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          The Evolving Ideologies of American Jewish Summer Camp      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Summer camp might advertise itself as a simple return to nature, some healthy fresh air and wholesome fun, but there is not now and never has been anything simple about it. American Jewish summer camp in particular has a very long and winding ideological history, one dotted with racism, socialism, political protest, and above all a sense that summer camp is a well of power, a resource to be optimized.

Jews attend summer camp at a higher rate than Americans as a whole, though not nearly as high a rate as Mormons, but the particulars of the Jewish camping experience—begun due to exclusion, changing rapidly due to politics and social movements and the Holocaust—put it in a unique place.

Summer camping in the United States began as a movement in the late 19th century, a sort of rebellion against increasing urbanization and industrialization. By the late 1920s, Jewish summer camps had gotten explicitly ideological: socialist, communist, anarchist, Zionist, Yiddish. Despite this, they were, and remained until after World War II, almost entirely secular. The Yiddish camps focused on Yiddish language and culture, and the Zionist camps on building, farming, and a connection to Israel; neither put much of an emphasis on religion.

A socialist summer camp would have no individual money, and any packages a camper received from home would be divided equally to the rest of the camp. Labor was highly valued; a punishment for bad behavior would never be, say, cleaning the bathrooms, because bathroom duty was a noble and important role in the camp society.

Zionist summer camps prepared kids to move to Palestine (which they sometimes called EY, which stands for Eretz Yisrael, or “the land of Israel”). The kids were taught to farm and build, and focused on Jewish arts and music, including would come to be called Israeli folk dancing. Yiddish camps, which often included a nearby camp for parents, taught Yiddish language and history. Israel, or Palestine, or Jewish history, mostly replaced the weird often-fake American Indian mythology that was and remains so prevalent in non-Jewish summer camps. But everything changed with World War II.


Before the Second World War, American Jews had never seen themselves as the center of the Jewish world: that was in Poland, Lithuania, Germany, Hungary. American Jews were unsettled, immature. They hadn’t unpacked in their new home yet. But following the Holocaust, the weight of leading Jewish culture settled on the shoulders of the Americans. Summer camp was a vital part of this effort. Such camps had for decades been seen by various groups—the labor socialists, cultural Zionists—as a fundamental tool for shaping the youth. “Camp leaders were decidedly critical of ‘suburban Judaism’ that they took to be an inadequate Jewish life created by their campers’ parents who, to their minds, had limited education and too little understanding of Judaism,” writes Prell in an article on the history of Jewish summer camps. There was also, says Prell, a major concern that the parents of baby boomers had been too focused on assimilation rather than developing and maintaining a distinct American Jewish culture.

Summer camp had already proven a valuable place to shape the youth in non-religious molds, as seen in the socialist and Zionist camps from past decades. But in the wake of genocide, some of these Jews in positions of power within Jewish communities—prominent rabbis, organizers, spokespeople—decided that those tools should be applied to Jewish religion and culture.

This is when the first religious Jewish summer camps began. Camp Massad—the word means “foundation” in Hebrew—launched in 1941, servicing the New York area, first in the Catskills and then across the Pennsylvania border in the Poconos. (The Poconos and Catskills are the same mountain range; they just have different names in Pennsylvania and New York.) Massad was the first major summer camp to use the Hebrew language exclusively; it also brought in a contingent of Jewish campers from what would shortly become Israel to promote the possibility of a Jewish state, and emphasize the importance of the idea of Israel to American Jews.

Massad was extremely influential not just for Jewish summer camps but also for worldwide Judaism. Hebrew, until this point, was not widely spoken, with Jews speaking either English or various localized languages like Yiddish. Many modern Hebrew words, like those for sports, were actually invented at Massad.


Among the Massad campers were the young Chicagoan founders of what would become Camp Ramah, one of the most important Jewish summer camps in history. Unlike most other Jewish camps, Ramah was (and is) a network of camps under a centralized deciding force, in this case the Conservative movement.

As a quick primer for those unfamiliar: American religious Judaism is split up into several branches usually called denominations. The four biggest are Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, and Reconstructionist, and they differ mostly in the level of observance (roughly those are in descending order), in addition to a bunch of smaller liturgical issues.

Ramah was set up and owned by the Jewish Theological Seminary, the dominant force in Conservative Judaism, during the early 1940s, specifically as a tool for Jewish education. The first Ramah opened in Conover, Wisconsin in 1947, and swiftly expanded. Today they have locations in Wisconsin, Ontario, the Berkshires, Georgia, Colorado, California, and elsewhere. There were often in areas without large Jewish populations; Wisconsin was also home to an important Reform camp. I asked Sarna whether it was difficult for Jewish camps to set up in non-Jewish areas. He said there weren’t really any conflicts. “Many of these places where there were summer camps, they were perfectly happy to have Jews in the summer,” he said. “As long as they left.”

