5 baños1 parqueaderoBalcónÁrea de maquinasBodegaPiso flotante área intimaPiso de porcelanato en área socialPiso de porcelanato en baños y cocinaMesón de...
1 habitación 1 baño 74 m² 1.170 USD/m²
Tue, 06 Nov 2018 15:28:13 +0100
          Armenia's population shrinking, but electoral lists getting bigger      Cache   Translate Page      
none
          Results of Istanbul Declaration: Armenia remains isolated from processes in region      Cache   Translate Page      
none
          Mammadyarov: Int'l community more often voices opinions on Armenia's development after settlement of Karabakh conflict (Interview)      Cache   Translate Page      
Mammadyarov: Int'l community more often voices opinions on Armenia's development after settlement of Karabakh conflict (Interview)...
          LOT Polish – $567: Los Angeles – Yerevan, Armenia. Roundtrip, including all Taxes      Cache   Translate Page      
A good sale to Yerevan. Sample Travel Date: May 6th – 14th, 2019 This is just ONE SAMPLE travel date, for more availability, please follow the “Fare Availability” and “How to Search for Availability” instructions below Fare Availability: Valid for travel from late January 2019 – early May 2019 or September 2019 for Sunday through […]

[[ This is a content summary only. Visit my website for full links, other content, and more! ]]

          Vigilante - Servagro - Armenia, Quindío      Cache   Translate Page      
ARMENIA, Colombia Prevenir y reducir los riesgos en cuanto a seguridad que puedan presentarse en las instalaciones donde estén prestando el servicio...
De Servagro - Tue, 09 Oct 2018 06:33:59 GMT - Ver todos: empleos en Armenia, Quindío
          World - Armenia's Democratic Dreams      Cache   Translate Page      
The country's Velvet Revolution took its cues from democratic movements in Latin America rather than from other revolutions in the post-Soviet world. Here's why that's a good...
          Armenia’s Democratic Dreams      Cache   Translate Page      
The country’s Velvet Revolution took its cues from democratic movements in Latin America rather than from other revolutions in the post-Soviet world. Here’s why that’s a good thing.
          Vigilante - Servagro - Armenia, Quindío      Cache   Translate Page      
ARMENIA, Colombia Prevenir y reducir los riesgos en cuanto a seguridad que puedan presentarse en las instalaciones donde estén prestando el servicio...
De Servagro - Tue, 09 Oct 2018 06:33:59 GMT - Ver todos: empleos en Armenia, Quindío
          Hamshen at the Crossroads of the Past and the Present, Nov 30      Cache   Translate Page      
The U.C. Berkeley Armenian Studies Program
The Hamazkayin Nigol Aghpalian Chapter
The ARF Krisdapor Gomideh

Invite you to a lecture and video presentation

Speaker
Dr. Lusineh Sahakian
Associate Professor, Department of Turkish Studies (Yerevan State University)

Title of the talk and of the documentary

Hamshen at the Crossroads of the Past and the Present

Location and Time: Saroyan Hall, Khachaturian Community Center, San Francisco
Friday, November 30, 2018, at 7:30 P.M

