Next Page: 10000

          The Secret Token Exposes the Mythology of the Roanoke Colony      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Andrew Lawler outlines the history, disappearance, and the eventual mythologizing of the Roanoke colony in his new book The Secret Token. by Joe Streckert

In 1587, 115 colonists established England’s first small colony of the Americas on Roanoke—a swampy, coastal island that would eventually be considered part of North Carolina. The governor of the colony, John White, returned to England shortly after. Three years later, he returned to find the colony gone. There was nothing: no corpses, no burned buildings, and no signs of struggle. The only thing left of the lost colony was a word scratched into a tree: CROATOAN.

Andrew Lawler outlines the history, disappearance, and the eventual mythologizing of the Roanoke colony in his new book, The Secret Token. Lawler is a journalist who’s written for publications like Science and Smithsonian, and his level-headed approach works well for considering a mystery that’s been the subject of pseudo-science and pseudo-history.

{{image:1, align:left, width:250}}

The Roanoke colony is often associated with phenomena like ghosts, zombies, or alien abduction. Lawler, thankfully, doesn’t spend too much time debunking that kind of thing. Far more interesting is his exploration of Roanoke in regards to how America thinks about itself, its history, and race.

When John White, the governor of Roanoke, returned to the island in 1590, he didn’t think anything all that strange had happened. “Croatoan” was the name of an island 50 miles south of Roanoke, and the colonists had planned that, if they had to leave, they would write their intended destination on some trees. White saw the name of a nearby island and noted that everything seemed fine. Reasoning that the colony (which included his daughter and granddaughter) was on another island, probably with a group of local Native Americans, he left.

The “lost colony” mystery only became a major facet of American history some 200 years later when the US tried to create its national origin story. Roanoke saw the birth of Virginia Dare, the first-ever person of English ancestry born in North America. In later centuries, Dare would be upheld as a mythic figure, celebrated as the first American, and frequently considered the darling of white supremacists who pointed at her existence as proof of the whiteness of America. All that, despite the fact that we know next to nothing about Virginia Dare other than her name.

The Secret Token doesn’t dismiss the fate of the colony as White did. Lawler dives into what could have happened to it. He puts it into context. Roanoke existed at a time when England and Spain were actively trying to kill each other, Native Americans and Europeans were first encountering each other, and the beginnings of America’s genocide and displacement were already under way. That context is inescapable, but everyone loves a good mystery. recommended

[ Comment on this story ]

[ Subscribe to the comments on this story ]


          Drug Arrest and Concealed Carry Violation      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
On 08-03-2018, The Beaufort County Sheriff's Office Drug Unit arrested Kenneth Earl Spain, 44 years of age, of 208 Spain Drive in Washington
( Published Wednesday, August 8th, 2018 @ 4:31 pm )

          The realization of the programs of parties, hand programs, posters, web app (responsive) for the parties of andra mari and santa eufemia de bermeo as well as a single domain.      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Tenders are invited for The realization of the programs of parties, Hand programs, Posters, Web app (responsive) for the parties of andra mari and santa eufemia de bermeo as well as a single domain.

timated value of the contract: 18,000.00 Euros
Place of Execution: Spain - bizkaia
          Comment on Random Thoughts: Sarah Jeong and Alex Jones by walruskkkch      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
A cantina is a type of bar popular in Mexico and Spain. The word is similar in etymology to "canteen", and is derived from the Italian word for a cellar, winery, or vault.[1] In Italy, a cantina refers to a room below the ground level where wine and other products such as salami are stored.
          Carretillero/a SUBIRATS - EPOS SPAIN ETT SL - Subirats, Barcelona provincia      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Precisamos incorporar un perfil carretillero/a para trabajar en una empresa del sector logístico ubicada en Subirats. Funciones= preparación de pedidos con... 1.000€ - 1.200€ al mes
De Indeed - Tue, 26 Jun 2018 14:35:20 GMT - Ver todo: empleo en Subirats, Barcelona provincia
          8/9/2018: Around The World: Germany Inks Deal with Spain to Return Registered Migrants      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Berlin: Berlin has concluded a deal with Madrid for Spain to take back migrants who had been registered by Spanish authorities, a German interior ministry spokeswoman said Wednesday, as Germany seeks to curb new arrivals. Under the accord, which will...
          Air France Fares to Europe from $440 roundtrip      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Ending today, Air France via DealBase offers Air France Roundtrip Flights to Europe from select cities in the U.S. with prices starting from $440.47. (On the DealBase landing page, click "Air France to see this sale.) This price is based on departure on August 22 from San Francisco, CA, (SFO) with arrival in Barcelona, Spain, (BCN) and return on August 29. That's the best price we could find today for select routes by at least $14. Book this travel deal today for travel through February 28.

All prices, dates, and booking details were valid at the time of publication.
          AI denuncia 721 muertes en el Mediterráneo y pide responsabilidad a la UE      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Amnistia Internacional insta a los países europeos a avanzar en la reforma del sistema de asilo europeo en un informe que también critica las políticas del Gobierno italiano.
          Alberto Ruiz Codex Podcast 025, Santvitronic (Barcelona, Spain) 02-08-2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
none
          Venezuela's Top Court Orders Lawmaker Arrested      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Venezuela's Supreme Court on Wednesday ordered the arrest of a prominent opposition leader in connection with an alleged assassination attempt against President Nicolas Maduro. In addition to seeking the arrest of Julio Borges, the court also called for the prosecution of another opposition lawmaker, Juan Requesens, who police detained a day earlier. The moves threaten to deepen the country's political crisis as opposition lawmakers accuse the government's ruling part of using the alleged attack to clamp down on the opposition. Video circulating Tuesday on social media showed Venezuela's political police arresting Requesens, a 29-year-old deputy in the opposition-controlled National Assembly. Supporters say he was kidnapped from his apartment. On Wednesday, the supreme court ordered the arrest of Borges, accusing him of "flagrant crimes," including public incitement, treason to the fatherland and the attempted homicide against Maduro. The head of Venezuela's pro-government constitutional assembly said he would have the body take up a proposal to strip both lawmakers of their immunity protections, drawing cries from anti-government lawmakers that such a move would be unconstitutional. During a national television broadcast Tuesday, Maduro accused Requesens and Borges of complicity in weekend drone explosions that he contends were an attempt on his life. Borges, a former president of the opposition-controlled National Assembly, has been living in self-imposed exile in the Colombian capital, Bogota. Maduro said statements from some of the six suspects arrested earlier have implicated the two lawmakers, as well as key financiers. "Several of the declarations indicated Julio Borges. The investigations point to him," Maduro said during Tuesday's broadcast, though he provided no details of Borges' alleged role. Borges, who has rejected the accusations, met Wednesday with top lawmakers in Colombia, which has blamed Maduro's government for causing the crisis that has led to masses of Venezuelans fleeing across the border into the neighboring country. "We want to see you out of power, imprisoned for the violation of human rights, imprisoned for the destruction of democracy," Borges said. "The only promoter of violence is a man named Nicolas Maduro." Two drones armed with explosives detonated near Maduro as he spoke during a military celebration Saturday evening. Images on live television showed Maduro and his wife looking up at the sky as the first drone exploded, sending hundreds of soldiers scrambling for safety. The six suspects arrested earlier face charges of treason, attempted murder and terrorism. Investigators have linked a total of 19 people to the attack, Chief Prosecutor Tarek William Saab said Wednesday. Critics of Maduro's socialist government said immediately after the drone explosions that they feared the unpopular leader would use the incident as an excuse to round up opponents as he seeks to dampen spreading discontent over Venezuela's devastating economic collapse. As elected lawmakers, Borges and Requesens enjoy immunity from prosecution under Venezuelan law. But Diosdado Cabello, the powerful leader of the ruling United Socialist Party of Venezuela and president of the National Constitutional Assembly, said in a tweet that he planned to introduce legislation stripping them and any other lawmakers accused in the alleged attack of this protection. The move brought an immediate outcry from the opposition. Antonio Ledezma, an opposition leader and exiled mayor of Caracas who now lives in Spain, spoke with Borges from Bogota. "Neither the deputy Borges, nor the deputy Requesens _ no Venezuelan parliamentarians are involved in this type of scheme cooked up by the regime," Ledezma said. "This is another parody of Maduro." The events come as Venezuela's economy continues to hemorrhage and thousands flee to neighboring nations seeking food and medical care. Maduro has grown increasingly isolated, with the United States and other foreign powers slapping economic sanctions on a growing list of high-ranking Venezuelan officials and criticizing his government of being an autocratic regime. The International Monetary Fund projects inflation could top 1 million percent by year's end. During Maduro's two-hour speech, videos were displayed showing alleged suspects and images of the drones exploding. One video included a purported confession by a handcuffed suspect, whose face was blurred out. The president also displayed wanted posters with names and pictures of other suspects who he said are living in the United States and Colombia. Maduro said he would provide evidence to authorities in both countries and ask for their cooperation in handing over suspects who helped orchestrate and finance the attack. "I want to explain to the government of the United States and the government of Colombia in detail all the evidence that leads us to accomplices ... living in the state of Florida," Maduro said. "I trust in the good faith of Donald Trump." State television on Wednesday showed Venezuela's foreign minister, Jorge Arreaza, and Saab, the attorney general, meeting with James Story, the top U.S. diplomat in Caracas. The U.S. State Department did not immediately respond to a request Wednesday for comment on whether Venezuela had made any extradition request.
          Corona Constitution Class, Lesson 1, Historical Influences, Preamble      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Corona Constitution Class: Lesson 1

CARSTAR/AllStar Collision, 522 Railroad Street, Corona, CA
Tuesdays, 6-7 pm
 
Constitution Class Handout
Instructor: Douglas V. Gibbs
 
www.politicalpistachio.com
www.douglasvgibbs.com
www.constitutionassociation.com
 
 
 
Lesson 01
 
Historical Influences and the Preamble
 
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
 
            History
 
The formal version of the Magna Carta in England was issued on June 19, 1215. There was a minor change in the new document, when the final provision was drafted, replacing the term "any baron" with "any freeman" in stipulating to whom the provisions applied. The term would eventually include all Englishmen. The final version's applicability to all members of the English Society served as a starting point for the Constitution's Preamble, where "any freeman" was changed once again, but this time to the first three words of the American document: "We the People."
 
The English Colonists developed legal codes largely incorporating liberties guaranteed by the Magna Carta and the 1689 English Bill of Rights. Though the education levels of the colonists varied, and few could afford legal training in England, they were familiar with English common law. During one parliamentary debate in the late 18th century, Edmund Burke observed, "In no country, perhaps in the world, is law so general a study."
 
James Madison and Thomas Jefferson drew inspiration from the doctrines of the British constitution, or in what were called English liberties.
 
Unlike the Spanish Colonies, which were conquered land ruled over by the Spanish Conquistadors, and authoritarian governors, the English Colonies were granted by charter. Rather than bear the burden of empire, which, as Spain discovered, could be expensive, and taxing on a nation's armed forces, the English Crown offered the lands along the Atlantic Coast to investors, entrepreneurs, and families seeking a new start. In the northern colonies, the colonists sought religious freedom. The Pilgrims did not want to keep their membership in the Church of England. As separatists, the Pilgrims organized their worship independently, colonizing north of the Puritans at Plymouth Rock.
 
The English Colonies enjoyed autonomy that the Spanish Colonies did not. To survive in the Spanish Colonies, the colonist exhibited a warrior spirit, conquering the lands and the people who stood in the way, forcing the captured natives into slave labor and marriage for the purpose of accomplishing the tasks necessary for survival, while also being heavily dependent upon supplies from the homeland. The English Colonies were expected to survive by living off the land. They were families, indentured servants, and seekers of fortune. They were forced to be self-reliant, personally responsible, and hard working, in order to survive. The English Colonists did not attempt to conquer the natives as the Spanish did, but worked with them, making treaties with the Native Americans, because they needed the native population's help in order to survive. In the English Colonies, freedom was a necessary component of survival, and after failing under communitarianism, the colonists found that a free market system, where colonists kept more of what they worked for, and had the option to trade goods in an open market, worked best for the burgeoning society.
 
In English America, freemen adopted the best of the English system, while adapting it as necessary to the new circumstances in the colonies. The English Colonies was a place where a person could rise by merit, not by birth. The thirteen colonies was a place where men could voice their opinions and actively share in self-government. When the British Crown challenged these beliefs, turning to the colonies as a source of revenue to help alleviate the Crown's substantial debts, and the growing expense of keeping troops on American soil, the colonists questioned the government in Britain, challenging the actions of Parliament, arguing that without consent or direct representation in Parliament, the acts by the motherland were "taxation without representation," and an act of tyranny against the free Englishmen of the colonies.
 
The influence of the Magna Carta, and the demand for liberty, existed along the Atlantic Coast long before the War of Independence. As John Adams later wrote to Thomas Jefferson, "The Revolution was in the minds of the people, and this was effected, from 1760 to 1775, in the course of 15 years before a drop of blood was shed at Lexington."
 
The Americans knew their rights, and they were willing to fight for them. The seal adopted by Massachusetts on the eve of the Revolution summed up the mood. The image was of a militiaman with sword in one hand, and the Magna Carta in the other.
 
When it was time to form a new government, embodied in a written social contract we now know as the Constitution of the United States, the founders determined that like England under the Magna Carta, the government must be limited by subjecting it to the rule of law. The Constitution, once ratified by the States, became the law of the land. The document serves as a written standard where the authority emanates from the people, not from any governmental body. Pursuant to the Constitution, no man, not even the country's leader, was considered to be above the law. The rule of law based on the philosophy of the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God was the basis of constitutional thought in the United States in 1787.
 
"A government of laws, and not of men." - John Adams
 
Elder statesman Benjamin Franklin strolled across a grassy lawn from Independence Hall in Philadelphia, after the conclusion of the Federal Convention of 1787, when a woman in a bonnet approached him, asking, "Sir, what have you given us?"
 
"A republic," Dr. Franklin replied. "If you can keep it."
 
The new government in the fledgling United States was considered to be one that was doomed to fail. Europeans scoffed at the American experiment in self-government. The Old World argued that without the hand of a divinely appointed, wise, ruling monarch in place to guide society, a culture could not succeed. The Grand Experiment was a waste of time, and it would not be long before the rebellious, starving, treasonous, and petulant, English colonists came crawling back to the British Crown, begging to be readmitted to the empire.
 
In a society with no government, people have no freedom. In a society with too much government, people have no freedom.
 
Without government there is no law, and without law there are no enforcers of the law. This kind of system is called an anarchy, which is a transitional form of government. In an anarchy, there is no freedom because the citizens must constantly protect their property, and their lives.
 
With government in place, there are laws in place. When there are laws in place, it is necessary to hire enforcers of the law, such as a police force. A society with a government in place can create an environment of freedom that allows citizens the ability to leave their property and engage in activities away from their homes.
 
Tyranny through a unitary state dominates the pages of history. Tyrannical governments obtain their power through violence, and bloodshed in a complete disregard for authorities granted, justice, or the rule of law. To maintain their power, tyrants use violence and bloodshed. When tyrannies are finally toppled, the path to dislodging tyrannies normally includes violence and bloodshed.
 
Violence and death are the common results of powerful central governments with dominant rulers.
 
Dictators do not normally reveal their plans of tyranny during their rise to power, for the people would never have allowed them to become their leaders if they knew this kind of violence was in their future. Tyrannical leaders render legislative bodies irrelevant, demoting them to nothing more than a consultative assembly.
 
In history, tyranny is the rule, and liberty is the exception. Governments that protect the freedoms of the people, and respect the rights of their citizens, are a rare occurrence. Freedom requires the citizens to be informed and involved. With freedom comes responsibility.
 
An educated society begins by teaching the younger generations the principles of liberty, and to encourage them to be involved in civic activities, and local government. The founders understood we need government, but a limited government was required to secure the rights and property of the citizens. However, because of human nature, the founders realized that without making sure the people remained educated about the system they had established, a downward spiral into despotism and tyranny was inevitable.
 
The Declaration of Independence was approved by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, and outlined the reasons why the colonies were seeking independence from Great Britain. The founding document declares that it is the right of the people to alter or abolish their government should it become destructive. It also states these truths are self-evident, and that "all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."
 
The document penned by Thomas Jefferson includes a list of grievances, most of which are also iterated in the U.S. Constitution. The Declaration calls for fair representation, encourages immigration, calls for a judiciary that is separated from the will of the central leadership, calls for a stop to the presence of a standing army, demands that Great Britain stop the quartering of troops in the houses of the citizens, demands fair trials, and calls for due process, free trade, fair taxation, a protection of rights, and for the Crown to hear the redress of grievances by the colonists.
 
A key aspect of the Declaration of Independence reveals itself in the final sentence of the document. The call for independence ends with the incredible statement, "And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor."
 
Political Spectrum
 
In the battle of Left versus Right, it is important to understand what it all means in the first place. Like-minded individuals naturally tend to gather together when a theater of opinion erupts. Congregating in such a manner, creating political parties, is a part of our human nature. Houses, or chambers, of government are no different. Members of the political assembly who support similar agendas sit together, much in the way social allies tend to hang out together at a dinner party. The classification of "left" and "right" grew out of the tendency of people to group together on one side, or the other.
 
The early definition of "left" and "right" was different than in today's American Society. Among the most commonly known split between the left and the right in a political assembly occurred in France before the French Revolution. Members of the National Assembly sat on the right or the left of the hall depending on their level of political support in regards to the ruling monarchy. Those in support of the monarchy, and the religious elements that came with the reigning government, would sit on the right. The people on the right were defined as being those holding traditional interests in line with the Church and the monarchy, believing the king ruled by divine right, and that Catholicism must continue to be the state religion, and therefore continue to be a strong influence on governance. The people who sat on the right side of the assembly believed that the Church had a vested interest in the political system, and sought to preserve that system.
 