The JTS was a little hesitant at first to spend all this money on summer camps, but this was a dramatic time for the Jewish people, and they were convinced that summer camps might be the best and only hope for Jewish survival. “Jewish education represented both a defensive response to adversity and a form of cultural resistance, a resolve to maintain Judaism in the face of opposition and danger,” wrote Jonathan Sarna, a professor of Jewish history at Brandeis University, in an article on the topic. “It also promised to prepare the community for the new responsibilities that it faced in the wake of the European Jewish catastrophe.”


The camp founders felt a weight on their shoulders. “They're overwhelmingly contemptuous of the parents of the baby boom, who were raised in America and who know almost nothing about Jewish life,” says Prell. “They just didn't have the upbringing, because their parents were immigrants and didn't know how to translate their old life.”

Ramah, and the camps that would follow, were focused on addressing this issue. A phrase you see again and again, says Prell, is this: “The whole day will be ours.” Post-Holocaust American Jews realized what the socialist and Zionist camps before them realized: summer camp is the only place where they can have unfettered access to Jewish kids, the best opportunity to shape young minds for the future. “There is this sense that we can take clay and mold it into a meaningful Jewish life for these kids,” says Prell. “And we can do it because we have them all day, and we can do it because we can get them away from their parents. We can get them away from transistor radios, and the suburbs, which is fairly new to Jews.” That shaping took various forms: instilling a sense of history, pride, and knowledge, but also social justice and civil rights, and a desire to form Jewish families and raise more Jewish kids.

This began a wildly experimental phase for Jewish summer camps, one that would last into the 1970s. The 1940s and 1950s were focused on making American Jewish kids understand that they lived in two worlds, the Jewish world and the American world, and that both were vital. America as a whole at this time, and especially in the Jewish community, was very into American triumphalism; We beat the Nazis! These camps, while they kept Kosher and observed Shabbat, also celebrated the Fourth of July.


But the coming of the 1960s meant a huge upheaval in the American social fabric. Camp Ramah was centrally owned, but the Reform summer camps were all independent, and the entire system was much more fluid than it might seem. Jews in the 1960s were heavily involved in the anti-war effort, in the civil rights movement, in equal rights for women, in immigration, anti-racism, drug legalization, sex positivity, all kinds of progressive movements. Many of the young counselors at Jewish summer camps were, during the non-summer months, organizers and protestors in college, and their work assuredly did not stop once they went out to Wisconsin or the Catskills for the summer. This wasn’t necessarily unique to Jewish counselors, but the Jewish history of activism and Jewish participation in the civil rights movement made it pretty likely that Jewish camps would follow suit.

In some camps, counselors would perform role-playing. They’d come into the mess hall during breakfast and, without saying anything, gather up all the kids with a certain hair color or eye color. Those kids would be separated from the group for a day or more, made to eat different food, do different activities. Then they’d be reunited and the entire camp would discuss. What does it mean to be a member of an ethnic minority? How does this apply to the Holocaust and to race relations in America? What responsibility do American Jews have to stamp out racial injustice?

Role-playing extended to simpler messages as well, attempting to get Jewish kids to embrace their Jewishness and make Jewish choices. These efforts could sometimes be clumsy, and even offensive. One former camper, who asked to remain anonymous, recalled a role-playing game in which young campers—she was seven years old at the time—were given an egg, representing their “future child,” and a box. The egg would be placed into a box and rolled down a hill; the materials given for padding would vary based on their answers to questions. Pick the right answer and you’d get some protective padding. The wrong one? Rocks and sticks, which would cause the eggbaby to break.

“The question I remember is: Your kid is going to kindergarten and you are considering two schools,” says the former camper. “One is a secular school with computers (a big deal in 1994 or whenever this was) and one is a Jewish school with no computers.” She picked the secular school with computers and was promptly given a rock.

“These are camps not concerned just with summer fun,” says Prell. “These are camps that are trying to teach, as many left-wing camps at the time were trying to teach, what these issues have to do with us, what is our responsibility and how are we going to act on it.” Camp Ramah instituted a program for the older campers called American Seminar, in which campers were required to go to nearby cities and register voters, or volunteer in mental hospitals, or help repaint the houses of black Americans. “Camp is where I first learned about social justice and activism and that I, as a young person, could actually do something,” says Valerie Weisler, who attended a Ramah day camp and then worked there as a counselor.

It’s also worth noting that there was, and remains, a wide variety of Jewish summer camp experiences: not just in the type of ideology, but also in degree. Many Jewish summer camps were, even during the 1960s, pretty low-key. “I really don’t think a lot of the counselors’ political views were rubbed off on us,” says Barbara Berger, who attended a Jewish camp called Camp Oquago starting in 1969. But Berger, who grew up fairly non-observant in a very Jewish suburb of New York, and ended up raising kids in a Pennsylvania suburb with few Jews, says Jewish summer camp affected her feelings about Judaism. “It made me realize that, moving out here ... that I wanted for my kids to make Jewish friends, and have a connection that way. I always lit the candles on Friday nights when the kids were young, because I knew I had to make an extra effort out here.”


