|Thread: Holdfast: Tunisia 1942-43:: General:: Counter manifest or sticker sheet scan? Cache Translate Page||
by elbmc1969Does anyone have a counter manifest (preferably with stats) or can someone post a scan of the sticker sheets?
|Thread: Holdfast: Tunisia 1942-43:: General:: Not enough blocks Cache Translate Page||
received his game with too few blocks for all or the stickers
Did anyone else get.two identical sheets of stickers?
|Thread: Holdfast: Tunisia 1942-43:: Strategy:: Allied strateg for the first turn (and the second?) Cache Translate Page||
by elbmc1969What are people doing with the Allies on the first turn? I stood on the defensive and setting up blocking positions in the south to keep the panzers from out flanking me and taking (or threatening) Tebessa. The German first turn concentrated attacks in my units (odds way in favor of the attackers, especially when combined with their high-DCR units--panzers!). That showed me at least part of the error of my ways ...
Or should I fall back in the north to force the Axis player to waste RPs moving forward to attack, but then not having another move activation to exploit?
Or just just do what I did and get into the best possible defensive poitions?
|What is your favorite raw material? Cache Translate Page||What is your favorite raw material?|
Students at the IFF ISIPCA Master of Science in Scent Design and Creation study 800 raw materials during their three-year course of study. They all have favorites!
Shin says her favorite is the Magnolida flower, “My favorite is the Magnolia flower and Magnolia oil. To me, it is happiness. I’m not sure why, but I think of pure happiness.”
For Ashley she loves mimosa “I love mimosa – especially after our class trip to Grasse. It was the trip of my dreams, getting to be around mimosa in its early bloom. We walked through mountains that were covered in mimosa – being surrounded by the smell made the flower very personal for me.”
“For me, its orange flower absolute, particularly the one that derives from Tunisia. It’s an LMR Naturals product that has such an involving sensual deep feeling.” Stated Renan, “I’ve seen a lot of perfumes and I've read a few interviews discussing it - however there's nothing to describe orange flower absolute unless you’re using it. You need
to feel it too understand it's influence. It truly opens a new horizon.”
Andrew explains why his favorite LMR ingredient is narcissus, “Narcissus absolute is cultivated in a part of France near Grasse where nothing exists… within this area you’ll find this beautiful flower. It’s a stunning earthy complex ingredient that I believe is under used in perfumery. I would the challenge of creating a modern scent with this ingredient.”
Start herefor a career in fragrance – apply now for the 2019 Master’s of Science Programin Scent Design and Creation.
|Italy’s Diplomacy Is Floundering in the Mediterranean Cache Translate Page|
OPINION - September 4, 2018
There’s no doubt that the Mediterranean Sea has played a decisive role in elevating Italy’s stature on the world stage. The Romans referred to it as “Mare Nostrum” (“Our Sea”), a rather self-explanatory term that attested to Rome’s quest for maritime dominance. Throughout the Middle Ages, Italian merchants staked generous amounts of money and energy on this maritime crossroads of civilizations, eventually dominating it for many years. The resulting emergence of the Maritime Republics (e.g. Venice, Genoa) represented the capstone of Italy’s commercial and diplomatic thrust in the Mediterranean.
In recent years, several Italian political figures urged to parlay Italy’s historical symbiosis with the Mediterranean into a leading role in the region. Former Italian Foreign Minister Angelino Alfano asserted that Italy “knows better than any other country the language of the Mediterranean.” The term “Mare Nostrum” was dusted off by Former Italian Prime Minister Paolo Gentiloni, who statedthat the Mediterranean is “a geopolitical priority” for Italy which should, therefore, “take on a leading role in the framework of an international stabilization effort” of the area.
In the aftermath of the Arab Spring, Rome could emerge as a leading actor in the Mediterranean by successfully dealing with the migrant crisis. However, the humanitarian emergency found Italy largely ill-prepared. As the tide of migrants engulfed the country, a heated confrontation ensued between former Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi (who was in office when the migrant crisis began in earnest in 2015) and his major political rivals, including incumbent Minister of Interior Matteo Salvini, the leader of Euro-skeptic and once-secessionist Northern League.
Renzi made a point of helping migrants, eliciting harsh criticism from Matteo Salvini. The latter’s rising popularity eventually led Renzi to play the anti-EU card and reconsider his stance on immigration. He turned pugnacious vis-à-vis Brussels, lambasting it for leaving Rome alone in bearing the brunt of the migrant emergency. Significantly, Renzi went so far as to threaten to veto the EU’s budget.
As a result, the migrant crisis was culpably mishandled by Italy. Because the humanitarian emergency served as ammunition for political skirmishes (both domestic and against Brussels), Italy’s migration policies lacked coherence and efficacy. Such defects are best epitomized by Renzi’s about-face on immigration, prompted in large measure by the rising of the right. Furthermore, the drawn-out confrontation with the EU reduced the scope of Italy’s diplomacy in the Mediterranean, which gradually came to focus completely on immigration.
Flash-forward to August 2018. Italy’s attention is on the “Diciotti” coastguard vessel, which remained docked in Catania for days before disembarking 177 people it rescued off the island of Lampedusa. True to his tough stance on immigration, incumbent Interior Minister Matteo Salvini held off granting the vessel authorization to disembark the migrants, thus igniting a standoff involving the Italian coastguard vessel, protestors and, not surprisingly, the European Union. Eventually, all the migrants were disembarked. However, following in Renzi’s footsteps, the incumbent Italian government is now threatening to suspend EU funding should Brussels continue to overlook Rome’s calls for a more even-handed redistribution of migrants across the Union.
It is clear that Matteo Renzi and Salvini don’t stand on the same end of the political spectrum. However, when it comes to issues that involve the Mediterranean region as a whole (like the migrant emergency), they are both prone to not see the forest for the trees. Indeed, as it repeatedly feuds with Brussels, Rome fails to comprehend that dealing with immigration presupposes acting on North Africa’s festering political and economic instability.
For example, Libya is to this day a political and socio-economic basket case, crippled by an internecine war that shows no signs of abating. As a matter of fact, in July 2018 Matteo Salvini visitedthe country to meet Libyan deputy Prime Minister Ahmed Maiteeq. However, Salvini’s visit revolved around the migrant emergency, as he called on Sarraj’s to cooperate with Rome in stemming migration influxes. Little to no mention was made to Libya’s political tribulations. No concrete economic and diplomatic measures to pacify the war-torn country were announced. Rome’s diplomatic initiative seems shortsighted mainly because, as Libyan ceasefires routinely collapse, Sarraj will likely concentrate on maintaining his grip on Tripoli rather than on containing migration. As a consequence, Italy will come away from Libya empty-handed.
Furthermore, while Rome’s dialogue with Sarraj is in place, its relations with Haftar have soured. Importantly, Rome-Tobruk relations took a major downturn when Italy’s ambassador to Libya suggested postponing the Libyan general elections scheduled for December. The Tobruk-based House of Representatives reacted vehemently, declaring Italy’s ambassador to Libya persona non grata.
Showing a better grasp of the situation, Italy’s prime minister Giuseppe Conte attempted to steer Italy’s diplomatic focus back to one of the root causes of increased immigration: Libya’s fragmentation. In July 2018, Conte stated that Italy should act as Europe’s “main interlocutor” vis-à-vis the Libyan crisis and, to this aim, he vowed to organize an international conference on Libyafocused on its stabilization. Arguably, the conference is also aimed at patching up Rome’s relations with Tobruk so to as to diversify Italy’s Tripoli-centered policy in the war-torn country.
However, as Rome has yet to deliver a roadmap of the proposed conference, Paris appears to have outpaced Italy. With an eye towards securing its oil interests in Libyan National Army-controlled Sirte Basin, Paris has not shied away from playing both sides of the fence: while supporting the UN-backed Government of National Accord, Paris aims at a working relationship with Haftar. Furthermore, Paris is aware that reaching a modus vivendi with Haftar is key to achieving another critical objective in the region: endearing itself to Egypt which, in turn, cooperates with the Tobruk-based House of Representatives to stabilize its western frontier.
Indeed, Macron’s scheme came away from the Paris summit (where, under his aegis, Sarraj and Haftar agreed to hold peaceful elections in December) as the sole credible go-between in the intractable Libyan conflict. Such diplomatic credentials might enable Paris to play a critical role in post-war Libya, whatever the winner, and promote its reconstruction along pro-France lines.
Moreover, Macron is eager to follow up the Paris summit with a France-sponsored conference on the Mediterranean, to be held in 2019. The bottom line is that, while Italy is still trapped in the Libyan labyrinth – with no fall-back position should the Tripoli-based GNA collapse – France has already moved to the next step: capitalizing on the momentum built by the Paris summit to the accelerate the emergence of a France-centered order in the Mediterranean.
Italy appears to struggle with Tunisia as well. So far in 2018, Tunisians constitute the majority of the immigrants arrived in Italy. Importantly, Tunisia’s political situation is far from consolidated, as tension between secularists and Islamists within the incumbent coalition government is building up.
Nevertheless, Italy’s diplomacy vis-à-vis Tunis appears tentative, if not bumbling. Importantly, Matteo Salvini’s undiplomatic remarks on Tunisian immigrants (“Tunisia often exports convicts”) created a stir in the North African country. Considering that Italy will attend the upcoming “Futurallia Tunisia 2018” business forum, and Salvini himself has recently pledged to spend “at least” € 1 billion to stabilize North Africa, such diplomatic missteps can only dilute Italy’s efforts in Tunisia.
While Rome’s historical heritage still garners respect throughout the Mediterranean, it is doubtful whether Italy can now be regarded as the key to the region’s stability. Of late, Italy appears to lack a farsighted outlook toward the Mediterranean, hence its inability to take the lead in constructing both collective and cogent policies designed to stabilize and pacify the region.
Significantly, Italy has limited itself to stemming the domestic repercussions of the region’s instability (principally, the influx of migrants). On the other hand, France has grasped the bigger picture. Specifically, Paris is addressing the root causes of the Mediterranean quagmire (i.e. North Africa’s economic doldrums, the fragility of its political institutions, and the protracted vacuum of power in Libya) as a means of navigating its ramifications for Europe. The added benefit of this long-term effort is the enhancement of France’s diplomatic standing in the Mediterranean. Paris is cultivating ties with both Eastern and Western Libya, while retaining its privileged position in its former colonies of Algeria, Tunisia and, Morocco. Furthermore, Paris’ flirtation with Haftar has been well-received in Cairo.
As Rome’s “Mare Nostrum” paradigm founders, the stage is being set for the emergence of a France-aligned Mediterranean order.
|Tunisia’s August trade deficit rises to $4.39bn Cache Translate Page|
Tunisia’s trade deficit widened by about 20 percent year on year in the first eight months of 2018 to 12.2 billion dinars ($4.39 billion), a record level, official data showed on Wednesday. The deficit was 10.1 billion dinars in the same period last year. It widened after imports rose by 20.4 percent, the State Statistics […]
|Commenti su Ora è Mare Nostrum: zero navi Ong rimaste nel Mediterraneo di Marcello Sanna Cache Translate Page||I mafiosi rossi sono parecchio attapirati.