Those who sat on the left side of the hall in France during the period preceding the French Revolution did so in support of "enlightenment," which was considered to be in the interests of rationalism and secularism. The left used secular elements to challenge the Church's long-held influence over government, fostering nationalism among its allies, and promoting hope in constructing and shaping the political community. The left desired to change government by overthrowing the Church and the aristocracy by promoting secularism and nationalism. The planners of this glorious new "Enlightened" government became the leaders of France after the French Revolution, orchestrating a Reign of Terror, which was a period of chaos during which thousands were guillotined for being politically incorrect.
 
The radicals within this new government saw the Catholic Church as the enemy while promoting its Cult of Reason. Like with the monarchy before them, however, it became clear that to control the political and social upheaval, the government in place must also become tyrannical in their own right. Under the rule of statism, France remained a nation unable to cultivate liberty, and one that remained under the iron fist of a dictatorial government. For many, this was no surprise. Some of the planners of the change of the form of government in France knew that in order to keep order they would need to "treat the people as cattle."
 
The French National Assembly established a constitutional monarchy and adopted a new constitution in 1791 that created a Legislative Assembly. The political assembly, as with any other political body, rapidly divided into factions opposing each other. The three factions that formed in the new French Legislative Assembly were the radicals (liberals), moderates (centrists) and conservatives. The radicals (liberals) sat in the left section of the assembly hall, the conservatives sat on the right, and the moderates sat in the center section. Their political identities have some similarities to political movements today in the United States, and had little in common with the pre-revolution arrangement that emphasized itself more on monarchy and religion.
 
America is much younger than the European nations, and never had a landlord class of titled nobles. In fact, the Constitution specifically prohibits such a system. The Founding Fathers desired to break away from European traditions as much as possible, even abandoning much of British Common Law when defining citizenship. To be a British Subject the rules were weak, and divided loyalties ran rampant throughout the British Empire. The United States as a nation could not tolerate divided loyalties, and placed a stronger standard of natural born citizenship upon the President in order to eliminate the opportunity for the executor of the American Form of Government to harbor divided loyalties between the United States of America, and any other nation. That way, the new American government could break completely free of any European influence, and forge itself into a Republic independent from British influence, and in fact, the authoritarian nature of Europe as a whole.
 
The political landscape of the United States of America, since there never was a class of nobles, was simple in the young nation. Either you were a Federalist, an anti-Federalist, or somewhere in between. In other words, you believed in a stronger centralized federal government, you believed that the federal role in government should be limited greatly, or you found yourself somewhere between the two political beliefs.
 
Unlike the Europeans, royalty and religion played no role in determining the nature of American political philosophies. Nearly all of the early American Politicians were deeply religious men, but the political spectrum did not separate factions along religious lines. God played a major role in the principle foundation of the nation, but the founding fathers also determined that no religion could ever take an official role in government. In other words, the establishment of any religion as the official religion of the United States was forbidden. However, the freedom to practice one's religion was not to be infringed upon. Almost all of the signers of the Declaration of Independence were either clergy, or highly involved in their church. 27 of the 56 signers had Christian seminary degrees. The founding fathers fervently prayed in Congress.
 
Benjamin Franklin is widely regarded to be among the least religious of the founding fathers. However, his speech given to Congress on June 28, 1787 asking that Congress have a prayer every morning before conducting business was overtly religious in nature. Despite modern assumptions, there was not a political battle between The Church and the secularists during the founding of the United States of America.
 
From the newer models of government in France, and America, the definition of the Political Spectrum changed, becoming more about the level of control of government over a society, rather than the presence of a monarchy, or established church. Zero percent of government intrusion on the lives of the people inhabits the far right of the current political spectrum, which is a condition known as anarchy. 100% governmental control inhabits the far left extremity of the Political Spectrum, or a totalitarian government. The American form of government, or a Constitutional Republic that operates under the rule of law, is at the center of the political spectrum.
 
Most of the current forms of government present in today's international political arena reside on the left side of the Political Spectrum, drawing their foundations from socialist principles. Socialism is authoritarian. Socialism claims to seek to overthrow the Church and aristocracy by promoting atheism and nationalism, much like the enlightened planners of the French Revolution, only replacing the government they thought to be a tyranny with a tyranny of their own. In Russia, the rise of socialism held the basic tenet of replacing the individual's commitment to God with a commitment to love and serve a collective society ruled by an elite few.
 
When one examines the communist society, which resides on the left side of the Political Spectrum, one finds that if society was ruled over by an equally powerful religious theocracy, the basic governmental elements of the ruling doctrine are the same, and just as tyrannical. Therefore, a controlling government based on religion is no different than an atheistic system of communism. Either way, the form of governance is based on a centralized control over the people, and limits on personal individualism, and freedoms.
 
Economically, leftism encourages increased government involvement with the instruments that regulate the economy. Under a leftist economic system, such as in the communist model, the government seizes control of the industries, eliminating private ownership. In the fascist model, however, the authoritarian political entity engages in corporatism, allowing the private enterprises to remain private, yet bundled together in a uniting strength under authoritarian government rule. Because fascism (from Italian fascismo, Benito Mussolini's authoritarian political movement in Italy 1922 to 1943) was created to be an adverse reaction to the apparent economic failure of Marxism, and labeled itself as the opposite of communism, fascism is often referred to as being right-wing, and ultra-conservative. If you break down the political structure of fascism, however, it becomes apparent that defining fascism as being on the right side of the political spectrum is problematic. Like socialism, fascism exalts the group above the individual (in fascist states often the nation or race is exalted above the identity of the individual). Like other leftist systems, fascism also calls for a separation of church and state, a national civilian army, and progressive taxation. One element of fascism some may argue as being right-wing is the fact that fascism seeks to eliminate labor unions for co-ops. But the co-operatives, in a fascist state, are controlled by the government, and therefore become more leftist than the system before. Though fascism, during the early twentieth century, claimed to be anti-communist, the National Socialism aspect of the ideology places fascism on the left side of the Political Spectrum.
 
Ultimately, the true definition of the Political Spectrum is dependent upon how government interacts with society. Increased government intrusion moves needle on the spectrum to the left. Increasing limitations on government intrusion moves the needle to the right. In both cases, the extreme of totalitarianism, or anarchy, are equally dangerous. Ultimately, most forms of government, despite the promise of fairness, are often only precursors to another form of government. The Founding Fathers realized this, recognizing that the only form of government that both limits the powers of the federal government, while still giving it adequate authority to protect and preserve State Sovereignty, is a Constitutional Republic. They knew that if you pursue leftism too far, an authoritarian government would rise from the movement. If government was limited too much, and the government did not have enough power to enforce law, an authoritarian government would also rise to fill the void.
 
            The Preamble
 
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
 
The Preamble is the introduction of the U.S. Constitution. The opening paragraph of the founding document holds no legal authority. The Preamble serves to establish who is granting the authority to create a new federal government, and the reasons for the decision. We The People of the United States are the grantors. In other words, the States, which were the embodiment of the people, were creating the federal government, and granting authorities to it so that it may function in a manner necessary to protect, promote, and preserve the union of States. The concept became known as federalism.
 
The Preamble is designed much like a permission form the doctor's office may present to you to sign, giving the doctor the authority to perform necessary procedures on your body in order to make you well. The form begins with your name (I, patient's name), and then limits the doctor to only the procedures necessary to make you well. The doctor, if he or she believes additional procedures may be necessary, must ask for your permission before performing the additional procedures that are not granted by your original agreement with them.
 
Like the form in the doctor's office, the Preamble begins with who is granting the authorities. "We the People of the United States" are the grantors of the authorities given to the new federal government. The people, through their States, allow the federal government to exist, and to perform the procedures expressly granted in the United States Constitution.
 
If a homeowner hires a contractor to add a room to their house, a contract is created between the homeowner, and the company hired to do the work. The contract establishes the granted authorities to the construction company regarding the room addition, listing the materials and labor necessary and proper to carry out that task. If, later, after the work begins, the homeowner observes the workers tending to the garden, and mowing the lawn, the homeowner would be angry because lawn maintenance was not among the authorities granted to the contractor hired to provide the service of adding a room to the house. In the same way, through the Constitution, the federal government has been granted a list of authorities that are necessary and proper for it to carry out the tasks vested in it. The tasks directly relate to protecting and preserving the union, while also respecting and promoting State Sovereignty. The federal government's authorities encompass only the external issues necessary to protect the union, and the sovereignty of the States. Internal issues are not granted to the federal government. Local issues are reserved to the local governments, such as the States, counties, and cities.
 
The first three words of the Preamble, "We the People," often lead people to believe that we are a democracy. Taken in context, the first part of the Preamble is not only "We the People," but "We the People of the United States." In the context of original intent, "the people of these States that are united have come together to establish this contract for the following reasons."
 
The words "United States" appear often in the U.S. Constitution. When those words appear in the text of the Constitution, they mean one of two things. Either, "United States" is a reference to the new federal government, or United States means "these states that are united." In the case of the Preamble, both definitions are used. As we notice the first time united States appears in the Declaration of Independence, "united" is not capitalized. Failing to capitalize "united" in the Declaration of Independence was a reflection of the common opinion of the people of that era. America was not a nationalistic country dominated by a powerful government, but a union of States that are sovereign, autonomous, and individual - like the people. We the People are the individual parts of their States, and the States are individual parts of the union.
Early Americans saw the United States in the plural, rather than as a singular nationalistic entity. The people were citizens of their States first, but realized that the States must be united to survive. The individual States would only be safe if they all worked together as a united country. To ensure the union was protected they proposed forming a central government through a social contract called the United States Constitution. This contract to grant limited authorities to a federal government was designed to ensure that the federal government remained limited so as to not infringe on the individual rights of the sovereign States, and the people who resided in those States.
 
A limited government is the essence of liberty.
 
The reasons listed in the Preamble for forming a new government were "In Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity." In line with classical writing standards, these reasons were listed in order of importance.
 
The most important reason for the formation of the federal government, the main purpose for the creation of the U.S. Constitution, was "in Order to form a more perfect Union." A union already existed under the Articles of Confederation. A confederation, however, is a weak form of government where nearly all of the power remains with the individual members. A confederation is an association of sovereign member states that, by treaty, or other agreement, have delegated some of their powers to a common institution in order to coordinate policies, without constituting a new state on top of the member states. The government under the Articles of Confederation was formed hastily during the Revolutionary War, and as revealed by Shays' Rebellion, proved to be too weak to protect the union not only from threats beyond our shores, but insurrection from within the country. The founders realized that they needed to form a more perfect union, one with more authorities, while still remaining fairly limited in its power and scope. The realization that the Articles of Confederation were too weak, and either needed to be fixed, or replaced, was first discussed in delegation during the Annapolis Convention in 1786. During that meeting, the attending State delegates decided to meet again in May of 1787 in a convention of all States, which became the Federal Convention of 1787.
 
Under the Articles of Confederation, the central government was as weak as a lamb. What America needed was a central government with the strength of a lion. The problem with lions, however, is that they can kill you if not restrained. So, the Founding Fathers had to figure out a way to create a lion strong enough to deal with the external issues, and conflict between the States, while restraining that lion in such a way that the people living under it were safe from its potential tyranny. The lion is the federal government, and the chains and restraints of a set standard that protects We the People from that lion is the United States Constitution.
 
In the Constitution, the authorities granted to the federal government are limited to protecting, preserving, or promoting the union. The federal government, through the express powers granted in the Constitution, was granted authorities including, but not limited to, maintaining an army and navy in order to protect the union, to collect taxes in order to pay for that military and the other necessary functions created for the purpose of preserving the union, to regulate commerce by acting as a mediator between the States so that the flow of commerce flows regularly and in good order so as to encourage a growing economy for the union, establish a uniform rule of naturalization for the purpose of ensuring the union grows through legal immigration, and to establish post offices so that the many parts of the union may remain in contact with each other. The federal government was created for the sake of the issues related to the union. The federal government was not created to manage local issues that have nothing to do with the union, and everything to do with the unique cultures and societal needs of the local communities.
 
The second reason listed in The Preamble for the creation of the federal government through the ratification of the U.S. Constitution were to "establish Justice." Note that the word "establish" is normally used in situations where whatever is being established never previously existed. The word "establish" being used in the Preamble, then, leads us to believe that there was no justice prior to the writing of the founding document. However, justice systems already existed in each of the States, through State court systems. Therefore, the U.S. Constitution was not written to establish justice in the States, but to establish justice at the federal level where a judicial system had not previously existed. The language used in the Constitution, in this case, provides us with a clue that the original intent of the Founding Fathers was for the Constitution to apply only to the federal government, unless it specifically states otherwise.
 
Though "establish Justice" is listed second in the list of reasons for creating the federal government, we must not confuse "importance" with "power." To establish justice was a very important reason for creating a federal government, but the federal court system, for fear of it becoming a powerful judicial oligarchy, was also greatly limited. During the debates of the Constitutional Convention in 1787, there was actually a consideration to not establish a federal court system. The delegates realized that tyranny easily flows through an activist judiciary. The rule of law could be easily compromised by a judicial branch not willing to abide by the original intent of the U.S. Constitution, or poisoned by political ideology. For this reason, the powers of the judicial branch are greatly limited by the Constitution. We will go into more detail regarding those limitations when we get to Article III, and the 11th Amendment.
 
The first two reasons for the writing of the U.S. Constitution, according to the Preamble, were to form a more perfect union through the formation of a federal government, and to establish justice by creating a federal judicial system. Those primary goals reveal to us that the Constitution was not written to grant powers to the States, but for the purpose of creating, yet limiting, a newly formed federal government, which was designed to serve the States by protecting them, and preserving the union they enjoyed. Before the States delegated some of their own powers to the federal government through the Constitution, all of those powers belonged to the States - a political condition known as Original Authority. The States, however, only granted "some" of their powers to the federal government, retaining most of the powers for themselves.
 
The U.S. Constitution, and all language within the document, is directed to the federal government, not to the States, unless specifically indicated otherwise. This is because the States essentially "hired" the federal government to protect and preserve the union. The contract that authorizes the federal government to exist and receive the authorities from the States is the U.S. Constitution. Therefore, it would not be reasonable to assume that the provisions of the Constitution are to be applied to the States as much as it would not be logical to believe that an agreement between you and your doctor tells you what you can and can't do regarding the procedures that are about to be performed on you. The agreement with the doctor is specifically designed to tell the doctor what procedures are allowed, just as the Constitution is specifically designed to tell the federal government what authorities it is allowed to have in order to protect, preserve, and promote the union. In that contract with the doctor there may be instructions that tell you what not to do so as to not undermine healing, such as submersing oneself in water before a wound is fully healed. The same is true in the Constitution. There is a section, Article I, Section 10, that tells the States what they are prohibited from doing. These prohibitions were necessary to ensure the States did not interfere with federal functions.
 
Since it is We The People of the United States who granted the federal government its powers, that means it is the people's responsibility, through the States, responsibility to ensure the federal government acts in a constitutional manner. The Constitution is nothing more than ink and paper if we don't fight for it.
 
The union, at the time of the writing of the Constitution, was fragile. The States, as colonies, or as individual states shortly after the American Revolution, did not always coexist in a mutually beneficial manner. The States enjoyed their own unique cultures, religions, and laws. The States clashed over territory, commerce, and a variety of other issues that often included disputed legal issues and definitions. The States were much like siblings, fighting over everything under the sun; but when it came down to brass tacks, they were united when it came to defending each other.
 
The bickering between the States created an atmosphere that placed the cohesion of the union at risk. Therefore, when it came to creating a more perfect union, it was understood by the framers that the federal government would have to "insure domestic Tranquility" and to "promote the general Welfare."
 
The federal government was expected to ensure there was tranquility between the States by acting as a mediator in disputes. Part of that task by the federal government was to also promote the general welfare of the republic. In other words, the federal government was tasked with making sure the squabbles were properly resolved, while also protecting the union, so that the welfare of the union would not be in jeopardy.
 
The term general Welfare, as it is presented in the Preamble, is capitalized in a curious manner. Welfare is capitalized, but the word "general" is not. Capitalization in the Constitution was often used for the purpose of emphasis. With that tendency as our guide, we recognize that "Welfare" was the key component when these two words were presented in the Preamble. The Founding Fathers were seeking "Welfare" with a capital "W." The founders tasked the federal government with the duty of ensuring there was Welfare in the nation in a general manner. Or, you could say that they wanted the atmosphere in general to be one of "Welfare," or "all's well," hence, the reason general is not capitalized, and Welfare is, in the Preamble.
 
Tucked between "insure domestic Tranquility" and "promote the general Welfare" is the phrase: "provide for the common defence." The placement of this phrase in The Preamble reveals that providing for the common defense was almost as important as ensuring peaceful cooperation between the States, and slightly more important than promoting the general Welfare of the republic (and a necessary part of ensuring the general Welfare).
 
The need to provide for the common defense, one may note, was not listed first in The Preamble as one of the reasons for the creation of the federal government. The Founding Fathers, though they recognized the importance of the federal government to field a military force, as realized from the failure of the government to put down insurrection during Shays' Rebellion under the Articles of Confederation, did not list the need to provide for the common defense at the beginning of the Preamble because a country that places too much importance on a military is doomed to become a police state. Defending this nation was not placed at the bottom of the list of reasons for the writing of the Constitution, either, because a nation that refuses to defend itself ultimately becomes a conquered entity that is subject to the authority of a foreign government. Despite the fear of a powerful military that could be used against the people and the States, providing for the common defense was still indeed one of the primary reasons for creating the federal government in the first place. That is why "provide for the common defence" is listed in the Preamble within the central depths of the body of the paragraph.
 