Lecture and Documentary Screening Open to the Public.
          Upcoming Go Events: Boulder, Evanston, New York, and more      Cache   Translate Page      
November 10: Boulder, CO Colorado Fall Go Tournament Eric Wainwright ewainwright76@gmail.com 303-506-8846 November 10: Evanston, IL East Meets West Tournament Mark Rubenstein mark@evanstongoclub.org 847-869-6020 November 10: New York City, NY Gotham Go Tournament Peter Armenia gothamgogroup@gmail.com 929-282-1621 November 11: Tacoma,
          HERMOSA CASA EN EL SECTOR DE LA ARMENIA DE 195M2 DE CONSTRUCCION CASA...      Cache   Translate Page      
150000 rss_price_reduced 170000
HERMOSA CASA DE 195m2 de construcción que goza de:PLANTA BAJA.- sala, comedor, cocina, baño social, área de máquinas, bodega.PLANTA ALTA.- 1 dormitorio master con baño completo, 2 dormitorios simples que comparten un baño completo.PLANTA ALTA 1.-...
4 habitaciones 3 baños 175 m² 857 USD/m² terraza
Tue, 03 Jul 2018 09:42:47 -0400
          HERMOSA CASA EN EL SECTOR DE LA ARMENIA DE 195M2 DE CONSTRUCCION CASA...      Cache   Translate Page      
150000 rss_price_reduced 170000
HERMOSA CASA DE 195m2 de construcción que goza de:PLANTA BAJA.- sala, comedor, cocina, baño social, área de máquinas, bodega.PLANTA ALTA.- 1 dormitorio master con baño completo, 2 dormitorios simples que comparten un baño completo.PLANTA ALTA 1.-...
4 habitaciones 3 baños 175 m² 857 USD/m² terraza
Tue, 03 Jul 2018 15:42:47 +0200
          ARMENIA, casa en venta, 3 habitaciones, desde 142,35 m2      Cache   Translate Page      
139800
Casa en venta La Armenia.Código: M162Características del inmueble:3 habitaciones2.5 baños1 parqueaderoEstudioSala de estarPatio posterior 20,40m22 BalconesTerraza 20m2Área de maquinasBodega3 plantasPiso flotante área intimaPiso de porcelanato en...
3 habitaciones 2 baños
Tue, 06 Nov 2018 15:28:13 +0100
          EN VENTA CASA SECTOR ARMENIA      Cache   Translate Page      
126000
Hermosa Casa familia a la venta en LA ARMENIA - Los Valles, acabados de primera, espacios luminosos y elegantes terminaciones caracterizan el diseño de dicha propiedad Características: • Conjunto residencial con tan solo 7 exclusivas casas •...
3 habitaciones 2 baños 125 m² 1.008 USD/m² terraza
Tue, 06 Nov 2018 15:28:13 +0100
          Casa, Conocoto, La Armenia, por $ 136.000      Cache   Translate Page      
136000
Conjunto privado de casas de 2 y 3 plantas listo para la entrega, amplias areas verdes, con juegos infantiles, a pocos minutos de Centros Educativos y Centros comerciales, amplias vias de entrada con parqueaderos de visita alrededor de todo el...
3 habitaciones 3 baños 169 m² 804 USD/m² bodega terraza
Tue, 06 Nov 2018 15:17:50 +0100
          Casa, Conocoto, La Armenia, por $ 118.000      Cache   Translate Page      
118000
Conjunto privado de casas de 2 y 3 plantas listo para la entrega, amplias areas verdes, con juegos infantiles, a pocos minutos de Centros Educativos y Centros comerciales, amplias vias de entrada con parqueaderos de visita alrededor de todo el...
3 habitaciones 3 baños 125 m² 944 USD/m² bodega terraza
Tue, 06 Nov 2018 15:17:50 +0100
          Comentario en Me he enamorado de estos jabones… por Football Solutions European Qualifiers - Armenia - Gegham Harutyunyan - Statistics      Cache   Translate Page      
When he is not leading the Hammers charge up the table, Bilic writes and performes lyrics for Rawbau, a prog-metal project based in his hometown of Split. Slaven Bilic mixes football with music as Russell Brand and Noel Gallagher rock and roll on down to watch West Ham clash
          Rudy Giuliani's Divorce Proceedings Are Going Swimmingly      Cache   Translate Page      
Rudy Giuliani's Divorce Proceedings Are Going Swimmingly Ever since Rudy Giuliani discovered he was getting divorced from third wife Judith Nathan (would it shock you to learn he was allegedly having an affair again?), he's been living it up as America's Most Divorced Man, filling his days with mysterious trips to Eastern Europe and screaming into any camera in front of him that Donald Trump Is A Great Man. But this week, he was in court dealing with those pesky divorce filings, with the millionaire claiming financial troubles which Nathan's attorney attributed to "sudden income deficit syndrome." People, is this any way to treat the former Mayor Of 9/11 Town?! [ more › ]
          CRQ solicita aclaraciones al Tribunal Administrativo del Quindío sobre medida cautelar al Plan de Manejo y Saneamiento de Vertimientos de Armenia      Cache   Translate Page      

La Corporación Autónoma Regional del Quindío solicitó aclaración al Tribunal Administrativo del Quindío sobre la medida cautelar del Psmv de Armenia, el pasado 13 de octubre del presente año, donde refiere que no se pueden aumentar puntos de vertimientos de Armenia por parte de la EPA. La solicitud de aclaración es con el fin de […]

The post CRQ solicita aclaraciones al Tribunal Administrativo del Quindío sobre medida cautelar al Plan de Manejo y Saneamiento de Vertimientos de Armenia appeared first on Quindío Noticias.


          Impugnan decisión del Consejo de Estado sobre embargo de las cuentas del departamento      Cache   Translate Page      

El gobierno departamental del Quindío impugnó la decisión del Consejo de Estado de declarar improcedente la acción de tutela interpuesta por la administración seccional que había pedido la suspensión del embargo de las cuentas del departamento. Las cuentas habían sido embargadas por petición de una oficina de abogados de Armenia, reclamando el pago de primas […]

The post Impugnan decisión del Consejo de Estado sobre embargo de las cuentas del departamento appeared first on Quindío Noticias.