Vediamo di smontare anche Sophia .
Fra noi, la Tunisia, l'Egitto e Malta si fa un bel lavoretto.
Dall'altra parte ci pensano l'Ungheria e la Polonia.|
|Bin Laden Bodyguard even guarded airports in Germany! Cache Translate Page||the former bodyguard of the terrorist Osama bin Laden, Sami A., has worked in Germany with a security company. Although classified as an Islamist perjurer, A. was responsible for guarding airports and hospitals in 2000 and 2001, it is said. Sami A. was deported to Tunisia in mid-July, but could return to Germany following a court decision. However, […]|
|Comment on Solving Italy’s Immigration Crisis by backwardsevolution Cache Translate Page||If the economic migrants from Africa (yes, economic) were actually trying to flee their own country because of war, wouldn't you think they'd just go to the country next door, or maybe two countries over? Instead, they are travelling hundreds and thousands of miles to get to Libya.
Now having arrived in Libya, the narrative quickly became that they were being enslaved, the women were being raped (kind of like the babies being thrown out of the incubators story). According to U.N. refugee law, they're supposed to take refuge in the next safe country, which would be Tunisia. Yes, still in Africa.
We've all seen the boatloads of people coming from Africa. They are almost exclusively young males. Now, what's the difference between going to Tunisia and going to Europe? Could the benefits they receive have anything to do with it?
Although the West has been unfair to Africa (stripping their resources, causing wars) not every country in Africa is or has been involved in a Western-backed war, and not every country can blame their abysmal living conditions on the West. With all the bad the West has done, they have done a lot of good too, like provide medical technology, which has gone a long way to decrease infant mortality, immunizations, clean drinking water, financial aid, and continual food aid. A good deal of the problem has to do with over-population.
"54 countries make up the continent of Africa, and while population growth is relatively low in some areas, countries such as Nigeria and Uganda are increasing at an advanced rate. In most countries in the continent, the population growth is in excess of 2% every year.
In addition, there is a high proportion of younger people within the Africa population as a whole, with reports that 41% of the African population is under the age of 15."
By the turn of the century, Nigeria is predicted to have over a BILLION people. Nigeria! Africa's population is predicted to exceed FOUR BILLION by the turn of the century.
And a good deal of the problems in Africa are caused by corruption by their own leaders, as well as tribal wars. And look at what happened in Zimbabwe. They kicked out the white farmers, starved, then went through hyperinflation where their money was worth nothing. South Africa is headed in the same direction.
The road to hell is paved with good intentions, isn't it?
Now, why would the E.U. have sent out their ships to rescue these migrants? They could have just sent troops into Libya. After all, they did just invade and destroy Libya, didn't they? What, it's all of a sudden taboo to enter someone else's country? It never stopped them before.
The U.N.H.C.R. has a brand new program called I believe (don't quote me) the "Migration Compact". The program explicitly WANTS migration from Third World countries into First World countries. It's good for "economics", or so it says in their literature. Read up on it because it's the new thing, although you won't find it mentioned in the New York Times.
Migrants come in, the existing citizens pay for their benefits and welfare, the corporations and farmers get cheap labor, wages are held down for the host residents, the migrants then send money home (called remittances) to their home countries, the home countries buy new TV's, for example, from the multinational corporations. See? Isn't this fun? You get to lose your culture because the flavor of the day is "good for economics".
Mexico currently gets more money from remittances sent home than from the sale of Mexican oil! I believe $30 billion/year is sent home from the U.S. to Mexico in the form of remittances. Meanwhile, the American citizens, some of whom are having a hard time, are paying for this. Imagine if those tax dollars remained in the U.S.!!!
No, something else is going on beyond just people fleeing oppression.
And now the Left doesn't know what to do? Perhaps if they did the "right" thing to begin with, they wouldn't have the problem? Do they never see long-term? Help people where they are, in their own country, with their own customs and traditions.
And, yes, I agree that none of the wars in the Middle East should be occurring. The West needs to get out of Syria and help rebuild the country, along with Iraq and Yemen. Get out!|
|A team's victory for Cameroon captain Nathan Wounembaina Cache Translate Page||Bari, Italy, September 12, 2018 - The first of 15 matchups on schedule for Pool C of the 2018 FIVB Volleyball Men’s World Championship in Bari saw Cameroon taking to the court at PalaFlorio to claim a 3-0 win in the African derby with Tunisia.|
|Feughouo, Cameroon dance after claiming African derby with Tunisia Cache Translate Page||Bari, Italy, September 12, 2018 - The FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship got started at PalaFlorio in Bari with a fascinating dance performed by the men around coach Blaise Mayam as Cameroon celebrated a 3-0 victory (25-20, 28-26, 25-21) over Tunisia in the Pool C opener.|
|Boise State to Host International Trade Leaders Cache Translate Page||The Boise State Center for Global Education will host a public reception for international trade emerging leaders at 4 p.m. Friday, Sept. 28, in the Student Union Building Bishop Barnwell Room. The visitors come from Mexico, Spain, Sri Lanka, Tunisia, …|
|Milano, migranti si picchiano con catene davanti a stazione Centrale Cache Translate Page||La stazione centrale di Milano diventa ancora una volta suo malgrado teatro di scontri violenti fra migranti: ieri pomeriggio infatti, peraltro all'ora di punta quindi davanti a tantissimi viaggiatori spaventati ed increduli, due gruppetti di stranieri se le sono date di santa ragione utilizzando anche catene e cocci di bottiglia per cause ancora sconosciute agli inquirenti.Secondo la questura di Milano appena scoppiati i primi tafferugli è intervenuta immediatamente la polizia (che è solita presidiare quella zona della città piuttosto a rischio), riuscendo a bloccare una parte dei violenti. Ma pochi minuti dopo gli stranieri che erano riusciti a fuggire sono tornati ad azzuffarsi fra di loro, venendo fermati grazie all'intervento di alcune volanti che si erano precipitate sul luogo degli scontri. È dovuta intervenire anche un'ambulanza perchè uno dei coinvolti nella maxi rissa è stato ferito alla testa.Alla fine sono stati 7 gli uomini arrestati dalle forze dell'ordine: oltre ad un cittadino italiano (nato però in Tunisia), gli agenti hanno stretto le manette ai polsi anche a tre afgani, un somalo, un libico ed un nigeriano: di questi, 3 hanno già precedenti penali, altrettanti risultano richiedenti asilo politico, mentre due lo hanno già ottenuto. I sette saranno giudicati per direttissima nelle prossime ore e la questura ha già annunciato l"intenzione di chiedere, in caso di condanna, il nulla osta per l'espulsione degli stranieri.Questa vicenda riporta alla mente del ferimento, avvenuto pochi giorni fa, di un marocchino colpito con un cavatappi da uno sconosciuto, sempre in Piazza Duca d'Aosta. |
|TUI refuerza su apuesta por Turquía y Túnez con marcas propias Cache Translate Page|
TUI Group ha anunciado que alcanzará los 16 clubs de su marca TUI Magic Life estando presente en seis países, con el lanzamiento de dos nuevos hoteles en mayo de 2019, uno en Túnez y el otro en Turquía. Con ello refuerza una apuesta que ya inició este verano volviendo a poner en el mapa a destinos que se están recuperando y que han sido los causantes del aumento de ventas en esta temporada frente a un España estancada.
Con la incorporación del TUI Magic Life Skanes y el TUI Magic Life Bodrum la marca pasará de 13 a 16 establecimientos el próximo año, al añadirse también otro club en Italia. La insignia de hoteles propios de TUI está presente también en España, Grecia y Egipto.
Como informó HOSTELTUR noticias de turismo en TUI registra un 4% más de reservas impulsadas por Turquía y Grecia, este verano 2018, el incremento de reservas registrado por el turoperador se ha debido a la recuperación de Turquía y el Norte de África, así como al alza de reservas hacia Grecia, aunque España se mantuvo como destino número uno para el grupo.
Pero los competidores vuelven pisando fuerte y tendrán ventaja, según La débil lira turca y los TTOO: ¿un problema para la próxima temporada? siendo Turquía un país que ya normalmente le ahorra costes y que resulta también atractivo para los propios visitantes. ABTA ha señalado recientemente que el valor de la libra esterlina en para el visitante británico en ese destino se ha duplicado en 2018 respecto al año pasado, como informó Las agencias británicas ven un boom de Turquía por la debilidad de la lira.
Según explica el director general de TUI Magic Life, Andreas Pospiech, “con su alta calidad hotelera y de servicios así como la excelente relación precio-calidad, Túnez y Turquía ofrecen las condiciones perfectas para una amplia oferta de todo incluido”. El directivo añadió que este momento en el que están de regreso destinos tan populares es perfecto para expandir su oferta. Ambos clubes estarán orientados al turismo internacional pero especialmente al mercado británico.
El TUI Magic Life Snakes de Túnez estará especialmente enfocado a familias, en tanto que el TUI Magic Life Bodrum será más para quienes gustan de las fiestas y el turismo activo con amplio programas de actividades tanto diurno como nocturno.
|#Trademark search 🔎: WIPO’s Global Brand Database adds 90,000 records from Tunisia: https://t.co/pKvv26abXC. Free search: https://t.co/tswyh0cwey https://t.co/hu6erPUhAe Cache Translate Page||none|
|Volei masculin: Echipa SUA, victorioasă la limită în faţa Serbiei, la Campionatul Mondial Cache Translate Page||
Selecţionata Statelor Unite a învins formaţia Serbiei cu scorul de 3-2, miercuri, la Campionatul Mondial de volei masculin din Italia şi Bulgaria, după ce a fost condusă cu 1-0 şi 2-1 la seturi.
Acesta a fost primul meci de cinci seturi la CM 2018.
Campioana en titre, Polonia, a învins Cuba cu scorul de 3-1, în timp ce campioana olimpică, Brazilia, a dispus de Egipt cu 3-0.
Rezultatele de miercuri:
Grupa A (Florenţa)
Belgia - Argentina 3-1 (25-19 25-19 22-25 25-19)
Republica Dominicană - Slovenia 1-3 (25-22 13-25 13-25 17-25)
Grupa B (Ruse)
Brazilia - Egipt 3-0 (25-17 25-22 25-20)
Olanda - Canada 0-3 (15-25 23-25 18-25)
Franţa - China 3-0 (25-20 25-21 25-17)
Grupa C (Bari)
SUA - Serbia 3-2 (15-25 25-14 21-25 25-20 15-10)
Australia - Rusia 0-3 (21-25 20-25 16-25)
Camerun - Tunisia 3-0 (25-20 28-26 25-21)
Grupa D (Varna)
Cuba - Polonia 1-3 (18-25 19-25 25-21 14-25)
Iran - Porto Rico 3-0 (25-19 25-14 25-18)
Primele patru clasate din fiecare grupă se califică în faza a doua a grupelor.