Summer camp suffered a downturn in popularity in the 1970s and 1980s in general, and Jewish summer camps found themselves in a tricky situation. Jews were now assimilated enough that many Jewish kids attended a non-Jewish camp. (I myself went to a YMCA camp in the early 2000s; despite the “Young Men’s Christian Association” thing, my camp was heavily Jewish.) Today, camps are rising in popularity again, but Jewish summer camps have entirely new issues to deal with. The reign of Trump, rising anti-Semitism in Europe and the U.S., and above all the issue of the Israeli occupation of Palestine are major topics that counselors are attempting to address. In 2018, the effects of the #MeToo movement have many Jewish camps looking into sexual harassment; a minor scandal found Camp Ramah refusing to allow what it called “anti-Israel educational messages” at camp.

“Campers are definitely taught to love Israel unconditionally, which can be rather controversial now,” says Ivy Cohen, who attended a Reform summer camp in Massachusetts. “I do feel like as I got older, more frequently we were given various sides of an issue as well as different perspectives, and encouraged to form our own beliefs.”

Summer camps in the U.S. have never, ever been simple. Whether an attempt to fight urbanization or raise good socialists, Zionists, American Jews, or progressives, summer camps have power. They provide a place where children and teenagers can encounter viewpoints and education that don’t exist in their normal lives, but could shape their futures. In some cases, that can provoke conflict at home. Jewish kids might come back from summer camp and wonder why their parents don’t keep Kosher, why they don’t go to synagogue every week, why nobody talks about moving to Israel. In some cases, Jewish camp culture influenced non-camp religion; Israeli culture and folk art became prominent in Reform synagogues where it had never been before, and even the actual music changed, with a new form of folk-influenced religious music that came from campers.

On the whole, Jewish summer camps really did work in some ways; many Jewish homes became more religious. A study found that Camp Ramah alums are much more likely than other Jews to spend time in or “feel an emotional attachment to” Israel, attend synagogue regularly, and marry within the faith. These studies have focused on religious Judaism; there is not a corpus of data about the secular effects of Jewish summer camp. Are alums of Jewish summer camp more likely to donate to charity, vote for progressive candidates, take part in protests? We don’t really know. But those have been goals of Jewish summer camps, whether or not they’re explicitly stated. Says Weisler: “Jewish camping molded me as a Jewish person, and a person, period.”

          Podcast FS Hebdo - 23 au 29 novembre      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Du pigeon qui s’oriente grâce aux protéines boussole de son oeil, en passant par la Terre qui est encore loin d’une inversion magnétique, les futures batteries au sodium qui se préparent, ou encore une rose bionique qui intègre des circuits électroniques à transistors, découvrez l’actualité scientifique pour la semaine du 23 au 29 novembre.
          Garitano: "Lo de Theo no es oficial y puede pasar de todo"      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
El entrenador de la Real Sociedad hizo balance de la pretemporada en El Transistor de Onda Cero. No teme que el Athletic de Bilbao disponga de dinero.
          DigiKey Symbol Errors      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Installed DigiKey Libraries for KiCad5. Browsing available FETs turned up a BUNCH of OOPS. Many of the single JFet symbols have the integral diode illustrated backward (e.g. dk-Transistors-FETs-Mosfets-Single\IRLM6402TRPBF). This should look like the symbol at \IRF954NPBF. This error is rampant so DigiKey should re-check ALL JFET symbols for accuracy.