          Filmvoorstelling Jan Driessen in de Mallemolen over Georgië      Cache   Translate Page      
Zondag 18 november draait Jan Driessen weer een film ion de Mallemolen in Groesbeek. Deze keer neemt Jan Driessen u mee naar Georgië en Armenië, beide landen liggen in de Kaukasus. We starten in Jerevan de hoofdstad van Armenië, daar is een cascade met 550 treden. Van hieruit zie je de berg Ararat waarop de […]
          Recommended | Houshamadyan      Cache   Translate Page      
Mavi Boncuk |

Why Houshamadyan?

In the first place historical difficulties led us to think that we should create a website of such wide content and size. Thus researchers in Ottoman studies very often find serious difficulties in source utilisation. The real reason, first and foremost, is the multi-ethnic nature of the Ottoman Empire, where the constituent groups used more than one language: Ottoman-Turkish (Osmanlıca), Arabic, Armenian, Greek, Bulgarian, Ladino and so on. This means, of course, that the materials comprising Ottoman history are also multi-lingual and their study demands multi-disciplinary work. When, during research carried out on various themes, this or that people’s language and therefore potentially rich sources are ignored, then it is obvious that the given study will be somewhat lacking and unable to fulfil the scientific demands made of it. 

In this sense Armenian sources have, for a long time, been the missing link in Ottoman studies. There exist many books and articles of a scientific nature that occasionally relate directly to the Ottoman Armenians, but they are mostly based on materials written in Ottoman-Turkish. These kinds of works are found so frequently that, over time, it has become usual or even ‘acceptable’ to ignore Armenian sources in Ottoman studies. The result is that in scientific works the Armenian is seen only through information and qualifications extracted from Ottoman state archives - something that is lacking and unacceptable.

Indeed, the Armenian element’s view concerning its own questions is missing, as is that of its daily life. Thus, concerning these subjects, the materials written in the Armenian language are varied and very rich. They lead us into a new Ottoman world, where even traces of its many faces are impossible to find in non-Armenian sources. They describe pictures of provincial life that are often completely new in Ottoman studies. Thus it is our aim to give a new value to Armenian-language materials concerning Ottoman Armenians and to make them available to the public that does not speak Armenian. We consider all this to be a natural necessity for Ottoman studies. So we want to present the life of Ottoman Armenians, based on Armenian-language sources, through the medium of the Houshamadyan website. We are convinced that our initiative will assist the general efforts aiming to study Ottoman history in a multi-disciplinary way.

We have already had the opportunity to stress the richness of Ottoman Armenian written sources. This, however, doesn’t mean that there are many-volume serious studies in existence of these themes, written by researchers who have mastered the Armenian language. In reality, there is a general tendency in Armenian historiography to be selective in the approach to the study of Ottoman Armenian history. This we think is caused by the influence of the Armenian genocide, and the Armenian element has made a special effort in the period subsequent to it to make the division between the one-time Ottoman-Armenian and Ottoman-Turkish environment sacred. Ottoman Armenian historiography has not been exempt from this either, and has been ascribed to the influence of new facts upon it and whose axis from then on was the catastrophe. We think that this influence persists until the present day. Indeed, in the historiography concerning the Ottoman Armenians, subjects connected with the genocide are preponderant presences. Every time an attempt is made to move away from this and study the pre-catastrophe Ottoman Armenian era, there is still a general tendency to choose disaster dates, for example the 1895-96 massacres of Armenians or the 1909 Adana massacres. There is also a diametrically opposed tendency which is bounded by Ottoman Armenian heroic events, the Armenian rebellions against the Ottoman government, revaluing them and making them subjects for studies.

In any case, what is missing is Ottoman Armenian social life, local microhistories, the daily round and the socio-economic environment that are immediately connected with the general Ottoman social context and, we think, in the end are important keys to the understanding of all the other events. In other words there hasn’t been a special effort in the Armenian studies field – exceptions are without doubt to be respected – utilising existing rich sources, to reconstruct the memory of Ottoman Armenian life. It is clear the result is that Armenian and Ottoman studies, instead of becoming academic disciplines that mutually complement and enrich each other, they have, for a long time, become areas of specialisation, each ignoring the other.

In this sense Houshamadyan is also aiming to be the means by which their Ottoman memory may be returned to the Armenians. Indeed, the catastrophe, re-written historiography and re-constructed memory have been the reasons why, for a long time, the memory link between the ordinary, everyday Armenian and his Ottoman ancestors’ world has been severed. Rebuilding that world, the Armenian-inhabited village, town or city with its own customs, daily life and history: such a task, we think, could give the Armenian of today a rich legacy which is undoubtedly his.