AGERPRES (autor: Mihai Ţenea, editor: Mihai Dragomir, editor online: Gabriela Badea)
|POOL C: Photogallery of Cameroon-Tunisia Cache Translate Page||World Championship 2018′ Italy and Bulgaria. POOL C, Bari First Round. Cameroon-Tunisia 3:0|
|TUNISIA : "BCE" considers replacing Chahed with Mondher Zenaidi Cache Translate Page||none|
|TUNISIA : "BCE" deserted by financial backers Cache Translate Page||none|
|TUNISIA : Alice Events runs Tunis PPP forum Cache Translate Page||none|
|TUNISIA : E5t aims to back Tunisian energy transition projects Cache Translate Page||none|
|TUNISIA : The Mabrouk brothers extend their property business Cache Translate Page||none|
|TUNISIA : Chinese photovoltaic firms on the attack Cache Translate Page||none|
|TUNISIA : Rail projects to be quietly "privatized"? Cache Translate Page||none|
|The History of the United States Part 6 (1918-1945) The Second Era Cache Translate Page|
World War II
World War II was the bloodiest war in human history. Over 50 million human beings died in it. It has been studied massively by scholars among from across the spectrum of humanity. Also, it is a war that made us aware of the sacrifice of heroes who defeated Nazism. Like always, we memorize the victims of the evil Holocaust. World War II existed in many phases like the coming of war, the rise of fascist and authoritarian empires, the war itself, and the aftermath of World War II. World War II is directly related to WWI and the Great Depression. The event of WWI ended with many nations suffering economic recessions. Later, dictatorships would rise up that exploited the suffering of peoples in order for these authoritarian rulers to promote racism, bigotry, xenophobia, and ultimately genocide against innocent human beings. By November 1918, Germany surrendered to the Allied forces in ending World War One. The peace agreement was formed in 1919 with delegates from 27 nations. Most of the decisions in that agreement were established by America, France, and Great Britain. Germany and Russia weren’t there. The Treaty of Versailles was hated by Germany since it forced Germany to pay monumental reparations for its role in WWI. Italy and Japan wanted more from the deal too. Wilson thought that this agreement would end wars worldwide, but it didn’t. The 1920’s saw many countries move into democracy and freedom. Other nations came into the opposite direction in embracing dictatorships and totalitarianism. Totalitarianism means that a single party or one solitary leader controls every economic, social, and cultural aspects of people in one country. Totalitarianism would spread massively in the world by the 20th century. The 1917 Russian Revolution led Stalin to take power. Ironically, Lenin and especially Trotsky were critics of Stalin because of his totalitarian tendencies and his reckless actions. So, Joseph Stalin took power after the Russian civil war. That brutal civil war caused starvation, famine, and the deaths of millions of Russians. Lenin, before he died, moderated some of his economic policies.
By 1924, Stalin took over the Communist Party in Russia. Stalin was cruel, a murderer, and a tyrant. He regularly allowed the murder of his rivals and even fellow Communists who disagreed with him. He grew the industrial power of many farms. His Great Terror program murdered Communists who opposed him in the 1930’s. About one million people were imprisoned. The purge eliminated most of the leading officers of the Red Army plus others. Stalin promoted propaganda to maintain his vicious rule. He also violated religious freedom by destroying churches and suppressing religious expression throughout the Soviet Union. Stalin went so far that even to this day; many people falsely view every Communist and every socialist as equivalent to Stalin. Stalin ironically did more to slander socialism than any reactionary extremist could ever do. Italian totalitarianism rose after Italy being a victor of WWI. Ironically, Italy was once part of the Allied forces during WWI. Italy didn’t get lands on the Adriatic coast that it wanted. Italy experienced a depression after WWI as well.
Veterans in Italy had trouble to find work. The communist party was growing and the government had trouble in trying to adequately handle economic issues. Later, Benito Mussolini rose up in political power. He was once more liberal and then became a dedicated fascist. By 1919, Mussolini created the Fasci di Combattimento or the Fascist Party. This was a far right wing group that promoted nationalism and wanted to control Italy. He had his followers. They were the Black shirts. These criminals fought communists and socialists in the streets of Italy. Italian King Victor Emmanuel III feared revolution. So, he asked Mussolini to form a new government. Benito was called Il Duce or the leader. Benito controlled the government, the army, etc. after years of conflict. He later ended political parties. He controlled the press. He formed a secret police. He promoted brainwashing involving youth groups and Mussolini opposed strikes. He hated liberalism and socialism. Fascism was spreading like a cancer in the world.
The Further Rise of Fascism
For a time before the rise of Hitler and after World War One, Germany was a democracy. This was the Weimar Republic which was formed in the German town in Weimar. It suffered struggles because of the economic problems in 1920’s Germany. High inflation and huge economic troubles caused the Weimar Republic to be on the brink of collapse. By the 1930’s, the Great Depression was global and further harmed the Weimar Republic. Socialist groups were in existence desiring change. Also, antidemocratic far right groups were in existence like the National Socialist German Workers’ Party or the Nazi Party. They threatened the republic. The Nazis were not socialists. They hated socialism, communism, and other beliefs that promoted workers’ rights and class interests. Socialism believes in class struggle and racial equality while the Nazis believed in white supremacy and racism. Adolf Hitler was the leader of the Nazi Party. Hitler was the son of an Austrian civil servant. Hitler also was a decorated World War I soldier and a failed artist. He was near madness and he was completely evil. He joined the small Nazi Party after the war and ruled it later on. He was in prison because his party tried to cause a rebellion in an attempt to overthrow the Weimar Republic. His book that he wrote in prison was entitled, Mein Kampf or My Struggle. It scapegoated Jewish people, socialists, communists, etc. for the economic problems in Germany. He was very anti-Semitic and he hated Jewish people greatly. Anti-Semitism has been in Europe for centuries and Hitler promoted pseudo-scientific theories as a means to proclaim his racist ideologies. Mein Kampf was a national bestseller in Germany. This book wanted Nazis to have global domination and the extermination of Jewish people plainly speaking. The book falsely assumed that black people were inferior, which is a lie. Germany by the 1930’s had unemployment, hunger, homelessness, and economic collapse. The Nazis gained control by the Germany government by January 1933.
By that time, the president of the Weimar Republic appointed Hitler as chancellor of Germany. Hitler was later President and increased his power massively. Hitler made his powers unchecked by the German parliament or the Reichstag. In 1935, the Weimar Republic’s institutions were silenced. Hitler was the sole ruler of Germany. Hitler was a totalitarian like Mussolini and France. Hitler formed a secret police that crushed dissent. The state controlled press the praised him. He promoted Hitler Youth and the League of German Girls to indoctrinate the youth with Nazi ideas. By the late 1930’s, Hitler used rearmament and public works projects. The Germans cheered for him at Nazi rallies. He attacked Jewish people, communists, and socialists. Many Jewish people suffered abuse, discrimination, and murder by the Nazis and their supporters as well. Japan once saw democracy grow in the 1920’s. There were trade unions, men voting, and other parties formed. This ended with the Great Depression. By the 1930’s, Japan moved into a more militaristic direction. Japan had a constitutional monarchy ruled by one emperor. Japan used its military to attack Manchuria in 1931. They moved a more new regime called Manchukuo in Manchuria. They gained more natural resources in Asia by invasion. They also invaded China to steal Chinese railroads and coastal resources. They also conquered Nanjing where Japanese soldiers murder more than 200,000 Chinese people and many women were raped (called the Rape of Nanjing). Militarism spread in Italy, Germany, and Japan.
The League of Nations was very weak by America refusing to join it. The League of Nations had no army, no navy, and no power to enforce its proclamations. Hitler and Mussolini harmed societies. Germany’s economy grew from 1933 to 1936. He or Hitler wanted all Germanic peoples to be united in one Reich or state. He wanted to have Lebensraum or living space for Germanic peoples. He sent German troops to the Rhineland by 1936 and the League of Nations didn’t respond to stop him. Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in 1935, which was an independent African nation. Haile Selassie or the leader of Ethiopia wanted the League of Nations to respond and help them, but the League of Nations refused to do so. Ethiopia was conquered until years later when Ethiopia defeated the Italian invaders. Fascists fought in the Spanish Civil War. It lasted from 1936 to 1939. It was about the fascist nationalists fighting against Spain’s democratic Republican government. Hitler and Mussolini aided Franco and the Spanish fascists during the civil war. General Francisco Franco tested his military technology in the war. The Soviet Union aided the Republican forces. France, Britain, and the United States remained on the sidelines mostly (except for some Americans and other Westerners volunteering to join the Republican cause). The Fascists won the Spanish civil war unfortunately.
Isolationism vs. Interventionism
By the 1930’s, France and Britain wanted appeasement in dealing with the aggressive, fascist nations of Nazi Germany, etc. This wanted to make concessions to prevent enemy nations from going forward with all-out war and maintain peace. This policy didn’t work as the fascist leaders would be bolder to try to conquer more lands unjustly. Some appeasers viewed World War I as so bloody that they wanted peace at any cost. Some believed that the Soviet Union was more of a threat than Germany or Italy. Franklin Delano Roosevelt wanted a Good Neighbor policy with Latin America. He improved relations with the Soviet Union. Back then, at first, he didn’t take a forceful line against Germany aggression. He wanted to focus on its American problems and later embraced isolationism. FDR would later reject isolationism. Hitler in the spring of 1938 conquered Austria. He formed the Anschluss in Austria. He conquered Sudenteland in the fall of 1938. That region of western Czechoslovakia was many ethnic Germans living there. Britain and France appeased Nazi Germany during the Munich Conference. Hitler and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain plus French premier Edouard Daladier allowed Hitler to rule Sudetenland in order to try to get peace. Chamberlain came to London and praised the Munich Pact. He was wrong as war would occur 11 months later.
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt later condemned aggression in Asia and he did little to stop it. There was the 1937 attack on China. It shocked Americans and the rape of Nanjing would come in December of 1937. Japan attacked with no declaration of war. China experienced terrorism by Japan forces among its cities like in Shanghai and Nanjing. 3 American sailors were killed and the United States gunboat Panay on the Chang River was sank. FDR criticized Japan’s aggression in a speech in Chicago on October 5, 1937. He condemned Japanese attacks on civilian populations. He also said that no part of the war is truly isolated form the world. He wanted an alliance of nations to promote peace against aggression. He was criticized by many for his interventionist stance. Japan continued to invade more territories. France and Britain couldn’t stop Hitler’s aggression. Hitler conquered all of Czechoslovakia into German hands. This alarmed France and Britain. They started to prepare plans for a defensive measure against the Nazis. France and Britain said that if Nazi invaded other territories, then war would transpire. Britain and France signed an agreement with Poland aiding them if Hitler invaded Poland. Hitler wanted the Soviet Union to be a buffer against Poland. So, he or Adolf Hitler would not fight 2 fronts in a war.
