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          An Archeologist Explains How 'Narcissist' Christopher Columbus Became a National Symbol      Cache   Translate Page      
Christopher Columbus likely would have slipped back into obscurity if not for American hubris.

Christopher Columbus was a narcissist.

He believed he was personally chosen by God for a mission that no one else could achieve. After 1493, he signed his name “xpo ferens” – “the Christbearer.” His stated goal was to accumulate enough wealth to recapture Jerusalem. His arrogance led to his downfall, that of millions of Native Americans – and eventually fostered his resurrection as the most enduring icon of the Americas.

Columbus in chains

In 1496, Columbus was the governor of a colony based at Santo Domingo, in what is now the modern Dominican Republic – a job he hated. He could not convince the other “colonists,” especially those with noble titles, to follow his leadership.

They were not colonists in the traditional sense of the word. They had gone to the Indies to get rich quick. Because Columbus was unable to temper their lust, the Crown viewed him as an incompetent administrator. The colony was largely a social and economic failure. The wealth that Columbus promised the Spanish monarchs failed to materialize, and he made continuous requests for additional financial support, which the monarchs reluctantly provided.

By 1500, conditions in Hispaniola were so dire that the Crown sent Francisco de Bobadilla to investigate. Bobadilla’s first sight, at the mouth of the Ozama River, was four Spanish “mutineers” hanging from gallows. Under authority from the king, Bobadilla arrested Columbus and his brothers for malfeasance and sent them to Spain in chains. Columbus waited seven months for an audience at the court. He refused to have his chains removed until the meeting, and even asked in his will to be buried with the chains.

Although the Spanish rulers wanted Columbus to disappear, he was allowed one final voyage from 1502 to 1504. He died in 1506, and went virtually unmentioned by historians until he was resurrected as a symbol of the United States.

Inventing Columbus

In the mid-18th century, scholars brought to light long-forgotten documents about Columbus and the early history of the New World.

One of the most important was Bartolome de las Casas’ three-volume “Historia de las Indias.” This book was suppressed in Spain because it documented Spain’s harsh treatment of the native peoples. His depiction of Spanish mistreatment of the Indians provided the foundation for the “Black Legend.” His account “blackened” Spanish character by depicting it as repressive, brutal, intolerant and intellectually and artistically backward. Whatever Spain’s motives, the conquest of the Americas destroyed native cultures and ushered in centuries of African enslavement.

Another was the personal journal of Christopher Columbus from his first voyage, published in 1880. The journal captured the attention of Gustavus Fox, Abraham Lincoln’s assistant secretary of the Navy, who made the first attempt to reconstruct the route of Columbus’s first voyage.

Renewed scholarly interest in Columbus coincided with political motives to deny Spain any remaining claims in the Americas. Spain’s American colonies declared independence, one by one, from the beginning of the 19th century. Simón Bolivar, and other Creole revolutionary leaders, embraced a classical philosophy that highlighted their Roman ancestry to a degree that “Spanish America” was converted to Latin America. The final assault came with the U.S. invasion of Cuba and the six-month Spanish-American War in 1898. Puerto Rico became a U.S. territory, and this year marks the 100th anniversary of the purchase of the U.S. Virgin Islands from Denmark.

Columbus likely would have slipped back into obscurity if not for American hubris.

The Columbian Exposition

In 1889, France put on what reviewers described as the most spectacular World’s Fair possible. Held on the Champs de Mars in Paris, its crowning achievement was the Eiffel Tower.

After Paris, the United States set out to prove to the world it was the equal of Europe by staging its own World’s Fair. No one has claimed credit for the theme of the Exposition, but the stage was set when American writer and author of “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow,” Washington Irving, attempted to revive his flagging career by writing the first biography of Christopher Columbus in English, published in 1828.

His embellishments created the great hero whose legend the fair celebrated: “He was one of those men of strong natural genius, who appear to form themselves; who, from having to contend at their very outset with privations and impediments, acquire an intrepidity in braving and a facility in vanquishing difficulties.”

The Columbian Exposition and World’s Fair was timed to coincide with the 400th anniversary of Columbus’s arrival in the New World. President Benjamin Harrison presided over opening ceremonies on Oct. 12, 1892. That same day, the Pledge of Allegiance was introduced in American schools.

Chicago created the “White City” – a collection of nine “palaces” designed by America’s greatest architects, conceived and constructed in only 26 months. Outside the White City was the grittier Midway, which is now a common feature of carnivals and fairs. The fair gave visitors their first taste of carbonated soda, Cracker Jacks and Juicy Fruit chewing gum. An enormous 264-foot-tall Ferris wheel transported 36 cars each carrying up to 60 people on a 20-minute ride. More than 28 million tickets were sold during the six months the Columbian Exposition was open. Columbus was the darling of 19th-century mass media.

Seventy-one portraits of Columbus, all posthumous, hung in a Grand Gallery. Following Irving’s descriptions, Columbus became the embodiment of the American Dream. The son of simple wool weavers and someone who had a great dream challenged the greatest scholars of his day, and boldly went where no man had gone before. Better yet, he was Italian. America could deny that Spain had any part in the discovery of the New World.

President Harrison declared a national holiday to coincide with opening of the Columbian Exposition – Columbus Day. It was officially recognized by Congress in 1937.

In 1992, as the United States prepared for the 500th anniversary of Columbus’s arrival in the Americas, the pendulum swung again. The devastating impact of his “discovery” on native peoples throughout the Americas led protesters to decry Columbus as a “terrorist.”

Columbus the man died more than 500 years ago. Columbus the legend is still being dismantled. His story illustrates the blurred borders between myth and history – how an architect of destruction was turned into a national symbol.

This is an updated version of an article originally published on Oct. 10, 2016.

This article has been updated to correct the name of the president who presided over the Columbian Exposition’s opening ceremonies.

William Francis Keegan, Curator of Caribbean Archaeology, University of Florida

This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license. Read the original article.


          10/9/2018: SPORTS: Twins’ Sano strikes police officer with car      Cache   Translate Page      
Minnesota Twins player Miguel Sano will not face criminal charges in the Dominican Republic as a result of his involvement in a traffic incident that injured a police officer, authorities said Monday. Police said the third baseman was released from...
          10/9/2018: SPORTS/SCOREBOARD: Traffic incident lands Sano in jail      Cache   Translate Page      
Minnesota Twins third baseman Miguel Sano was under investigation in the Dominican Republic after he was involved in a traffic incident that injured a police officer. Police said Sano was released from custody after striking the officer with his car,...
          

The genus Sicoderus Vanin 1986 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Erodiscini) in the West Indies

   
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The genus Sicoderus Vanin is revised for the West Indies. A total of 32 species are known with 18 new species described herein as follows: Sicoderus aeneus (Haiti), S. alternatus (Dominican Republic), S. bautistai (Dominican Republic, Haiti), S. beatyi (Cuba), S. bipunctiventris (Cuba), S. caladeler (Cuba), S. detonnancouri (Dominican Republic), S. franzi (Puerto Rico), S. guanyangi (Dominican Republic), S. humeralis (Dominican Republic), S. lucidus (Dominica), S. medranae (Dominican Republic, Haiti), S. perezi (Dominican Republic), S. pseudostriatolateralis (Dominican Republic, Haiti), S. striatolateralis (Dominican Republic), S. thomasi (Haiti), S. turnbowi (Dominican Republic), and S. woodruffi (Grenada). All species are described or redescribed, natural history information is summarized and a listing of locality data from all specimens examined is included. A key is provided to all West Indian species of the genus. All species distributions are mapped and all (excepting S. propinquus Vanin) are represented by habitus images and images of male genitalia.

 


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Distribution "Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone" for taxon Echinaster (Othilia) echinophorus (Lamarck, 1816) has been added by Andreas Kroh via the MS Access interface on 2018-10-09T09:08:33+00:00
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          Abel Ferrara – Cat Chaser (1989)      Cache   Translate Page      
An American veteran (Weller) of the Dominican Republic intervention (LBJ era) is running a hotel in Miami, and is trying to put the memories of the intervention behind him. He gets involved with a former Dominican Republic general’s wife (McGillis). He then gets duped through a series of intricate plot … Continue reading
          Large Larimar Pendant Sterling Silver Ocean Blue Teardrop Dominican Republic by expressyourself      Cache   Translate Page      

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Larimar tells us that life, like the skies and seas, are always changing and in chaos yet underneath this seemingly chaotic exterior is the peace of the eternal soul.


          Dobromir Delev 9 dnů před Dominican Republic Pro 2018      Cache   Translate Page      
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          Mexico coach Naranjo believes fatigue factored into loss to Dominican Republic      Cache   Translate Page      
Nagoya, Japan, October 10, 2018 - Brayelin Martinez and Bethania De La Cruz scored 12 points each as the Dominican Republic beat Mexico 3-0 (25-17, 25-18, 25-15) in the second round of the FIVB Women's World Championship on Wednesday afternoon and the Mexico coach said he thinks his players are tired.
          Martinez and De La Cruz lead Dominican Republic to 3-0 win over Mexico      Cache   Translate Page      
Nagoya, Japan, October 10, 2018 - Brayelin Martinez and Bethania De La Cruz scored 12 points each as the Dominican Republic beat Mexico 3-0 (25-17, 25-18, 25-15) in the second round of the FIVB Women's World Championship on Wednesday afternoon. 
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Distribution "Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone" for taxon Ophiocomella ophiactoides (H.L. Clark, 1900) has been added by Andreas Kroh via the MS Access interface on 2018-10-09T09:08:33+00:00
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          Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone for taxon Tethyaster grandis (Verrill, 1899)      Cache   Translate Page      
Distribution "Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone" for taxon Tethyaster grandis (Verrill, 1899) has been added by Andreas Kroh via the MS Access interface on 2018-10-09T09:08:33+00:00
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Distribution "Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone" for taxon Astropecten marginatus Gray, 1840 has been added by Andreas Kroh via the MS Access interface on 2018-10-09T09:08:33+00:00
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Distribution "Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone" for taxon Cassidulus caribaearum Lamarck, 1801 has been added by Andreas Kroh via the MS Access interface on 2018-10-09T09:08:33+00:00
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Distribution "Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone" for taxon Paraster floridiensis Kier & Grant, 1965 has been added by Andreas Kroh via the MS Access interface on 2018-10-09T09:08:33+00:00
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Distribution "Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone" for taxon Eucidaris tribuloides (Lamarck, 1816) has been added by Andreas Kroh via the MS Access interface on 2018-10-09T09:08:33+00:00
          World's Most Powerful Passport Revealed As Countries' Global Rankings Shift      Cache   Translate Page      
Japan passport holders will find it easier than ever to travel the world, as their travel documents have just moved up in the global Henley Passport Index to take the top spot.