The final reason for the writing of the Constitution was to "secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity." The presence of the word "Blessings" reminds us that the Founding Father's grateful spirit recognized that the result of the American Revolution, and the inspiration for the new federal government, could have only come from the favors of Divine Providence. Liberty, remember, is one of the unalienable rights listed in the Declaration of Independence that has been given to us by The Creator. In fact, that is one of the foundational beliefs of the original intent behind the creation of the federal government. Our rights are granted to us by God, not by government, for if our rights are granted to us by government, government would then be able to take those rights away. This idea of God-granted rights is based on a concept called Natural Law penned by John Locke during the 1600s. In the Declaration of Independence, it is referred to as, "Laws of Nature and of Nature's God." Natural Law is the unchanging moral principles regarded as a basis for all human conduct, which is observable law we participate in as related to our natural existence.
 
The U.S. Constitution was not solely written only to protect our natural rights, liberty, and property. Protecting our rights, liberty, and property are among the chief reasons the Constitution was written in the manner that it was, and protecting those natural rights are predictable byproducts when the Constitution is being followed by the government, but those are not the only reasons for the perceived need to compose the founding document, or for the creation of the federal government.
 
As indicated in the Preamble, the primary reason for the Constitution was "in Order to form a more perfect Union." However, the very formation of that union, and devising a governmental system to protect, preserve and promote that union, was not exclusively for the sake of the union, either. The ultimately desire was to protect the sovereignty of each component of that union - The States. The framers understood that by creating a federal government, the potential for the governmental system to become a tyranny was unleashed. Therefore, in order to protect the rights, liberty and property of the people (more specifically to "secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity"), the federal government needed to be limited in its authorities by the rule of law. The law of the land in which the governmental system is limited to, in the case of the United States, is the U.S. Constitution, for the sake of protecting the individuality of the States, and We the People.
 
Terms:
 
Confederation: A confederation is an association of sovereign member states that, by treaty or other agreement, have delegated some of their powers to a common institution in order to coordinate policies, without constituting a new state on top of the member states.
 
English Bill of Rights: The Declaration of Rights in 1689, following the relatively bloodless "Glorious Revolution" of 1688, reasserting Protestant influence in England, and establishing a written declaration based on the belief that rights are granted by God, limiting the power of the king, and guaranteeing individual rights in writing. At its core, the system of government based on the English Bill of Rights, and the Magna Carta, holds as its philosophy that government is to serve the people, not the other way around.
 
Federalism: Government in which the central government's power and authority is limited by local government units, and where each unit is delegated a sphere of power and authority only it can exercise, while other powers must be shared. The term federalism comes from the Latin root foedus, which means "formal agreement or covenant." It includes the interrelationships between the states as well as between the states and the federal government.
 
Magna Carta: The "Great Charter" of English Liberties, forced from King John by the English barons at Runnymede, June 15, 1215. A fundamental constitution, or law guaranteeing rights.
 
Unalienable Rights: Incapable of being alienated, that is, sold and transferred. You can not surrender, sell or transfer unalienable rights, they are a gift from the Creator to the individual and can not under any circumstances be surrendered or taken. All individual's have unalienable rights.
 
 
 
Questions for Discussion:
 
1. How might the United States be different if the Magna Carta, or the Glorious Revolution, had never taken place?
 
2. Many of us were taught to memorize the Preamble in school, others remember it because of the School House Rock cartoon on Saturday mornings, but growing up how many times were we taught what it means?
 
3. Federalism, or the belief in a central government limited by the authorities granted to it in the Constitution, began as a wonderful idea. The members of the "Federalist Party," however, were not satisfied, and desired the federal government to have more authorities than it was granted. Why do you think this is true?
 
4. Why did the Founding Fathers only desire the federal government to be granted powers that regarded the union, and not authorities in regards to other issues?
 
4. The judicial branch was supposed to be the weakest of the three branches. Why do you think the Founding Fathers wanted to limit the judiciary to such an extent?
 
5. One of the founding principles is that our unalienable rights are given to us by the Creator. Is it a coincidence that historically most authoritarian governments that sought to take away the rights of the individual did it either by taking control of the church, or by rejecting religion/the existence of God?
 
6. At what point does a government take "provide for the common defense" too far?
 
Resources:
 
James L. Roark, Michael P. Johnson, Patricia Cline Cohen, Sarah Stage, Alan Lawson, and Susan M. Hartmann, The American Promise: A History of the United States; Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's (2009).
 
James Madison, Federalist No. 41: General View of the Powers Conferred by The Constitution, http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa41.htm
 
John L. Hancock, Liberty Inherited: The Untold Story of America's Exceptionalism; Charleston: Liberty Lane Media (2011)
 
Joseph Andrews, A Guide for Learning and Teaching The Declaration of Independence and The U.S. Constitution - Learning from the Original Texts Using Classical Learning Methods of the Founders; San Marcos: The Center for Teaching the Constitution (2010).
 
Larry Schweikart and Michael Allen, A Patriot's History of the United States; New York: Sentinel (2004).
 
Madison's Notes on the Constitutional Convention, Avalon Project, Yale University: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/debcont.asp
 
Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner, The Founder's Constitution - Volume Two - Preamble through Article I, Section 8, Clause 4; Indianapolis: Liberty Fund (1987).
 
 
Copyright 2014 Douglas V. Gibbs

          Live: Football transfer news and rumours – August 8      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Welcome to the timesofmalta.com football transfer blog. With the World Cup coming to a close clubs will be stepping up their efforts to try and strengthen their squad ahead of the upcoming season. Stay with us to follow all the latest news. 9.40pm That is all from us today! We invite you to join us tomorrow as the English Premier League transfer window closes at 6pm.  12pm Luka Modric will hold decisive talks with Real Madrid President Florentino Perez tomorrow, while Inter’s Croatian contingent reportedly confirm the player wants to leave the Bernabeu. The 32-year-old, who recently captained Croatia to the World Cup final, has been the subject of what at first appeared to be audacious interest from the Nerazzurri. However, his failure to report for pre-season training with Los Blancos at the start of this week, added to widespread reports in Italy and Spain that he has told Real officials he wants to leave, means Inter now have a lot of cause for encouragement. BREAKING: Burnley Football Club is delighted to announce the signing of England international Joe Hart on an initial two-year deal. More to follow. pic.twitter.com/bkyAuXKlMS — B
          Book Review: Dark Side of the Moon      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The following review is a special for BlackFive readers provided by Elise Cooper. You can read all of our book reviews and author interviews by clicking on the Books category link in the right side bar. Dark Side of the Moonby Alan Jacobson is another “OPSIG Team Black” adventure. This story will literally take people to a new dimension. Readers will feel they are on a journey on F-18 fighter planes and a trip to the moon while combating espionage, the dark secrets of the moon, and kidnapping. Jacobson commented, “After reading this article about Apollo 17 bringing back moon rocks I had an idea that maybe they could be used for military purposes. Since I do not write science fiction I needed to do a lot of research and worked with some awesome people. I talked with an engineer who worked on the Space Shuttle and is currently working on a NASA project. The different organizations that cooperated were NASA, JPL, Lockheed, and SPACEX. People helped me work out the logistics of how the mission should be carried out. Even though it was quite an endeavor, given the opportunity I would do it again. Mainly, because I have been fascinated with space, growing up with Star Trek and the Apollo missions.” Readers find out that after returning to the earth in 1972 Apollo 17 brought back some classified items. Discovering its importance, a NASA engineer leaks the information to foreign governments. Now there is a race to the moon to find an element called Caesarium. If found it can be used to produce a weapon with an ultimate magnitude of destruction, that has important military applications. In order to stop China and Russia Hector DeSantos and Aaron Uziel (Uzi) join with two astronauts on a mission called Operation Containment. They must prevent Caesarium from being brought back. Meanwhile back on earth, Karen Vail and company have determined that the mission has been sabotaged and they must find out the mole who did it. Karen Vail and her colleague Alexandra Rusakov will have to find the mole and destroy the spy ring that planted malware on the ships that are now headed for the Moon. To complicate matters Hector’s father is kidnapped and will be used as leverage. The author likes to venture out and write new stories. His last book, Darkness of Evil, and his next book will delve into serial killers. “As a writer, I want to keep fresh and different. I want to challenge my characters and myself to acclimate to new environments. Karen Vail has been to Paris, England, and Spain maneuvering through the different cultures, places, laws, and law enforcement. I think this current book about moon elements is extremely relevant. Space can help with our military readiness that includes determining logistics. We need to maintain our superiority in space and should applaud our President’s efforts to reinvigorate our space program. We need a moon base to collect natural resources and use it as a spring board to get to another planet.” Space is coming to the forefront once again. This believable story shows the importance of America keeping its space superiority. It also highlights how Karen Vail must maneuver through lies, betrayals, and disloyalties to find the culprits.

          Amnesty International blames Italy, EU for surge in migrant drowning deaths      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
EUROPE-MIGRANTS/SPAIN

A closer look at the day's most notable stories with The National's Jonathon Gatehouse.


          Europe forecast: Thundery rain France, moving into Scandinavia - Mostly dry in Eastern Europe, Aug 08 - 09:48      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Still some hot weather but becoming cooler and fresher in some northern and western parts Wednesday Much of Portugal, Spain and the Balearics dry and sunny but with rain, possibly thundery later, in the north and east. Temperatures widely near to 30C, locally the mid to high 30s for central and southern parts. noticeably cooler and fresher around coasts in the north and west, though. Sunshine for Corsica, Sardinia and Italy will be interrupted by showers and thunderstorms but it will stay mostly dry over into the Adriatic and Croatia. Temperatures again up to around 30C and locally nearer to 35C. Dry and sunny across Greece but with a risk of isolated thunderstorms in Turkey, where temperatures may exceed 40C in some spots. Across the Alps into Austria the risk of thunderstorms but further east and south, toward central and southeastern parts of Europe, including the Balkans it will be mostly dry with sunny spells; very warm or hot. Mostly dry for Northern France and the Low Countries with spells of sunshine developing and temperatures of 20 to 23C but thunderstorms are likely in southern and eastern parts with temperatures in the high 20s to low 30s. Thunderstorms develop across Germany too where it will be hot with temperatures 30 to 35C, locally a degree or two higher but Poland will be largely dry with sunny spells. Rain, locally thundery, moves north across Norway and later into Northern Sweden and Finland but Southern Scandinavia and the Baltic States will be drier with more isolated showers. Temperatures near 30C at best in the south, low to mid 20s in the north.

Thursday Much of Portugal, Spain and the Balearics dry and sunny again but with some rain or showers in the north and east, possibly drifting into the Balearics later. Cooler and fresher in the north and west but still very warm in the south with temperatures in the mid to low 30s. Sunny spells for Corsica, Sardinia and Italy with any showers lighter and dying out, whilst it will stay mostly dry over into the Adriatic and Croatia. Temperatures again up to around 30C and locally exceeding 35C in Italy. Isolated showers in the north and east of Greece and Turkey but largely dry; temperatures above 35C in Southern Turkey. Thunderstorms again break out over Switzerland, possibly into the west of Austria but staying mostly dry with sunny spells further east and south, toward central and southeastern parts of Europe; temperatures into the low 30s. A large area of heavy rain and thunderstorms over the north and west of France will move steadily northeast and on into Low Countries. Temperatures in the low 30s across Eastern France, otherwise cooler and fresher. Thunderstorms develop in the north and west of Germany and Poland but many parts stay dry with sunshine, temperatures again 30 to 35C. Showers at first over Northern Scandinavia but then heavy, thundery rain reaches Denmark, Southern Norway and Sweden overnight. Light showers for Finland but the Baltic States stay mostly dry. Temperatures into the low to mid 20s generally but hotter for Southern Sweden and Finland.


          Bodegas Volver Wrongo Dongo Monastrell 2016 Jumilla, Spain      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Dark inky in color with a short purple rim. Fruity nose of black currants, blueberries, cherries, ea
          8/8/2018: Premier League: IMBULA BOUND FOR SPAIN      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
STOKE CITY midfielder Gianelli Imbula is wanted by Spanish side Levante. Imbula is lined up to replace Jefferson Lerma who joined Bournemouth for £25m. The deal is expected to be an initial loan. Stoke’s Badou N’Diaye remains an option for Everton who...
          Chelsea Confirm Thibaut Courtois-Mateo Kovacic Swap Deal with Real Madrid      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Thibaut Courtois has made public, on more than one occasion, his desire to move to Spain, and today he officially got his wish. The world class goalkeeper is officially leaving Chelsea and joining Real Madrid (for a fee that’s been reported as £35 million), with midfielder Mateo Kovacic going the other way on a season […]

The post Chelsea Confirm Thibaut Courtois-Mateo Kovacic Swap Deal with Real Madrid appeared first on The Bank.


          8/9/2018: TIMES SPORT: Kepa to be costliest goalie      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Madrid: Athletic Bilbao said on Wednesday that Kepa Arrizabalaga has paid his £71m ($93 million) buyout clause, paving the way for the Spain international to join Chelsea as the world’s most expensive goalkeeper. The deal would be a world record for a...
          map of madrid spain      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
map of madrid spain

          The Evolution of the Vth Order of the French or Modern Rite      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Recent years have been witness to a kind of rediscovery of the French or Modern Rite, which despite being a great unknown was the foundation of what would later evolve into various Masonic ritual "manifestations" both good and bad. Undoubtedly, the proliferation of the so-called High Degrees and heterodox systems, often lacking in coherence and sometimes contrary to the original aims of the Order, the intrusion of extravagant and visionary fashions, grotesque messianic systems, pseudomystical rituals and other varied fauna, led French continental masonry, and specifically the Grand Orient of France, to the creation of a "Grand General Chapter of France" in order to bring order and give uniform coherence to the chaos that was 18th Century Continental Freemasonry.

From time to time, history provides us with clear minds in various fields of art and knowledge. One of the transcendental figures to approach this structuring was Roëttiers de Montaleau, who along with Graffin, Salivet, Saurine, Millon and many other of those 81 founding members (note the number 81), gave form to the Orders of Wisdom, previously called Superior Orders, the intent of which was and continues to be that of coherently grouping the teachings, bringing together all the historical currents of the so-called Scottism, which I have developed extensively in other articles and essays.

Alexandre-Louis Roëttiers de Montaleau
The original founding idea of ​​1784 that simply intended the making of a V Order that contains "all the physical and metaphysical degrees and all systems, especially those adopted by the Masonic associations in force", remains a hard task to master. it came to be realized progressively and, curiously, was forgotten in some cases, or unknown in others, either by laziness, ignorance or egocentric overeagerness.

The French Rite of the Moderns that Roëttiers de Montaleau called in one of the reorganization proposals as the "Primitive Rite" affirming with this qualifying adjective the source of the French Rite, a name adopted to differentiate it from others created later and also implemented in France. I will leave for another occasion my modest analysis about the misuse that has been given to a supposed "Primitive Rite" in other parts of the world.

Now let's return to the true concept, that Primitive Rite, the French Rite or Rite of the Moderns, which compiled after the three symbolic degrees represents an authentic Academy and Conservatory of masonic degrees of the Enlightenment and the accumulated knowledge of multiple ritual systems.
This ambitious, but necessary regulation on the one hand academic and on the other administrative, is still alive today, and its genesis was intended to present a vision of the future as indicated by its first Statutes and General Regulations of March 19, 1784.
It is not simply a compilation or "Ark of the Covenant" of the first and historic 81 degrees distributed in 9 series, but meant to accommodate the greater masonic knowledge it contained, thus incorporating and conserving the culminating degrees of all the different systems and Rites.

That is the ultimate goal of the V Order: to reunite what is dispersed at the highest level of initiation. That's how it was and that's how it is today.

(Translated from the Spanish of Joaquim Villalta)


Joaquim Villalta, Vª Orden, Gr. ·. 9, 33rd
Director of the International Academy of the Fifth Order - UMURM
Member of the Sublime Council of the Modern Rite for Ecuador
Vice-president of the Circle of Studies of the French Rite "Roëttiers de Montaleau"
Honorary Member of the Lusitano Grande Orient
Honorary Member of the Colombian National Grand Orient
Honorary Member of the Traditional Grand Lodge of Paraguay
Very Powerful Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council of the 33rd Degree for Spain of the Ancient and Accepted Rite (R de C)





          letgo Receives $500M Commitment from Naspers      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

letgo, a New York and Barcelona, Spain-based provider of an app to buy and sell locally, received a $500M commitment from Naspers. Naspers has invested in letgo through OLX Group. The company intends to use the new financing, $150M of which was already transferred earlier this summer, to accelerate growth, product evolution, expansion into new […]

The post letgo Receives $500M Commitment from Naspers appeared first on FinSMEs.


          US has been disastrous for PR      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

How has the United States Government (USG) been disastrous for Puerto Rico? Let’s look at some of the history.

