|Distrust in Science and Expertise Can Be Deadly — Here's How We Can Overcome It Cache Translate Page||
Hurricanes, tornadoes and wildfires have tested our resolve as individuals, communities and societies. Along with social crises such as political- and war-induced migration, these events provide stark illustrations of our ability to adapt, help and trust one another through informal social networks and formal social institutions.
Trust in our institutions is declining. While some of this distrust might result from direct experience of failing or faltering social systems, cynics and pundits can promote mistrust for financial and social capital through votes and public opinion.
Trust is often woven into our society like an invisible thread, stitching together disparate individuals and distant communities. Effective societies are grounded in a reliance and dependency on others to provide everything from mobile networks, water and sewer services, electricity, education and justice.
In order to mend it where it is broken and reinforce it where it is fraying, we must examine our social tapestry and ask how we can promote trust.
Trustingneighbours, leaders institutions
Trust isn’t an all-or-nothing phenomenon. It can develop between peers and leaders as well as towards institutions and their symbols.
We share a common fate with our peers. Their actions matter to us. When we can, we monitor and regulate their behaviour through direct observation and action. When we can’t, we rely on gossip and other indirect means to learn about others and their values. If we think we have fallen short of their standards, we might increase our efforts. If we think we have exceeded their expectations, we might reduce our efforts.
Not all members of a group have equal status. Experts and leaders occupy central, elevated positions in their social networks — even if only on a temporary basis. Ideally, they have knowledge, competencies and social capital at their disposal that can help the group.
Legitimate expertise is hard won; it takes years to develop. Even if we have competency in one area, expertise is inelastic. It can narrow our focus, leading us to fail to see atypical patterns. That means leaders and experts need to be modest in their claims of expertise.
While credit might be claimed by one leader or the next for the functioning of economic and social systems, ultimately our societies are the end product of generations of cultural evolution supported by co-operation and collaboration.
Over time, groups of experts become embedded within our societies. They become our trusted institutions. Symbols like police badges, military insignia, judges’ robes, stethoscopes and lab coats take on a new significance, conveying and conferring this status.
Symbols become important
Even complex scientific instruments and technology can take on a symbolic meaning beyond their practical utility. These symbols can be used to persuade those inside and outside our group. They can also be used to manipulate our trust.
Like everyone, experts rely on their peers to keep them in check through formal standards and professional organizations. Professions like science, the law and medicine are self-reflective. The debunking of many of Dr. Mehmet Oz’s claims, for example, provides a crucial illustration of this internal regulation.
At their best, these mechanisms ensure that a profession retains its credibility and its access to financial and social resources.
The dangers of failures of trust
The recent hurricane in the United States speaks to concerns about the credibility of professions. Distrust in science played an important role in how people responded to the approach of hurricane Florence. Some residents stayed for practical reasons, including the protection of family, pets and property. Others simply discounted the information or placed their faith in a higher power to protect them.
While this could be seen as an unwavering individualism, it also likely represents a lack of trust in their community and in scientific institutions.
This refusal to defer to the authority of experts and institutions reflects the real cost that breakdowns in social cohesion can have on our lives and our communities. It represents a shift from facts to opinion and rumour.
This isn’t to say institutional flaws should be discounted. While there have been scientific hoaxes, fields like climate science are based on consensus. When choosing to trust others, we must weigh the good and bad. While we cannot ignore misconduct, we must not mistake the actions of a minority for the majority.
Discounting information for temporary reassurance or social gains and supplanting it with bravado and confidence will not make us better decision-makers. We live in the age of data. Only accurate information and successful application will improve our lives and protect us in the future. We need experts and institutions to help us put it to use.
Restructuring our institutions
The vain efforts of China and Rome show us that, despite their symbolism, walls will not keep us safe. They are antiquated solutions to contemporary problems. If we want to avoid a Hobbesian nightmare of all against all, we must regain trust in each other and reverence for our institutions.
We need transparency. Legitimate impediments to rebuilding trust must be identified and acknowledged. Structural inequalities still exist that are associated with race and gender. Although these persistent concerns might be the result of explicit biases, they might also reflect institutional inertia. Rather than attempting to justify them, we must understand these dynamics in order to effectively redress these differences.
Our actions and those of our institutions must be open to question. Questions are a healthy and necessary response to a world filled with uncertainty.
If we do not question ourselves first, others gladly will.
From the inside, this might appear wasteful and inefficient. From the outside, it might have the appearance of widespread dissent and indecision. That’s democracy.
But when viewed in terms of historical time lines, questioning our own beliefs and those of our group can help us make better decisions. Forecasting the future must be done in terms of decades and centuries, not just election cycles. Whenever possible, we must reason by analogy from the past, compare across cultures and buffer ourselves against the inevitability of unknowns.
Casting a vote for a leader is insufficient. We must hold our leaders to account, regardless of whether we voted for them or against them. We must get involved in our communities, because we are inseparable from them.
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|Rwandans are mad at Cyril Ramaphosa over failing to deliver on visa promise Cache Translate Page|
Cyril Ramaphosa can't catch a break. Between the Nhlanhla Nene hullabaloo and Rwandans still mad because of issues with obtaining visas, CR's hot seat is sweltering.
The post Rwandans are mad at Cyril Ramaphosa over failing to deliver on visa promise appeared first on The South African.
|Fox's midterm engagement strategy is telling its viewers that Democrats are coming to kill them Cache Translate Page||
With the midterm elections only four weeks away, a slew of Fox News commentators are warning their conservative viewers that they are physically imperiled by a “violent” leftist “mob” and must vote to keep Republicans in power in order to protect themselves. Their argument is an effort to turn out the GOP base by weaponizing conservative criticism of the protestors who opposed Brett Kavanaugh’s confirmation to the Supreme Court.
“Anyone who sits right of center, anyone who's a Trump supporter, we're all targets” of public harassment from the left, contributor Tomi Lahren explained on Fox & Friends Tuesday morning. “The average citizen, if you're on the right, should be concerned and in danger.” Sebastian Gorka, a former White House aide now at Fox, similarly argued that the Democrats had “normalized violence in America,” comparing the need to fight back against that purported effort to the Revolutionary War.
Fox’s message has not appeared in a vacuum -- as usual, the network is taking cues from the Republican Party. Most Americans disapprove of the job President Donald Trump is doing and abhor the Republican Congress, making it more likely that Democrats will gain control of the House or Senate and exercise much-needed oversight of the administration. In response, Republicans have seized on protests against Kavanaugh’s confirmation, trying to whip up their base by conflating those protests and Democrats as a whole. That opposition, they claim, is a dangerous “mob” that cannot be allowed to gain power.
“In their quest for power, the radical Democrats have turned into an angry mob,” Trump said at a rally in Topeka, KS, on Saturday. “You don't hand matches to an arsonist, and you don't give power to an angry left-wing mob. That's what they have become. The Democrats have become too extreme and too dangerous to govern.”
Trump’s framing of the midterm elections as a battle against the “angry left-wing mob” consumed Fox’s prime-time programming on Monday.
“In 29 days, the choice is going to be clear,” argued Sean Hannity, the Trump propagandist with so much influence on the president that White House aides describe him as the shadow chief of staff. “Do you want mob rule or law and order?” He went on to say that viewers who lived in states with toss-up Senate races had the opportunity to reject senators who “gave in to the Democratic mob” by voting against Kavanaugh’s confirmation, adding that “there are no more moderates left in the Democratic Party,” which has “evolved into a party of the radical far left.”
Laura Ingraham, who at one point was considered for the White House communications director job, made the exact same point on her Fox show. “There is too much on the line for intraparty squabbles any longer,” she argued Monday. “And the choice for voters is now really simple. Mob rule or the rule of law? Perpetual rage or real results?” Later in the program, Monica Crowley, a Fox contributor who decided not to join the Trump administration following the revelation that she had plagiarized parts of her book, argued that the left is “violent” and “at war” against, among other things, “individual liberty.”
And Tucker Carlson, another host with keen influence over the president, said that Democratic donor Tom Steyer’s claim that Kavanaugh had been supported by “entitled white men” was “exactly the kind of thing that Hutu leaders in Rwanda were saying in the early 1990s” before committing genocide against the Tutsi tribe.
Fox has long operated as the communications arm of the Republican Party, remaking itself since Trump’s ascension as his personal propaganda outlet. Expect to see its commentators pull out all the stops over the next month in order to maintain congressional Republicans’ majority and protect Trump from meaningful oversight.
|How even really busy people can have travel experiences of a lifetime Cache Translate Page|
Awesome Experiences provides travel experiences of a lifetime for busy people. Helicopter over the ultimate adventure destination of Mount Everest, track gorillas in Rwanda, explore the otherworldly lunar landscapes of South America or visit Rajasthan and the Pushkar Camel Fair. Escape from work for just 7 days – or a fraction longer if you have […]
The post How even really busy people can have travel experiences of a lifetime appeared first on A Luxury Travel Blog.
|Re: Rwanda / Burundi Cache Translate Page||slt t'es toujours au Rwanda?|
|Re: Au Rwanda Cache Translate Page||I have spend a lot of time in Rwanda before. It's one of the most beautiful places in Africa. But indeed, the Rwandees are very difficult to "catch". For me they are the "oriental" of Africa. It's impossible to get info from them or you need to know them already quite some time before they are a little open for their personality. It's a pity. They are very attractive guys. Especially the Tutsi's. Unluckily i had 2 bad experiences with 2 guys i'd met there many years ago.(financially and abuse of confidence) But i am sure there are other ones. |
And there are a LOT of gays. But discretely.
|Sullo: Beyond Genocide: Transitional Justice and Gacaca Courts in Rwanda Cache Translate Page||Beyond Genocide: Transitional Justice and Gacaca Courts in Rwanda - The Search for Truth, Justice and Reconciliation (Asser Press 2018). Here's the abstract: |
|BAHUNGA ARAVUGA KO IBYO "R.I.B" IVUGA KO YEMERANYIJE NA INGABIRE ATARI UKURI! Cache Translate Page|| 1.Justin Bahunga Visi Perezida wa 2 wa FDU-Inkingi arasubiza ibibazo by'abakunzi ba Radio Itahuka.
a.Bahunga Justin arashimangira ko RIB yabeshyeye Présidente wa FDU Inkingi Madame Victoire Ingabire.
b.Icyaha Ingabire ashinjwa na RIB ni ukwiyita umunya Politike ndetse ko no mu Rwanda nta nfungwa za Politike zihari.
c.Ese Ingabire Victoire azemera aceceke?
2.Prof Charles Kambanda yashyize hanze inyandiko isobanura neza uburyo Leta y'ibyihehe irimo guhuzagurika.
|Canada and Quebec pull support for current head of la Francophonie Cache Translate Page|
Michaëlle Jean was considered a long shot to keep her position after France and the African Union publicly backed Rwandan Foreign Affairs Minister Louise Mushikiwabo.
|Release of political prisoners in Rwanda Cache Translate Page|
Rwanda's president Kagame has repressed dissidents for decades. Now he has released over a thousand political prisoners.
He is reputed to govern fairly well in areas
than human rights. He should be able to get reelected honestly,
so his repression was gratuitous as well as wrong. I hope he is
learning to stop it.
|The bowtie controlling Tucker Carlson has gone off the rails, compares liberals to Rwandan Hutus. Expect Tucker to start smelling like burning and have three flashing red lights on his forehead by the end of the week [Murica] Cache Translate Page|
|An Analysis: Implementation of youth centers in Musanze, Rwanda, Oct 10 Cache Translate Page||Kalee will present her analysis on the implementation of|
the Bixby Center’s youth center, based in the district of
Musanze, Rwanda. The youth center model aims to
utilize a multi-pronged approach–addressing both
structural and social determinants–to improve the health
and wellbeing of youth in Rwanda. The model, co-
designed and managed by youth, strives to empower
adolescents through the provision of comprehensive
sexual education and linkages to high-quality, youth-
friendly reproductive health services, livelihood skills, and
general health information. The overarching goal of
Kalee’s research was to develop a descriptive case study
of the youth center model, documenting its effectiveness
in addressing the health and wellbeing of adolescents and
young adults in the Musanze district of Rwanda.
|10/10/2018: FRONT PAGE: New information supports claims Kagame forces involved in assassination that sparked Rwandan genocide Cache Translate Page|
A new piece of information has emerged to bolster allegations that rebel forces led by Paul Kagame, now President of Rwanda, were involved in the assassination that ignited the genocide of 1994. Serial numbers of surface-toair missiles from the same...
|10/10/2018: FRONT PAGE: Canada abandons Jean’s Francophonie candidacy Cache Translate Page||Federal government says it will back Rwandan Foreign Affairs Minister, avoiding a diplomatic defeat after former governor-general fails to win widespread support Ottawa has abandoned its campaign to back Michaëlle Jean’s bid for a second mandate as...|
|Supply Of Seed Processing Equipments Cache Translate Page|