There exists, within this general picture, a special genre of Armenian publications that is characterised by its individuality and is immediately linked to the general subject of our website. These are memorial books, which are also known under the name of compatriotic union publications. ‘Houshamadyan’ is a complex word, made up of ‘housh’ (memory) and ‘madyan’ (book) – which can mean either ‘register’ or ‘parchment manuscript’ – putting the words together. We think that the use of the word ‘madyan’ here has a special importance. Thus in normal circumstances it would have been better to use the word ‘kirk’ (book), thus making the usual word ‘houshakirk’. But in the post-catastrophe era authors have considered it generally more suitable to title their books ‘houshamadyan’ which was less well known and possibly even created in those times. We suppose that the word ‘madyan’ in this instance contains meanings of distant or completely lost times. These books then are post-catastrophe productions. The overwhelming majority of their authors, born in the Ottoman Empire, become part of the elements of the Armenian diaspora, and realise only too well that for them it is impossible to return to their native homeland. In other words the authors’ loss of their ancestral houses, villages, towns or cities is, for them, permanent. Therefore these authors attempt to restore their own native land’s ‘Armenian’ past. The book therefore becomes a means to reconstruct a past, a completely lost time. It would appear that these same authors are convinced that they are the final survivors of the Armenian-Ottoman era, and are therefore sure that the generations following them will be incapable of reconstructing this past in all its authenticity. So a need is felt for this legacy of the past, to immortalise this village, town or city of another time with prose and witness accounts. This is why in the titles or prefaces of these books we also find, alongside ‘Houshamadyan’, the words ‘Houshagotogh’ (memorial monument) or ‘Houshartsan’ (monument). These metaphors express a great deal. So the publication of a book becomes a monument placing ceremony, in this case to the memory of a dead town or time gone by. But this monument-book has to keep the life of times past or the memory of a lost town with its history, customs, architecture, heroes, glory, cuisine, songs, dialect and so on, forever. There are, today, several hundred books of this genre.

Memorial books are, in this sense, original basic sources to be used in the solution to the question of rebuilding the memory of the life lived by Ottoman Armenians is concerned. When we examine the general construction of these books and titles of the various chapters, it often becomes noticeable that they are, in their turn, influenced by the Armenian nationalist concepts of the immediate post-catastrophe period. Similarly, it is notable that these authors have the wish to idealise their lost town or village, describing them as earthly paradises – unique and unequalled. In other places the loss of a past life or a whole authentic world is driven by the authors using a mournful and tearful style of prose, which makes reading them excessively difficult. There are many such deficiencies in Armenian memorial books. Despite this, they remain the best examples of the microhistory of a town or village in the general Ottoman environment.

Alongside literature of this genre, Armenian newspapers and periodicals especially of the 19th century exist, published in Istanbul, Tbilisi, Venice, Vienna and other cities, that often give much space to the themes that will be dealt with in our website. There are also Armenian monographs, published in the 19th and early 20th centuries, as well as travelogues and memoirs that are directly linked to our subjects.

It is not by accident that our Association and this website are called by the name Houshamadyan. In reality the work of our Association is to attempt to do the same thing, in other words the reconstruction of a rich but ignored and forgotten legacy.

In the case of our website, we will centre on the Ottoman era past of these once Armenian-populated villages, towns and cities from the beginning to 1915. In other words the study of the genocide, although an indissoluble part of the history of the Ottoman Armenians, will not be a direct part of the themes encompassed by the website. Indeed, the massacres and deportations carried out against the Ottoman Armenians in the First World War represent a large subject and there are scientific publications already in existence. We therefore find it best to concentrate all our attention on the pre-catastrophe era. Later, when our resources allow, we plan to add a new theme to the pages of our website, which will be the descriptive witness statements about their home villages, towns or cities by survivors of the genocide.

On the other hand, the 19th and the start of the 20th centuries, for two special reasons, will be the main period of Houshamadyan’s research. In the first place, the Armenian press, books and journals exist that, as we’ve seen, reflect the themes we shall be studying. Secondly, the memorial books that appeared in the immediate post-catastrophe period are the authors’ personal testimonies about their homelands. It is natural therefore that the period from the 19th to the early years of the 20th century represent the majority of the subjects in these books.

           Profile | Annie T. Allen 1868-1922      Cache   Translate Page      
The Turkish Nationalist Parliament building in Angora (now Ankara), c. 1922. Annie Allen met with Mustafa Kemal in Angora. [*] See: Florence Billings[**] Papers by Billings, Florence 1879-1959 | Sophia Smith Collection | Smith College | Northampton, MA



[*] Based on an unpublished report by Lt. Robert Steed Dunn submitted to Bristol following one of his numerous travels, a six-week 1,300 kilometer journey throughout Nationalist Turkish territory, which included a two week visit to Ankara between June 24th and July 9th, in 1921. During his stay in Ankara, Dunn was accompanied by an American missionary, Miss. Annie T. Allen, who, in addition to her official position as Near East Relief Representative to the Ankara Government, incidentally served as one of Dunn’s chief agents in Anatolia.