          Comment on Tying down electrons with nanoribbons by Sun Yong Choi      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Quantom transistor must be intergrated into Silicon, perhaps less than 5nm, otherwise, no productivity and eco system will be damaged.
          Santi Cazorla: "Esta era la última oportunidad que me daba, era mi familia o el fútbol"      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Santi Cazorla nos atiende en El Transistor en el día de su presentación con el Villarreal donde vuelve a sentirse futbolista. Cazorla asegura que "esta era la última oportunidad que me daba, era mi familia o el fútbol". Por otra parte afirma que "no hay palabras para agradecer el cariño de la afición. Intentaré que se sientan orgullosos de mi". El futbolista asturiano explica que "he soñado muchas veces con volver, pero no tengo miedo de lesionarme de nuevo".
          Bruno Hortelano: "Vengo de un oro a tocar fondo y recuperar hasta aquí, tengo sensación de victoria"      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
El Atleta español Bruno Hortelano nos atiende en directo en El Transistor donde se muestra satisfecho por la final que ha hecho en los campeonatos de Europa de atletismo donde ha sido cuarto. Asegura que "tengo sensación de victoria porque he dado todo", y añade que "he ido creciendo todo el años durante las carreras". Hortelano no cree que "haya caído de un oro a un cuarto puesto, vengo de un oro a tocar fondo y recuperar hasta aquí". Y finaliza
          Fernando Carro se entera en directo en El Transistor que finalmente es subcampeón de Europa en el 3.000m      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
En El Transistor hablamos con el subcampeón de Europa de 3.000m obstáculos Fernando Carro. El atleta se entera en directo que ha conseguido finalmente la medalla tras ganar la apelación que habían puesto por un percance que había tenido durante la prueba. Asegura que "estaba muerto de miedo". Nos cuenta que "sentía que me iba fuera de la pista y he tenido que rectificar, pero ha sido involuntario". Fernando Carro nos cuenta cómo fueron sus orígenes en el atletismo y explica cómo se ha sentido tras terminar la prueba.
          Comment on Get Ready For An Expansion Of Trump’s Economically Ignorant Trade War With China by Tyrell      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
People have complained about “made in China” "made in Japan" ever since I was a child. “Made in America” is seldom seen. The big thing back then was the transistor radio – as popular as the cell phone is today and likewise a big aggravation for parents and teachers. What we do see more of now are parts made in China and assembled in the US. There have been health concerns about some imports from China such as the drywall a few years back. It used to be that car owners had the pick of the “BigThree”auto makers and the parts choices were AC/Delco, MoPar, and Motorcraft. Now there are also NGK, KYB, and Denso. Those are good parts. So the quality has improved. There was the decline of many industries due to imports and imbalanced trade deals made decades ago. There was the “Buy American” campaign; but to our shock we found out the textile machines were made overseas. Gone are the little tags in the pockets that said “inspected by #65”. Clothing today has an assortment of sources; from Vietnam to Pakistan. Some textile mills around here have re-opened. Many a mill was torn down or converted to apartments or fitness centers. Some of those structures date back to the 1800’s. The newer textile mills here are clean, cool, safe, and quiet. And have fewer workers. General Electric sold their appliance division to Haier. Now they make turbines and jet engines that sell for $100 million each. Recent label I saw: “Made in US or Mexico” See: “In US, China Trade War Has Few Casualties” (Kenneth Rapoza, Forbes)
          Op Amps Before Transistors: A 600V Vacuum Tube Monster      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Op amps. Often the first thing that many learn about when beginning the journey into analog electronics, they’re used in countless ways in an overwhelmingly large array of circuits. When we think about op amps, images of DIPs and SOICs spring to mind, with an incredibly tiny price tag to boot. We take their abundance and convenience for granted nowadays, but they weren’t always so easy to come by.

[Mr Carlson] serves up another vintage offering, this time in the form of a tube op amp. The K2-W model he acquired enjoyed popularity when it was released as one of …read more