That is why Germany signed the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact with the Soviets on August 23, 1939. They promised to not attack each other. They also agreed to invade and divide up Poland. This aggressive agreement shocked the world. It was one of the biggest mistakes of the Soviet Union. During the early mornings of September 1, 1939, Nazi Germany invaded Poland with a blitzkrieg strike. Fast moving tanks and soldiers conquered Poland. The Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east on September 17, 1939. France and Britain did nothing to help Poland. Poland was soon defeated by the end of September. World War II started with the Nazi invasion of Poland. The Axis Powers were Germany, Italy, Japan, and other nations. The Allies included Britain, France, and later other countries like America, China, plus the Soviet Union. During the spring of 1940, Germany invaded Denmark and Norway on April 9, 1940. By May 10, he used his blitzkrieg forces into the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. His army was fast and powerful. Laster, he fought France. There was the Maginot Line and other areas. In May 1940, Germany moved into the Ardennes and British forces escaped form Dunkirk. Soon, France was defeated and conquered. It took only 35 days for Hitler to rule over France. The Nazis marched in Paris.
Winston Churchill gave speeches to Parliament and other places in England to fight the Nazi threat. He said on June 4, 1940 that he would fight everywhere against the Nazis and he won’t surrender. He rallied the British nation. They prepared for battles. Soon, Hitler invaded Britain via Operation Sea Lion. He or Hitler wanted the German air force of the Luftwaffe to bomb the British Royal Air Force. He wanted to control the British skies. The air battle continued between England and the Nazis. The Nazis attacked on July of 1940 starting the Battle of Britain. Almost 1,000 British planes were lost. More than 1,700 Nazi planes were lost. The Blitz included the Nazis destroying civilian infrastructure in Britain. Churches, homes, factories, schools, and other areas were bombed. Many British people lived in subways to escape the bombing campaign from Germany. Later, Hitler halted invasion attempts and the British were victorious. While this was going on, Winston Churchill wanted America to ally with him in fighting the Nazis. Many viewed this war as a fight for democracy globally. Nazis threatened human freedoms worldwide and that’s true.
Back then, America was mostly isolationist. President Roosevelt agreed with Churchill that the Nazi threat was real, but FDR knew that most Americans were opposed to U.S. intervention. The Great Depression was just ending. Many Americans wanted to focus on domestic affairs. The isolationist movement grew after the Nye Committee (named after Congressman Gerald Nye of South Dakota) saying that corporate interests benefited from World War One. Congress even passed the Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937. These laws used restrictions on American trade during the time of war. One example of this policy was Americans were forbidden to sail on ships owned by belligerents or nations at war. Americans were banned from making loans to belligerents or selling them arms and munitions. These laws didn’t make a distinction between aggressors like Nazis and Italy and victims like Poland or Great Britain and France. The interventionists wanted the support of America to giave great aid to the Allied cause.
Roosevelt was angry at the limitations of the Neutrality Acts. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt was anti-Nazi and promoted democracies. Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1939. This act was different in that it makes it legal to have a cash and carry policy. This allowed belligerent nations to buy goods and arms in the United States if they paid cash and carried the merchandise on their own ships. The British navy controlled the seas. This policy allowed America to aid the British economically. Some Americans didn’t like Roosevelt’s pro-Allies stance. These people wanted isolation and neutrality even in the midst of millions of Jewish people dying by the Holocaust. Isolationists and interventionists debated each other greatly in 1940 and 1941. This came when Britain was alone in Europe fighting the Nazis. Some interventionists wanted to aid the British as a way to keep America out of the war militarily. One group promoting this view was the Committee to Defend America by Aiding the Allies. Isolationists wanted neutrality. They wanted no funding of Allies since they believed that it would ultimately cause war against the Axis. Many of the isolationists were indeed racists and pro-Nazis. The America First Committee was an isolationist group. Charles Lindbergh was one leading isolationist who condemned the Soviet Union and Japan while not massively criticizing the Axis Powers back then (until Pearl Harbor). The American First Committee had rallies nationwide. American journalist Edward R. Murrow reported news during the Battle of Britain. He exposed the fact that the Nazis were bombing civilian targets. This motivated interventionists to continue in the fight to defend democracy. Germany, Italy, and Japan had the Tripartite Pact in September of 1940. This agreement wanted each nation to defend each other in case they were attacked by another power.
Congress passed the Selective Service Act. This was a peacetime draft. It gave military training of 1.3 million troops and 800,000 reserve troops every year. Also, President Roosevelt aided Great Britain more. He gave 50 WWI era battleships in eight British defense bases. He did this without the consent of Congress as it was an emergency in his mind. FDR soon was elected for an unprecedented third time against Republican nominee Wendell L. Willkie of Indiana. Willkie accused FDR of not handling economic and foreign policy affairs the right way. Yet, most Americans wanted FDR to maintain the course of American society. Once re-elected, President Franklin Roosevelt supported Britain even more. FDR was short on funds from the cash and carry goods program. FDR addressed Congress on January 6, 1941. He spoke of the four freedoms. They were the freedom of speech, the freedom of worship, the freedom from want, and the freedom from fear. These freedoms were threatened by the Nazi and Japanese militarism. Roosevelt wanted America to aid the Allies in order to stop the Nazi empire. Roosevelt wanted to promote America as the “great arsenal for democracy.” Britain wanted help and America gave the UK help. In March of 1941, Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act. It was numbered 1776 after the big debate among isolationists and interventionists. The act gave Roosevelt the power to send and lease plus lend resources to allies in defense of America. By 1945, America sent more than $40 billion of Lend-Lease aid to the Allies plus to the Soviet Union. It was an act of economic war against the Nazis and the rest of the Axis Powers.
The historic Atlantic Charter promoted an alliance among Great Britain and America. It occurred on August of 1941. This was when President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill met secretly on a warship of the coast of Newfoundland. They walked about the British response in the world. They also wanted to talk about the future after the war ended and after Hitler was defeated. Both of them signed the Atlantic Charter, which promoted national self-determination and an international system of general security. Roosevelt was more apt to oppose colonialism while Churchill is well known to have supported colonialism including the concept of the British Empire. Hitler knew of these things. He knew America was funding the Allies. So, he responded. American ships escorted arms shipments to Iceland and the British picked them up and sent them to England. By the fall of 1941, Hitler used German U-boats of submarines to attack American ships. Many U-boats shot at the USS Greer, hit the USS Kearny, and the USS Rueben James. Over 100 sailors were killed by these acts. Many Americans were angered. This was close to America declaring war on Germany. America by this time was a neutral nation, but that would change. FDR ordered the Navy to attack German U-boats on sights. By June 1941, the Nazis declared war on the Soviet Union via Operation Barbarossa. This was his greatest mistake since the Soviet Union would mobilize its factories and army to help end the Nazis. The Soviets used millions of its people to organize factories, soldiers, and other resources to respond plus defeat Nazi Germany. By November of 1941, America would be closer to have involvement in World War Two militarily.
America Enters the War
America came into World War II after Japan’s attack in America. It started by December of 1941. Japan and America were once allies during WWI. Later, things have changed. Japan expanded its militarist empire throughout Asia and the Pacific region. America had forces in Guam and the Philippines. Japan considered this reality a threat to its acquiring of natural resources. Yet, Japan still traded with America. The U.S. supplied Japan with oil and other resources too. Japan took over China and Vietnam (which was called Indo-China back then). President Roosevelt wanted this expansion to end. July 1940 was the time when FDR placed an embargo on naval and aviation supplies to Japan. These supplies included oil, iron ore, fuel, steel, and rubber. FDR made a bigger embargo after the Tripartite Pact was made in 1940. Japanese expansion slowed down. Yet, Japan continued to conquer more territories. General Hideki Tojo was the new Japanese prime minister in 1941. He was called the razor for his sharp mind. He wanted military expansion and keep America neutral. In the summer of 1941, both America and Japan were in serious negotiations in order to end disagreements. Japan wanted to expand while American leaders were opposed to this goal. Japan’s final demands were rejected by U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull in 1941.Tojo tried a final peace initiative, but failed. Tojo decided on fighting America via war. During the beginning of December, Japan would strike America in Hawaii. Japanese diplomats were in D.C. while Japanese ships headed for Pearl Harbor. Pearl Harbor had a major amount of U.S. naval ships. Tojo sent Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo to command the attack. He had 6 aircraft carriers, 360 airplanes, and many battleships plus cruisers. There were submarines there too. Japanese wanted a surprise attack in order to end American military forces in the Pacific. Japan wanted to expand into new territories to gain resources.
The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was brutal. American forces were surprised by the attacks. The USS Arizona was destroyed. The USS Arizona was blown up. Nearly 2,500 people were killed. 8 battleships were severely damaged, 3 destroyed left unusable, and 3 light cruisers were damaged. 160 aircraft were destroyed and 128 more were damaged. The U.S. battle fleet was out of commission for almost six months. The Japanese had access to get new raw materials in new territories. Much of the U.S. aircraft carriers were out to sea in that time. The USS Arizona, the USS Oklahoma, and the USS Utah suffered harsh damage. Nagumo canceled a third wave of bombers. He came back home since he didn’t wanted an American counterstrike. The American Pacific Fleet would recover. As news about Pearl Harbor spread in America, FDR addressed Congress. He promoted unity to fight the Japanese. Nothing was the same. Most Americans soon desired to declare war. The Soviet Union now was in the Allied cause. Political infighting ended between isolationists and interventionists. The only people who opposed involvement in the war were pacifists, isolationists, and others. President Roosevelt gave a speech to promote the declaration of war. Congress supported the declaration of war in the House 388 to 1 and in the Senate unanimously. Later, Japan, Germany, and Italy declared war on America. Democrats and Republicans were in the war effort. Patriotism increased. Many Americans mobilized for the war effort. Some were in the military, some joined other organizations, and some funded the Red Cross. 16 million Americans joined the military in the war. The U.S. Army grew from about 1.4 million to 3 million people. The Navy grew from under 300,000 to more than 600,000 people.
Americans of every ethnicity and sex were involved in World War II. 300,000 Mexican Americans and 25,000 Native Americans were in integrated units. Nearly one million African Americans joined the military in mostly segregated units. They first worked in limited roles at first. Later, African Americans saw more active combat and served in the white combat units in some cases. This came after causalities mounted. Over 350,000 women served in World War II in a diversity of roles. In 1941, Congresswoman Edith Nourse Rogers introduced a bill formed the Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps which would change into the WAC or the Women’s Army Corps in 1943. The WAC allowed women clerical workers, truck drivers, instructors, and lab technicians to work for the United States Army. Over 150,000 women served in the WAC. 15,000 women served overseas. 600 women received medals for their service. The Army Nurse Corps had 57,000 nurses. These nurses were in danger from the Axis in Europe and in the Pacific. Thousands of more women were in the Navy and Coast Guard auxiliaries. Industry would mobilize too. Roosevelt inspired American production of industry to be used in the war. The War Production Board or the WPB oversaw the conversion of peacetime industry into a war industry. Many agencies made materials to promote resources for the war. Civilian goods were regulated. Organized labor negotiated with the government too. All of these things were controlled with the help of the OWM or the Office of War Mobilization. Defense spending massively ended the Great Depression.
That spending was government money which proves the notion that government intervention can end recessions and depressions. A job came for every worker who wanted one. Production for military supplies increased. Henry Ford produced for America. American made production much more than Axis nations combined by 1944. American production was key in causing the Allied victory of World War II.