[**]  The Florence Billings Papers include correspondence, journal entries, reports for Near East Relief, travel notes, typescripts of articles and her thesis, clippings, photographs, and memorabilia. There is a small amount on her relief work in World War I France and her travels in Europe, but the collection focus is on the work of Florence Billings and her colleague Annie T. Allen with the Near East Relief in Turkey and Greece from 1920-22 and Billings' subsequent travels in, and writings about, the Middle East. Correspondents include Turkish feminist Halidé Edib, and the American High Commissioner in Constantinople, Mark Bristol. A larger number of photographs include portraits and group shots of Turkish leaders and officials such as Mustafa Kemal, Halidé Edib, Refet Pasha, Prime Minister Fethy Bey; many ordinary people; and scenes of the Turkish country side.

Biographical Note
Florence Frances Billings was born in Hatfield, Massachusetts on June 14, 1879, daughter of Frederick Dickinson and Frances Amelia (Hunt) Billings. She had three sisters: Charlotte, Emily, and Anna Hunt Billings (Smith Class of 1891). Her grandfather, Charles Morris Billings of Hatfield, was an abolitionist and member of the Underground Railroad and her grandmother, Charlotte White Billings, was a cousin of Sophia Smith (founder of Smith College). In 1893 her family moved to Redlands, California where she resided on and off for the next sixty years although she spent many of those years living in Europe and in the Middle East. Billings graduated from Redlands High School in 1899 and from Stanford University in 1903 with a B.A. in Latin. She taught school for several years during which time she traveled to Europe, including Russia in 1912. She went to Germany and taught English in a private school for a period. She was on vacation in Brittany when World War I broke out and she immediately volunteered with the American Ambulance Hospital in Paris. When the U.S. entered the war in 1917, she returned home briefly and signed up with the American Red Cross, then went back to France as a canteen and relief worker. Working just behind the front lines in Chalons-sur-Marne earned her the Croix de Guerre.

After the war, Billings went home for a short time before returning to Paris where she lived at the American Women's Club and continued relief work until November 1919, when she took a position at the American School for Girls in Brousa, Turkey. After six months she volunteered for service in Brousa, Turkey with the Near East Relief (NER), an organization created in 1915 by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. They created NER in response to the growing desperation of hundreds of thousands of Armenian refugees in Turkey and the surrounding area resulting from massive deportations and massacres by the Turkish government in 1915 and 1916. 
In Brousa, Billings worked under Annie Allen, the NER representative in Brousa. Annie T. Allen, the daughter of pioneer missionary in the Middle East, the Reverand O.P. Allen, was born in Harpoot, Turkey, on December 21, 1868. She graduated from Mount Holyoke College in 1890 and began her missionary work in Brousa for the Woman's Board of Missions in 1903. Allen was to become Florence Billings' close friend and colleague.

Billings and Allen were in Brousa when the Greek army took that city in July 1920. In 1921 they traveled into the interior of Turkey to Konea, where foreigners were seldom allowed, to relieve workers at a large center for Armenian refugees and orphans run by the NER. While they were in Konia, revolution broke out between the Turks and Nationalists and the women took refuge in the orphanage. Later they toured villages destroyed by the retreating Greeks and reported on conditions. In February 1922 Annie Allen died of typhoid, which she had contracted during their travels. Billings, now stationed at the American Hospital in Ankara, became the NER representative in charge. For a time she was the only foreign woman living in the city. In 1922 and 1923 Billings was sent to Greece to visit the Turkish prisoners interned there and to report on their conditions to the NER Commission. Billings was in Turkey during major social and political upheaval under the Nationalist leader Mustapha Kemal who Billings knew personally and with whom she had some influence. She also corresponded with expatriate Turk nationalist and feminist Halidé Edib Adivar, who ran an orphanage for 800 Armenian refugee children in Antoura. Billings was said to have been "instrumental in gathering together hundreds of Armenian and other war orphans and arranging for their transportation to Smyrna and other places of asylum." [see obituary, Redlands Daily Facts, Sept 10, 1959]

Billings left the NER in 1923 but returned to the area several times. She and her sisters traveled around the world in 1923, and between 1924 and 1928 she resided in Hatfield, Massachusetts, and sometimes in Europe. She continued to travel throughout the Middle East visiting old friends and meeting several important government leaders, including Prime Minister Reza Khan Pahlavi, the soon-to-be Shah of Iran. In 1927 she received her M.A. from Columbia University, completing her Masters thesis entitled "Causes of the Outbreak in Cilicia, Asia Minor, April 1909." In the early 1930s Billings had settled permanently in Redlands, California near her sisters, and became active in local affairs, the American Association of University Women, and the Contemporary Club. Florence Billings died on September 9, 1959.

Personnel card for Annie T. Allen, an employee of the American Board
Amerikan Bord Heyeti (American Board), Istanbul



Mavi Boncuk |
Allen, Annie T. (b. Hatput Dec. 21, 1868-d. Sivas Feb 2, 1922) , Near East Relief worker renowned for her linguistic and diplomatic skills in Ottoman territory.
Missions
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions

Harpout, Van, Brousa(Bursa), Sivas





Annie T. Allen kept a diary of her trip into the Turkish interior in September 1920. Her observations were published in the April 9, 1921 issue of Near East Relief. When Miss Caris E. Mills, the editor of the Near East Relief, heard that veteran relief worker Annie Allen was planning a trip to the Turkish interior, she asked Allen to keep a diary for the newsletter. The following diary entries were published in the April 9, 1921 issue of Near East Relief. Allen’s observations are astute and sometimes even funny. Considering Annie Allen’s important status as an unofficial diplomat, her writing style is surprisingly humble. Allen’s voice brings a wonderful human quality to Near East Relief’s work. 
S.S. PHRYGIA, SEPTEMBER 6, 1920.

Do you remember, as I was rushing down the stairs, you stopped me and said “Do keep a diary so that I may have it for my paper when you return.” I did intend to keep one, but I did not promise to give it to you.

My chief reason for not giving it up is that I fear criticism. Once a friend of mine and I took a trip to certain mountain villages. To us, the trip was very interesting and my friend wrote out his diary and then published it. Some one on reading it said “What do we care whether Mr. ___ rode a white horse or a black one or whether he ate his lunch on such a day under a certain tree by a certain stream?”

Now I am, as you know, very sensitive to criticism, and I should feel badly if some one, after reading my diary of this trip should say, “What do we care if Miss A. was invited to dinner with ___ or that she was allowed to go on the special deputy train!”

Whether published or not, for my own pleasure and yours, I believe, here goes the diary: We left Constantinople quay today, Monday, September 5th, at 4:30 p.m. We stopped out in the harbor for the control boat, and soon some of the black guards with an officer came on board. One was stationed, with set bayonet, behind the chairs in which Billy and I were sitting (Billy being my friend, Miss Billings, a new recruit for the N.E.R.).

Not understanding the command given by the officer in French, I wondered whether he considered us suspicious characters but fortunately Billy, who knows French, relieved my fears by saying he was there to guard the stairway to the bridge.

After he had stood there motionless for several hours, I proposed to Billy that we make a dash for the stairway so that we might give the poor fellow a chance for some excitement. She answered by saying that I was a most law breaking individual — so I settled down for the rest of the evening, disproving the charge. 

September 7th, 1920. Here we are in Zoungouldak [now Zonguldak] coaling. The first words I heard on waking this morning were “Mehmet chaoush, bouraya gel” (Come here Corporal Mehmet). The old familiar sounds revived my spirits. I was once more in Asia Minor atmosphere which I vastly prefer to Constantinople.

I could go more into detail and tell you what we eat and what we do, that just now my companions are playing cards, smoking, and eating candy, but memory of [Mr. ____’s] “white horse” holds me back.

September 11th, 1920. We have reached the first interior stopping place. We had a delightful, though short visit, with the Samsoun Unit of the Near East Relief, arriving there on Thursday and leaving on Friday the next day at 11 o’clock, being assured that we would reach Marsovan [now Merzifon] that same day.

Our baggage truck caused us much delay and we finally left it behind to follow slowly. on the truck was our only American man and traveling with us in the auto was his wife.

Soon it became dark and we were obliged to crawl along slowly through the night as we had no lights. Tahsin, our little Turkish chauffeur, kept up our spirits by relating to us thrilling tales of brigands, and automobiles which had crashed over the sides of banks in Anatolia.

At last, in the distance we saw the shimmering lights of a village, and we four women decided we would go no further! As we were consulting just what to do, we heard the rumble of the truck, and joy, our American man was reunited with his wife. Let me give you some advice.

Never consent to a plan which separates married couples. The nervous chills I had along the way after we separated, thinking that the husband might get stuck on the mountain top or that the wife might be carried off by brigands!

We found a Han (Turkish hotel) and put up for the night. Some yougourt, bread, a cup of tea, and for some of us a good night’s rest, braced us up, and we started merrily out at six this morning.

 SEPTEMBER 11TH, 1920

Do you believe in the evil eye? Well I do today. Certainly some one has cast an evil eye on our auto and we have no blue bead on it. Going up a steep incline in the narrowest part of the road, the car suddenly stopped and I was told we had a broken differentiator.

The truck was ahead of us, going very slowly, so Tahsin [the driver] rushed after it and succeeded in stopping it. We decided to transfer all our light luggage to the truck and then climb on ourselves. During the process of transfer we saw two caravans approaching from either direction.

One was made up of wagons and the other buffalo carts. After many shouts and maneuvers, they passed our two automobiles and the coast was clear. While waiting by the roadside, I fell into conversation with two Turkish women who were with the buffalo train. The older woman said to me, “look at my grey hairs and see how I am toiling along barefooted in this dust and you are sitting there like a lady, clothed from head to foot — even your hands are covered.”

I told her we too were having our troubles of another kind and that we were taking this rather difficult journey to carry relief to orphans and refugees. Whereupon she said, “I have two orphans for whom I must care.” [Fatherless children were often called orphans].

I was sorry I did not have a little money handy to give the poor soul. These poor Turkish peasant women, because their husbands are soldiers, must toil thus, walking sometimes five and six days to the coast so as to feed and clothe their children while the husband is away.

Is it possible that some say we should not help these people? That is not the Christ spirit. 

SEPTEMBER 25TH, 1920

My diary has gone untouched for many days. The story for each day is about the same — dust, auto breakdowns, Turkish Hans, with a few Near East Relief stations which were like oases in the desert.

At these stations we were warmly welcomed and royally treated, our only regret being that our need for hurried transit gave us but little time to see the good work which was being don in all these places.

We had no exciting adventures along the road. The nearest we came to real excitement was going through a pass where a day or two before several hundred brigands had made a raid on a village Han and had also attacked many wagons. Six or seven of the villagers were said to have been killed. The Han, which we found empty, and the many vultures feeding on the prey in a field beyond, testified at least that the statements of the villagers were not far from the truth.

After we had travelled through the most dangerous part of the pass, our auto broke down. We sat down by the roadside while it was being repaired. Soon some villagers came along and I asked how the road was. One looked at me for a minute and then said, “What are you?” When I told him we were Americans, he said “The road is safe for you. We would pluck out our eyes for you.”

We two American ladies traveled from Marsovan to Cesarea with no companions save our two Turkish chauffeurs, a trip of five days. We had no fear and we were pleased to have proved that American ladies could travel alone unharmed through the interior of Turkey.

We reached here, Konia[1], at midnight, and found Miss Cushman[2]  and Miss Gaylord waiting up for us, and glad they were for word from the outside world. Miss Cushman is soon to leave us for her much needed rest while I remain here until Dr. Dodd comes to take charge of the work here in Konia.

This concludes Annie T. Allen’s diary as published in the Near East Relief newsletter.

SOURCE

[1]MISS ANNIE ALLEN’S TRIP ACROSS' THE SALT DESERT TO KONIA 
(Extract from letter of Miss Annie Allen, November 14th, 1921, to Miss Caris E. Mills) 

"I have just returned from a trip to Konia. I left for Konia on October 27th by automobile. Our first night we spent in Kerchehir which is half way on the trip to Cesarea. We went considerably out of our way because we were told the short cut was bad road. Our second drive was through the Sait Desert. At noon 1 ate my lunch by the side of the Salt Lake. As we approached the -lake, 1 saw what looked like huge tents but on arrival at the salt station, which is under government control, I found the supposed tents were four great mounds of salt containing in each mound from two. to four million kilos of salt. , "The most interesting part was driving through the lake. It took us about fifteen minutes to cross. One had the sensation of going through snow or ice flooded with water, and therefore you felt as if the auto ought to skid. All that day the road was across the desert, and as there were many paths one could not but wonder whether in the end we would arrive at our destination. One time we were spinning merrily along and I was thinking what good luck I was having when suddenly we were jounced frightfully, and then came to a sudden stop while in the distance we saw our left front wheel ‘joy riding' across the'plain. On examination the chauffeur declared the matter hopeless but by much tinkering we were on our way in another hour. Don't ask me what was the matter for auto parts are unknown to me when it comes to details. I assure you, however, to be stuck in a salt desert where there is almost no travel is no joke. "Shall 1 tell you how we finally did arrive in Konia? One of the guards in a Salt station happened along on horse- back and he got us some native horse shoes and five of these shoes brought us within five minutes of the Near East Relief Konia Hospital when again we broke down — but we were there and it mattered not. "I remained in Konia four days. While there the rains began' so that a return through the desert was impossible with auto. Miss Gaylord has stayed at the orphanage post in Konia for as long, needed a vacation. As my auto was to eventually go to Cesarea, we packed her off the day after my arrival and 1 hope she is having a good vacation there. She deserves it. 