          CMOS-based high-order LP and BP filters using biquad functions      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
This study proposes the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS)-based current-mode high-order active low-pass (LP) and band-pass (BP) filters using biquad functions. The passive RLC Chebyshev ladder filters were used as the prototype, and the mesh- and nodal-analysis methods to derive the biquad functions. The CMOS-based transistor-level biquad circuits were subsequently realised from the biquad functions. The high-order active LP and BP ladder filters were then synthesised from an amalgamation of the biquad circuits. Simulations were carried out to verify the performance and functionality of the LP and BP ladder filters. The results revealed that the proposed ladder filters were operable in the high-frequency range and electronically tunable, given a low-voltage supply of 1 V for the entire circuit. The proposed filters could also achieve the LP frequency response of 300 kHz-30 MHz and BP centre frequency of 200 kHz-20 MHz by means of the bias current (IB) manipulation from 1 to 100 μA. Moreover, the multi-tone simulations were undertaken to assess the filtering performance of the proposed filters and the results are agreeable with the design specifications.
          Two-dimensional models for quantum effects on short channel electrostatics of lightly doped symmetric double-gate MOSFETs      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Analytical Verilog-A compatible 2D model including quantum short channel effects and confinement for the potential, threshold voltage and the carrier charge sheet density for symmetrical lightly doped double-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) is developed. The proposed models are not only applicable to ultra-scaled devices but they have also been derived from 2D Poisson and 1D Schrödinger equations including 2D electrostatics, in order to incorporate quantum mechanical effects. Electron and hole quasi-Fermi potential effects were considered. The models are continuous and have been verified by comparison with COMSOL and BALMOS numerical simulations for channel lengths down to 7 nm at 1 nm oxide thicknesses; very good agreement within ±5% has been observed for silicon thicknesses down to 3 nm.
          Analytical modelling of work-function modulated delta-doped TFET to improve analogue performance      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
In this study, an analytical model for linearly modulated work-function-based delta-doped single-gate tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) has been developed to improve the analogue performance. The impact of delta-doped layer and linearly modulated metal gate on different analogue parameters has been investigated extensively. The insertion of heavily doped delta layer in the source region improves ON current and current switching ratio performance significantly as compared to conventional TFET. Similarly, the presence of spatially work-function modulated metal gate reduces subthreshold swing and improves I60 performance. The distance of the delta layer from the source-channel interface is optimised to 3 nm to maximise efficiency. The proposed model exhibits much improved analogue performance as compared to conventional TFET and delta-doped TFET. Thus, the model can be viewed as one of the potential replacements for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors in ultra-low-power applications. However, the precision of present model is corroborated by using the two-dimensional TCAD Sentaurus simulator.
          Oscillation analysis and current peak reduction in paralleled SiC MOSFETs      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Parallel connection of power metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) is often used in the high current side of power conversion systems to obtain a thermal dispersion and low conduction losses. However, a parallel connection may lead to a current unbalance due to the difference of parasitic parameters and switching characteristics of the paralleled devices. The current unbalance generates current oscillations, and in the worst case, it may lead to complete destruction of the power devices. This study analyses an inherent oscillation of two paralleled SiC MOSFETs, under current unbalance conditions. Based on the proposed analysis, it is found that the parasitic inductance is the main cause of the coupled oscillation, which is composed of two different oscillation frequencies. In this study, the coupled oscillation leads to a difference of peak currents between paralleled devices. The circuit conditions, considering the parasitic inductances, are investigated to suppress the coupled oscillation. As a result, a reduction of the common parasitic inductance allows preventing the coupled oscillation and to suppress the peak combined current of paralleled devices. Moreover, a peak current reduction by 37.8% can be achieved, as a result of eliminating the coupled oscillation.
          High-order realisation of MOSFET-only band-pass filters for RF applications      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The authors present two new metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET)-only second-order voltage and transadmittance-mode band-pass filters (BPFs) employing only five transistors without using any passive elements such as a resistor, a capacitor, and an inductor. As a result, both proposed circuits possess low-power consumption and occupy small chip area. The first proposed filter enjoys low output impedance and offset cancellation for voltage-mode operation while the second proposed filter has low supply voltage. The centre frequency of both proposed filters can be electronically tuned by varying biasing voltage. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed filters, effects of output transconductance of transistors have been investigated and equations of input referred noise have been obtained. Furthermore, fourth-order voltage and transadmittance-mode BPF which is derived the first proposed filter is presented and its simulation results are given. All proposed filters are laid-out in the Cadence environment using Taiwan semiconductor manufacturing company (TSMC) 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology parameters. The required chip area of the fourth-order voltage and transadmittance-mode band-pass filter is 1100 μm2 and the power consumption is about 436 μW.
          Gate Bipolar Transistors STATCOM Industry Projected to Reach 1080 Million US$ by 2025      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The global Gate Bipolar Transistors STATCOM market is valued at 690 million US$ in 2017 and will reach 1080 million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of 5.7% during 2018-2025.
          Isotrap Pulsed $IV$ Characterization of GaN HEMTs for PA Design      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
A pulsed characterization of gallium nitride (GaN) high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) under a controlled trap and thermal state is performed to evaluate the trapping-induced degradation in the actual operating conditions, corresponding to different classes of power amplifiers (PAs). Two state-of-the-art GaN-on-SiC technologies are evaluated: 0.15- ${mu }text{m}$ Qorvo and 0.25- ${mu }text{m}$ Wolfspeed HEMTs, with examples relative to class-AB, class-E, and supply modulated operation. It is shown that, in order to get an accurate device characterization, the measurements have to be performed by preconditioning the trap state consistently with the intended application.
          Study on Dynamic Body Bias Controls of RF CMOS Cascode Power Amplifier      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
This letter presents a highly linear cascode CMOS power amplifier (PA) that uses dynamic body linearizers based on envelope signal injection to the bodies of the common source and common gate power transistors. The linearizers allow the PA to have optimum AM–AM and AM–PM, which reduces the nonlinear distortions significantly. The two-stage PA is fabricated using a 0.18- $mu text{m}$ CMOS process with a printed circuit board output transformer. At 1.85 GHz, it delivers 27.7-dBm output power with 41.3% power added efficiency under a −33-dBc ACLR $_{textsf {E-UTRA}}$ and a 4.7% error vector magnitude using long term evolution (LTE) signal.
          Comment on Op Amps Before Transistors: A 600V Vacuum Tube Monster by 𐂀 𐂅      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Looks like these are similar tubes?
          Decentralized Web Summit      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache

Live From The Internet Archive

We are bringing together a diverse group of Web architects, activists, engineers, archivists, scholars, journalists, and other stakeholders to explore the technology required to build a Decentralized Web and its impact.

Speaker include: Mitchell Baker, Vint Cerf, Cory Doctorow, Brewster Kahle, Tim Berners-Lee

Join the conversation by Tweeting: #DWebSummit

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          Op Amps Before Transistors: A 600V Vacuum Tube Monster      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Op amps. Often the first thing that many learn about when beginning the journey into analog electronics, they’re used in countless ways in an overwhelmingly large array of circuits. When we think about op amps, images of DIPs and SOICs spring to mind, with an incredibly tiny price tag to boot. We take their abundance and convenience for granted nowadays, but they weren’t always so easy to come by.

[Mr Carlson] serves up another vintage offering, this time in the form of a tube op amp. The K2-W model he acquired enjoyed popularity when it was released as one of …read more

          More Performance At The Edge      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Shrinking features has been a relatively inexpensive way to improve performance and, at least for the past few decades, to lower power. While device scaling will continue all the way to 3nm and maybe even further, it will happen at a slower pace. Alongside of that scaling, though, there are different approaches on tap to ratchet up performance even with chips developed at older nodes.

This is particularly important for edge devices, which will be called on to do pre-processing of an explosion of data. Performance improvements there will come from a combination of more precise design, less accurate processing for some applications, and better layout using a multitude of general-purpose and specialized processors. There also will be different packaging options available, which will help with physical layouts to shorten the distance between processors and both memory and I/O. And there will be improvements in memory to move data back and forth faster using less power.

The fundamental equation at the edge is less circuitry for signals to travel through, a reduction of bottlenecks for those signals at various junctions in a system, and much better interaction between software and hardware. Hardware-software co-design has been an on-again, off-again topic of discussion since mainframe days, when the real challenge was to get applications to work consistently without rebooting an entire machine. Intel and Microsoft improved on this with windows on an x86 processor, particularly with the introduction of Windows NT, where applications could be written to an application programming interface and not crash the operating system. That was a major step forward, but it led to increasingly bloated applications, and the cheapest solution was a process shrink for processors and DRAM rather than focusing on a better way to write software.

That problem is only now starting to be addressed. A first step in that direction software-defined hardware. But even with better alignment between hardware design and the software that runs on it, the real performance killer is an endless series of security patches and feature updates.

What’s needed, particularly in the age of machine learning and AI, is hardware-software co-design, where the algorithms are much more transparent and flexible, and where the hardware can adapt to changes easily without massive amounts of margin or a fully programmable solution. Software is good for flexibility, but it’s slow compared to hardware, and it tends to grow over time as it amasses more patches. Hardware is much faster, but it’s fixed, and programmable hardware is not nearly efficient. There is room for improvement everywhere, and the best solutions will require collaboration on all sides.

In addition to all of these steps, three things have to happen.

First, margin needs to be reduced in designs. That requires more and better modeling and simulation of everything from process variation to circuit aging, and it requires much tighter integration of the various tools and processes required to develop chips. This can be done more effectively if everything isn’t integrated onto a single planar die, but the goals generally are the same, which is to shorten the distance that signals need to travel and to split up the functionality on different IP―possibly hardened IP. That will minimize contention for resources as well as the number of possible interactions, which in turn requires less circuitry for worst-case scenarios.

Second, security needs to be part of an overall system architecture so that patches don’t bog down functionality of the rest of the system. But all patches, no matter what they address, need to be a zero-sum gain for code, or at least that should be the goal. If OEMs can demand zero defects in hardware, they also should be demanding zero increases in the number of lines of software. Code pruning should be part of update processes. The more code that is added, the greater the chance for interactions that can slow or crash a system, and that in turn has a major effect on the functionality of the hardware, and how long a battery will last between charges.

Third, AI and machine-learning inferencing algorithms need to be written in a way that can be understood by both hardware and software engineers, who need to be able to adjust the weighting based upon probabilities for accurate results. Some of this is available to end users now, particularly with security applications, but it needs to be transparent to systems companies.

Unlike in the past, just increasing transistor density is not going to provide performance improvements of 30% or more gains every couple years. Those improvements increasingly are measured across a system, and that requires changes on every level to both prioritize which parts require more performance and what resources are required to achieve that, as well as the overall architecture for how those parts fit together and interact to handle an increasing volume and diversity of data.

          SwissTek Professional HD Wi-Fi Endoscope      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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          Motorcycle-Bike | | Motorcycle Games For Xbox One      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Harley-Davidson, Inc. (H-D), or Harley, is definitely an American bike company, created in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1903.

1 of 2 significant American motorcycle makers to survive the Good Despair (along with Indian),[2] the company has survived numerous ownership measures, subsidiary measures (e.g., Aermacchi 1974-1978 and Buell 1987-2009), intervals of bad economic wellness and product quality, in addition to powerful global competition,[3] to become one of many world's biggest motorcycle suppliers and an well-known manufacturer commonly known for its dedicated following. There are operator clubs and events global in addition to a company-sponsored brand-focused museum.

Observed for a design of customization that gave increase to the
helicopter bike style,[4] Harley-Davidson historically marketed heavyweight, air-cooled cruiser bikes with engine displacements more than 700 cm³ and has broadened its offerings to add their more recent VRSC (2002) and middle-weight Road (2015) platforms.

Harley-Davidson produces their cycles at factories in York, Pennsylvania; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Kansas Town, Missouri (closing); Manaus, Brazil; and Bawal, India. Structure of a fresh seed in Thailand is scheduled to start in late 2018[5]. The organization areas their services and products worldwide.

Besides cycles, the company permits and markets product beneath the Harley-Davidson manufacturer, among them clothing, home decoration and ornaments, components, toys, and scale results of their bikes, and game

titles predicated on its bike range and the community.

Buell Bike Company
Major report: Buell Bike Organization

Buell Lightning XB9SX
Harley-Davidson's association with sportbike maker Buell Motorcycle Company started in 1987 once they equipped Buell with fifty surplus XR1000 engines. Buell continued to purchase motors from Harley-Davidson until 1993, when Harley-Davidson ordered 49 % of the Buell Bike Company.[71] Harley-Davidson improved its reveal in Buell to ninety-eight % in 1998, and to complete control in 2003.

In an endeavor to entice beginners to motorcycling generally speaking and to Harley-Davidson in particular, Buell created a low-cost, low-maintenance motorcycle. The resulting single-cylinder Buell Boost was introduced in 2000, and was Motorcycle Glasses For Men created through 2009, which, according to Buell, was to be the final year of production. The Buell Blast was working out vehicle for the Harley-Davidson Rider's Side New Rider Course from 2000 till Might 2014, when the organization re-branded the training academy and started utilising the Harley-Davidson Road 500 motorcycles. In these 14 decades, more than 350,000 participants in the program realized to trip on the Buell Blast.

On Oct 15, 2009, Harley-Davidson Inc. given an official record that it would be discontinuing the Buell range and ceasing production immediately.[76] The explained purpose was to concentrate on the Harley-Davidson brand. The business declined to Motorcycle Ohio Manual think about offering Buell. Founder Erik Buell therefore recognized Erik Buell Race and extended to produce and build their 1125RR racing motorcycle.

Motorcycle motors

1,450 cc V-twin
Principal article: Harley-Davidson engine schedule
The traditional Harley-Davidson motors are V-twin engines, with a 45° perspective between the cylinders. The crankshaft has a single green, and equally pistons are linked to the pin through their linking rods.

That 45° viewpoint is included under many United Claims patents and is a design tradeoff that enables a big, high-torque engine in a somewhat little space. It causes the cylinders to fireplace at uneven periods and creates the choppy "potato-potato" sound so strongly Harley Bikes For Sale associated with the Harley-Davidson brand.

To simplify the engine and reduce expenses, the V-twin ignition was designed to use with a single group of factors and no distributor. This is called a twin fire ignition system, producing equally ignite connects to fireplace regardless that cylinder was on its pressure stroke, with one other ignite connect firing on their cylinder's exhaust stroke, effortlessly "squandering an interest ".The exhaust note is actually a throaty barking sound with some popping. The 45° style of the motor ergo creates a put firing sequencing therefore: The first tube fires, the 2nd (rear) cylinder shoots 315° later, then there's a Motorcycle Backpack Reflective 405° distance before the first cylinder fires again, providing the motor its special sound.[102]

Harley-Davidson has used numerous ignition systems during its history – be it the early details and condenser process, (Big Double as much as 1978 and Sportsters around 1978), magneto ignition program utilized on some 1958 to 1969 Sportsters, early electronic with centrifugal technical advance loads, (all models 1978 and a half to 1979), or the late electric with transistorized ignition get a handle on module, more familiarly called the dark package or mental performance, (all models 1980 to present).

Starting in 1995, the business introduced Electronic Gas Injection (EFI) as an Motorcycle Maxx Lewis Center Oh option for the 30th anniversary edition Electra Glide. EFI turned common on all Harley-Davidson cycles, including Sportsters, upon the introduction of the 2007 solution line.

In 1991, Harley-Davidson started to take part in the Sound Quality Working Party, established by Orfield Laboratories, Bruel and Kjaer, TEAC, Yamaha, Sennheiser, SMS and Cortex. This is the nation's first group to talk about research on psychological acoustics. Later that year, Harley-Davidson participated in a series of sound quality studies at Orfield Laboratories, centered on tracks taken at the Talladega Superspeedway, with the purpose to lower the noise stage for EU criteria while analytically catching the "Harley Sound".[citation Motorcycle Fails Kids needed] This research resulted in the bikes which were presented in conformity with EU requirements for 1998.