After Pearl Harbor, Japan moved as quickly as possible in the Pacific in order for them to control areas before a major American response. In December 1941, Douglas MacArthur struggled to secure the Philippines. The Philippines had little support. Japan destroyed half of the Army’s fighter planes in the region. Japan quickly controlled Guam. They also took Hong Kong and Wake Island. Japan attacked the Philippines by December 22, 1941. MacArthur used his forces to try to stop the Japanese. Yet, the Japanese had bigger numbers, so MacArthur and his forces were forced to retreat. The U.S. left Manila to the Bataan peninsula. They dug in for a siege on Corregidor. Americans suffered heavily and many had low rations. MacArthur left into Australia via evacuation by orders from the U.S. government. Other Americans remained behind. They held out until May of 1942. This was when 75,000 troops surrendered. They were taken as POWs to march 55 miles to the Bataan peninsula to go into a railway. They were forced to march 8 more miles. More than 7,000 Americans and Filipino troops died during the Bataan Death March. Japanese forces continued to get more lands in the Pacific. They got oil and rubber plies in the Southeast Asian region. By the summer of 1942, Japan thought about dominating the Indian Ocean, Australia, New Zealand, and the central Pacific. America had to act quickly to prevent that from happening.
FDR led a response against Japan. This was the Doolittle Raid. It involved a nighttime bombing raid from the USS Hornet aircraft carrier. It was led by Colonel James Doolittle. Doolittle led the raid of 16 B-25 bombings to attack Tokyo. The raid killed 50 Japanese people and damaged 100 buildings. The pilot flew to China where they crash landed. The Doolittle Raid was a small military gain, but it gave Americans more confidence. The Battle of Coral Sea was used to fight Japan. In May of 1942, Japanese moved to take Port Moresby in New Guinea. The Japanese wanted to attack Australia later on. They also wanted to protect its military bases at Rabual, New Guinea. America sent 2 aircraft carriers. They were the USS Lexington and the USS Yorktown along with support vessels to attack the Japanese forces. On May 7-8, 1948, American and Japanese forces fought each other via aircraft. The battle was a draw, but it further gave Americans forces confidence to continue. Aircraft carriers and planes were key weapons in WWII. Japan no longer attacked New Guinea in the future. 1942 saw the Allied response against the Axis Powers to exist in a higher level.
The Allies Winning
June 1942 was a time of the Allied forces were still responding and fighting the Axis Powers. The Axis Powers never had a long term strategy in their goals. Hitler wanted to rule Europe and murder Jewish people, Communists, socialists, plus non-white Germanic peoples. Mussolini wanted an empire from Italy to East Africa. Tojo wanted to dominate Western Pacific areas and Asia. The Allied forces had a more unified purpose. Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin wanted Nazi Germany defeated. America created tons of materials for the Allies, but the Allies fought Nazi U-Boats in order for the Allies to carry those supplies to the UK, the Soviet Union, and other Allied forces. German U-Boats sank more than 3,500 merchant ships and murdered thousands of Allied seamen in the Atlantic and Caribbean waters. By mid-1943, the Allied forces used radar to track and destroy German U-Boats. Long range bombers defeated many U-boats too. Germany attacked Russia in 1941. The Nazis send one army north to Leningrad and a second one east toward Moscow. They also had a third group going south to Stalingrad. The Nazis were deep in the Soviet Union. Millions of Soviet soldiers and civilians were killed. The Soviet resistance and the Russian winter ended the Nazi advance. Hitler also wanted to capture Stalingrad in order to get the rich oil fields of the Caucasus Mountains. The battle of Stalingrad was long and harsh. German troops had house by house fights. The Soviet troops counterattacked. The Nazis were trapped. Hitler resisted defeat at first. The remaining German troops surrendered on January 31, 1943. The battle of Stalingrad was a turning point in the war. It was the end of the Hitler advance in the east. Hitler never could dominate Europe. Nazi armies were in retreat and came back toward Germany. The Soviet Union was now in the offensive going westward into Berlin.
There was World War II battles in North Africa too. In the deserts and mountains of North Africa, Germany and Britain fought each other for territories. The British were fighting the Germans and the Italians since 1940. The Allied forces wanted North Africa. Stalin wanted America and Britain to fight the Nazis in France in order to cause a second European front (plus give Stalin more freedom to fight). FDR and Churchill wanted to go into North Africa at first instead. Both thought that they needed more time to go into France from the English Channel. FDR and Churchill wanted to get North Africa, so they could go into Italy. By October of 1942, the British won a major victory at El Alamein in Egypt. The British moved westward. Allied troops landed in Morocco and Algeria and started to move east toward key German position. The Allied invasion of North Africa was started by General Dwight Eisenhower, who was an American. German general Erwin Rommel on February of 1943 led his Afrika Korps against the Americans at the Kasserine Pass in Tunisia. He was called the Desert Fox. Rommel broke through the American lines. He wanted to go to the Allied supply base at Tebessa in Algeria. American soldiers stopped the Rommel assault. Rommel retreated after he lacked the supplies to carry onward. The Kasserine Pass victory inspired Americans. They or the Allies wanted aggressive officers and troops who were trained at desert fighting. Eisenhower put the American forces in North Africa under the command of George S. Patton Jr. He was a tank commander and an expert strategist. Patton’s forces went east. They had confidence. At the same time, the British forces went westward from Egypt. They trapped the Axis armies. The Nazis decreased in power at Tunisia. Rommel escaped and his army didn’t win. By May of 1943, German and Italian forces surrendered with about 240,000 troops.
By 1943, the Nazis were on the defensive. January of 1943 was the time when Roosevelt and Churchill met at Casablanca, Morocco to plan their next moves. They decided to bomb Germany and invade Italy. FDR wanted the Allies to only accept unconditional surrender. FDR didn’t want Hitler, Mussolini, or Tojo to have some negotiated peace. FDR wanted complete victory. The Allied forces invaded Italy. First, they came to Sicily since it had little U-Boats and it was an island. By July 1943, British and American armies came into Sicily. Eisenhower commanded the joint American-British forces to strike. The Axis escaped into the mainland of Italy. The 38 day campaign caused the Allies to control the western Mediterranean. It paved the way for the invasion of the Italian mainland. It also ended the rule of Benito Mussolini years later. Italy surrendered on September 3, 1943. 5 weeks later, Italy declared war on Germany. Hitler didn’t give up on Italy yet. Mussolini was rescued by a German airborne force from a mountaintop fortress. Hitler made him a puppet leader of northern Italy. In southern Italy, the Nazis fought against the Allies.
The invasion of Italy by the Allies wasn’t easy. Italy had massive mountains, heavy rains, and tough terrain. Allied forces would not completely defeat the Axis until 1944, but the Allied force would have ma
|EU to shore up borders, returns and migrant detentions Cache Translate Page||The European Commission is demanding over a billion euros to shore up borders against migrants over the next two years, while handing over new executive powers to EU agencies tackling asylum and frontier controls.
It means, among other things, the EU's border and coast agency, also known as Frontex, could have some 10,000 border guards, possibly armed, at its disposal by 2020.
"Service weapons may only be used exceptionally and under clearly defined conditions," notes the commission proposal.
The commission had earlier this year announced the 10,000 figure but with a 2027 date. The new deadline fast-tracks the border guard boost in numbers, and comes with a EUR1.2bn price tag in a budget proposal that seeks to boost the Warsaw-based agency's finances to just above EUR11bn over the next decade.
Frontex currently has around 1,500 guards on loan from EU states.
It wants its own corps and equipment and has redefined itself as a law-enforcement agency, in a move confirmed to EUobserver earlier this year by its director Fabrice Leggeri.
In February, it launched an operation with a fleet of over a dozen ships in the Mediterranean to tackle terrorism and crime.
But Juncker's vision goes beyond border guards. He also wants the agency to be more engaged in sending rejected asylum seekers back home along with executive powers to ID check and authorise or refuse people crossing a border into an EU state.
Frontex already helps carry out returns, most of them forced, and last year started chartering its own flights.
"We have already returned over 8,000 people this year and last year the overall number was 14,000," Ewa Moncure, a Frontex spokeswoman, told this website on Tuesday.
She said Frontex currently had an operational budget of around EUR50m to carry out these returns. "We are talking about hundreds of flights," she said.
The commission now says people whose applications for asylum have been rejected should have no period for voluntary departure. Appeals must be made within five days. It also wants EU states to lock them up for a minimum of three months to prevent them from absconding.
Carrying out returns, however, requires a travel document from the country of destination. Often such documents are refused or delayed, tossing a possible spanner in the EU return proposals.
It has concluded readmission agreements with 17 countries, none of them in continental Africa, although talks have been launched with Algeria, Nigeria, and Tunisia..... | http://bit.ly/2CP6o9S|
|Tunisia: Monitoring and Evaluation Manager- Libya Cache Translate Page||Organization: Mercy Corps|
Closing date: 12 Oct 2018
About Mercy Corps
Mercy Corps is a leading global organization powered by the belief that a better world is possible.
Program / Department Summary
Mercy Corps has been present in Libya since 2011 with programming focuses on Social Cohesion and Cash Transfers to vulnerable Libyans. With funding from UNHCR, ECHO and OCHA we work closely with Libyan stakeholders to jointly address humanitarian and development needs, with a focus on timely humanitarian response, increasing financial inclusion, and supporting social cohesion. Mercy Corps Libya has both offices have offices in Tunis and Tripoli and programming is co-managed from both. With a long and respected history in both countries, Mercy Corps is looking to invest in improving MEL systems to better capture programmatic data and evidence to illustrate the impact of our current programs to donors and allow for iterative, evidence-based program design/management.
Mercy Corps Libya is looking to develop the MEL department to enhance our ability to collect and analyze data, practice effective adaptive management and increase the quality of our donor reporting.
General Position Summary
The M&E Manager will work closely with all program staff under the direct supervision of the Team Leader. S/He will be the supporting the teams' focal point for:
The goal of the role is to support the development of the teams' MEL tools and systems, help link PMs and MEL staff and ensure PMs understand their role in MEL, and support with the hiring and onboarding of new MEL staff as well as the training of current staff.
Essential Job Responsibilities
Strategy & Vision
Accountability to Beneficiaries
Supervisory Responsibility: M&E Officer
Reports Directly To: Libya Team Leader, dotted line management to Program Managers
Works Directly With: Team Leader, Deputy Team Leader, Grants Manager, Program Coordinator, Operations Manager, Humanitarian Access Team,
Knowledge and Experience
Living Conditions / Environmental Conditions
The position is based in Tunis, Tunisia and may require travel to Libya. This position is an unaccompanied position. Housing will be provided in Tunis according to Mercy Corps Libya housing policy. This may be shared or individual depending on the availability of Mercy Corps housing. Transport is not provided by MC Libya, but a number of affordable options exist for travel to/from the office.
Living conditions in Tunis are comfortable. Tunis has excellent medical facilities, as well as dependable access electricity, clean water and internet connection. The security situation is stable in Tunisia, with a possibility minor rioting in some parts of the country due to economic hardships. Tunis is generally free of any serious threats towards international or national staff, outside of minor incidents of petty theft. Despite the relative security, restrictions exist for travel outside of Tunis.