The USG:
·         Militarily Invaded Puerto Rico to make her its colony.
·         Forced Spain to give Puerto Rico to it as a war prize.
·         Ignored the fact that Puerto Rico had already obtained autonomy under the Autonomic Charter with Spain at the time of its invasion.
·         Installed a military government for 2 years in Puerto Rico.
·         Devaluated Puerto Rico’s currency 40%.
·         Classified Puerto Ricans as an inferior race to avoid having to extend its constitution to them. The USG legislated the non-incorporated territory for Puerto Rico. The United States (US) Supreme Court said that that means that Puerto Rico belongs to but is not a part of the US.
·         Makes laws against Puerto Ricans. A good example of this is the law that requires Puerto Rico to transport her goods only using US ships that are the most expensive in the world!
·         Forced US citizenship on Puerto Ricans to try to divert their national loyalty to the United States.
·         Lied to the United Nations in 1953 when it said that Puerto Rico had obtained self-government with the Commonwealth of  Puerto Rico to get her off its list of colonies.
·         Forced Puerto Rico to change certain parts of her so called “Constitution” for Washington to approve it.

Things have been so disastrous that more Puerto Ricans live out of  Puerto Ricans. Things has been so bad that more soldiers are recruited to the US military in Puerto Rico than in any of the 50 states of the Union. Does that mean that Puerto Ricans are more patriotic than the US citizens living in all the 50 states? No. That means that Puerto Ricans are more desperate! It has been 4 generations of US exploitation!  

Join the permanent resistance to force the USG to comply with the United Nations’ Charter and its 37 resolutions asking it to immediately return Puerto Rico’s sovereignty to the Puerto Ricans.

Join because, those that have caused so much disaster to Puerto Ricans don’t believe in LIBERTY AND IN JUSTICE FOR ALL! https://www.facebook.com/groups/1697349163904877/


          Can’t believe it’s that time again!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

It’s show time again! We are exhibiting for the third year at The Great Northern Dive Show. It happens this year at the earlier time of 17th/18th Feb. This year there are two marked differences: Firstly, the location. It’s moved a wee bit to: Emirates Old Trafford, Lancashire County Cricket Club, The Point, Talbot Road, […]

The post Can’t believe it’s that time again! appeared first on Fleet Dive | Dive Costa Brava Spain.


          Saint Joan Firework celebrations 2017 with ECSAC      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

We have an advanced party here from one of the British Sub Aqua Club’s oldest groups “BSAC100”. They are here slightly ahead of the rest of their group which arrives later today. Last night they joined us out on the water in the beautiful bay of Roses to witness the celebrations with front row seats […]

The post Saint Joan Firework celebrations 2017 with ECSAC appeared first on Fleet Dive | Dive Costa Brava Spain.


          Technology updates      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Our tall foreheads are at it again! We have our team in India developing two exciting new scuba related apps for your benefit. One will be a weather app which will direct you to a local weather source to help you plan your dive sortie. The other will be a map of the region marking […]

The post Technology updates appeared first on Fleet Dive | Dive Costa Brava Spain.


          The Great Northern Dive Show – update.      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Team Fleet are delighted to report that our exhibition at Event City in Manchester was a huge success with many visitors coming to our stand and passing compliments regarding the quality of the display and the product concept. Some of the great team assembled for our exhibition at TGNDS – The Great Northern Dive Show are […]

The post The Great Northern Dive Show – update. appeared first on Fleet Dive | Dive Costa Brava Spain.


          Great Northern Dive Show 2016      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

  We at Fleet Hq are very pleased to announce that we will be exhibiting at the inaugural “Great Northern Dive Show” in Manchester England on the 23rd/24th April 2016! Please feel free to pop along to stand 128 and chat with us. Team Fleet

The post Great Northern Dive Show 2016 appeared first on Fleet Dive | Dive Costa Brava Spain.


          Fleet Dive sponsors Scuba Santas 2015!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Well we have only gone and done it again. We here at Fleet Dive are sponsoring this charitable event for the fourth year running with a fabulous offer of a 50% discount against a holiday here on the spectacular Costa Brava. We look forward to welcoming the lucky winner and their group down here for […]

The post Fleet Dive sponsors Scuba Santas 2015! appeared first on Fleet Dive | Dive Costa Brava Spain.


          Trip report posted on the BSAC website by Dr Tamas Szakmany      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Prologue and first days with not much diving. This, like my Florida trip, started last year: I went to the Scuba Santa’s event to NDAC for a dive, a laugh and to help raising money for the RNLI! It was a great day, Lloyd clearly put a lot of effort into it and it showed. […]

The post Trip report posted on the BSAC website by Dr Tamas Szakmany appeared first on Fleet Dive | Dive Costa Brava Spain.


          Fleet Dive on the road!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

This weekend (31st January/1st February) we will be exhibiting at the Duikvaker Exhibition in Houten, Netherlands. This is highly significant to us as it is our first time at such an event! Come see us and have a coffee on stand 430! Team Fleet.

The post Fleet Dive on the road! appeared first on Fleet Dive | Dive Costa Brava Spain.


          Fleet Dive Sponsors Scuba Santas 2014!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Fleet Dive are very proud to be sponsoring the Scuba Santas charity event on December the 14th 2014. We have donated the star prize for the raffle for the fourth year running by way of a completely free holiday here on the spectacular Costa Brava! This holiday for a group of up to six divers […]

The post Fleet Dive Sponsors Scuba Santas 2014! appeared first on Fleet Dive | Dive Costa Brava Spain.


          Featured Dive Site – Wreck “Reggio Messina”      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

This vessel was a ferry of length 115m and tasked with train transportation to Italy. She was towed on her last voyage from Barcelona to Estartit in 1991 where she was ultimately brought to this location and purposefully sunk to create an artificial reef & thus a great dive!   To date this hasn’t been […]

The post Featured Dive Site – Wreck “Reggio Messina” appeared first on Fleet Dive | Dive Costa Brava Spain.


          Carretillero/a SUBIRATS - EPOS SPAIN ETT SL - Subirats, Barcelona provincia      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Precisamos incorporar un perfil carretillero/a para trabajar en una empresa del sector logístico ubicada en Subirats. Funciones= preparación de pedidos con... 1.000€ - 1.200€ al mes
De Indeed - Tue, 26 Jun 2018 14:35:20 GMT - Ver todo: empleo en Subirats, Barcelona provincia
          Global Smart Cities Market Overview 2018: Industry Sales, Supply, Consumption, Analysis and Forecast Till 2026      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

MRRSE offers an 8-year forecast for global Smart Cities market between 2018 and 2026. In terms of value, market is expected to register a CAGR of 19.8% during forecast period.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- This research report provides detailed analysis of Smart Cities market and offers insights on the various factors driving popularity of Smart Cities and its features. The report includes an extensive analysis of key industry drivers, restraints, market trends and market structure. The market study provides comprehensive assessment of stakeholder strategies and imperatives for succeeding in the business. The report segregates the market based on application, and component across different regions globally.

Looking for more information on this market? Get Free sample report @ https://www.mrrse.com/sample/4018

The Smart Cities market is anticipated to witness moderate revenue growth during the forecast period, owing to the Increasing transition towards urbanization, governmental initiatives, and the increasing penetration of advanced technologies such as IoT, cloud computing, big data etc.

The report starts with an overview of the smart cities market in terms of value. In addition, this section includes analysis of key trends, drivers and restraints from the supply, demand and economy side, which are influencing the smart cities market.

On the basis of application, smart cities market is segmented into smart security, smart building, smart transportation, smart governance, smart energy, smart healthcare, smart water network system, and smart education.

On the basis of component, smart cities market is segmented into hardware, software and services

A detailed analysis has been provided for every segment in terms of market size analysis for smart cities market across the different regions. The section provides a detailed analysis covering key trends.

The next section highlights detailed analysis of smart cities market across various countries in the region. It provides a market outlook for 2018–2026 and sets the forecast within the context of smart cities market, including latest technological developments as well as offerings in the market. This study discusses key trends within countries contributing to growth of the market, as well as analyses degree at which drivers are influencing this market in each region. Key regions and countries assessed in this report include North America (U.S., Canada), Latin America (Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and Rest of Latin America), Europe (Germany, France, UK, Italy, Spain, Russia, and Rest of Western Europe), SEA and others in Asia Pacific (India, Australia & New Zealand, ASEAN, and Rest of APAC), Japan, China and MEA (GCC Countries, Turkey, South Africa, North Africa and Rest of MEA). This report evaluate the present scenario and the growth prospects of the smart cities market across various regions globally for the period 2018 –2026. We have considered 2017 as the base year and provide data for the trailing 12 months.

In order to offer an accurate forecast, we started by sizing the current smart cities market, which forms the basis of how the smart cities market will grow in the future. Given the characteristics of the market, we triangulated the outcome of different types of analyses, based on the technology trends.

Order a copy of Global 3D Sensor Market Report @ https://www.mrrse.com/global-smart-cities-market

As previously highlighted, the global smart cities market is split into a number of segments. All segments in terms of application, component and different regions are analysed in terms of basis point to understand individual segment's relative contributions to smart cities market growth. This detailed level of information is important for identification of various key trends of the global smart cities market. Also, another key feature of this report is the analysis of all key segments in terms of absolute dollar opportunity. This is traditionally overlooked while forecasting the market. However, absolute dollar opportunity is critical in assessing the level of opportunity that a provider can look to achieve, as well as to identify potential resources from a sales and delivery perspective in the global smart cities market.

Key Segments Covered in the report smart cities market are:

Application

Smart Security

Smart Building

Smart Transportation

Smart Governance

Smart Energy

Smart Healthcare

Smart Water Network System

Smart Education

Application

Hardware

Software

Services

Key Regions covered:

North America Smart Cities Market

U.S.

Canada

Latin America Smart Cities Market

Brazil

Argentina

Mexico

Rest of Latin America

Europe Smart Cities Market

Germany

France

U.K.

Spain

Italy

Russia

Rest of Western Europe

SEA and other of APAC Smart Cities Market

India

Australia & New Zealand

ASEAN

Rest of APAC

Japan Smart Cities Market

China Smart Cities Market

MEA Smart Cities Market

GCC Countries

Turkey

South Africa

North Africa

Rest of MEA

Inquire more or share questions if any on this report @ https://www.mrrse.com/enquiry/4018

About Market Research Reports Search Engine
Market Research Reports Search Engine (MRRSE) is an industry-leading database of market intelligence reports. MRRSE is driven by a stellar team of research experts and advisors trained to offer objective advice. Our sophisticated search algorithm returns results based on the report title, geographical region, publisher, or other keywords.

MRRSE partners exclusively with leading global publishers to provide clients single-point access to top-of-the-line market research. MRRSE's repository is updated every day to keep its clients ahead of the next new trend in market research, be it competitive intelligence, product or service trends or strategic consulting.

Contact
State Tower
90, State Street
Suite 700
Albany, NY - 12207
United States Telephone: +1-518-730-0559
Email: sales@mrrse.com
Website: https://www.mrrse.com/

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/global-smart-cities-market-overview-2018-industry-sales-supply-consumption-analysis-and-forecast-till-2026-1023994.htm

Media Relations Contact

Nivedita
Manager
MRRSE
Telephone: 1-518-621-2074
Email: Click to Email Nivedita
Web: https://www.mrrse.com/

#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000


           $500 million Hyperloop development facility set for southern Spain       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

A new research center for Virgin Hyperloop One will span 19,000 sq m in southern Spain#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000

Spain is set to receive a shiny new facility for the development of next-gen transport, with Richard Branson's Virgin Hyperloop One reaching an agreement with local authorities to open a research center in the region of Andalusia, in the country's south.

.. Continue Reading $500 million Hyperloop development facility set for southern Spain

Category: Urban Transport

Tags:
          Xiaomi Mi A2 Launched In India For Rs 16,999; Pre-order Starts Tomorrow      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Last month, Xiaomi Mi A2 launch in Spain made quite a buzz in the mobile community. Today, Xiaomi has officially launched Xiaomi Mi A2 in India, priced at Rs. 16,999. The new Xiaomi device is the successor of Mi A1 which was the company’s first Android One device. Key Specification of Xiaomi Mi A2: Design Xiaomi’s […]

The post Xiaomi Mi A2 Launched In India For Rs 16,999; Pre-order Starts Tomorrow appeared first on Fossbytes.


          Comment on GoldList Method by Arrowhead      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hi! Once again I'm back to shoot you some questions, David. I really appreciate your answers. 1) After Heisig RTK1, I am headlisting Japanese vocabulary. The 6300 words taught in WaniKani. I don't know how sane it is to only start distilling after I have finished, but I want to have every word headlisted by the end of August. Then I'll have 10 days when have to dedicate all my time to a separate exam, and by half of September I'll start to distille. That's my plan, and I'll be taking advantage on the main advantage I find here against Anki: GLM does not snowball, I don't have to work on X quantity of it every day, unless I want to be buried. The 14days to 2 months period to reach to long term memory is my salvation. Also, I want to mention I am not doing clear separate columns (like dividing the page with a vertical line), as I write: kanji word ------- kana word -------- english translation and legend (adjective, noun ,etc) Is this a problem? 2) When distilling is it better to read the translation and think of the kanji, or read the kanji and think of the meaning? My goal is reading proficiency mainly. I ask because I've seen both versions. 3) Can GLM be applied to the study of history, mythology, philosophy or art? For example, I have this chunk on the Punic Wars. - First Punic War → Rome wanted Sicily, controlled by the Carthaginians. - Second Punic war → because Carthage got angry after Rome won **219 BCE, Hannibal attacked a Roman town, then led an army across Spain, and then crossed the freaking Alps with elephants. **Hannibal and his elephant army almost won, but finally the Romans got Spain. ***People in Spain were NOT Romans at the moment, and that’s the reason why by 201 BCE Rome was definitely an empire. - Third Punic War → a formality, Rome found some excuse to attack Carthage and then wipe it out of the map I am thinking that unless I am talking bullet list information like the order of Chinese dynasties, the best approach is to formulate questions on the subject. Example: What was the first punic war? Although I don't know how much information I could add inside only 1 question: what it was, when it happened (year), why, result... Neither do I know whats the best way to write the answer. A full paragraph with details? Thats not very effective volume wise. Some schematics words and ideas, or a tiny diagram?. I don't know, but writing one question(line) for each detail would be hell. My source of information would be CrashCourse, amazing condensed courses on the most interestings sciences and arts. They do Youtube vids, and there are transcripts of those in a sister web. I trust the quality of the material, and the quantity is just good enough to get a general grasp of everything, and be able to dive deep alone next. I think it may be easier on mythology, talking pantheons, names, associations to what powers and so on. Maybe entering history territory when talking about the myths themselves. Essentially I would need to remember stories. With philosophy, wow, how do you GLM abstraction? This will need the most work before writing the headlist, processing the information, and condensing it. On art, I don't think it's attainable in paper, or maybe it is? Dividing the Headlist space in maybe 8 chunks, one per picture, and you try to sketch. Not striving for perfection, but only a rough sketch, enough to differentiate shapes? Using some colors as well? I think that could work to remember the picture itself, but how do we work around the Name and the Author, and the Date? Once again, too much details.It may be easier to draw with a tablet on a computer. Hoping to hear from you back! Cheers!
          How to Join Illuminati 666 {+27784083428} become Rich in Lebanon Australia Oman      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
+27784083428 How to join Illuminati  In Egypt Zambia Spain - How to join Illuminati In Sweden -How to join Illuminati In Norway - How to join Illuminati In Denmark - How to join Illuminati In France -How to join Illuminati In United Kingdom • How to jo...
          Kepa Arrizabalaga Set To Become The Most Expensive Goalkeeper Ever      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The Blues are on the verge of completing the signing of the Athletic Club goalkeeper, with their Belgian No.1 heading to Real Madrid
Chelsea are close to finalising the signing of Kepa Arrizabalaga having activated the goalkeeper's €80 million (£71m/$92m) release clause, Goal can confirm.

The player's representatives and lawyers travelled to La Liga headquarters in Valencia on Wednesday to pay the fee, with Kepa now due to travel to London to undergo a medical and finalise personal terms.

The Kepa deal will break the club's previous transfer record, set last season when the Blues signed Alvaro Morata from Real Madrid in an initial £58m ($75m) deal, potentially rising to £70m ($90m).

It will also make Kepa the world's most expensive goalkeeper, less than a month after Alisson joined Liverpool in a £65m (€73m/$85m) move.

The move fo the Spaniard will free up Thibaut Courtois to complete a switch to Real Madrid, with the Belgian having been absent from training as he looked to force through a switch to Santiago Bernabeu.

Madrid have been keen to bring in Courtois in a €35m deal (£31m/$40m) for some time now, where the funds expected from that transfer being used by the Blues to secure Athletic goalkeeper Kepa.

And the Blues' transfer business isn't likely to end with Kepa - Goal understands Maurizio Sarri's side are in talks over a loan move for Madrid midfielder Mateo Kovacic.

Indeed, Madrid boss Julen Lopetegui has revealed that his side will attempt to find a "high level replacement" should Kovacic complete a switch to Stamford Bridge.

Time is against Sarri and Chelsea, however, with the transfer window for Premier League clubs closing at 5pm BST on August 9.

Chelsea get their Premier League campaign underway on Saturday with an away trip to David Wagner's Huddersfield Town.


          Viking Festival 2018 in Spain      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Women dressed up as Vikings attend the annual Viking festival of Catoira in north-western Spain on August 5, 2018. (Photo by Miguel Vidal/Reuters)

Women dressed up as Vikings attend the annual Viking festival of Catoira in north-western Spain on August 5, 2018. The festival re-enacts past Viking raids in the area and is celebrated annually on the first Sunday of August. (Photo by Miguel Vidal/Reuters)

          1955 Pegaso Z-102: The Thriller      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

In a time well before the word supercar entered our vocabulary, the fastest one in the world was built in an economically compromised Spain by a state-owned manufacturing company whose primary focus was on trucks, buses, and other industrial vehicles. In other words, the Pegaso Z-102 was born of strange circumstance, and since it was a wildly expensive endeavor for a country recovering from civil war, not many were built in period, and they remain obscure today with only a few dozen surviving from the original production run. A dry-sump V8 with four cams powers the alloy coachwork (a number of bodies were available from Italian and Spanish coachbuilders like Touring and Serra), and though it saw no success on the racing circuit, the Z-102 was among the most advanced and high-performing GTs of its day. Join us for a ride around the outskirts of Madrid as we put Rafael Pueche’s 1955 example through its paces—rare cars need exercise too.

(2 votes - 0 comments - 11 views)

          Comment on Polar Alliance Update: Ice People ARE Mobilizing Against Sun People Tsunami…Even Chinese-Canadians (!), by John Derbyshire      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
. What happened to Spain is the equivalent of what happened to oil rich countries today, the sudden windfall is more a curse than a blessing. Or what happened to the USA today , the fattest and stupidiest country of the world , you only produce wars , you only know how to bomb civilians , and sell fake news and printed paper fake money .
          Comment on Polar Alliance Update: Ice People ARE Mobilizing Against Sun People Tsunami…Even Chinese-Canadians (!), by John Derbyshire      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
And Spain brought to Europe from the Americas ; potatos , corn , tomatos , chocolate , tobacco etc.. etc…
You conveniently forgot: practically all of South America's gold and silver, which was how Spain became so rich. But it was a curse wasn't it? Spaniards became fat, lazy and stupid living off their stolen gold and silver, they funded all the "religious" wars in Europe, became a nation of consumers rather than producers, fell behind the rest of Europe in industrialization, which is why they're now practically bankrupt if it weren't for Germany propping up their economy. What happened to Spain is the equivalent of what happened to oil rich countries today, the sudden windfall is more a curse than a blessing. And in your long list of supposed good things brought by the Spaniards to SA, you also conveniently left out all the devastating diseases that wiped out a large number of the native SA population - smallpox, measles, flu, typhus, DTAP.
          Internal Controls Manager - Tokio Marine HCC - Houston, TX      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
JOB DESCRIPTION Tokio Marine HCC is a leading specialty insurance group with offices in the United States, the United Kingdom, Spain and Ireland, transacting...
From Tokio Marine HCC - Mon, 09 Jul 2018 19:55:34 GMT - View all Houston, TX jobs
          Chelsea Announce World Record Signing Of Kepa Arrizabalaga From Athletic Bilbao      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Chelsea have confirmed the signing of Kepa Arrizabalaga from Athletic Bilbao, making him the world’s most expensive goalkeeper. Kepa arrives at Stamford Bridge after his release clause of £71.6m was met, with the deal surpassing Alisson’s £66.8m move to Liverpool. He will replace Thibaut Courtois, who has joined Real Madrid. Kepa is Spain’s number two […]

The post Chelsea Announce World Record Signing Of Kepa Arrizabalaga From Athletic Bilbao appeared first on 360Nobs.com.


          Chelsea Announce World Record Signing Of Kepa Arrizabalaga From Athletic Bilbao      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Chelsea have confirmed the signing of Kepa Arrizabalaga from Athletic Bilbao, making him the world’s most expensive goalkeeper. Kepa arrives at Stamford Bridge after his release clause of £71.6m was met, with the deal surpassing Alisson’s £66.8m move to Liverpool. He will replace Thibaut Courtois, who has joined Real Madrid. Kepa is Spain’s number two […]

The post Chelsea Announce World Record Signing Of Kepa Arrizabalaga From Athletic Bilbao appeared first on 360Nobs.com.


          She Loves Money And Dick HD      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Release Year: 2018 Studio: Mofos Cast: Veronica Leal Genres: Blonde, Latina, Teen, Straight, POV, Outdoors Video language: English Colombian sweetheart Veronica Leal is travelling throughout Spain and meets some random lad who has either a large wallet or an even larger penis! When that [...]
          Instagram vs Reality – Summer edition      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Thanks, Mike (from Spain)  
          Spain captures 85-year-old drug lord Manuel Charlin      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The veteran drug trafficker is considered the patriarch of "the most violent organization" in Galicia. He was arrested by police along with 18 others in a major cocaine bust in the northwestern Spanish region. Reported by Deutsche Welle 4 hours ago.
          Ship with 87 migrants to dock in Spain Thursday: NGO      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
An NGO ship which rescued 87 migrants off Libya has been given the green light to dock in the southern Spanish port of Algeciras on Thursday, the charity said, after Italy refused them entry. The migrants, nearly all from Sudan including Darfur, had spent 50 hours at sea on board an inflatable boat, without drinking water, and many suffered burn ...
          Most Europeans learn a foreign langauge, while Americans . . . well . . . don’t      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
from Robert Wenzel’s “The Advantage of Being at the Epicenter of Empire.” % of students learning a foreign language Liechtenstein 100% Luxembourg 100% Malta 100% Norway 100% Austria 100% Romania 100% France 100% Spain 96% Sweden 92% Finland 84% Italy 82% Germany 82% Iceland 78% Netherlands 70% Belgium 64% US 20% (Pew Research Center) — …

Continue reading Most Europeans learn a foreign langauge, while Americans . . . well . . . don’t


          Uveal Melanoma - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027 Market Report; Launched via MarketResearchReports.com      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

MarketResearchReprots.com has announced the addition of “Uveal Melanoma - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027” research report to their website www.MarketResearchReports.com

Lewes, DE -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- Uveal Melanoma - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027 report delivers an in-depth understanding of the disease, historical & forecasted epidemiology as well as the market trends of Uveal Melanoma in the United States, EU5 (Germany, Spain, Italy, France and United Kingdom), and Japan.

The Report provides the current treatment practices, emerging drugs, market share of the individual therapies, current and forecasted market size of Uveal Melanoma from 2016 to 2027 segmented by seven major markets. The Report also covers current treatment practice/algorithm, market drivers, market barriers and unmet medical needs to curate best of the opportunities and assess underlying potential of the market.

Geography Covered
- The United States
- EU5 (Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom)
- Japan

Study Period: 2016-2027

Uveal Melanoma - Disease Understanding and Treatment Algorithm
According to National Cancer Institute, Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular malignancy and arises from melanocytes in the iris (anterior), ciliary body, or choroid (posterior). Iris melanomas have the best prognosis, whereas melanomas of the ciliary body have the least favorable prognosis. Most uveal tract melanomas originate in the choroid while the iris is the least common.

The Publisher Uveal Melanoma market report gives the thorough understanding of the Uveal Melanoma by including details such as disease definition, classification, symptoms, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic trends. It also provides treatment algorithms and treatment guidelines for Uveal Melanoma in the US, Europe, and Japan.

Uveal Melanoma Epidemiology
The Uveal Melanoma epidemiology division provide the insights about historical and current patient pool and forecasted trend for every 7 major countries. It helps to recognize the causes of current and forecasted trends by exploring numerous studies and views of key opinion leaders. This part of the Publisher report also provides the diagnosed patient pool and their trends along with assumptions undertaken.

The disease epidemiology covered in the report provides historical as well as forecasted epidemiology [segmented as Incident Cases, Type Specific incidence, and Gender Specific Incidence] scenario of Uveal Melanoma in the 7MM covering United States, EU5 countries (Germany, Spain, Italy, France and United Kingdom) and Japan from 2016-2027.

According per Benjamin A Krantz et al., UM is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults which represents 3%–5% of all melanomas. Uveal Melanoma is clinically and biologically different from cutaneous melanoma. Metastasis frequently occurs in this disease, and once distant spread occurs, outcomes are poor. According to American Cancer Society, 3, 540 new melanoma cases are estimated, out of which 350 died from cancer of eyes and orbit in US.

Uveal Melanoma Drug Chapters
This segment of the Uveal Melanoma report encloses the detailed analysis of marketed drugs and late stage (Phase-III and Phase-II) pipeline drugs. It also helps to understand the clinical trial details, expressive pharmacological action, agreements and collaborations, approval and patent details, advantages and disadvantages of each included drug and the latest news and press releases.

The current market of Uveal Melanoma consists of primary global-preserving therapies like surgery, laser or photocoagulation or transpupillary thermotherapy, Plaque brachytherapy, charged particle therapy, ionizing radiation, stereotactic radiotherapy. Despite of its effective primary therapy, nearly 50% of patients develop metastatic disease and it remains unclear what effect they have on patient survival rate

Uveal Melanoma Market Outlook
The Uveal Melanoma market outlook of the report helps to build the detailed comprehension of the historic, current and forecasted trend of the market by analyzing the impact of current therapies on the market, unmet needs, drivers and barriers and demand of better technology.

This segment gives a through detail of market trend of each marketed drug and late-stage pipeline therapy by evaluating their impact based on annual cost of therapy, inclusion and exclusion criteria's, mechanism of action, compliance rate, growing need of the market, increasing patient pool, covered patient segment, expected launch year, competition with other therapies, brand value, their impact on the market and view of the key opinion leaders. The calculated market data are presented with relevant tables and graphs to give a clear view of the market at first sight.

Key players such as AstraZeneca, Delcath Systems Inc., Pfizer, Aura Biosciences, BioMed Valley Discoveries, Immunocore Ltd and many others are involved in developing the treatment therapies for Uveal Melanoma. Expected launch of emerging therapies such as Selumetinib in combination with Dacarbazine (AstraZeneca), Melphalan (Delcath Systems Inc), IMCgp100 (in combination with Dacarbazine, Ipilimumab, and Pembrolizumab) (Immunocore Ltd), Crizotinib (Pfizer), Light-activated AU-011 (Aura Biosciences), BVD-523 (BioMed Valley Discoveries, Inc) and other compelling treatments, are expected to impact the overall market size of Uveal Melanoma during the study period 2016-2027.

Uveal Melanoma Drugs Uptake
This section focusses on the rate of uptake of the potential drugs recently launched in the market or will get launched in the market during the study period from 2016-2027. The analysis covers market uptake by drugs; patient uptake by therapies and sales of each drug.

This helps in understanding the drugs with the most rapid uptake, reasons behind the maximal use of new drugs and allows the comparison of the drugs on the basis of market share and size which again will be useful in investigating factors important in market uptake and in making financial and regulatory decisions.
?
Uveal Melanoma Report Insights
- Patient Population
- Therapeutic Approaches
- Pipeline Analysis
- Market Size and Trends
- Market Opportunities
- Impact of upcoming Therapies

Uveal Melanoma Report Key Strengths
- 10 Years Forecast
- 7MM Coverage
- Epidemiology Segmentation
- Sub-type Segmentation
- Key Cross Competition
- Highly Analyzed Market
- Drugs Uptake

Uveal Melanoma Report Assessment
- Current Treatment Practices
- Unmet Needs
- Pipeline Product Profiles
- Market Attractiveness
- Market Drivers and Barriers

Key Benefits
- This Publisher report will help to develop Business Strategies by understanding the trends shaping and driving Uveal Melanoma market
- Organize sales and marketing efforts by identifying the best opportunities for Uveal Melanoma market
- To understand the future market competition in the Uveal Melanoma market.

Spanning over 120 pages "Uveal Melanoma - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027" report covers Report Introduction, Uveal Melanoma Market Overview at a Glance, Disease Background and Overview: Uveal Melanoma, Epidemiology and Patient Population, Uveal Melanoma: Country- Wise Epidemiology, Treatment & Medical Practices, Emerging Therapies, 7MM Uveal Melanoma: Country-Wise Market Analysis, Report Methodology.

Please visit this link for more details: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/delveinsight/uveal-melanoma-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027

Find all Drug Pipeline Reports at: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/drug-pipeline

For related reports please visit: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/search/site/Uveal%20Melanoma

Read our Interactive Market Research Blog

About MarketResearchReprots.com
MarketResearchReprots.com is world's largest store offering quality market research, SWOT analysis, competitive intelligence and industry reports. We help Fortune 500 to Start-Ups with the latest market research reports on global & regional markets which comprise key industries, leading market players, new products and latest industry analysis & trends.

Contact us for your market research requirements: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/contact

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/uveal-melanoma-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027-market-report-launched-via-marketresearchreportscom-1023928.htm

Media Relations Contact

Sudeep Chakravarty
Director - Operations
MarketResearchReprots.com
Telephone: 1-302-703-9904
Email: Click to Email Sudeep Chakravarty
Web: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/delveinsight/uveal-melanoma-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027

#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000


          Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027 Market Report; Launched via MarketResearchReports.com      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

MarketResearchReprots.com has announced the addition of “Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027” research report to their website www.MarketResearchReports.com

Lewes, DE -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027 report delivers an in-depth understanding of the disease, historical & forecasted epidemiology as well as the market trends of Short Bowel Syndrome in the United States, EU5 (Germany, Spain, Italy, France and United Kingdom), and Japan.

The Report provides the current treatment practices, emerging drugs, market share of the individual therapies, current and forecasted market size of Short Bowel Syndrome from 2016 to 2027 segmented by seven major markets. The Report also covers current treatment practice/algorithm, market drivers, market barriers and unmet medical needs to curate best of the opportunities and assess underlying potential of the market.

Geography Covered
- The United States
- EU5 (Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom)
- Japan

Study Period: 2016-2027

Short Bowel Syndrome - Disease Understanding and Treatment Algorithm
Short Bowel Syndrome is the malabsorptive condition which occurs due to the massive resection of the small intestine. It also occurs due to the surgical resection of the small intestine for Crohn disease, trauma, malignancy, radiation, or mesenteric ischemia. It is the most common cause of intestinal failure in children. Short bowel syndrome is characterized by signs and symptoms such as cramping, fatigue, weakness, weight loss and malnutrition and Heartburn.

The Publisher Short Bowel Syndrome market report gives the thorough understanding of the Short Bowel Syndrome by including details such as disease definition, classification, symptoms, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic trends. It also provides treatment algorithms and treatment guidelines for Short Bowel Syndrome in the US, Europe, and Japan.

Short Bowel Syndrome Epidemiology
The Short Bowel Syndrome epidemiology division provide the insights about historical and current patient pool and forecasted trend for every 7 major countries. It helps to recognize the causes of current and forecasted trends by exploring numerous studies and views of key opinion leaders. This part of the Publisher report also provides the diagnosed patient pool and their trends along with assumptions undertaken.

The disease epidemiology covered in the report provides historical as well as forecasted epidemiology scenario of Short Bowel Syndrome in the 7MM covering United States, EU5 countries (Germany, Spain, Italy, France and United Kingdom) and Japan from 2016-2027.

As per Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, approximately 10,000–20,000 people are suffering from Short Bowel Syndrome in the United States. As per National Organization of Rare Disease, Short Bowel Syndrome affects males and females in equal numbers.
Short Bowel Syndrome Drug Chapters
This segment of the Short Bowel Syndrome report encloses the detailed analysis of marketed drugs and late stage (Phase-III and Phase-II) pipeline drugs. It also helps to understand the clinical trial details, expressive pharmacological action, agreements and collaborations, approval and patent details, advantages and disadvantages of each included drug and the latest news and press releases.

Treatment of Short Bowel Syndrome depends on the specific symptoms observed among the patients. Therapeutic market is driven by the use of proton pump inhibitors, choleretic agents, anti-secretin agents and teduglutide for the treatment of Short Bowel Syndrome. Proton pump inhibitors are recommended for treating too much gastric acid secretion among the patients with Short Bowel Syndrome. Choleretic agents are effective in preventing liver disease and improving bile flow. Anti-secretin agents are used for reducing the gastric acid in the intestine. Physicians recommend growth hormones for improving the intestinal absorption among the patients.

Short Bowel Syndrome Market Outlook
The Short Bowel Syndrome market outlook of the report helps to build the detailed comprehension of the historic, current and forecasted trend of the market by analyzing the impact of current therapies on the market, unmet needs, drivers and barriers and demand of better technology.

This segment gives a through detail of market trend of each marketed drug and late-stage pipeline therapy by evaluating their impact based on annual cost of therapy, inclusion and exclusion criteria's, mechanism of action, compliance rate, growing need of the market, increasing patient pool, covered patient segment, expected launch year, competition with other therapies, brand value, their impact on the market and view of the key opinion leaders. The calculated market data are presented with relevant tables and graphs to give a clear view of the market at first sight.

Major players such as Zealand Pharma and many others are involved in developing therapies for Short Bowel Syndrome. Launch of emerging therapies such as Glepaglutide (Zealand Pharma A/S.), and SHP633 (Shire Plc.) are expected to change the treatment landscape in upcoming years.

Short Bowel Syndrome Drugs Uptake
This section focusses on the rate of uptake of the potential drugs recently launched in the market or will get launched in the market during the study period from 2016-2027. The analysis covers market uptake by drugs; patient uptake by therapies and sales of each drug.

This helps in understanding the drugs with the most rapid uptake, reasons behind the maximal use of new drugs and allows the comparison of the drugs on the basis of market share and size which again will be useful in investigating factors important in market uptake and in making financial and regulatory decisions.
?
Short Bowel Syndrome Report Insights
- Patient Population
- Therapeutic Approaches
- Pipeline Analysis
- Market Size and Trends
- Market Opportunities
- Impact of upcoming Therapies

Short Bowel Syndrome Report Key Strengths
- 10 Years Forecast
- 7MM Coverage
- Epidemiology Segmentation
- Sub-type Segmentation
- Key Cross Competition
- Highly Analyzed Market
- Drugs Uptake

Short Bowel Syndrome Report Assessment
- Current Treatment Practices
- Unmet Needs
- Pipeline Product Profiles
- Market Attractiveness
- Market Drivers and Barriers

Key Benefits
- This Publisher report will help to develop Business Strategies by understanding the trends shaping and driving Short Bowel Syndrome market
- Organize sales and marketing efforts by identifying the best opportunities for Short Bowel Syndrome market
- To understand the future market competition in the Short Bowel Syndrome market.

Spanning over 120 pages "Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS) - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027" report covers Report Introduction, Short Bowel Syndrome Market Overview at a Glance, Disease Background and Overview: Short Bowel Syndrome, Epidemiology and Patient Population, Treatment Practices, Marketed Products, Key Emerging Therapies, Short Bowel Syndrome Market Size, Report Methodology.

Please visit this link for more details: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/delveinsight/short-bowel-syndrome-sbs-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027

Find all Drug Pipeline Reports at: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/drug-pipeline

For related reports please visit: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/search/site/Short%2520Bowel%2520Syndrome

Read our Interactive Market Research Blog

About MarketResearchReprots.com
MarketResearchReprots.com is world's largest store offering quality market research, SWOT analysis, competitive intelligence and industry reports. We help Fortune 500 to Start-Ups with the latest market research reports on global & regional markets which comprise key industries, leading market players, new products and latest industry analysis & trends.

Contact us for your market research requirements: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/contact

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/short-bowel-syndrome-sbs-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027-market-report-launched-via-marketresearchreportscom-1023913.htm

Media Relations Contact

Sudeep Chakravarty
Director - Operations
MarketResearchReprots.com
Telephone: 1-302-703-9904
Email: Click to Email Sudeep Chakravarty
Web: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/delveinsight/short-bowel-syndrome-sbs-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027

#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000


          #craft - flatspacedesign      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
#Repost @luizagibb with @get_repost ・・・ Happy to be in good company with @chiaraferragni who is also loving shells- as I wandered through the markets and artisan #craft stalls in and around #Javea over the past weeks I’ve seen so many gorgeous pieces and none more so than from my favourite shop @lc_tartaruga in Javea old town, each piece beautifully handmade by the designer Lupe. Order your own personalised pair of #shellearrings and or #shellbracelet. - All you need to do is DM @lc_tartaruga quoting #lulovesshells and she will give you 10% off the usual RRP price. 😊#personalisedjewellery #luizagibb #lgibbstyle #xabia #lovejavea @xabia_turisme #javea #spain #family #lgibbsummerholiday2018 #lovejavea #shells #fashion #summer #yvessaintlaurent #sunglasses
          Schizophrenia - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027 Market Report; Launched via MarketResearchReports.com      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

MarketResearchReprots.com has announced the addition of “Schizophrenia - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027” research report to their website www.MarketResearchReports.com

Lewes, DE -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- Schizophrenia - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027 report delivers an in-depth understanding of the disease, historical & forecasted epidemiology as well as the market trends of Schizophrenia in the United States, EU5 (Germany, Spain, Italy, France and United Kingdom), and Japan.

The Report provides the current treatment practices, emerging drugs, market share of the individual therapies, current and forecasted market size of Schizophrenia from 2016 to 2027 segmented by seven major markets. The Report also covers current treatment practice/algorithm, market drivers, market barriers and unmet medical needs to curate best of the opportunities and assess underlying potential of the market.

Geography Covered
- The United States
- EU5 (Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom)
- Japan

Study Period: 2016-2027

Schizophrenia - Disease Understanding and Treatment Algorithm
According to National Institute of Mental Health, Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder characterized by profound disruptions in thought processes, perceptions, emotional responsiveness and social interactions. It can impair functioning through the loss of an acquired capability to earn a livelihood, or the disruption of studies. The symptoms includes hallucinations, delusions and thought disorder (unusual ways of thinking), as well as reduced expression of emotions, reduced motivation to accomplish goals, motor impairment and cognitive impairment. It typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood.

The Publisher Schizophrenia market report gives the thorough understanding of the Schizophrenia by including details such as disease definition, classification, symptoms, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic trends. It also provides treatment algorithms and treatment guidelines for Schizophrenia in the US, Europe, and Japan.

Schizophrenia Epidemiology
The Schizophrenia epidemiology division provide the insights about historical and current patient pool and forecasted trend for every 7 major countries. It helps to recognize the causes of current and forecasted trends by exploring numerous studies and views of key opinion leaders. This part of the Publisher report also provides the diagnosed patient pool and their trends along with assumptions undertaken.

The disease epidemiology covered in the report provides historical as well as forecasted epidemiology [segmented as Prevalent Case, Incident Cases, Diagnosed Prevalence, Gender Specific Prevalence, and Age Specific Prevalence] scenario of Schizophrenia in the 7MM covering United States, EU5 countries (Germany, Spain, Italy, France and United Kingdom) and Japan from 2016-2027.

According to World Health Organization (WHO), the data from European and North American studies show persisting disability of moderate or severe degree in about 40% of males with schizophrenia, in contrast with 25% of females

Schizophrenia Drug Chapters
This segment of the Schizophrenia report encloses the detailed analysis of marketed drugs and late stage (Phase-III and Phase-II) pipeline drugs. It also helps to understand the clinical trial details, expressive pharmacological action, agreements and collaborations, approval and patent details, advantages and disadvantages of each included drug and the latest news and press releases.

The major marketed drugs approved for Schizophrenia are based on dopamine Type 2 (D2) and serotonin Type 2 (5HT2A) receptor antagonism. Rexulti (Otsuka Pharmaceutical), Seroquel (AstraZeneca) and Invega Sustenna (Janssen Pharmaceuticals) are the drugs used for the treatment of patients with Schizophrenia. Most currently approved therapies for schizophrenia are primarily directed toward positive symptoms.

Schizophrenia Market Outlook
The Schizophrenia market outlook of the report helps to build the detailed comprehension of the historic, current and forecasted trend of the market by analyzing the impact of current therapies on the market, unmet needs, drivers and barriers and demand of better technology.

This segment gives a through detail of market trend of each marketed drug and late-stage pipeline therapy by evaluating their impact based on annual cost of therapy, inclusion and exclusion criteria's, mechanism of action, compliance rate, growing need of the market, increasing patient pool, covered patient segment, expected launch year, competition with other therapies, brand value, their impact on the market and view of the key opinion leaders. The calculated market data are presented with relevant tables and graphs to give a clear view of the market at first sight.

Key players such as Sunovion, H. Lundbeck A/S, Minerva Neurosciences, and many others are involved in developing therapies for Schizophrenia. Expected launch of emerging therapies such as SEP-363856 (Sunovion), Lu AF35700 (H. Lundbeck A/S), Roluperidone (Minerva Neurosciences), and other compelling therapies are expected to increase the market size of Schizophrenia in upcoming years.

Schizophrenia Drugs Uptake
This section focusses on the rate of uptake of the potential drugs recently launched in the market or will get launched in the market during the study period from 2016-2027. The analysis covers market uptake by drugs; patient uptake by therapies and sales of each drug.

This helps in understanding the drugs with the most rapid uptake, reasons behind the maximal use of new drugs and allows the comparison of the drugs on the basis of market share and size which again will be useful in investigating factors important in market uptake and in making financial and regulatory decisions.

Schizophrenia Report Insights
- Patient Population
- Therapeutic Approaches
- Pipeline Analysis
- Market Size and Trends
- Market Opportunities
- Impact of upcoming Therapies

Schizophrenia Report Key Strengths
- 10 Years Forecast
- 7MM Coverage
- Epidemiology Segmentation
- Sub-type Segmentation
- Key Cross Competition
- Highly Analyzed Market
- Drugs Uptake

Schizophrenia Report Assessment
- Current Treatment Practices
- Unmet Needs
- Pipeline Product Profiles
- Market Attractiveness
- Market Drivers and Barriers

Key Benefits
- This Publisher report will help to develop Business Strategies by understanding the trends shaping and driving Schizophrenia market
- Organize sales and marketing efforts by identifying the best opportunities for Schizophrenia market
- To understand the future market competition in the Schizophrenia market.

Spanning over 120 pages "Schizophrenia - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027" report covers Report Introduction, Schizophrenia Market Overview at a Glance, Disease Background and Overview: Schizophrenia, Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Patient Population, Schizophrenia : Country- Wise Epidemiology, Treatments & Medical Practices, Marketed Products, Emerging Therapies, Schizophrenia Market Size, 7MM: Country-Wise Market Analysis, Market Drivers, Market Barriers, Report Methodology.

Please visit this link for more details: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/delveinsight/schizophrenia-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027

Find all Drug Pipeline Reports at: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/drug-pipeline

For related reports please visit: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/search/site/Schizophrenia

Read our Interactive Market Research Blog

About MarketResearchReprots.com
MarketResearchReprots.com is world's largest store offering quality market research, SWOT analysis, competitive intelligence and industry reports. We help Fortune 500 to Start-Ups with the latest market research reports on global & regional markets which comprise key industries, leading market players, new products and latest industry analysis & trends.

Contact us for your market research requirements: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/contact

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/schizophrenia-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027-market-report-launched-via-marketresearchreportscom-1023912.htm

Media Relations Contact

Sudeep Chakravarty
Director - Operations
MarketResearchReprots.com
Telephone: 1-302-703-9904
Email: Click to Email Sudeep Chakravarty
Web: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/delveinsight/schizophrenia-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027

#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000


          Primary Biliary Cholangitis - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027 Market Report; Launched via MarketResearchReports.com      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

MarketResearchReprots.com has announced the addition of “Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027” research report to their website www.MarketResearchReports.com

Lewes, DE -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027 report delivers an in-depth understanding of the disease, historical & forecasted epidemiology as well as the market trends of Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) in the United States, EU5 (Germany, Spain, Italy, France and United Kingdom), and Japan.

The Report provides the current treatment practices, emerging drugs, market share of the individual therapies, current and forecasted market size of Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) from 2016 to 2027 segmented by seven major markets. The Report also covers current treatment practice/algorithm, market drivers, market barriers and unmet medical needs to curate best of the opportunities and assess underlying potential of the market.

Geography Covered
- The United States
- EU5 (Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom)
- Japan

Study Period: 2016-2027

Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) - Disease Understanding and Treatment Algorithm
Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic, progressive liver disorder that mostly affects women and usually appears during middle age. PBC leads to inflammation and scarring of the small bile ducts. If PBC is untreated, it can lead to cirrhosis, or scarring of the entire liver, which can lead to liver failure. PBC is divided into four stages with stage 1 being early disease, where this is no significant scarring, to stage 4, which is defined by cirrhosis.

The Publisher Primary Biliary Cholangitis market report gives the thorough understanding of the Primary Biliary Cholangitis by including details such as disease definition, classification, symptoms, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic trends. It also provides treatment algorithms and treatment guidelines for Primary Biliary Cholangitis in the US, Europe, and Japan.

Primary Biliary Cholangitis Epidemiology
The Primary Biliary Cholangitis epidemiology division provide the insights about historical and current patient pool and forecasted trend for every 7 major countries. It helps to recognize the causes of current and forecasted trends by exploring numerous studies and views of key opinion leaders. This part of the Publisher report also provides the diagnosed patient pool and their trends along with assumptions undertaken.

The disease epidemiology covered in the report provides historical as well as forecasted epidemiology [segmented as Prevalent Cases, Gender Specific Prevalence, and Diagnosed and Treatable Prevalence] scenario of Primary Biliary Cholangitis in the 7MM covering United States, EU5 countries (Germany, Spain, Italy, France and United Kingdom) and Japan from 2016-2027.

According to American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD), in 2016, the prevalence of PBC in the U.S. was estimated to vary from 1.91 to 40.2 per 100,000 persons. As per one study conducted by Daniel S. Smyk (February 2012), approximately 7–11% of PBC patients are males.

Primary Biliary Cholangitis Drug Chapters
This segment of the Primary Biliary Cholangitis report encloses the detailed analysis of marketed drugs and late stage (Phase-III and Phase-II) pipeline drugs. It also helps to understand the clinical trial details, expressive pharmacological action, agreements and collaborations, approval and patent details, advantages and disadvantages of each included drug and the latest news and press releases.

Currently there is no cure for the treatment for PBC, yet medications are available to slow the progression of disease and prevent complications. Only two FDA approved drugs, Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and Obeticholic acid are available in market to reduce cirrhosis progression. UDCA doesn't cure primary biliary cholangitis, but it improves liver function and reduce liver scarring.

Primary Biliary Cholangitis Market Outlook
The Primary Biliary Cholangitis market outlook of the report helps to build the detailed comprehension of the historic, current and forecasted trend of the market by analyzing the impact of current therapies on the market, unmet needs, drivers and barriers and demand of better technology.

This segment gives a through detail of market trend of each marketed drug and late-stage pipeline therapy by evaluating their impact based on annual cost of therapy, inclusion and exclusion criteria's, mechanism of action, compliance rate, growing need of the market, increasing patient pool, covered patient segment, expected launch year, competition with other therapies, brand value, their impact on the market and view of the key opinion leaders. The calculated market data are presented with relevant tables and graphs to give a clear view of the market at first sight.

There are different potential drug candidates in the clinical trials for the PBC treatment. Upcoming therapies such as Seladelpar (CymaBay Therapeutics), FFP104 (Fast Forward Pharmaceuticals), Etrasimod (Arena Pharmaceuticals), EDP-305 (Enanta Pharmaceuticals) etc. will significantly impact the PBC market during the study period (2016-2027).

Primary Biliary Cholangitis Drugs Uptake
This section focusses on the rate of uptake of the potential drugs recently launched in the market or will get launched in the market during the study period from 2016-2027. The analysis covers market uptake by drugs; patient uptake by therapies and sales of each drug.

This helps in understanding the drugs with the most rapid uptake, reasons behind the maximal use of new drugs and allows the comparison of the drugs on the basis of market share and size which again will be useful in investigating factors important in market uptake and in making financial and regulatory decisions.
?
Primary Biliary Cholangitis Report Insights
- Patient Population
- Therapeutic Approaches
- Pipeline Analysis
- Market Size and Trends
- Market Opportunities
- Impact of upcoming Therapies

Primary Biliary Cholangitis Report Key Strengths
- 10 Years Forecast
- 7MM Coverage
- Epidemiology Segmentation
- Sub-type Segmentation
- Key Cross Competition
- Highly Analyzed Market
- Drugs Uptake

Primary Biliary Cholangitis Report Assessment
- Current Treatment Practices
- Unmet Needs
- Pipeline Product Profiles
- Market Attractiveness
- Market Drivers and Barriers

Key Benefits
- This Publisher report will help to develop Business Strategies by understanding the trends shaping and driving Primary Biliary Cholangitis market
- Organize sales and marketing efforts by identifying the best opportunities for Primary Biliary Cholangitis market
- To understand the future market competition in the Primary Biliary Cholangitis market.

Spanning over 120 pages "Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027" report covers Report Introduction, Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) Market Overview at a Glance, Disease Background and Overview: Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC), Epidemiology and Patient Population, Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC): Country- Wise Epidemiology, Treatment & Medical Practices, Marketed drugs, Emerging Therapies, Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC): Market Size, 7MM Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC): Country-Wise Market Analysis, Report Methodology.

Please visit this link for more details: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/delveinsight/primary-biliary-cholangitis-pbc-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027

Find all Drug Pipeline Reports at: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/drug-pipeline

Read our Interactive Market Research Blog

About MarketResearchReprots.com
MarketResearchReprots.com is world's largest store offering quality market research, SWOT analysis, competitive intelligence and industry reports. We help Fortune 500 to Start-Ups with the latest market research reports on global & regional markets which comprise key industries, leading market players, new products and latest industry analysis & trends.

Contact us for your market research requirements: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/contact

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/primary-biliary-cholangitis-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027-market-report-launched-via-marketresearchreportscom-1023904.htm

Media Relations Contact

Sudeep Chakravarty
Director - Operations
MarketResearchReprots.com
Telephone: 1-302-703-9904
Email: Click to Email Sudeep Chakravarty
Web: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/delveinsight/primary-biliary-cholangitis-pbc-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027

#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000


          Pompe Disease - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027 Market Report; Launched via MarketResearchReports.com      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

MarketResearchReprots.com has announced the addition of “Pompe Disease - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027” research report to their website www.MarketResearchReports.com

Lewes, DE -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- Pompe Disease - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027 report delivers an in-depth understanding of the disease, historical & forecasted epidemiology as well as the market trends of Pompe Disease in the United States, EU5 (Germany, Spain, Italy, France and United Kingdom), and Japan.

The Report provides the current treatment practices, emerging drugs, market share of the individual therapies, current and forecasted market size of Pompe Disease from 2016 to 2027 segmented by seven major markets. The Report also covers current treatment practice/algorithm, market drivers, market barriers and unmet medical needs to curate best of the opportunities and assess underlying potential of the market.

Geography Covered
- The United States
- EU5 (Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom)
- Japan

Study Period: 2016-2027

Pompe Disease - Disease Understanding and Treatment Algorithm
Pompe disease (also known as glycogen storage disease type II [GSDII], acid maltase deficiency or GAA deficiency) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by a mutation in the gene encoding GAA. Deficiency in GAA affects lysosomal-mediated degradation of glycogenesis and results in intralysosomal accumulation of glycogen and disruption of the tissue architecture in various organs, most notably the skeletal muscles, heart and liver.

The Publisher Pompe Disease market report gives the thorough understanding of the Pompe Disease by including details such as disease definition, classification, symptoms, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic trends. It also provides treatment algorithms and treatment guidelines for Pompe Disease in the US, Europe, and Japan.

Pompe Disease Epidemiology
The Pompe Disease epidemiology division provide the insights about historical and current patient pool and forecasted trend for every 7 major countries. It helps to recognize the causes of current and forecasted trends by exploring numerous studies and views of key opinion leaders. This part of the Publisher report also provides the diagnosed patient pool and their trends along with assumptions undertaken.

The disease epidemiology covered in the report provides historical as well as forecasted epidemiology scenario of Pompe Disease in the 7MM covering United States, EU5 countries (Germany, Spain, Italy, France and United Kingdom) and Japan from 2016-2027.

According to Clinical Therapeutics- Genetics and epidemiology of Pompe disease, the overall worldwide incidence of Pompe Disease is usually estimated to be 1:40,000 live births with the late-onset form of the disease generally being more common than the early neonatal form. According to US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, the prevalence of Pompe disease is approximately 1 in 28,000 in the United States.

Pompe Disease Drug Chapters
This segment of the Pompe Disease report encloses the detailed analysis of marketed drugs and late stage (Phase-III and Phase-II) pipeline drugs. It also helps to understand the clinical trial details, expressive pharmacological action, agreements and collaborations, approval and patent details, advantages and disadvantages of each included drug and the latest news and press releases.

The treatment of Pompe disease is disease-specific, symptomatic, and supportive. Enzyme replacement therapy is an approved treatment for all patients with Pompe disease. Myozyme (alglucosidase alfa), the first and only enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) to treat the underlying cause of Pompe disease, has been approved for use in several countries around the world. Apart from ERT, alternative treatments for Pompe disease, such as gene therapy and substrate reduction therapy can also be considered as an attractive option in future.

Pompe Disease Market Outlook
The Pompe Disease market outlook of the report helps to build the detailed comprehension of the historic, current and forecasted trend of the market by analyzing the impact of current therapies on the market, unmet needs, drivers and barriers and demand of better technology.

This segment gives a through detail of market trend of each marketed drug and late-stage pipeline therapy by evaluating their impact based on annual cost of therapy, inclusion and exclusion criteria's, mechanism of action, compliance rate, growing need of the market, increasing patient pool, covered patient segment, expected launch year, competition with other therapies, brand value, their impact on the market and view of the key opinion leaders. The calculated market data are presented with relevant tables and graphs to give a clear view of the market at first sight.

Key players such as Sanofi, Amicus Therapeutics, Valerion Therapeutics and many others are involved in developing therapies for Pompe Disease. Expected launch of emerging therapies such as GZ402666 (Sanofi), AT-2220 (Amicus Therapeutics), and other compelling treatments, are expected to impact the market size of Pompe Disease in upcoming years.

Pompe Disease Drugs Uptake
This section focusses on the rate of uptake of the potential drugs recently launched in the market or will get launched in the market during the study period from 2016-2027. The analysis covers market uptake by drugs; patient uptake by therapies and sales of each drug.

This helps in understanding the drugs with the most rapid uptake, reasons behind the maximal use of new drugs and allows the comparison of the drugs on the basis of market share and size which again will be useful in investigating factors important in market uptake and in making financial and regulatory decisions.
?
Pompe Disease Report Insights
- Patient Population
- Therapeutic Approaches
- Pipeline Analysis
- Market Size and Trends
- Market Opportunities
- Impact of upcoming Therapies

Pompe Disease Report Key Strengths
- 10 Years Forecast
- 7MM Coverage
- Epidemiology Segmentation
- Sub-type Segmentation
- Key Cross Competition
- Highly Analyzed Market
- Drugs Uptake

Pompe Disease Report Assessment
- Current Treatment Practices
- Unmet Needs
- Pipeline Product Profiles
- Market Attractiveness
- Market Drivers and Barriers

Key Benefits
- This Publisher report will help to develop Business Strategies by understanding the trends shaping and driving Pompe Disease market
- Organize sales and marketing efforts by identifying the best opportunities for Pompe Disease market
- To understand the future market competition in the Pompe Disease market.

Spanning over 120 pages "Pompe Disease - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027" report covers Report Introduction, Pompe Disease Market Overview at a Glance, Disease Background and Overview: Pompe Disease, Diagnostic approaches for identification of Pompe Disease, Epidemiology and Patient Population, Pompe Disease : Country- Wise Epidemiology, Treatments & Medical Practices, Marketed Products, Emerging Therapies, Pompe Disease Market Size, 7MM: Country-Wise Market Analysis, Market Drivers, Market Barriers, Report Methodology.

Please visit this link for more details: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/delveinsight/pompe-disease-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027

Find all Drug Pipeline Reports at: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/drug-pipeline

For related reports please visit: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/search/site/Pompe%2520Disease

Read our Interactive Market Research Blog

About MarketResearchReprots.com
MarketResearchReprots.com is world's largest store offering quality market research, SWOT analysis, competitive intelligence and industry reports. We help Fortune 500 to Start-Ups with the latest market research reports on global & regional markets which comprise key industries, leading market players, new products and latest industry analysis & trends.

Contact us for your market research requirements: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/contact

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/pompe-disease-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027-market-report-launched-via-marketresearchreportscom-1023888.htm

Media Relations Contact

Sudeep Chakravarty
Director - Operations
MarketResearchReprots.com
Telephone: 1-302-703-9904
Email: Click to Email Sudeep Chakravarty
Web: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/delveinsight/pompe-disease-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027

#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000


          Peridontal Disease - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027 Market Report; Launched via MarketResearchReports.com      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

MarketResearchReprots.com has announced the addition of “Peridontal Disease - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027” research report to their website www.MarketResearchReports.com

Lewes, DE -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- Peridontal Disease - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027 report delivers an in-depth understanding of the disease, historical & forecasted epidemiology as well as the market trends of Peridontal Disease in the United States, EU5 (Germany, Spain, Italy, France and United Kingdom), and Japan.

The Report provides the current treatment practices, emerging drugs, market share of the individual therapies, current and forecasted market size of Peridontal Disease from 2016 to 2027 segmented by seven major markets. The Report also covers current treatment practice/algorithm, market drivers, market barriers and unmet medical needs to curate best of the opportunities and assess underlying potential of the market.

Geography Covered
- The United States
- EU5 (Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom)
- Japan

Study Period: 2016-2027

Peridontal Disease - Disease Understanding and Treatment Algorithm
According to The American Academy of Periodontology, "Periodontal Diseases are bacterial gum infections that destroy the gums and supporting bone that hold our teeth in our mouth. Periodontal diseases can affect one tooth or many teeth. The main cause of periodontal diseases is bacterial plaque which is a sticky, colorless film that constantly forms on the teeth. If the plaque is not removed, it can turn into a hard substance called calculus or tartar in less than two days.

The Publisher Peridontal Disease market report gives the thorough understanding of the Peridontal Disease by including details such as disease definition, classification, symptoms, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic trends. It also provides treatment algorithms and treatment guidelines for Peridontal Disease in the US, Europe, and Japan.

Peridontal Disease Epidemiology
The Peridontal Disease epidemiology division provide the insights about historical and current patient pool and forecasted trend for every 7 major countries. It helps to recognize the causes of current and forecasted trends by exploring numerous studies and views of key opinion leaders. This part of the Publisher report also provides the diagnosed patient pool and their trends along with assumptions undertaken.

The disease epidemiology covered in the report provides historical as well as forecasted epidemiology [segmented as Prevalent Cases, Gender Specific Prevalence, and Diagnosed and Treatable Population] scenario of Peridontal Disease in the 7MM covering United States, EU5 countries (Germany, Spain, Italy, France and United Kingdom) and Japan from 2016-2027.

As per DMS IV study it was found that in 2005, less than one percent of 35- to 44-year-olds had completely inflammatory and damage-free gums (women 0.5%, men 0.6%). This corresponds to a Community Periodontal Index (CPI) grade 0. Moderate periodontitis (CPI grade 3) was diagnosed in 2005 in 48.2% of women and 57.2% of men.

Peridontal Disease Drug Chapters
This segment of the Peridontal Disease report encloses the detailed analysis of marketed drugs and late stage (Phase-III and Phase-II) pipeline drugs. It also helps to understand the clinical trial details, expressive pharmacological action, agreements and collaborations, approval and patent details, advantages and disadvantages of each included drug and the latest news and press releases.

On the basis of treatment, the global periodontal therapeutics market can be segmented in terms of systemic antibiotics and local antibiotics. Systemic antibiotics include doxycycline, minocycline, metronidazole and local antibiotics include arestin, chlorhexidine etc. Some of the currently marketed drugs for Periodontal Disease include Periostat (CollaGenex Pharmaceuticals) and Trafermin (Kaken Pharmaceuticals).

Peridontal Disease Market Outlook
The Peridontal Disease market outlook of the report helps to build the detailed comprehension of the historic, current and forecasted trend of the market by analyzing the impact of current therapies on the market, unmet needs, drivers and barriers and demand of better technology.

This segment gives a through detail of market trend of each marketed drug and late-stage pipeline therapy by evaluating their impact based on annual cost of therapy, inclusion and exclusion criteria's, mechanism of action, compliance rate, growing need of the market, increasing patient pool, covered patient segment, expected launch year, competition with other therapies, brand value, their impact on the market and view of the key opinion leaders. The calculated market data are presented with relevant tables and graphs to give a clear view of the market at first sight.

Key players such as Dexcel Pharma Technologies, Yuhan Corporation and many other are involved in developing therapies for Periodontal Disease. Expected launch of emerging therapies such as Perio Chip (Dexcel Pharma Technologies), YH23537 (Yuhan Corporation) and other therapies will significantly impact the Periodontal Disease market during the study period (2016-2027).

Peridontal Disease Drugs Uptake
This section focusses on the rate of uptake of the potential drugs recently launched in the market or will get launched in the market during the study period from 2016-2027. The analysis covers market uptake by drugs; patient uptake by therapies and sales of each drug.

This helps in understanding the drugs with the most rapid uptake, reasons behind the maximal use of new drugs and allows the comparison of the drugs on the basis of market share and size which again will be useful in investigating factors important in market uptake and in making financial and regulatory decisions.
?
Peridontal Disease Report Insights
- Patient Population
- Therapeutic Approaches
- Pipeline Analysis
- Market Size and Trends
- Market Opportunities
- Impact of upcoming Therapies

Peridontal Disease Report Key Strengths
- 10 Years Forecast
- 7MM Coverage
- Epidemiology Segmentation
- Sub-type Segmentation
- Key Cross Competition
- Highly Analyzed Market
- Drugs Uptake

Peridontal Disease Report Assessment
- Current Treatment Practices
- Unmet Needs
- Pipeline Product Profiles
- Market Attractiveness
- Market Drivers and Barriers

Key Benefits
- This Publisher report will help to develop Business Strategies by understanding the trends shaping and driving Peridontal Disease market
- Organize sales and marketing efforts by identifying the best opportunities for Peridontal Disease market
- To understand the future market competition in the Peridontal Disease market.

Spanning over 120 pages "Peridontal Disease - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027" report covers Report Introduction, Periodontal Disease Market Overview at a Glance, Disease Background and Overview: Periodontal Disease, Epidemiology and Patient Population, Periodontal Disease: Country- Wise Epidemiology, Treatment & Medical Practices, Marketed drugs, Emerging Therapies, Periodontal Disease: Market Size, 7MM Periodontal Disease: Country-Wise Market Analysis, Report Methodology.

Please visit this link for more details: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/delveinsight/peridontal-disease-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027

Find all Drug Pipeline Reports at: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/drug-pipeline

Read our Interactive Market Research Blog

About MarketResearchReprots.com
MarketResearchReprots.com is world's largest store offering quality market research, SWOT analysis, competitive intelligence and industry reports. We help Fortune 500 to Start-Ups with the latest market research reports on global & regional markets which comprise key industries, leading market players, new products and latest industry analysis & trends.

Contact us for your market research requirements: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/contact

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/peridontal-disease-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027-market-report-launched-via-marketresearchreportscom-1023880.htm

Media Relations Contact

Sudeep Chakravarty
Director - Operations
MarketResearchReprots.com
Telephone: 1-302-703-9904
Email: Click to Email Sudeep Chakravarty
Web: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/delveinsight/peridontal-disease-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027

#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000


          Pancreatic Cancer - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027 Market Report; Launched via MarketResearchReports.com      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

MarketResearchReprots.com has announced the addition of “Pancreatic Cancer - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027” research report to their website www.MarketResearchReports.com

Lewes, DE -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- Pancreatic Cancer - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027 report delivers an in-depth understanding of the disease, historical & forecasted epidemiology as well as the market trends of Pancreatic Cancer in the United States, EU5 (Germany, Spain, Italy, France and United Kingdom), and Japan.

The Report provides the current treatment practices, emerging drugs, market share of the individual therapies, current and forecasted market size of Pancreatic Cancer from 2016 to 2027 segmented by seven major markets. The Report also covers current treatment practice/algorithm, market drivers, market barriers and unmet medical needs to curate best of the opportunities and assess underlying potential of the market.

Geography Covered
- The United States
- EU5 (Germany, France, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom)
- Japan

Study Period: 2016-2027

Pancreatic Cancer - Disease Understanding and Treatment Algorithm
According to National Cancer Institute, "Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas". It starts when cells in the pancreas start to grow out of control and spreads rapidly to nearby organs. As the symptoms of pancreatic cancer in the early stage are unnoticeable, it is getting difficult to detect and diagnose it early.

The Publisher Pancreatic Cancer market report gives the thorough understanding of the Pancreatic Cancer by including details such as disease definition, classification, symptoms, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic trends. It also provides treatment algorithms and treatment guidelines for Pancreatic Cancer in the US, Europe, and Japan.

Pancreatic Cancer Epidemiology
The Pancreatic Cancer epidemiology division provide the insights about historical and current patient pool and forecasted trend for every 7 major countries. It helps to recognize the causes of current and forecasted trends by exploring numerous studies and views of key opinion leaders. This part of the Publisher report also provides the diagnosed patient pool and their trends along with assumptions undertaken.

The disease epidemiology covered in the report provides historical as well as forecasted epidemiology [segmented as Prevalent Cases, Sex Specific Prevalence, Stage Specific Prevalence and Diagnosed and Treatable population] scenario of Pancreatic Cancer in the 7MM covering United States, EU5 countries (Germany, Spain, Italy, France and United Kingdom) and Japan from 2016-2027.

According to Cancer Research UK, in males in the UK, pancreatic cancer is the 12th most common cancer (3% of all new male cancer cases). In females in the UK it is the 9th most common cancer (3% of all new female cancer cases).
?
Pancreatic Cancer Drug Chapters
This segment of the Pancreatic Cancer report encloses the detailed analysis of marketed drugs and late stage (Phase-III and Phase-II) pipeline drugs. It also helps to understand the clinical trial details, expressive pharmacological action, agreements and collaborations, approval and patent details, advantages and disadvantages of each included drug and the latest news and press releases.

The treatment of pancreatic cancer depends upon the stage of the cancer, whether it is in the pancreas, and whether it's spread to any of the surrounding organs and blood vessels. The treatment may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation or combination of these. Some of the FDA approved drugs for the treatment of pancreatic cancer are Tarceva (erlotinib), Onivyde (irinotecan liposome injection), Gemzar (gemcitabine HCL). In January 2018, Food & Drug Administration (FDA) had approved Lutathera, for the treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs).

Pancreatic Cancer Market Outlook
The Pancreatic Cancer market outlook of the report helps to build the detailed comprehension of the historic, current and forecasted trend of the market by analyzing the impact of current therapies on the market, unmet needs, drivers and barriers and demand of better technology.

This segment gives a through detail of market trend of each marketed drug and late-stage pipeline therapy by evaluating their impact based on annual cost of therapy, inclusion and exclusion criteria's, mechanism of action, compliance rate, growing need of the market, increasing patient pool, covered patient segment, expected launch year, competition with other therapies, brand value, their impact on the market and view of the key opinion leaders. The calculated market data are presented with relevant tables and graphs to give a clear view of the market at first sight.

Major players such as ARMO BioSciences, Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Berg, and many others are involved in developing therapies for Pancreatic Cancer. Expected launch of emerging therapies such as AM0010 (ARMO BioSciences) and BPM31510 (Berg) are expected to change the treatment landscape of pancreatic cancer in upcoming years.

Pancreatic Cancer Drugs Uptake
This section focusses on the rate of uptake of the potential drugs recently launched in the market or will get launched in the market during the study period from 2016-2027. The analysis covers market uptake by drugs; patient uptake by therapies and sales of each drug.

This helps in understanding the drugs with the most rapid uptake, reasons behind the maximal use of new drugs and allows the comparison of the drugs on the basis of market share and size which again will be useful in investigating factors important in market uptake and in making financial and regulatory decisions.
?
Pancreatic Cancer Report Insights
- Patient Population
- Therapeutic Approaches
- Pipeline Analysis
- Market Size and Trends
- Market Opportunities
- Impact of upcoming Therapies

Pancreatic Cancer Report Key Strengths
- 10 Years Forecast
- 7MM Coverage
- Epidemiology Segmentation
- Sub-type Segmentation
- Key Cross Competition
- Highly Analyzed Market
- Drugs Uptake

Pancreatic Cancer Report Assessment
- Current Treatment Practices
- Unmet Needs
- Pipeline Product Profiles
- Market Attractiveness
- Market Drivers and Barriers

Key Benefits
- This Publisher report will help to develop Business Strategies by understanding the trends shaping and driving Pancreatic Cancer market
- Organize sales and marketing efforts by identifying the best opportunities for Pancreatic Cancer market
- To understand the future market competition in the Pancreatic Cancer market.

Spanning over 120 pages "Pancreatic Cancer - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast-2027" report covers Report Introduction, Pancreatic cancer Market Overview at a Glance, Disease Background and Overview: Pancreatic cancer, Epidemiology and Patient Population, Pancreatic cancer: Country- Wise Epidemiology, Treatments & Medical Practices, Marketed Products, Current Unmet Need, Emerging Therapies, Pancreatic cancer Market Size, 7MM Pancreatic cancer: Country-Wise Market Analysis, Market Driver, Market Barriers, Report Methodology.

Please visit this link for more details: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/delveinsight/pancreatic-cancer-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027

Find all Drug Pipeline Reports at: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/drug-pipeline

For related reports please visit: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/search/site/Pancreatic%2520Cancer

Read our Interactive Market Research Blog

About MarketResearchReprots.com
MarketResearchReprots.com is world's largest store offering quality market research, SWOT analysis, competitive intelligence and industry reports. We help Fortune 500 to Start-Ups with the latest market research reports on global & regional markets which comprise key industries, leading market players, new products and latest industry analysis & trends.

Contact us for your market research requirements: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/contact

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/pancreatic-cancer-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027-market-report-launched-via-marketresearchreportscom-1023872.htm

Media Relations Contact

Sudeep Chakravarty
Director - Operations
MarketResearchReprots.com
Telephone: 1-302-703-9904
Email: Click to Email Sudeep Chakravarty
Web: https://www.marketresearchreports.com/delveinsight/pancreatic-cancer-market-insights-epidemiology-and-market-forecast-2027

#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000


          Europe forecast: Thundery rain France, moving into Scandinavia - Mostly dry in Eastern Europe, Aug 08 - 03:48      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Still some hot weather but becoming cooler and fresher in some northern and western parts Wednesday Much of Portugal, Spain and the Balearics dry and sunny but with rain, possibly thundery later, in the north and east. Temperatures widely near to 30C, locally the mid to high 30s for central and southern parts. noticeably cooler and fresher around coasts in the north and west, though. Sunshine for Corsica, Sardinia and Italy will be interrupted by showers and thunderstorms but it will stay mostly dry over into the Adriatic and Croatia. Temperatures again up to around 30C and locally nearer to 35C. Dry and sunny across Greece but with a risk of isolated thunderstorms in Turkey, where temperatures may exceed 40C in some spots. Across the Alps into Austria the risk of thunderstorms but further east and south, toward central and southeastern parts of Europe, including the Balkans it will be mostly dry with sunny spells; very warm or hot. Mostly dry for Northern France and the Low Countries with spells of sunshine developing and temperatures of 20 to 23C but thunderstorms are likely in southern and eastern parts with temperatures in the high 20s to low 30s. Thunderstorms develop across Germany too where it will be hot with temperatures 30 to 35C, locally a degree or two higher but Poland will be largely dry with sunny spells. Rain, locally thundery, moves north across Norway and later into Northern Sweden and Finland but Southern Scandinavia and the Baltic States will be drier with more isolated showers. Temperatures near 30C at best in the south, low to mid 20s in the north.

Thursday Much of Portugal, Spain and the Balearics dry and sunny again but with some rain or showers in the north and east, possibly drifting into the Balearics later. Cooler and fresher in the north and west but still very warm in the south with temperatures in the mid to low 30s. Sunny spells for Corsica, Sardinia and Italy with any showers lighter and dying out, whilst it will stay mostly dry over into the Adriatic and Croatia. Temperatures again up to around 30C and locally exceeding 35C in Italy. Isolated showers in the north and east of Greece and Turkey but largely dry; temperatures above 35C in Southern Turkey. Thunderstorms again break out over Switzerland, possibly into the west of Austria but staying mostly dry with sunny spells further east and south, toward central and southeastern parts of Europe; temperatures into the low 30s. A large area of heavy rain and thunderstorms over the north and west of France will move steadily northeast and on into Low Countries. Temperatures in the low 30s across Eastern France, otherwise cooler and fresher. Thunderstorms develop in the north and west of Germany and Poland but many parts stay dry with sunshine, temperatures again 30 to 35C. Showers at first over Northern Scandinavia but then heavy, thundery rain reaches Denmark, Southern Norway and Sweden overnight. Light showers for Finland but the Baltic States stay mostly dry. Temperatures into the low to mid 20s generally but hotter for Southern Sweden and Finland.


          Prevalence of pSCFS7-like vectors among cfr-positive staphylococcal population in Spain      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Nguyen L.T.T., Román F., Morikawa K., Trincado P., Marcos C., Rojo-Martín M.D., Cafini F.
[In Process] International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2018 52:2 (305-306)
Embase

No abstract available


          Chelsea sign Kepa Arrizabalaga in record deal, Courtois heads for Real      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
London (AFP) – Spain’s Kepa Arrizabalaga became the most expensive goalkeeper in history on Wednesday after Chelsea confirmed his 80 million euro (£71.6 million, $92 million) move from Athletic Bilbao. Kepa’s arrival at Stamford Bridge...
          #bulgaria - b_pooh_shop      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
🎊🎊門市優惠🎉🎉 微信x KPN 15天 4G/3G歐洲多國無限數據語音卡 #電話卡 #儲值卡 #上網卡 #格仔舖 #信和中心 #乙熊 #數據卡 #電話卡#微信 適用國家包括: #Austria 奧地利 #Belgium 比利時 #Bulgaria 保加利亞 #Croatia 克羅地亞 #Cyprus 塞浦路斯 #Czech Republic 捷克 #Denmark 丹麥 #Estonia 愛沙尼亞 #Finland 芬蘭 #France 法國 Germany 德國 Greece 希臘 #Hungary 匈牙利 #Iceland 冰島 Italy 意大利 Latvia 拉脫維亞 Lithuania 立陶宛 #Luxembourg 盧森堡 #Malta 馬爾他 #Netherlands 荷蘭 #Norway 挪威 #Poland 波蘭 #Portugal 葡萄牙 #Ireland 愛爾蘭 #Romania 羅馬尼亞 #Slovakia 斯洛伐克 #Slovenia 斯洛文尼亞 Spain 西班牙 Sweden 瑞典 United Kingdom 英國 Gibraltar 直布羅陀 首1.5GB 4G其後3G無限 30分鐘歐洲通話(可致電中國大,香港) 三合一SIM卡 所有手機通用 價錢:HK$80 信和扶手電梯上一層 M3舖E20格仔3-10pm 順豐到付
          NOTICIA: MUTEK México anuncia sus primeros artistas      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Actress, Atom TM, Avalon Emerson y muchos más viajarán a Ciudad de Mexico en noviembre
          8/9/2018: WORLD: Ablaze, arid Europe battles deadly heat      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Europe’s scorching heatwave has killed nine people in a week in Spain as stifling temperatures kindled bushfires in the country and neighbouring Portugal where a ferocious blaze encircled a resort town yesterday. The devastating effects of the...
          8/9/2018: COMMERCIAL PROPERTY: Minor’s major global acquisition      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Bangkok-based Minor Group, which came to Australian prominence when it purchased the troubled Oaks Hotels and Resorts Group several year’s ago, is buying Spain’s NH Hotels chain of 382 hotels in Europe, the Americas and Africa. Minor has acquired...
          Sarri hails Bilbao keeper Kepa amid Chelsea switch talk      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Chelsea coach Maurizio Sarri has praised Athletic Bilbao's Kepa Arrizabalaga amid media reports that the Premier League club have decided to sign the Spain goalkeeper for a world record 71 million pounds ($91.85 million). With Chelsea's Belgium keeper Thibaut Courtois absent from training on Monday and Tuesday in an apparent attempt to force a move to Real Madrid, Chelsea have been heavily linked to Bilbao's 23-year-old stopper as a potential replacement. "I don't know (if Courtois will leave), I want to speak with my club and then together we will decide," Italian coach Sarri told reporters on Tuesday after Chelsea drew 0-0 with Olympique Lyonnais in a pre-season friendly at Stamford Bridge. "I saw (Kepa) one year ago, my first impression was that he is a very good goalkeeper, very young but very good." Spanish and English media reported that Arrizabalaga will fly from Madrid to London on Wednesday to complete his move, with the Blues paying his buy-out clause as Athletic are unwilling to strike a deal. Should the Spanish international move for the transfer fee being reported, he would become the world's most expensive keeper ahead of Liverpool's Brazil's Alisson, who cost 65...
          Real Madrid's Luka Modric, Mateo Kovacic train amid transfer reports      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Julen Lopetegui says there is a buoyant mood at Real Madrid ahead of the new season. Real Madrid's Julen Lopetegui insists his transfer wishes with the club are private but believes Luka Modric and Matteo Kovacic will stay put. Gareth Bale provided a goal and an assist in the first half as Real Madrid cruised to a 2-1 victory over Roma. Thibaut Courtois is linked to Real Madrid, but Shaka Hislop thinks Los Blancos' current keeper Keylor Navas isn't getting the respect he deserves. Real Madrid midfielders Luka Modric and Mateo Kovacic both trained on Wednesday morning amid continuing speculation that one or both could leave the club. Madrid coach Julen Lopetegui said after Tuesday's 2-1 International Champions Cup victory against Roma that Kovacic "wants to leave," with a loan move to Chelsea being reported in Spain although a permanent transfer is also possible ahead of Thursday's Premier League window closing. Transfer news must-reads - Transfer Talk LIVE: The very...
          Comment on Laughable weather station maintenance causes highest ever temperature record in Spain by JCalvertN(UK)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Nick are you sure about that? The place pictured in Paco's tweet can be found on Google maps here https://www.google.co.uk/maps/@38.0126348,-4.3301106,3a,75y,12.55h,86.86t/data=!3m6!1e1!3m4!1suffI9c8cSBoZCG_AZPBmfw!2e0!7i13312!8i6656 It is a hydroelectric station on the banks of the river Guadalquivir. It is quite some distance from the town of Motoro proper. From the article you cited, it seems that the AWS is located somewhere there too.
          Comment on Laughable weather station maintenance causes highest ever temperature record in Spain by Carey Bailey      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
<p>So, let me see if I get this right, we’re basing our entire global economic policy on bad data from these poorly sited and maintained weather stations???</p>
          Our Home Education over the Summer Holidays so far      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Home education over the school holidays has felt a bit weird really. With their brother home the boys have seemed to do academic work much easier without fighting it – but I guess there’s also the fact that because it is the teen’s holidays the boys have also been allowed to play computer games more.(...)Home education over the school holidays has felt a bit weird really. With their brother home the boys have seemed to do academic work much easier without fighting it - but I guess there’s also the fact that because it is the teen’s holidays the boys have also been allowed to play computer games more. It has been a real mix of learning with post it notes stuck around the house, Explore sessions, paid for programmes/apps, mixed in with board games, bike rides, watching films, going to festivals and playing with friends.

Summer Holidays Festivals

We have been very fortunate to attend a lot of festivals over the summer and still have The Big Feastival as a family. We started with Camp Bestival before heading to Country File Live and the CBBC Summer Social. I loved how it was apparent that the boys were still learning at these events - including picking up new words for their vocabulary (such as decant and condemn!).boy climbing a tree with harness

Summer Holidays Education

I think the learning has got a lot more academic over the holidays. It has been a lot more sit down and work than during term time. We have used new apps, programmes on the computer, workbooks and Explore Learning Sessions and workshops. The clock seems to be ticking away now until the 11+ and so it feels more that we need to try to focus rather than our usual free range education. Our 10-year-old has been doing more than his word of the day every day now - and is happy to work. This has had the knock on effect that it’s been easier to get the teen to do academic stuff - as he has his GCSEs this coming year. Of course we are also trying to fit in family game nights which may help educationally too.scrabble letters

Summer holidays relaxing

Of course there’s been a lot more relaxing over the summer holidays - with a lot more computer playing (to the point where we had to limit Fortnite because of the behaviour of some of the kids on there). We met up with friends, had picnics and even had birthday parties (including our teen having a birthday). Of course there were also times spent with the rest of our family. Of course we have also seen people at Parkrun and whilst on our bike rides. Not to mention eating out and my Friday nights with friends. The 10-year-old has gone out to play with his friends a lot more and I feel puberty is really kicking in - or the start of it. We have finally let him use What’s App and I can already see the trouble it can cause - but as he hasn’t done anything wrong with it then we feel it is a good way to keep in touch with his school friends (those left there as more children are pulling out to be home educated, at least until they can find somewhere else!). Of course there’s been lots of playing (board games, toys etc) and watching films.

Peter Rabbit out on DVD

Peter Rabbit DVD basket of propsWith Beatrix Potter’s birthday came the launch of Peter Rabbit on DVD. We were very lucky to be sent a gift pack including the film (as we were unable to attend an event). The movie themed prop box from Cine Mini had felt vegetables, children’s gardening tools; carrot shaped popcorn bag and wildflower seed mix. Of course there was also the Peter Rabbit DVD from Sony Pictures Home Entertainment. This modern-day twist on Potter’s classic sees Peter Rabbit (James Corden) and his fuel with Mr McGregor escalating to great heights as they rival over the affections for the warm-hearted animal lover next door (Rose Bryne). This adaptation is very funny both for adults and children alike. Also featuring other Potter favourites such as Flopsy, Mopsy and Cotton-Tail. The youngest has watched this film at least five times already and my husband is still laughing at the comments about Peter’s cousin’s clothes being a bit “matchy matchy” - as they are all brown (and that his nipples were actually mistaken for buttons!

The Rest of the Summer Holidays

The summer holidays are flying by and the 11+ grammar school entrance exam will soon be here. All our weekends are full and the weekdays are filling up too. People are already planning things when others are back at school and it won’t be long until I am in Spain with my friend to celebrate our 40th birthdays. How are the summer holidays going for you?    http://pinkoddy.co.uk/blog/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/tree-climbing-150x150.jpghttp://pinkoddy.co.uk/blog/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/tree-climbing-247x300.jpghttp://pinkoddy.co.uk/blog/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/tree-climbing.jpg
          The Ultimate Rich Kids Were the Children of Famous Explorers      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

When Cristóbal Colón/Christopher Columbus happened upon the New World, ripe for exploitation, he became a very wealthy man, although most of the riches went to the king of Spain for sponsoring the trip. But what happened afterward? Colón had two sons, Fernando and Diego, who inherited his wealth, but were they to inherit a portion of the lands their father "discovered," or a portion of what it produced, or just what Cristóbal left them when he died? The Spanish crown had passed to another generation as well, and Charles V did not see eye to eye with Colón's heirs.     

While Fernando was spending money, Diego was trying to consolidate his family’s status as one of the most powerful families in the “New World,” with control over Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, and Cuba. Before his father’s first voyage, in 1492, Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand had agreed that, if his quest succeeded, Cristóbal Colón would be entitled to 10 percent of the takings of his voyage, plus a bevy of titles. Every time Diego tried to claim what he thought he was owed, the crown fought back. When he died, his father’s legacy was still contested.

The monarchy’s legal case rested on the idea that it wasn’t Colón, but one of his ship’s captains, who had first discovered the Americas. Ultimately, Diego’s widow went into arbitration with the crown, and his son, Luis Colón de Toledo, came out with a title—Admiral of the Indies—control of Jamaica, an estate in Panama, and a 10,000-ducat annuity that was meant to last in perpetuity.

It was, perhaps, less than the Colón family thought they were owed and less than Cristóbal’s contract specified. But the Colón family came out ahead of other scions of conquistadors.

The Age of Exploration enriched quite a few European families, who had varying degrees of success dealing with the riches and legacy of their explorer fathers. Read the adventures of the descendants of Hernán Cortés (who had a son in the New World and a son in the Old World, and named them both Martin), Francisco Pizarro, and Cristóbal Colón at Atlas Obscura.


          Comment on Brexit and Copyright: An Update on the Road to D-Day by David Collier-Brown      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Looking at this from the point of view of a philosopher, it is an interesting real-world "experiment" in removing and then recreating borders. When Britain and the UK were part of the EU, one part of copyright changed significantly: one did not have per-country trade barriers applying to books and broadcast. The pre-EU regime had effective shipping and translations barriers to prevent commercial book dealing, and publishers took good advantage of that. My own publisher, O'Reilly, made separate deals for French, German and Polish translations, and had those copies printed in Europe. The EU changed all that. For certain publishers, significantly for the worse. Broadcast was harder: Radio waves are no respecters of borders, and have a reasonable range. I could listen to WBZ in Boston, Mass from Chatham, Ontario. "Community antenna television" mutated into cable, however, and recreated geographical controls. Again, the destruction of borders by the EU changed all that. Internet was harder still. If you were willing to watch, listen and write in the language where postings originated, you could communicate as if borders no longer existed. The copyright breach of a "screener" in Los Angeles was no longer just a concern in the US, it was a loss of income from that move word-wide. As you noted above, the EU enabled communications via the Online Content Portability Regulation/, /making /legal/ multicast and broadcast communications border-free. Now the EU is headed away from the EU. English-speaking publishers probably won't notice: most of the borders in their business model these days are ones of language. Setting up a branch office and a printing contract in Ulan Bator isn't hard: translating to Outer Mongolian (is there even such a language?) is harder. The visible difference will be in broadcast and multicast media. Britain and the EU created a good simulation of a borderless regime in the content portability regulations, which are no more. Everyday internet continues to flow as it did before, mostly subject to the recipient being able to understand the language of the speaker. The contradiction between the last two will be something to watch. If a Brit in Spain wants to read the BBC website, there is no border, and leaving the EU has no effect.  If our Brit, however, wants to their UK Netflix, That just changed.  Will Spain allow him to use a VPN back to England, or will they call for their own "great firewall of china" to make British broadcasters negotiate tariffs with them? