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          Distrust in Science and Expertise Can Be Deadly — Here's How We Can Overcome It       Cache   Translate Page      
Over time, groups of experts become embedded within our societies. They become our trusted institutions.

Hurricanes, tornadoes and wildfires have tested our resolve as individuals, communities and societies. Along with social crises such as political- and war-induced migration, these events provide stark illustrations of our ability to adapt, help and trust one another through informal social networks and formal social institutions.

Trust in our institutions is declining. While some of this distrust might result from direct experience of failing or faltering social systems, cynics and pundits can promote mistrust for financial and social capital through votes and public opinion.

Trust is often woven into our society like an invisible thread, stitching together disparate individuals and distant communities. Effective societies are grounded in a reliance and dependency on others to provide everything from mobile networks, water and sewer services, electricity, education and justice.

In order to mend it where it is broken and reinforce it where it is fraying, we must examine our social tapestry and ask how we can promote trust.

Trustingneighbours, leaders institutions

Trust isn’t an all-or-nothing phenomenon. It can develop between peers and leaders as well as towards institutions and their symbols.

We share a common fate with our peers. Their actions matter to us. When we can, we monitor and regulate their behaviour through direct observation and action. When we can’t, we rely on gossip and other indirect means to learn about others and their values. If we think we have fallen short of their standards, we might increase our efforts. If we think we have exceeded their expectations, we might reduce our efforts.

Not all members of a group have equal status. Experts and leaders occupy central, elevated positions in their social networks — even if only on a temporary basis. Ideally, they have knowledge, competencies and social capital at their disposal that can help the group.

Legitimate expertise is hard won; it takes years to develop. Even if we have competency in one area, expertise is inelastic. It can narrow our focus, leading us to fail to see atypical patterns. That means leaders and experts need to be modest in their claims of expertise.

While credit might be claimed by one leader or the next for the functioning of economic and social systems, ultimately our societies are the end product of generations of cultural evolution supported by co-operation and collaboration.

Over time, groups of experts become embedded within our societies. They become our trusted institutions. Symbols like police badges, military insignia, judges’ robes, stethoscopes and lab coats take on a new significance, conveying and conferring this status.

Symbols become important

Even complex scientific instruments and technology can take on a symbolic meaning beyond their practical utility. These symbols can be used to persuade those inside and outside our group. They can also be used to manipulate our trust.

Like everyone, experts rely on their peers to keep them in check through formal standards and professional organizations. Professions like science, the law and medicine are self-reflective. The debunking of many of Dr. Mehmet Oz’s claims, for example, provides a crucial illustration of this internal regulation.

At their best, these mechanisms ensure that a profession retains its credibility and its access to financial and social resources.

The dangers of failures of trust

The recent hurricane in the United States speaks to concerns about the credibility of professions. Distrust in science played an important role in how people responded to the approach of hurricane Florence. Some residents stayed for practical reasons, including the protection of family, pets and property. Others simply discounted the information or placed their faith in a higher power to protect them.

While this could be seen as an unwavering individualism, it also likely represents a lack of trust in their community and in scientific institutions.

This refusal to defer to the authority of experts and institutions reflects the real cost that breakdowns in social cohesion can have on our lives and our communities. It represents a shift from facts to opinion and rumour.

This isn’t to say institutional flaws should be discounted. While there have been scientific hoaxes, fields like climate science are based on consensus. When choosing to trust others, we must weigh the good and bad. While we cannot ignore misconduct, we must not mistake the actions of a minority for the majority.

Discounting information for temporary reassurance or social gains and supplanting it with bravado and confidence will not make us better decision-makers. We live in the age of data. Only accurate information and successful application will improve our lives and protect us in the future. We need experts and institutions to help us put it to use.

Restructuring our institutions

The vain efforts of China and Rome show us that, despite their symbolism, walls will not keep us safe. They are antiquated solutions to contemporary problems. If we want to avoid a Hobbesian nightmare of all against all, we must regain trust in each other and reverence for our institutions.

We need transparency. Legitimate impediments to rebuilding trust must be identified and acknowledged. Structural inequalities still exist that are associated with race and gender. Although these persistent concerns might be the result of explicit biases, they might also reflect institutional inertia. Rather than attempting to justify them, we must understand these dynamics in order to effectively redress these differences.

Our actions and those of our institutions must be open to question. Questions are a healthy and necessary response to a world filled with uncertainty.

The best decisions are not made by conforming to what we believe are the opinions of our group. We must learn the delicate art of civil discourse and practise authentic dissent.

If we do not question ourselves first, others gladly will.

From the inside, this might appear wasteful and inefficient. From the outside, it might have the appearance of widespread dissent and indecision. That’s democracy.

But when viewed in terms of historical time lines, questioning our own beliefs and those of our group can help us make better decisions. Forecasting the future must be done in terms of decades and centuries, not just election cycles. Whenever possible, we must reason by analogy from the past, compare across cultures and buffer ourselves against the inevitability of unknowns.

Casting a vote for a leader is insufficient. We must hold our leaders to account, regardless of whether we voted for them or against them. We must get involved in our communities, because we are inseparable from them.The Conversation

Jordan Richard Schoenherr, Adjunct Research Professor, Department of Psychology, Carleton University


This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.


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          Rwandans are mad at Cyril Ramaphosa over failing to deliver on visa promise      Cache   Translate Page      

Cyril Ramaphosa can't catch a break. Between the Nhlanhla Nene hullabaloo and Rwandans still mad because of issues with obtaining visas, CR's hot seat is sweltering.

The post Rwandans are mad at Cyril Ramaphosa over failing to deliver on visa promise appeared first on The South African.

          Fox's midterm engagement strategy is telling its viewers that Democrats are coming to kill them      Cache   Translate Page      

Melissa Joskow / Media Matters

With the midterm elections only four weeks away, a slew of Fox News commentators are warning their conservative viewers that they are physically imperiled by a “violent” leftist “mob” and must vote to keep Republicans in power in order to protect themselves. Their argument is an effort to turn out the GOP base by weaponizing conservative criticism of the protestors who opposed Brett Kavanaugh’s confirmation to the Supreme Court.

“Anyone who sits right of center, anyone who's a Trump supporter, we're all targets” of public harassment from the left, contributor Tomi Lahren explained on Fox & Friends Tuesday morning. “The average citizen, if you're on the right, should be concerned and in danger.” Sebastian Gorka, a former White House aide now at Fox, similarly argued that the Democrats had “normalized violence in America,” comparing the need to fight back against that purported effort to the Revolutionary War.

Fox’s message has not appeared in a vacuum -- as usual, the network is taking cues from the Republican Party. Most Americans disapprove of the job President Donald Trump is doing and abhor the Republican Congress, making it more likely that Democrats will gain control of the House or Senate and exercise much-needed oversight of the administration. In response, Republicans have seized on protests against Kavanaugh’s confirmation, trying to whip up their base by conflating those protests and Democrats as a whole. That opposition, they claim, is a dangerous “mob” that cannot be allowed to gain power.

“In their quest for power, the radical Democrats have turned into an angry mob,” Trump said at a rally in Topeka, KS, on Saturday. “You don't hand matches to an arsonist, and you don't give power to an angry left-wing mob. That's what they have become. The Democrats have become too extreme and too dangerous to govern.”

Trump’s framing of the midterm elections as a battle against the “angry left-wing mob” consumed Fox’s prime-time programming on Monday.

“In 29 days, the choice is going to be clear,” argued Sean Hannity, the Trump propagandist with so much influence on the president that White House aides describe him as the shadow chief of staff. “Do you want mob rule or law and order?” He went on to say that viewers who lived in states with toss-up Senate races had the opportunity to reject senators who “gave in to the Democratic mob” by voting against Kavanaugh’s confirmation, adding that “there are no more moderates left in the Democratic Party,” which has “evolved into a party of the radical far left.”

Laura Ingraham, who at one point was considered for the White House communications director job, made the exact same point on her Fox show. “There is too much on the line for intraparty squabbles any longer,” she argued Monday. “And the choice for voters is now really simple. Mob rule or the rule of law? Perpetual rage or real results?” Later in the program, Monica Crowley, a Fox contributor who decided not to join the Trump administration following the revelation that she had plagiarized parts of her book, argued that the left is “violent” and “at war” against, among other things, “individual liberty.”

And Tucker Carlson, another host with keen influence over the president, said that Democratic donor Tom Steyer’s claim that Kavanaugh had been supported by “entitled white men” was “exactly the kind of thing that Hutu leaders in Rwanda were saying in the early 1990s” before committing genocide against the Tutsi tribe.

Fox has long operated as the communications arm of the Republican Party, remaking itself since Trump’s ascension as his personal propaganda outlet. Expect to see its commentators pull out all the stops over the next month in order to maintain congressional Republicans’ majority and protect Trump from meaningful oversight.

          How even really busy people can have travel experiences of a lifetime      Cache   Translate Page      

Awesome Experiences provides travel experiences of a lifetime for busy people. Helicopter over the ultimate adventure destination of Mount Everest, track gorillas in Rwanda, explore the otherworldly lunar landscapes of South America or visit Rajasthan and the Pushkar Camel Fair. Escape from work for just 7 days – or a fraction longer if you have […]

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          Re: Rwanda / Burundi      Cache   Translate Page      
slt t'es toujours au Rwanda?
          Re: Au Rwanda      Cache   Translate Page      
I have spend a lot of time in Rwanda before. It's one of the most beautiful places in Africa. But indeed, the Rwandees are very difficult to "catch". For me they are the "oriental" of Africa. It's impossible to get info from them or you need to know them already quite some time before they are a little open for their personality. It's a pity. They are very attractive guys. Especially the Tutsi's. Unluckily i had 2 bad experiences with 2 guys i'd met there many years ago.(financially and abuse of confidence) But i am sure there are other ones.
And there are a LOT of gays. But discretely.
          Sullo: Beyond Genocide: Transitional Justice and Gacaca Courts in Rwanda      Cache   Translate Page      
Pietro Sullo (Univ. of Kent - Brussels School of International Studies) has published Beyond Genocide: Transitional Justice and Gacaca Courts in Rwanda - The Search for Truth, Justice and Reconciliation (Asser Press 2018). Here's the abstract:

Combining both legal and empirical research, this book explores the statutory aspects andpractice of gacaca courts (inkiko gacaca), the centrepiece of Rwanda’s post-genocide transitionaljustice system, assessing their contribution to truth, justice and reconciliation. Thevolume expands the knowledge regarding these courts, assessing not only their performancein terms of formal justice and compliance with human rights standards, but also their actualmodus operandi.

Scholars and practitioners have progressively challenged the idea that genocide should beaddressed exclusively through ‘westernised’ criminal law, arguing that the uniqueness ofeach genocidal setting requires specific context-sensitive solutions. Rwanda’s experience withgacaca courts has emerged as a valuable opportunity for testing this approach, offering newhome-grown solutions for dealing with the violence experienced in 1994 and beyond that werenever previously tried. Due to their unique features, gacaca courts have attracted the attentionof researchers from different disciplines and triggered dichotomous reactions and appraisals.

Anchoring the assessment of gacaca courts in a comprehensive legal analysis in conjunctionwith field research, this book addresses the tensions existing within the literature. Throughthe direct observation of gacaca trials, interviews and informal talks with genocide survivors,defendants, ordinary Rwandans, academics and practitioners, a purely legalistic perspectiveis overcome, offering instead an innovative bottom-up approach to meta-legal concepts suchas justice, fairness, truth and reconciliation. Outlining their strengths and shortcomings, thisbook highlights what aspects of gacaca courts can be useful in other post-genocide contexts,and provides crucial lessons learned in the realm of transitional justice.

1.Justin Bahunga Visi Perezida wa 2 wa FDU-Inkingi arasubiza ibibazo by'abakunzi ba Radio Itahuka. a.Bahunga Justin arashimangira ko RIB yabeshyeye Présidente wa FDU Inkingi Madame Victoire Ingabire.  b.Icyaha Ingabire ashinjwa na RIB ni ukwiyita umunya Politike ndetse ko no mu Rwanda nta nfungwa za Politike zihari. c.Ese Ingabire Victoire azemera aceceke?  2.Prof Charles Kambanda yashyize hanze inyandiko isobanura neza uburyo Leta y'ibyihehe irimo guhuzagurika. a.Dr K
          Canada and Quebec pull support for current head of la Francophonie      Cache   Translate Page      

Michaëlle Jean was considered a long shot to keep her position after France and the African Union publicly backed Rwandan Foreign Affairs Minister Louise Mushikiwabo.
          Release of political prisoners in Rwanda      Cache   Translate Page      

Rwanda's president Kagame has repressed dissidents for decades. Now he has released over a thousand political prisoners.

He is reputed to govern fairly well in areas other than human rights. He should be able to get reelected honestly, so his repression was gratuitous as well as wrong. I hope he is learning to stop it.

          The bowtie controlling Tucker Carlson has gone off the rails, compares liberals to Rwandan Hutus. Expect Tucker to start smelling like burning and have three flashing red lights on his forehead by the end of the week [Murica]      Cache   Translate Page      
Murica [link] [80 comments]

          An Analysis: Implementation of youth centers in Musanze, Rwanda, Oct 10      Cache   Translate Page      
Kalee will present her analysis on the implementation of
the Bixby Center’s youth center, based in the district of
Musanze, Rwanda. The youth center model aims to
utilize a multi-pronged approach–addressing both
structural and social determinants–to improve the health

and wellbeing of youth in Rwanda. The model, co-
designed and managed by youth, strives to empower

adolescents through the provision of comprehensive

sexual education and linkages to high-quality, youth-
friendly reproductive health services, livelihood skills, and

general health information. The overarching goal of
Kalee’s research was to develop a descriptive case study
of the youth center model, documenting its effectiveness
in addressing the health and wellbeing of adolescents and
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          10/10/2018: FRONT PAGE: New information supports claims Kagame forces involved in assassination that sparked Rwandan genocide      Cache   Translate Page      

A new piece of information has emerged to bolster allegations that rebel forces led by Paul Kagame, now President of Rwanda, were involved in the assassination that ignited the genocide of 1994. Serial numbers of surface-toair missiles from the same...
          10/10/2018: FRONT PAGE: Canada abandons Jean’s Francophonie candidacy      Cache   Translate Page      
Federal government says it will back Rwandan Foreign Affairs Minister, avoiding a diplomatic defeat after former governor-general fails to win widespread support Ottawa has abandoned its campaign to back Michaëlle Jean’s bid for a second mandate as...
          Supply Of Seed Processing Equipments      Cache   Translate Page      

General Information

Tender No 000007/G/NCB/2018/2019/RAB
Procurement Plan Name Supply of Seed processing equipments
Advertising/Procuring Entity Rwanda Agricultural Board (RAB)
* Tender Name Supply of Seed processing equipments

Tender Information

* Tender Type Goods * Tender Method National Competitive Bidding
* International/National NATIONAL * Simplified Y/N No
* Joint Venture Not Allowed * Bid Validity Period 120 Days
* Brief Description Supply of Seed processing equipments
* Deadline for Bids Submission 12/11/2018 08:00 (local time)
* Opening Date 12/11/2018 08:15 (local time) * Opening Place e-Procurement system
* How to Obtain Tender Document Downloadable Online
* Tender Fee 5,000
* Tender Security Yes * Tender Security (sum of LOTs) 0
* Post Qualification No
Local preference Yes Margin of Preference 10%
* Date when exchange rate is applied 12/11/2018
* Examination Preliminary Examination      Administrative Examination


* LOT No * Name of Goods Tender Security Amount * Time Limit of Delivery * Place of Delivery List of Goods & Classification
1 Supply of Seed processing equipments 0 FRW 3 Months Rubirizi

Tender Document

No Document Name File
1 Price schedule Goods_Price Schedule seed processing.xlsx
2 Tender Document Tender Document for supply of Seed processing equipments Approved by ITC 01.10.2018.doc

Required Bidding Documents

* Required bidding document to be submitted by bidder
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