Konia Hospital Doing- a Fine Piece of Work 

"Dr Dodd's time is fully occupied with the medical work, and the Near East Relief hospital at Konia is doing a splendid piece of work. . "On my return I took an araba (carriage), springless, but not bad until we struck the bad road and then 1 was glad of the cushions which 1 brought with me. I passed through - Kurdish villages and the people were very hospitable. There are no inns. I slept out in my wagon but in the evening would have my meal with the. house owner and then chat with the women'. In one house there had just been a wedding, and the bride was most gorgeously dressed in silk. "One night after I had put out my candle, 1 felt some one pushing around my wagon. After a short time, 1 peeked through a crack and saw a huge creature. Soon he poked his nose in and on the other side I saw some thick lips tear- ing down the curtain it was a camel. Two camels had strayed to my wagon and were apparently determined to find out what was shut up inside of it. A slap on the nose of one and banging on .the side of the araba finally made them settle down to chewing their cud. "The mud was something terrible. One of the horses would refuse'to budge when the mud stuck to tme wheel so 1 hired a man in the worst place to walk along and give him a pull when necessary.”

[2]  MISS E. D. CUSHMAN, DIRECTOR OF THE TRACHOMA ORPHANAGE OF THE NEAR EAST RELIEF. On Wednesday noon, December 7th, 1921 Miss E. D. Chushman, Director of the Trachoma Orphanage of the Near East Relief, was decorated with the Legion of Honor by General Pelle, French High Commissioner, Constantinople. 

Attending the ceremony were the United States High Commissioner, Admiral Mark L. Bristol and Airs. Bristol, at- tended by Lieutenant Commander A. S. Merrill and Lieute- nant Commander H. V. Bryan. Dr. W. W. Peet, Miss Caroline Aiders, Miss Marie Cyr, Miss Mary Louise Morton, and Miss Caris E. Mills represented the Near East Relief and the American Mission Board. General and Madame Pelle were assisted by Monsieur de la Forcade,,lst Secretary of the French embassy, Commandante de Coursen, Military Attache, Commandante Bouquet, Naval Attache, and Lieutenant Curet ins Aide. Miss Cushman came to Turkey in 1899 and was first sta- tioned at Cesarea. Later she was assigned to Konia in connection with the medical work of the American Hospital. Only one who has been in the interior of Turkey can realize what the American medical work means to the country people. Miss Cushman loved the work and loved the people, and when the war broke out she remained througlyt all to help.For three years, 

Miss Cushman was the representative at Konia of the three Legations in Constantinople, representing the interests of the allied nations in the war. Konia and the surrounding country was the centre of a "boiling pot” as Miss Cushman describes it, and hundreds of French and British prisoners were camped in Konia and the surrounding provinces - not to mention thousands of refugees. Miss Cushman became active among the allied prisoners, and through her influence with the Turkish authorities, who trust- ed her straightforward and honest methods of procedure, was able to do much to alleviate the sufferings of these men. It was through her efforts that the disbursement of one million dollars and quantities of additional stores were distributed through the areas for the relief of the prisoners of war. During this long and trying period in Konia, Miss Cushman received no letters from home. Many times she felt as if she were not equal to the huge amount of work and res- ponsibility placed in her charge and she once wrote to Count Vanderdoes de Villebois, at that time Minister of the Dutch Netherlands in Contantinople, asking that some one be sent to take her place. the teachers how well the children looked and how much they had grown. “In all the children 1 saw advancement in every way, and it was a pleasure to tell our workers there. They have worked hard, and Miss Gaylord is to be congratulated. Mrs. Dodd is mother to all and the calls upon her are frequent. Ivonia Hospital Doing- a Fine Piece of Work "Dr Dodd's time is fully occupied with the medical work, and the Near East Relief hospital at Konia is doing a splendid piece of work. . "On my return I took an araba (carriage), springless, but not bad until we struck the bad road and then 1 was glad of the cushions which 1 brought with me. I passed through - Khurdish villages and the people were very hospitable. There are no inns. I slept out in my wagon but in the evening would have my meal with the. house owner and then chat with the women'. In one house there had just been a wedding, and the bride was most gorgeously dressed in silk. "One night after I had put out my candle, 1 felt some one pushing around my wagon. After a short time, 1 peeked through a crack and saw a huge creature. Soon he poked his nose in and on the other side I saw some thick lips tear- ing down the curtain it was a camel. Two camels had strayed to my wagon and were apparently determined to find out what was shut up inside of it. A slap on the nose of one and banging on .the side of the araba finally made them settle down to chewing their cud. "The mud was something terrible. One of the horses would refuse'to budge when the mud stuck to tne wheel so 1 hired a man in the worst place to walk along and give him a pull when necessary.”

Vol. III. No. 49 Edited by the Near East Relief for Private Circulation Rue Mengene Meidan, Old Riza Pasha School, Stamboul, Constantinople. December 10, 1921 | Printed by H. MATTEOSIAN Bible House, Constantinople 


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