The Henley Passport Index is a ranking of all of the passports in the world based on the number of countries their holders can travel to visa-free.

Until now Japan had been sharing joint first place with Singapore, which gained visa-free access to Uzbekistan earlier this year bringing its total to 189 countries.

However, earlier this month Japan gained visa-free access to Myanmar bringing its total to 190 - once again taking it to the top spot.


It's still a milestone for both Japan and Singapore, as 2018 is the first year in the index's 13-year history that either of them has had the most powerful passport in the world.
Both are way ahead of the UK and US which share fifth place with Portugal, the Netherlands, Austria and Luxembourg - but it's worth noting that the top four spots are shared by 10 countries.

Experts had previously revealed that the UK ranking is unlikely to increase until there is certainty regarding Brexit.
Full Henley Passport Index 2018

    Japan (190 countries)
    Singapore (189 countries)
    Germany, France, South Korea (188 countries)
    Denmark, Finland, Italy, Sweden, Spain (187 countries)
    Norway, UK, Austria, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, USA (186 countries)
    Belgium, Switzerland, Ireland, Canada (185 countries)
    Australia, Greece, Malta (183 countries)
    New Zealand, Czech Republic (182 countries)
    Iceland (181 countries)
    Hungary, Slovenia, Malyasia (180 countries)
    Slovakia, Latvia, Lithuania (179 countries)
    Liechtenstein, Estonia (178 countries)
    Poland (175 countries)
    Monaco, Chile (174 countries)
    Cyprus (173 countries)
    Brazil (171 countries)
    Argentina, Hong Kong (170 countries)
    Croatia, Bulgaria, Romania (169 countries)
    Andorra, San Marino (168 countries)
    Brunei (165 countries)
    Israel, Barbados, UAE (161 countries)
    Mexico (158 countries)
    Bahamas (155 countries)
    Uruguay (154 countries)
    Seychelles (152 countries)
    St Kitts & Nevis (151 countries)
    Antigua (150 countries)
    Costa Rica (149 countries)
    Vatican City, Taiwan (148 countries)
    Trinidad and Tobago (147 countries)
    Mauritius, St Lucia (146 countries)
    St Vincent and the Grenadines (145 countries)
    Macao, Grenada (144 countries)
    Paraguay (143 countries)
    Panama (141 countries)
    Venezulea, Honduras (138 countries)
    Dominica, Guatemala, El Savador (137 countries)
    Peru (135 countries)
    Serbia, Solomon Islands (130 countries)
    Samoa, Vanuatu (129 countries)
    Nicaragua, Ukraine (128 countries)
    Colombia, Tuvalu (127 countries)
    Macedonia (125 countries)
    Marshall Islands, Tonga (124 countries)
    Kiribati, Montenegro (123 countries)
    Micronesia, Moldova (122 countries)
    Russia, Palau Islands (119 countries)
    Bosnia and Herzegovina (118 countries)
    Albania (114 countries)
    Georgia (112 countries)
    Turkey (111 countries)
    South Africa (102 countries)
    Belize (101 countries)
    Timor-Leste (98 countries)
    Ecuador, Kuwait (93 countries)
    Fiji (90 countries)
    Guyana (88 countries)
    Maldives (87 countries)
    Nauru (86 countries)
    Qatar (85 countries)
    Jamaica (84 countries)
    Papua New Guinea (83 countries)
    Botswana (82 countries)
    Bahrain (81 countries)
    Suriname (80 countries)
    Bolivia (79 countries)
    Oman (78 countries)
    Belarus, Thailand (77 countries)
    Namibia, Kazakhstan (76 countries)
    Saudi Arabia (75 countries)
    Lesotho, China (74 countries)
    Indonesia (73 countries)
    Swaziland, Kenya, Malawi (71 countries)
    Gambia, Tanzania, Zambia (68 countries)
    Tunisia, Azerbaijan, Philippines, Dominican Republic (66 countries)
    Cape Verde, Cuba (65 countries)
    Uganda, Zimbabwe (64 countries)
    Ghana, Kyrgyzstan (63 countries)
    Sierra Leone (62 countries)
    Armenia, Benin, Morocco, Mongolia (61 countries)
    India (60 countries)
    Uzbekistan (59 countries)
    Sao Tome, Mauritania, Mozambique, Tajikistan (58 countries)
    Burkina Faso (57 countries)
    Senegal, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea (56 countries)
    Mali, Gabon, Bhutan (55 countries)
    Togo, Niger, Cambodia, Rwanda (54 countries)
    Chad, Madagascar, Guinea-Bissau, Turkmenistan (53 countries)
    Comores Islands, Equatorial Guinea, Haiti, Laos (52 countries)
    Vietnam (51 countries)
    Algeria, Jordan (50 countries)
    Central African Republic, Angola, Egypt (49 countries)
    Cameroon, Myanmar (48 countries)
    Liberia, Nigeria, Congo (Republic) (47 countries)
    Burundi (46 countries)
    Djibouti (45 countries)
    Kosovo (44 countries)
    Congo (Democratic Republic), Iran (43 countries)
    Sri Lanka, Ethiopia, North Korea (42 countries)
    South Sudan, Bangladesh, Lebanon, Libya (41 countries)
    Nepal (40 countries)
    Sudan, Eritrea, Palestinian Territory (39 countries)
    Yemen (37 countries)
    Pakistan (33 countries)
    Somalia, Syria (32 countries)
    Iraq, Afghanistan (30 countries)



          Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone for taxon Echinaster (Echinaster) modestus Perrier, 1881      Cache   Translate Page      
Distribution "Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone" for taxon Echinaster (Echinaster) modestus Perrier, 1881 has been added by Andreas Kroh via the MS Access interface on 2018-10-09T09:08:33+00:00
          Christopher Columbus and the Spanish Language      Cache   Translate Page      
In the U.S., today is "Columbus Day". Not much is done to celebrate it, although most schools and government jobs have the day off. It occurred to me that in part, it is due to Spain and Queen Isabella, Christopher Columbus and the discoveries of the New World that has led most of us to even be interested in this site. Just think of how many millions of people speak Spanish now around the world as a result of this discovery. When you think of most of the continent of South America, Central America, Cuba, Puerto Rico, The Dominican Republic,...
          Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone for taxon Meoma ventricosa ventricosa (Lamarck, 1816)      Cache   Translate Page      
Distribution "Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone" for taxon Meoma ventricosa ventricosa (Lamarck, 1816) has been added by Andreas Kroh via the MS Access interface on 2018-10-09T09:08:33+00:00
          Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone for taxon Leodia sexiesperforata (Leske, 1778)      Cache   Translate Page      
Distribution "Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone" for taxon Leodia sexiesperforata (Leske, 1778) has been added by Andreas Kroh via the MS Access interface on 2018-10-09T09:08:33+00:00
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BELLIAR GUERRERO, Clara A. of Jersey City, formerly of Dominican Republic. Service on Thursday, 5:00 p.m at the funeral home. Arrangements by:...
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Distribution "Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone" for taxon Ophioderma cinereum Müller & Troschel, 1842 has been added by Andreas Kroh via the MS Access interface on 2018-10-09T09:08:33+00:00
          Abel Ferrara – Cat Chaser (1989)      Cache   Translate Page      
An American veteran (Weller) of the Dominican Republic intervention (LBJ era) is running a hotel in Miami, and is trying to put the memories of the intervention behind him. He gets involved with a former Dominican Republic general’s wife (McGillis). He then gets duped through a series of intricate plot … Continue reading
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Miguel Sano has begun a critical offseason in his so-far-frustrating career with the Minnesota Twins, who plan to keep close tabs on the slugging third baseman frequently waylaid by injuries. Sano left Minnesota last week for his native Dominican Republic, where he was involved in an incident with police outside a nightclub that left an officer with a broken leg. Last winter, Sano was accused of assaulting a woman but Major League Baseball did not punish him after an investigation yielded insufficient evidence.
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Our director John Smith has just finished editing some behind the scenes footage from our recent trip to the Dominican Republic as well as the movie trailer for the upcoming Staxus movie "Raw Gravedigger". Hot muscle hunk Shane Barret plays the role of the horny gravedigger who takes advantage of mourning boys. Also starring in this movie are Sam Williams, Arthur Kral, Ryan Olsen, Harry Vakker, Richie Hajek and Yuri Adamov. As you will see, not every cast member did survive our latest production

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-- Montecristo. The world's most famous cigar trademark. Originating in Cuba, our Montecristo, now distributed in the U.S., is manufactured by hand in the Dominican Republic. Considered one of the finest cigars on the market, the Montecristo is blended for the true connoisseur. It is a medium to full bodied cigar with a sweet aroma and impeccable construction. Wrapper: Connecticut Shade Binder: Dominican Filler: Blend of Dominican long fillers
          Montecristo Double Corona      Cache   Translate Page      
-- Montecristo. The world's most famous cigar trademark. Originating in Cuba, our Montecristo, now distributed in the U.S., is manufactured by hand in the Dominican Republic. Considered one of the finest cigars on the market, the Montecristo is blended for the true connoisseur. It is a medium to full bodied cigar with a sweet aroma and impeccable construction. Wrapper: Connecticut Shade Binder: Dominican Filler: Blend of Dominican long fillers
          Montecristo Robusto      Cache   Translate Page      
-- Montecristo. The world's most famous cigar trademark. Originating in Cuba, our Montecristo, now distributed in the U.S., is manufactured by hand in the Dominican Republic. Considered one of the finest cigars on the market, the Montecristo is blended for the true connoisseur. It is a medium to full bodied cigar with a sweet aroma and impeccable construction. Wrapper: Connecticut Shade Binder: Dominican Filler: Blend of Dominican long fillers
          Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone for taxon Astropecten nitidus Verrill, 1915      Cache   Translate Page      
Distribution "Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone" for taxon Astropecten nitidus Verrill, 1915 has been added by Andreas Kroh via the MS Access interface on 2018-10-09T09:08:33+00:00
          Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone for taxon Pseudarchaster gracilis gracilis (Sladen, 1889)      Cache   Translate Page      
Distribution "Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone" for taxon Pseudarchaster gracilis gracilis (Sladen, 1889) has been added by Andreas Kroh via the MS Access interface on 2018-10-09T09:08:33+00:00
          For Columbus Day, here is the beginning of Chapter one of Howard Zinn's famous "A People's History of the United States"      Cache   Translate Page      
For Columbus Day, here is the beginning of Chapter one of Howard Zinn's famous "A People's History of the United States":

afloweroutofstone:

Arawak men and women, naked, tawny, and full of wonder, emerged from their villages onto the island’s beaches and swam out to get a closer look at the strange big boat. When Columbus and his sailors came ashore, carrying swords, speaking oddly, the Arawaks ran to greet them, brought them food, water, gifts. He later wrote of this in his log:

They … brought us parrots and balls of cotton and spears and many other things, which they exchanged for the glass beads and hawks’ bells. They willingly traded everything they owned… . They were well-built, with good bodies and handsome features…. They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of ignorance. They have no iron. Their spears are made of cane… . They would make fine servants…. With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want.

These Arawaks of the Bahama Islands were much like Indians on the mainland, who were remarkable (European observers were to say again and again) for their hospitality, their belief in sharing. These traits did not stand out in the Europe of the Renaissance, dominated as it was by the religion of popes, the government of kings, the frenzy for money that marked Western civilization and its first messenger to the Americas, Christopher Columbus.

Columbus wrote:

As soon as I arrived in the Indies, on the first Island which I found, I took some of the natives by force in order that they might learn and might give me information of whatever there is in these parts.

The information that Columbus wanted most was: Where is the gold? He had persuaded the king and queen of Spain to finance an expedition to the lands, the wealth, he expected would be on the other side of the Atlantic-the Indies and Asia, gold and spices. For, like other informed people of his time, he knew the world was round and he could sail west in order to get to the Far East.

Spain was recently unified, one of the new modern nation-states, like France, England, and Portugal. Its population, mostly poor peasants, worked for the nobility, who were 2 percent of the population and owned 95 percent of the land. Spain had tied itself to the Catholic Church, expelled all the Jews, driven out the Moors. Like other states of the modern world, Spain sought gold, which was becoming the new mark of wealth, more useful than land because it could buy anything.

There was gold in Asia, it was thought, and certainly silks and spices, for Marco Polo and others had brought back marvelous things from their overland expeditions centuries before. Now that the Turks had conquered Constantinople and the eastern Mediterranean, and controlled the land routes to Asia, a sea route was needed. Portuguese sailors were working their way around the southern tip of Africa. Spain decided to gamble on a long sail across an unknown ocean.

In return for bringing back gold and spices, they promised Columbus 10 percent of the profits, governorship over new-found lands, and the fame that would go with a new title: Admiral of the Ocean Sea. He was a merchant’s clerk from the Italian city of Genoa, part-time weaver (the son of a skilled weaver), and expert sailor. He set out with three sailing ships, the largest of which was the Santa Maria, perhaps 100 feet long, and thirty-nine crew members.

Columbus would never have made it to Asia, which was thousands of miles farther away than he had calculated, imagining a smaller world. He would have been doomed by that great expanse of sea. But he was lucky. One-fourth of the way there he came upon an unknown, uncharted land that lay between Europe and Asia-the Americas. It was early October 1492, and thirty-three days since he and his crew had left the Canary Islands, off the Atlantic coast of Africa. Now they saw branches and sticks floating in the water. They saw flocks of birds.

These were signs of land. Then, on October 12, a sailor called Rodrigo saw the early morning moon shining on white sands, and cried out. It was an island in the Bahamas, the Caribbean sea. The first man to sight land was supposed to get a yearly pension of 10,000 maravedis for life, but Rodrigo never got it. Columbus claimed he had seen a light the evening before. He got the reward.

So, approaching land, they were met by the Arawak Indians, who swam out to greet them. The Arawaks lived in village communes, had a developed agriculture of corn, yams, cassava. They could spin and weave, but they had no horses or work animals. They had no iron, but they wore tiny gold ornaments in their ears.