Mercy Corps team members represent the agency both during and outside work hours when deployed in a field posting or on a visit/TDY to a field posting. Team members are expected to conduct themselves in a professional manner and respect local laws, customs and MC's policies, procedures, and values at all times and in all in-country venues.
How to apply:
|Comment on Il prezzo del sale by mirkhond Cache Translate Page||Dall'Egitto il grano, e dalle odierne Tunisia e Algeria, grano, vino e olio.|
|How to create a Mobile Dashboard with SQL Server Microsoft Mobile Publisher? Cache Translate Page|
Over the past three years, I read some interesting news about Microsoft which was “ Microsoft acquires mobile business intelligence leader Datazen ”. This news made me excited because showing Reporting Service reports in mobile devices can be painful and often not effective for end users. After this acquisition, Microsoft developers worked quickly to adapt the Datazen application to SQL Server Reporting Services and this effort culminated in Microsoft SQL Server Mobile Report Publisher.
Microsoft SQL Server Mobile Report Publisher is a report design tool which allows us to create mobile reports and publish them to SQL Server Reporting Services. We can use these reports on mobile devices very easily. In this article, we are going to explore how to create a mobile dashboard with SQL Server Mobile Report Publisher and publish this mobile report to SQL Server Reporting Services.
Before starting the demonstration, I want to add some additional notes about report design. Microsoft recommends two report design approaches;Design First Data First
Design First:In this approach, we will create the report design without any data. If your BI department has formed design and data development teams, you can use this approach; because the report designer does not need to wait for dataset creation.
Data First:In this approach, we will populate all required data to mobile report and then design to report. The advantage of this approach is we can design all elements with real data. But if you ask my work approach, first of all, I would create a draft Excel file which includes all columns name with some sample data and develops the report design with this Excel file. And then I will discuss the report with the owner (customer) over this report prototype. Finally, I will make the changing to the report and connect to real time data.Demonstration Creating data source and dataset
In the first step of this demonstration; we will create a data source and dataset in SSRS.
Open the Reporting Services web portal. Click the New button and select Data Source.
We will give a name (MobileReportSample) to our data source and then we will fill the required fields for connection strings. In this settings page; we will select a connection type and set the credentials of connection.
Now, we will create a data source for our mobile report. Click New and then select DataSet . If the Microsoft SQL Server Report Builder is installed your computer, it will automatically be opened. If you have not installed the Report Builder you can click Get Report Builder link and download Report Builder.
Select the MobileReportSample dataset which was created in the previous step and clicks Create .
Tip:This script will generate a sample data for mobile report. This data simulates territory sales which are made by salesperson. We will use this data in our mobile dashboard graphics.DROPTABLEIFEXISTSDemoForMobileReport CREATETABLE DemoForMobileReport (Id INTPRIMARYKEYIDENTITY(1,1), Dt DATE, SalesPerson VARCHAR(200), SalesAmnt FLOAT, TargetSaleAmnt FLOAT, ContOfSale VARCHAR(200), ContOfCountry VARCHAR(200)) INSERTINTO DemoForMobileReport values ('20180112',' Charles','7985.80','7137','Europe','Norway'), ('20180208','Steven','3133.34','3565','Europe','Turkey'), ('20180311','Michael','2158.64','2500','Asia','Japan'), ('20180318','George','11332.86','14300','Europe','Germany'), ('20180402','Jonny','938.98','1200','Africa','Tunisia'), ('20180322','Jonny','807','3000','Oceania','New Zeland')
Click Edit as Text and copy/paste the following query.SELECT*FROM DemoForMobileReport
Click (!) exclamation mark and populate data. Click save button and save the dataset to report server.
Designing mobile dashboard
Launch the Microsoft SQL Server Mobile Report Publisher. In the first step we will create data connections between SSRS and mobile report.
Click Server connections in top of the panel.
Fill the required fields with the SSRS web portal URL and credentials. Click Connect .
Select Data tab and click Add data
Select Report server …
Select the data set …
Data will populate the mobile report screen …
In our mobile report design; first, we will add Half-donut gauge. The purpose of this gauge is to compare SalesAmnt field and TargetSaleAmnt field so we will show target realization ratio.
Add the Half-donut component to design layout and change title as “target realization ratio”
Click the Data tab and change the data properties …
The last layout of Half-donut will like this …
The second component will be a category chart in our mobile report design. This chart will help us to show country sales comparison.
Add a Category-chart component to the design layout and change the title to Country Sales.
Click the Data tab and change the data properties of the Category Chart.
We will add Comparison totals chart in our mobile report design. This chart will help us to show salesperson target realizations.
Add the Comparison category chart to design layout and change title to Sales Person Targets.
Click the Data tab and change the data properties …
And the final component is Range stop heat map. The aim of this chart is to show the target realization rate by continent.
Add the Range stop heat map to design layout and change title to Continent Targets.
Click Data tab and change the data properties of Range stop heat map …
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L’11 settembre 2018, a Roma, presso Palazzo Montecitorio, si è svolta una presentazione del volume di Rod Dreher, L’opzione Benedetto. Una strategia per i cristiani in un mondo post-cristiano (trad. it., Edizioni San Paolo, Milano 2018). Nel corso della conferenza, S.E. Mons. Georg Gänswein, Prefetto della Casa Pontificia, ha svolto una relazione, il cui testo in lingua italiana riproduciamo qui integralmente.
Ringrazio cordialmente per l’invito alla Camera, che ho accettato volentieri, a presentare il volume di Rod Dreher che viene dall’America e del quale avevo già sentito molto parlare. Benedetto da Norcia, il padre del monachesimo al quale il libro deve il suo titolo programmatico, mi ha molto stimolato a venire qui oggi. Ma mi ha anche molto toccato e commosso la data in cui ci incontriamo con il valoroso autore qui a Roma.
Perché oggi è l’11 settembre che in America, dall’autunno del 2001 in poi, viene chiamato solo e semplicemente “Nine/Eleven”, per ricordare quella sciagura apocalittica nella quale allora membri dell’organizzazione terroristica Al Qaida, attaccarono gli Stati Uniti d’America a New York e a Washington di fronte agli occhi del mondo intero, utilizzando come granate degli aerei di linea dirottati in volo pieni di passeggeri.
Quanto più, nel turbine di notizie delle ultime settimane, mi curvavo sul libro di Rod Dreher, tanto più – a seguito della pubblicazione del rapporto del Grand Jury della Pennsylvania – in questo nostro incontro non potevo non scorgere un vero e proprio atto della Divina Provvidenza: oggi, infatti, anche la Chiesa cattolica guarda piena di sconcerto al proprio “Nine/Eleven”, al proprio 11 settembre, anche se questa catastrofe non è purtroppo associata a un’unica data, quanto a tanti giorni e anni, e a innumerevoli vittime.
Vi prego di non fraintendermi: non intendo confrontare né le vittime né i numeri degli abusi nell’ambito della Chiesa cattolica con le complessive 2.996 persone innocenti che l’11 settembre persero la vita a seguito degli attentati terroristici al World Trade Center e al Pentagono.
Nessuno (fino ad ora) ha attaccato la Chiesa di Cristo con aerei di linea pieni di passeggeri. La Basilica di San Pietro è in piedi e così anche le cattedrali in Francia, in Germania o in Italia che continuano a rappresentare l’emblema di molte città del mondo occidentale, da Firenze a Chartres, passando per Colonia e Monaco di Baviera.
E tuttavia, le notizie provenienti dall’America che ultimamente ci hanno informato di quante anime sono state ferite irrimediabilmente e mortalmente da sacerdoti della Chiesa cattolica, ci trasmettono un messaggio ancor più terribile di quanto avrebbe potuto essere la notizia dell’improvviso crollo di tutte le chiese della Pennsylvania, insieme alla “Basilica del Santuario Nazionale dell'Immacolata Concezione” a Washington.
Dicendo questo, ricordo come se fosse ieri quando il 16 aprile 2008, accompagnando Papa Benedetto XVI proprio in quel Santuario Nazionale della Chiesa cattolica negli Stati Uniti d’America, egli in modo toccante cercò di scuotere i vescovi convenuti da tutti gli Stati Uniti: parlava chino per la “profonda vergogna” causata “dall’abuso sessuale dei minori da parte di sacerdoti” e “dell’enorme dolore che le vostre comunità hanno sofferto quando uomini di Chiesa hanno tradito i loro obblighi e compiti sacerdotali con un simile comportamento gravemente immorale”.
Ma evidentemente invano, come vediamo oggi. Il lamento del Santo Padre non riuscì a contenere il male, e nemmeno le assicurazioni formali e gli impegni a parole di una grande parte della gerarchia.
E ora Rod Dreher è qui fra noi e inizia il suo libro con queste parole: “Nessun vide arrivare l’alluvione, un autentico diluvio universale”. Nei suoi ringraziamenti, egli esprime particolare gratitudine a Benedetto XVI. E a me sembra che abbia scritto ampie parti del libro quasi in un dialogo silenzioso con il Papa emerito che tace, rifacendosi alla sua forza profetico-analitica, come ad esempio quando scrive:
“Nel 2012 l’allora Pontefice disse che la crisi spirituale che sta colpendo l’Occidente è la più grave dalla caduta dell’Impero Romano, occorsa verso la fine del V secolo. La luce del cristianesimo sta spegnendosi in tutto l’Occidente.”
Perciò vi prego di permettere di seguito anche a me di accompagnare la presentazione dell’“Opzione Benedetto” di Rod Dreher con parole prese dalla bocca di Papa Benedetto XVI, pronunciate durante il suo ministero, che per me sono rimaste indimenticabili e che nel corso della lettura del libro mi sono via via ritornate in mente: ad esempio quelle dell’11 maggio 2010, quando durante il volo papale verso Fatima egli confidò ai giornalisti:
“Il Signore ci ha detto che la Chiesa sarebbe stata sempre sofferente, in modi diversi, fino alla fine del mondo. [...] Quanto alle novità che possiamo oggi scoprire (in questo terzo segreto del messaggio di Fatima), vi è anche il fatto che non solo da fuori vengono attacchi al Papa e alla Chiesa, ma le sofferenze della Chiesa vengono proprio dall’interno della Chiesa, dal peccato che esiste nella Chiesa. Anche questo si è sempre saputo, ma oggi lo vediamo in modo realmente terrificante: che la più grande persecuzione della Chiesa non viene dai nemici fuori, ma nasce dal peccato nella Chiesa.”
In quel momento egli era Papa già da cinque anni. E più di cinque anni prima – il 25 marzo 2005 – nel corso della Via Crucis al Colosseo, di fronte a Giovanni Paolo II morente, nella meditazione della nona stazione, il Cardinale Ratzinger aveva già trovato le seguenti parole:
“Che cosa può dirci la terza caduta di Gesù sotto il peso della croce? Forse ci fa pensare alla caduta dell’uomo in generale, all’allontanamento di molti da Cristo, alla deriva verso un secolarismo senza Dio. Ma non dobbiamo pensare anche a quanto Cristo debba soffrire nella sua stessa Chiesa? Quante volte si abusa del santo sacramento della sua presenza, in quale vuoto e cattiveria del cuore spesso egli entra! Quante volte celebriamo soltanto noi stessi senza neanche renderci conto di lui! Quante volte la sua Parola viene distorta e abusata! Quanta poca fede c’è in tante teorie, quante parole vuote! Quanta sporcizia c’è nella Chiesa, e proprio anche tra coloro che, nel sacerdozio, dovrebbero appartenere completamente a lui! Quanta superbia, quanta autosufficienza! Tutto ciò è presente nella sua passione. Il tradimento dei discepoli, la ricezione indegna del suo Corpo e del suo Sangue è certamente il più grande dolore del Redentore, quello che gli trafigge il cuore. Non ci rimane altro che rivolgergli, dal più profondo dell’animo, il grido: Kyrie, eleison – Signore, salvaci!”
In precedenza, Giovanni Paolo II ci aveva insegnato che il vero e compiuto ecumenismo è l’ecumenismo dei martiri, per il quale nelle nostre angustie possiamo invocare santa Edith Stein, accanto a Dietrich Bonhoeffer, quali nostri intercessori in Cielo. Ma, come nel frattempo sappiamo, esiste anche un ecumenismo delle difficoltà e della mondanizzazione, e un ecumenismo dell’incredulità e della comune fuga da Dio e dalla Chiesa che attraversa tutte le confessioni. E un ecumenismo del generale oscuramento di Dio. Per questo quello che oggi viviamo è solo il crinale di un cambiamento d’epoca che Dreher profeticamente già un anno fa aveva presentato in America. Aveva visto arrivare la grande alluvione!
E tuttavia egli è anche fermo sul fatto che eclissi di Dio non significa affatto che Dio non c’è più, ma che molti non riconoscono più Dio perché di fronte al Signore si sono frapposte delle ombre che lo oscurano. Oggi sono le ombre dei peccati, dei misfatti e dei delitti dall’interno della Chiesa a oscurare a molti la vista della sua luminosa presenza.
Quella Chiesa popolare nel cui seno ancora noi stessi nascemmo e che così come si ebbe in Europa non ci fu in America, nell’avanzare di questo processo di oscuramento è morta da tempo. Il tono vi sembra eccessivamente drammatico?
Drammatici sono i numeri relativi alle uscite dalla Chiesa. Ma ancor più drammatico è un altro dato ancora: secondo gli ultimi rilevamenti, dei cattolici in Germania che ancora non sono usciti dalla Chiesa, solo il 9,8% la domenica si incontra nelle rispettive Case di Dio per la comune celebrazione della santissima Eucaristia.
Ancora una volta questo mi riporta alla mente le parole di Benedetto XVI pronunciate durante il primo Viaggio dopo la sua elezione. Era il 29 maggio 2005 quando, sulle rive del mar Adriatico, rivolgendosi a un pubblico prevalentemente di giovani venuti ad ascoltarlo, ricordò che la domenica, quale “Pasqua settimanale”, è “espressione dell’identità della comunità cristiana e centro della sua vita e della sua missione”. Il tema scelto dal Congresso eucaristico (“Senza la domenica non possiamo vivere”) lo riportava però indietro, disse il Papa, all’anno 304, quando l’imperatore Diocleziano proibì ai cristiani, sotto pena di morte, di possedere le Scritture, di riunirsi la domenica per celebrare l’Eucaristia e di costruire luoghi per le loro assemblee. E proseguì:
“Ad Abitene, una piccola località nell’attuale Tunisia, 49 cristiani furono sorpresi una domenica mentre, riuniti in casa di Ottavio Felice, celebravano l’Eucaristia sfidando così i divieti imperiali. Arrestati, vennero condotti a Cartagine per essere interrogati dal Proconsole Anulino. Significativa, tra le altre, la risposta che un certo Emerito diede al Proconsole che gli chiedeva perché mai avessero trasgredito l’ordine severo dell'imperatore. Egli rispose: "Sine dominico non possumus": cioè senza riunirci in assemblea la domenica per celebrare l’Eucaristia non possiamo vivere. Ci mancherebbero le forze per affrontare le difficoltà quotidiane e non soccombere. Dopo atroci torture, questi 49 martiri di Abitene furono uccisi. Confermarono così, con l’effusione del sangue, la loro fede. Morirono, ma vinsero: noi ora li ricordiamo nella gloria del Cristo risorto”.
Significa che quello che noi ancora da bambini, nelle così dette Chiese popolari, avevamo conosciuto come il così detto “obbligo domenicale”, in realtà è il più prezioso segno distintivo dei cristiani. E che è più antico di tutte le Chiese popolari. È dunque veramente una vera crisi degli ultimi tempi quella nella quale la Chiesa cattolica si trova immersa ormai da tempo; una crisi, però, che credettero di percepire nei loro giorni anche mia madre e mio padre – “vedere l’abominio della desolazione stare nel luogo santo” – e che d’altronde forse ogni generazione nella Storia della Chiesa ha scorto al proprio orizzonte.
Ultimamente, però, ci sono stati giorni in cui mi sono sentito come riportato indietro ai giorni della mia fanciullezza – nella fucina di mio padre nella Foresta nera, al suono dei colpi di martello sull’incudine che sembravano non finire mai, e tuttavia questa volta senza mio padre, delle cui mani sicure mi fidavo come di quelle di Dio.
In questa sensazione evidentemente non sono solo. In maggio, infatti, anche Willem Jacobus Eijk, cardinale arcivescovo di Utrecht, ha ammesso che, guardando all’attuale crisi, pensa alla “prova finale che dovrà attraversare la Chiesa” prima della venuta di Cristo – descritta dal paragrafo 675 del Catechismo della Chiesa cattolica – e che “scuoterà la fede di molti credenti”. “La persecuzione – continua il Catechismo – che accompagna il pellegrinaggio della Chiesa sulla terra svelerà il ‘mistero di iniquità’.”
Con questo “mysterium iniquitatis” Rod Dreher ha la familiarità di un’esorcista, come ha dimostrato con le sue ricostruzioni degli ultimi mesi, con le quali anch’egli ha favorito – forse come nessun altro giornalista più di lui – la rivelazione dello scandalo dell’ex arcivescovo di Newark e Washington. E tuttavia Dreher non è un giornalista investigativo. E nemmeno un visionario, ma un sobrio analista che da tempo segue in modo vigile e critico la condizione della Chiesa e del mondo, ma nonostante questo mantenendo comunque sul mondo lo sguardo amorevole di un bambino.
Per questo Dreher non presenta un romanzo apocalittico come il famoso “Signore del mondo” con il quale nel 1906 il presbitero inglese Robert Hugh Benson scosse il mondo anglosassone. Il libro di Dreher, invece, assomiglia più a delle istruzioni pratiche e praticabili per la costruzione di un’arca: perché egli sa che non c’è alcuna diga con la quale si possa ancora arginare la grande alluvione; un’alluvione che non solo da ieri è in procinto di inondare l’antico Occidente cristiano al quale per lui è ovvio che appartiene anche l’America.
Da qui emerge subito con chiarezza una triplice differenza fra Dreher e Benson: in primo luogo, da americano autentico qual è, Dreher è più pratico dell’alquanto bizzarro britannico di Cambridge nell’epoca precedente alla Prima guerra mondiale. Inoltre, da cittadino della Louisiana, Dreher è per così dire a prova di uragano. E infine egli non è affatto un religioso, ma un laico che cerca di conquistare anime al Regno di Dio che Gesù Cristo ha annunciato per noi non sulla base di un incarico ingiuntogli da altri, quanto sulle ali di un entusiasmo e di una volontà assolutamente personali. In questo senso è un uomo che corrisponde completamente al desiderio e al gusto di Papa Francesco, perché nessun altro a Roma quanto lui sa che la crisi della Chiesa, nel suo nocciolo, è una crisi del clero.
E che dunque è scoccata l’ora dei laici forti e decisi, soprattutto nei nuovi mezzi di comunicazione cattolici indipendenti, esattamente come incarnati da Rod Dreher.
La leggerezza del suo stile narrativo va evidentemente ricondotta all’universo della più nobile tradizione degli Stati Uniti dell’America meridionale ai quali Mark Twain ha conferito un rango universale. Prima ho detto che ultimamente mi sono sentito più volte rivisto nella fucina di mio padre, al suono dei suoi colpi di martello sull’incudine: e devo ammettere a riguardo che la lettura semplice e scorrevole di questo libro importante e significativo mi ha di continuo riportato al mondo avventuroso della mia fanciullezza, quando bambino sognante correvo dietro a Tom Sawyer e al suo amico Huck’ Finn.
In Rod Dreher, al contrario, non si tratta di sogni, ma di fatti e analisi che egli condensa in una frase come questa: “L’Uomo psicologico… ora è padrone della cultura – come senza dubbio gli Ostrogoti, i Visigoti, i Vandali e altri popoli conquistatori si impadronirono di ciò che restava dell’Impero Romano.”
Oppure in quest’altra: “I nostri scienziati, i nostri giudici, i nostri principi e i nostri scribi – sono tutti quanti all’opera per demolire la fede, la famiglia, il genere, persino quel che significa essere umani. I nostri barbari hanno barattato le pelli animali e le lance del passato in cambio di vestiti firmati e telefoni cellulari.”
Il terzo capitolo inizia con queste parole: “Tornare indietro nel tempo non si può, ma tornare a Norcia sì”.
Poco dopo prosegue così, in modo profeticamente attuale e tuttavia per nulla malizioso: “La leggenda vuole che, in una disputa con un cardinale, Napoleone gli avesse fatto notare che aveva il potere di distruggere la Chiesa.
‘Maestà’, replicò il cardinale, ‘noi, il clero, abbiamo fatto del nostro meglio per distruggere la Chiesa negli ultimi milleottocento anni. Non ci siamo riusciti noi, e non ce la farete nemmeno voi’”.
“Quattro anni dopo aver cacciato i Benedettini da quella che era la loro casa da quasi un millennio, l’impero di Napoleone era in rovina, e lui era in esilio. Oggi si può nuovamente sentire il suono del canto gregoriano nella città natale del santo.”
In quella stessa Norcia però si udì anche il boato profondo del grande terremoto che nell’agosto del 2016 scosse la città e che in pochi secondi ridusse in macerie la Basilica di san Benedetto, ad eccezione della facciata. Pressappoco nello stesso periodo violenti nubifragi inondavano la città natale di Rod Dreher sul corso superiore del Mississippi. Due drammatiche scene chiave che, come in una sceneggiatura divina, stanno rispettivamente all’inizio e alla fine del suo libro, quasi fossero illustrazioni di un’unica tesi che Dreher nel primo capitolo formula così:
“La realtà della nostra situazione è davvero allarmante, ma non ci è concesso di vedere istericamente tutto nero. In questa crisi è iscritta una benedizione nascosta, se vogliamo aprire gli occhi per vederla. [...] La tempesta incombente potrebbe essere un mezzo attraverso il quale Dio ci libera.”
Negli ultimi giorni spesso all’interno della Chiesa si è sentito ripetere il concetto di terremoto associandolo a quel crollo per il quale, come affermo, ora anche la Chiesa ha sperimentato il suo “Nine/Eleven”, il suo 11 settembre.
Rod Dreher invece descrive la risposta dei monaci di Norcia alla catastrofe che ha ridotto in macerie il monastero nel luogo di nascita di san Benedetto con poche parole che sento l’obbligo di leggervi, per quanto sono significative ed eloquenti:
“I monaci benedettini di Norcia sono diventati un segno per il mondo in tanti modi che non prevedevo, quando cominciai a scrivere questo libro. Nell’agosto 2016, un terremoto devastante scosse la loro regione. Quando la scossa arrivò nel bel mezzo della notte, i monaci erano svegli a pregare il mattutino e fuggirono dal monastero riparando per sicurezza nella piazza aperta. Più tardi, padre Cassiano rifletté che il terremoto simboleggiava lo sbriciolarsi della cultura cristiana dell’Occidente, ma che c’era un secondo simbolo di speranza quella notte: ‘Il secondo simbolo erano le persone raccolte attorno alla statua di san Benedetto, in piazza, per pregare’, scrisse ai sostenitori. ‘È l’unico modo di ricostruire’”.
Dopo questa testimonianza di padre Cassiano vorrei confidarvi che anche Benedetto XVI dal momento della sua rinuncia si concepisce come un vecchio monaco che, dopo il 28 febbraio 2013, sente come suo dovere dedicarsi soprattutto alla preghiera per la Madre Chiesa, per il Suo successore Francesco e per il Ministero petrino istituito da Cristo stesso.
Perciò, con riguardo all’opera di Dreher, quel vecchio monaco dal monastero Mater Ecclesiae dietro la Basilica di San Pietro rimanderebbe a un discorso che l’allora Papa in carica tenne al Collège des Bernardins di Parigi il 12 settembre 2008 – cioè esattamente domani di dieci anni fa – di fronte alla élite intellettuale di Francia [qui]. Per queste ragioni vorrei presentarvi brevemente questo discorso citandone alcuni passi.
Nel grande sconvolgimento culturale prodotto dalla migrazione dei popoli e dai nuovi ordini statali che stavano formandosi, i monasteri erano i luoghi in cui sopravvivevano i tesori della vecchia cultura e dove, in riferimento ad essi, veniva lentamente formata una nuova cultura, disse allora Benedetto XVI, e si chiese:
“Ma come avveniva questo? Quale era la motivazione delle persone che in questi luoghi si riunivano? Che intenzioni avevano? Come hanno vissuto? Innanzitutto e per prima cosa si deve dire, con molto realismo, che non era loro intenzione creare una cultura e nemmeno conservare una cultura del passato. La loro motivazione era molto più elementare. Il loro obiettivo era: quaerere Deum, cercare Dio. Nella confusione dei tempi in cui niente sembrava resistere, essi volevano fare la cosa essenziale: impegnarsi per trovare ciò che vale e permane sempre, trovare la Vita stessa. Erano alla ricerca di Dio. Dalle cose secondarie volevano passare a quelle essenziali, a ciò che, solo, è veramente importante e affidabile. Si dice che erano orientati in modo ‘escatologico’. Ma ciò non è da intendere in senso cronologico, come se guardassero verso la fine del mondo o verso la propria morte, ma in un senso esistenziale: dietro le cose provvisorie cercavano il definitivo. […] Quaerere Deum, cercare Dio e lasciarsi trovare da Lui: questo oggi non è meno necessario che in tempi passati. Una cultura meramente positivista che rimuovesse nel campo soggettivo come non scientifica la domanda su Dio, sarebbe la capitolazione della ragione, la rinuncia alle sue possibilità più alte e quindi un tracollo dell'umanesimo, le cui conseguenze non potrebbero essere che gravi. Ciò che ha fondato la cultura dell'Europa, la ricerca di Dio e la disponibilità ad ascoltarLo, rimane anche oggi il fondamento di ogni vera cultura.”
Sin qui Benedetto XVI, il 12 settembre 2008, sulla vera “Opzione” di san Benedetto da Norcia. Così che, sul libro di Dreher, non mi resta che da dire questo: non contiene una risposta pronta. In esso non troverete una ricetta infallibile o un passepartout per riaprire tutte quelle porte che finora ci erano accessibili ma che adesso sbattendo si sono di nuovo chiuse. Fra la prima e l’ultima di copertina troverete però un esempio autentico di quello che Papa Benedetto dieci anni fa disse sullo spirito benedettino degli inizi. È un vero “Quaerere Deum”. È quella ricerca del vero Dio di Isacco e di Giacobbe che, in Gesù Cristo, ha mostrato il suo volto umano.
Per questo qui mi viene in mente un’altra frase ancora del capitolo 4,21 della Regola di San Benedetto che in egual modo e tacitamente attraversa e anima l’intero libro di Dreher, come fosse il suo cantus firmus. Sono le leggendarie parole “Nihil amori Christi praeponere” che, tradotte, significano: Nulla si anteponga all’amore per Cristo. È la chiave alla quale si deve l’intera meraviglia del monachesimo occidentale.
Benedetto da Norcia è stato un faro durante la migrazione dei popoli, quando nei rivolgimenti del tempo salvò la Chiesa e rifondando con ciò in certo senso la civiltà europea.
Ora però viviamo nuovamente da decenni – e non solo in Europa, ma su tutta la terra – una migrazione dei popoli che mai più giungerà a una fine [questo è da vedere, se prevarranno le 'buone volontà' che si stanno svegliando in tutta l'Europa -ndR], come ha chiaramente riconosciuto Papa Francesco appellandosi con insistenza alla nostra coscienza. Anche questa volta dunque non tutto è diverso rispetto ad allora.
Così, se questa volta la Chiesa con l’aiuto di Dio non saprà ancora rinnovarsi, ne andrà di nuovo dell’intero progetto della nostra civiltà. Per molti, tutto porta a credere già oggi che la Chiesa di Gesù Cristo non potrà più riprendersi dalla catastrofe dei suoi peccati che rischia quasi di inghiottirla.
E proprio questa è l’ora in cui Rod Dreher da Baton-Rouge in Louisiana presenta il suo libro nei pressi delle tombe degli Apostoli; e, nel mezzo dell’eclissi di Dio che atterrisce in tutto il mondo, viene in mezzo a noi e dice: “La Chiesa non è morta, ma solamente dorme e riposa”.
E non soltanto questo: la Chiesa “è giovane” sembra anche dirci, e con quella gioia e quella libertà con le quali lo disse Benedetto XVI nella Messa per l’inizio del ministero petrino il 24 aprile 2005. Ricordando ancora una volta la sofferenza e la morte di san Giovanni Paolo II del quale era stato collaboratore per così tanti anni, rivolgendosi a ognuno di noi in Piazza San Pietro disse:
“Proprio nei tristi giorni della malattia e della morte del Papa questo si è manifestato in modo meraviglioso ai nostri occhi: che la Chiesa è viva. E la Chiesa è giovane. Essa porta in sé il futuro del mondo e perciò mostra anche a ciascuno di noi la via verso il futuro. La Chiesa è viva e noi lo vediamo: noi sperimentiamo la gioia che il Risorto ha promesso ai suoi. La Chiesa è viva - essa è viva, perché Cristo è vivo, perché egli è veramente risorto. Nel dolore, presente sul volto del Santo Padre nei giorni di Pasqua, abbiamo contemplato il mistero della passione di Cristo ed insieme toccato le sue ferite. Ma in tutti questi giorni abbiamo anche potuto, in un senso profondo, toccare il Risorto. Ci è stato dato di sperimentare la gioia che egli ha promesso, dopo un breve tempo di oscurità, come frutto della sua resurrezione”.
Non potrà indebolire o distruggere questa verità sull’origine della fondazione della Chiesa universale cattolica per mezzo del Signore risorto e vincitore nemmeno il satanico 11 settembre di essa.
Per questo devo ammettere con sincerità che percepisco questo tempo di grande crisi, oggi evidente a tutti, soprattutto come un tempo di grazia; perché alla fine a “farci liberi” non sarà un particolare sforzo qualsiasi, ma la “verità”, come il Signore ci ha assicurato. In questa speranza guardo alle recenti ricostruzioni di Rod Dreher per la “purificazione della memoria” richiestaci da Giovanni Paolo II; e così, grato, ho letto la sua “Opzione Benedetto” come una, per molti versi, fonte di ispirazione meravigliosa. Nelle ultime settimane quasi nient’altro mi ha dato così tanta consolazione.Vi ringrazio per la vostra attenzione. [by Romualdica]
|Offline: Activists and Technologists Still Face Grave Threats for Expression Cache Translate Page|
A decade ago, before social media was a widespread phenomenon and blogging was still a nascent activity, it was nearly unthinkable outside of a handful of countries—namely China, Tunisia, Syria, and Iran—to detain citizens for their online activity. Ten years later, the practice has become all too common, and remains on the rise in dozens of countries. In 2017, the Committee to Protect Journalists found that more than seventy percent of imprisoned journalists were arrested for online activity, while Reporters Without Borders’ 2018 press freedom barometer cited 143 imprisoned citizen journalists globally, and ten citizen journalists killed. While Tunisia has inched toward democracy, releasing large numbers of political prisoners following the 2011 revolution, China, Syria, and Iran remain major offenders, and are now joined by several countries, including the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt.
When we first launched Offline in 2015, we featured five cases of imprisoned or threatened bloggers and technologists, and later added several more. We hoped to raise awareness of their plight, and advocate for their freedom, but we knew it would be an uphill struggle. In two cases, our advocacy helped to secure their release: Ethiopian journalist Eskinder Nega was released from prison earlier this year, and the Zone 9 Bloggers, also from Ethiopia, were acquitted in 2015 following a sustained campaign for their freedom.
Today, the situation in several countries is dire. In Egypt, where a military coup brought the country back toward dictatorship, dozens of individuals have been imprisoned for expressing themselves. Activist Amal Fathy was detained earlier this year after a video she posted to Facebook detailing her experiences with sexual harassment in Cairo went viral, and awaits trial. And Wael Abbas, an award-winning journalist whose experiences with censorship we’ve previously documented, has been detained without trial since May 2018. We also continue to advocate for the release of Alaa Abd El Fattah, the Egyptian activist whose five-year sentence was upheld by an appeals court last year.
Three new Offline cases demonstrate the lengths to which states will go to silence their critics. Eman Al-Nafjan, a professor, blogger, and activist from Saudi Arabia, was arrested in May for her advocacy against the country’s ban on women driving, which was repealed just one month later. Ahmed Mansoor is currently serving a ten-year sentence for “cybercrimes” in his home country of the United Arab Emirates after being targeted several times in the past for his writing and human rights advocacy. And Dareen Tatour, a Palestinian citizen of Israel, recently began a five-month prison sentence after several years of house arrest and a lengthy trial for content she posted on social media that had been misinterpreted by police.
Advocacy and campaigns on behalf of imprisoned technologists, activists, and bloggers can make a difference. In the coming months, we will share more details and actions that the online community can take to support these individuals, defend their names, and keep them safe.
To learn more about these and other cases, visit Offline.