On March 1, 1994, the business registered an audio logo software for the distinct noise of the Harley-Davidson motorcycle engine: "The mark includes the fatigue noise of applicant's motorcycles, produced by V-twin, popular crankpin motorcycle engines when the goods are in use ".Eight of Harley-Davidson's competitors submitted comments opposing the application, fighting that cruiser-style bikes of numerous manufacturers make use of a single-crankpin V-twin motor which create a related sound. These objections were followed closely by litigation. In July 2000, the company slipped initiatives to federally register its trademark.
          Un puñal al Barcelona: acuerdo de Real Madrid con el Bayern Munich por Thiago Alcántara, según 'Onda Cero' - Diario Depor      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Diario Depor

Un puñal al Barcelona: acuerdo de Real Madrid con el Bayern Munich por Thiago Alcántara, según 'Onda Cero'
Diario Depor
Real Madrid parece haber encontrado en el mercado de fichajes un jugador para tapar el hueco que ha dejado Kovacic con su partida al Chelsea. Y es que según el programa 'El Transistor' de radio Onda Cero de España, los blancos ya llegaron a un ...
¿El reemplazo de Modric?Olé

los 39 artículos informativos »

          Modifying Graphene Nanoribbons to Possibly Develop Precise Nanotransistors or Even Quantum Computers      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Researchers at Empa have worked together with collaborators from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research in Mainz and other partners to accomplish an advancement that could be applied for...
          Circuit VR: Starting an Amplifier Design      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Sometimes I wish FETs had become practical before bipolar transistors. A FET is a lot more like a tube and amplifies voltages. Bipolar transistors amplify current and that makes them a bit harder to use. Recently, [Jenny List] did a series on transistor amplifiers including the topic of this Circuit VR, the common emitter amplifier. [Jenny] talked about biasing. I’ll start with biasing too, but in the next installment, I want to talk about how to use capacitors in this design and how to blend two amplifiers together and why you’d want to do that.

But before you can dive …read more

          Luka Modric pedirá a Florentino que lo deje marchar al Inter      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Luka Modric sigue tratando de forzar su salida del Real Madrid al Inter de Milan, y es que el croata buscara hacer entender al presidente de la institución madrileña, Florentino Pérez, su deseo de salir del club en una reunión pautada para el viernes, según adelanto el programa ‘El Transistor’ de Onda Cero. Modric, que viene de […]

La entrada Luka Modric pedirá a Florentino que lo deje marchar al Inter aparece primero en Futbol Sapiens.

          Circuit VR: Starting an Amplifier Design      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Sometimes I wish FETs had become practical before bipolar transistors. A FET is a lot more like a tube and amplifies voltages. Bipolar transistors amplify current and that makes them a bit harder to use. Recently, [Jenny List] did a series on transistor amplifiers including the topic of this Circuit VR, the common emitter amplifier. [Jenny] talked about biasing. I’ll start with biasing too, but in the next installment, I want to talk about how to use capacitors in this design and how to blend two amplifiers together and why you’d want to do that.

But before you can dive …read more

          Comment on Portland Radio Sucks by Private Krankenversicherung      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
I’m in the same boat, only I made the mistake of getting one of those radio transistor car kits first. That was a total waste of money, so now I’ll wait for the tax refund and pony up for the car stereo as well. 
          Hollow Sun – Vox Continental (KONTAKT)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
  Publisher : Hollow Sun Website : Hollow Sun Format : KONTAKT Quality : 24 bit 44.1 kHz stereo Description : Vox Continental, probably the most famous of the transistor organs of the new generation, which appeared in the early 60-ies. Previously, bodies were built around the technology of modeling the phonical wheels. This undoubtedly created a fantastic… Read More »
          New crystal structure triples output power of GaN transistors, expands radar observation range      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Fujitsu and Fujitsu Laboratories have succeeded in developing a transistor that can provide both high current and high voltage in gallium-nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMT), effectively tripling the output power of transistors used for transmitters in the microwave band. Fujitsu’s crystal structure improves operating voltage by dispersing the applied voltage to the transistor, and […]

The post New crystal structure triples output power of GaN transistors, expands radar observation range appeared first on EE World Online | A network of resources for engineers.

          AMOLED Display Market | Outlook, Growth By Top Companies, Regions, Types, Applications, Drivers, Trends & Forecasts by 2024      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
AMOLED is a hybrid display technology that pairs the active matrix backplane from a traditional Thin-Film-Transistor (TFT) display with an OLED display. AMOLED displays currently are gaining applications in multiple consumer electronics segment specially in smartphones. AMOLED displays are also used in OLED TVs, which is considered to have one of the best image quality. […]

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