This was to have enormous consequences: it led Columbus to take some of them aboard ship as prisoners because he insisted that they guide him to the source of the gold. He then sailed to what is now Cuba, then to Hispaniola (the island which today consists of Haiti and the Dominican Republic). There, bits of visible gold in the rivers, and a gold mask presented to Columbus by a local Indian chief, led to wild visions of gold fields.

On Hispaniola, out of timbers from the Santa Maria, which had run aground, Columbus built a fort, the first European military base in the Western Hemisphere. He called it Navidad (Christmas) and left thirty-nine crewmembers there, with instructions to find and store the gold. He took more Indian prisoners and put them aboard his two remaining ships. At one part of the island he got into a fight with Indians who refused to trade as many bows and arrows as he and his men wanted. Two were run through with swords and bled to death. Then the Nina and the Pinta set sail for the Azores and Spain. When the weather turned cold, the Indian prisoners began to die.

Columbus’s report to the Court in Madrid was extravagant. He insisted he had reached Asia (it was Cuba) and an island off the coast of China (Hispaniola). His descriptions were part fact, part fiction:

Hispaniola is a miracle. Mountains and hills, plains and pastures, are both fertile and beautiful … the harbors are unbelievably good and there are many wide rivers of which the majority contain gold… . There are many spices, and great mines of gold and other metals….

The Indians, Columbus reported, “are so naive and so free with their possessions that no one who has not witnessed them would believe it. When you ask for something they have, they never say no. To the contrary, they offer to share with anyone….” He concluded his report by asking for a little help from their Majesties, and in return he would bring them from his next voyage “as much gold as they need … and as many slaves as they ask.” He was full of religious talk: “Thus the eternal God, our Lord, gives victory to those who follow His way over apparent impossibilities.”

Because of Columbus’s exaggerated report and promises, his second expedition was given seventeen ships and more than twelve hundred men. The aim was clear: slaves and gold. They went from island to island in the Caribbean, taking Indians as captives. But as word spread of the Europeans’ intent they found more and more empty villages. On Haiti, they found that the sailors left behind at Fort Navidad had been killed in a battle with the Indians, after they had roamed the island in gangs looking for gold, taking women and children as slaves for sex and labor.

Now, from his base on Haiti, Columbus sent expedition after expedition into the interior. They found no gold fields, but had to fill up the ships returning to Spain with some kind of dividend. In the year 1495, they went on a great slave raid, rounded up fifteen hundred Arawak men, women, and children, put them in pens guarded by Spaniards and dogs, then picked the five hundred best specimens to load onto ships. Of those five hundred, two hundred died en route. The rest arrived alive in Spain and were put up for sale by the archdeacon of the town, who reported that, although the slaves were “naked as the day they were born,” they showed “no more embarrassment than animals.” Columbus later wrote: “Let us in the name of the Holy Trinity go on sending all the slaves that can be sold.”

But too many of the slaves died in captivity. And so Columbus, desperate to pay back dividends to those who had invested, had to make good his promise to fill the ships with gold. In the province of Cicao on Haiti, where he and his men imagined huge gold fields to exist, they ordered all persons fourteen years or older to collect a certain quantity of gold every three months. When they brought it, they were given copper tokens to hang around their necks. Indians found without a copper token had their hands cut off and bled to death.

The Indians had been given an impossible task. The only gold around was bits of dust garnered from the streams. So they fled, were hunted down with dogs, and were killed.

Trying to put together an army of resistance, the Arawaks faced Spaniards who had armor, muskets, swords, horses. When the Spaniards took prisoners they hanged them or burned them to death. Among the Arawaks, mass suicides began, with cassava poison. Infants were killed to save them from the Spaniards. In two years, through murder, mutilation, or suicide, half of the 250,000 Indians on Haiti were dead.

When it became clear that there was no gold left, the Indians were taken as slave labor on huge estates, known later as encomiendas. They were worked at a ferocious pace, and died by the thousands. By the year 1515, there were perhaps fifty thousand Indians left. By 1550, there were five hundred. A report of the year 1650 shows none of the original Arawaks or their descendants left on the island.

The chief source-and, on many matters the only source-of information about what happened on the islands after Columbus came is Bartolome de las Casas, who, as a young priest, participated in the conquest of Cuba. For a time he owned a plantation on which Indian slaves worked, but he gave that up and became a vehement critic of Spanish cruelty. Las Casas transcribed Columbus’s journal and, in his fifties, began a multivolume History of the Indies. In it, he describes the Indians. They are agile, he says, and can swim long distances, especially the women. They are not completely peaceful, because they do battle from time to time with other tribes, but their casualties seem small, and they fight when they are individually moved to do so because of some grievance, not on the orders of captains or kings.

Women in Indian society were treated so well as to startle the Spaniards. Las Casas describes sex relations:

Marriage laws are non-existent men and women alike choose their mates and leave them as they please, without offense, jealousy or anger. They multiply in great abundance; pregnant women work to the last minute and give birth almost painlessly; up the next day, they bathe in the river and are as clean and healthy as before giving birth. If they tire of their men, they give themselves abortions with herbs that force stillbirths, covering their shameful parts with leaves or cotton cloth; although on the whole, Indian men and women look upon total nakedness with as much casualness as we look upon a man’s head or at his hands.

The Indians, Las Casas says, have no religion, at least no temples. They live in

large communal bell-shaped buildings, housing up to 600 people at one time … made of very strong wood and roofed with palm leaves…. They prize bird feathers of various colors, beads made of fishbones, and green and white stones with which they adorn their ears and lips, but they put no value on gold and other precious things. They lack all manner of commerce, neither buying nor selling, and rely exclusively on their natural environment for maintenance. They are extremely generous with their possessions and by the same token covet the possessions of their friends and expect the same degree of liberality. …

In Book Two of his History of the Indies, Las Casas (who at first urged replacing Indians by black slaves, thinking they were stronger and would survive, but later relented when he saw the effects on blacks) tells about the treatment of the Indians by the Spaniards. It is a unique account and deserves to be quoted at length:

Endless testimonies . .. prove the mild and pacific temperament of the natives…. But our work was to exasperate, ravage, kill, mangle and destroy; small wonder, then, if they tried to kill one of us now and then…. The admiral, it is true, was blind as those who came after him, and he was so anxious to please the King that he committed irreparable crimes against the Indians….

Las Casas tells how the Spaniards “grew more conceited every day” and after a while refused to walk any distance. They “rode the backs of Indians if they were in a hurry” or were carried on hammocks by Indians running in relays. “In this case they also had Indians carry large leaves to shade them from the sun and others to fan them with goose wings.”

Total control led to total cruelty. The Spaniards “thought nothing of knifing Indians by tens and twenties and of cutting slices off them to test the sharpness of their blades.” Las Casas tells how “two of these so-called Christians met two Indian boys one day, each carrying a parrot; they took the parrots and for fun beheaded the boys.”

The Indians’ attempts to defend themselves failed. And when they ran off into the hills they were found and killed. So, Las Casas reports, “they suffered and died in the mines and other labors in desperate silence, knowing not a soul in the world to whom they could turn for help.” He describes their work in the mines:

… mountains are stripped from top to bottom and bottom to top a thousand times; they dig, split rocks, move stones, and carry dirt on their backs to wash it in the rivers, while those who wash gold stay in the water all the time with their backs bent so constantly it breaks them; and when water invades the mines, the most arduous task of all is to dry the mines by scooping up pansful of water and throwing it up outside….

After each six or eight months’ work in the mines, which was the time required of each crew to dig enough gold for melting, up to a third of the men died.

While the men were sent many miles away to the mines, the wives remained to work the soil, forced into the excruciating job of digging and making thousands of hills for cassava plants.

Thus husbands and wives were together only once every eight or ten months and when they met they were so exhausted and depressed on both sides … they ceased to procreate. As for the newly born, they died early because their mothers, overworked and famished, had no milk to nurse them, and for this reason, while I was in Cuba, 7000 children died in three months. Some mothers even drowned their babies from sheer desperation…. in this way, husbands died in the mines, wives died at work, and children died from lack of milk . .. and in a short time this land which was so great, so powerful and fertile … was depopulated. … My eyes have seen these acts so foreign to human nature, and now I tremble as I write. …

When he arrived on Hispaniola in 1508, Las Casas says, “there were 60,000 people living on this island, including the Indians; so that from 1494 to 1508, over three million people had perished from war, slavery, and the mines. Who in future generations will believe this? I myself writing it as a knowledgeable eyewitness can hardly believe it….”

Thus began the history, five hundred years ago, of the European invasion of the Indian settlements in the Americas. That beginning, when you read Las Casas-even if his figures are exaggerations (were there 3 million Indians to begin with, as he says, or less than a million, as some historians have calculated, or 8 million as others now believe?)-is conquest, slavery, death. When we read the history books given to children in the United States, it all starts with heroic adventure-there is no bloodshed-and Columbus Day is a celebration.

Past the elementary and high schools, there are only occasional hints of something else. Samuel Eliot Morison, the Harvard historian, was the most distinguished writer on Columbus, the author of a multivolume biography, and was himself a sailor who retraced Columbus’s route across the Atlantic. In his popular book Christopher Columbus, Mariner, written in 1954, he tells about the enslavement and the killing: “The cruel policy initiated by Columbus and pursued by his successors resulted in complete genocide.”

That is on one page, buried halfway into the telling of a grand romance. In the book’s last paragraph, Morison sums up his view of Columbus:

He had his faults and his defects, but they were largely the defects of the qualities that made him great-his indomitable will, his superb faith in God and in his own mission as the Christ-bearer to lands beyond the seas, his stubborn persistence despite neglect, poverty and discouragement. But there was no flaw, no dark side to the most outstanding and essential of all his qualities-his seamanship.

One can lie outright about the past. Or one can omit facts which might lead to unacceptable conclusions. Morison does neither. He refuses to lie about Columbus. He does not omit the story of mass murder; indeed he describes it with the harshest word one can use: genocide.

But he does something else-he mentions the truth quickly and goes on to other things more important to him. Outright lying or quiet omission takes the risk of discovery which, when made, might arouse the reader to rebel against the writer. To state the facts, however, and then to bury them in a mass of other information is to say to the reader with a certain infectious calm: yes, mass murder took place, but it’s not that important-it should weigh very little in our final judgments; it should affect very little what we do in the world.

It is not that the historian can avoid emphasis of some facts and not of others. This is as natural to him as to the mapmaker, who, in order to produce a usable drawing for practical purposes, must first flatten and distort the shape of the earth, then choose out of the bewildering mass of geographic information those things needed for the purpose of this or that particular map.

My argument cannot be against selection, simplification, emphasis, which are inevitable for both cartographers and historians. But the map-maker’s distortion is a technical necessity for a common purpose shared by all people who need maps. The historian’s distortion is more than technical, it is ideological; it is released into a world of contending interests, where any chosen emphasis supports (whether the historian means to or not) some kind of interest, whether economic or political or racial or national or sexual.

Furthermore, this ideological interest is not openly expressed in the way a mapmaker’s technical interest is obvious (“This is a Mercator projection for long-range navigation-for short-range, you’d better use a different projection”). No, it is presented as if all readers of history had a common interest which historians serve to the best of their ability. This is not intentional deception; the historian has been trained in a society in which education and knowledge are put forward as technical problems of excellence and not as tools for contending social classes, races, nations.

To emphasize the heroism of Columbus and his successors as navigators and discoverers, and to de-emphasize their genocide, is not a technical necessity but an ideological choice. It serves- unwittingly-to justify what was done. My point is not that we must, in telling history, accuse, judge, condemn Columbus in absentia. It is too late for that; it would be a useless scholarly exercise in morality. But the easy acceptance of atrocities as a deplorable but necessary price to pay for progress (Hiroshima and Vietnam, to save Western civilization; Kronstadt and Hungary, to save socialism; nuclear proliferation, to save us all)-that is still with us. One reason these atrocities are still with us is that we have learned to bury them in a mass of other facts, as radioactive wastes are buried in containers in the earth. We have learned to give them exactly the same proportion of attention that teachers and writers often give them in the most respectable of classrooms and textbooks. This learned sense of moral proportion, coming from the apparent objectivity of the scholar, is accepted more easily than when it comes from politicians at press conferences. It is therefore more deadly.

Bolding is mine.


          Watching Whales Worldwide      Cache   Translate Page      
In the Kingdom of Tonga, Australia, the Silver Bank marine reserve in Dominican Republic, Hawaii and Mexico you can watch Humpback whales in the wild as they nurture their calves and enjoy the warmer temperatures of the water. Dwarf minke whales visit the Great Barrier Reef in June and July...
          Windstar expands Caribbean & Latin America Itineraries      Cache   Translate Page      
Windstar Cruises announces 2019 and 2020 Caribbean and Latin America sailings including new visits to ports in Mexico, Honduras, Grand Cayman, the Dominican Republic, and Jamaica.

[[ This is a content summary only. Visit ftnnews.com for full links, other content and more! ]]

          re:Dominican Republic or other Caribbean      Cache   Translate Page      
Another place for you to do any crusing is the Parc Saint Pierre in Petion-Ville, Haiti...That is in the mountain....Again a lot of $$$ and be very carefull, you will have so much fun and so much surprises...they are really fat and long and willing....Same as Jacmel, the town in the south of Haiti.......Enjoy
          Oct 19, 2018: Global Community Hour: Trip to Dominican Republic at Papitto Dining Room      Cache   Translate Page      

Join Miguelina as she uncovers the real Dominican Republic, taking you beyond its paradise beaches. Enjoy small food samplings from authentic Dominican cuisine! Reserve your seat by Wednesday, October 17th by emailing oiss@bryant.edu or by clicking on the "I'm interested" button.

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          Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone for taxon Astropecten nitidus Verrill, 1915      Cache   Translate Page      
Distribution "Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone" for taxon Astropecten nitidus Verrill, 1915 has been added by Andreas Kroh via the MS Access interface on 2018-10-09T09:08:33+00:00
          Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone for taxon Pseudarchaster gracilis gracilis (Sladen, 1889)      Cache   Translate Page      
Distribution "Dominican Republic Exclusive Economic Zone" for taxon Pseudarchaster gracilis gracilis (Sladen, 1889) has been added by Andreas Kroh via the MS Access interface on 2018-10-09T09:08:33+00:00
          Future Vision for the Dominican Republic      Cache   Translate Page      
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          Future Vision for the Dominican Republic      Cache   Translate Page      

          Sanchez, Bucs prospects turn heads at instructs      Cache   Translate Page      
Back in July 2015, the Pirates signed a small, speedy outfielder named Kevin Sanchez out of the Dominican Republic for $450,000. He was known as Lolo by the time fans in the United States got to see him in any fashion, and after a pedestrian debut in the Dominican Summer League in 2016, he started making it look like Lolo would be a household name in Pittsburgh eventually with a very strong U.S. debut in the Gulf Coast League a summer later.
          Walkthrough Dominican Republic Ministry      Cache   Translate Page      
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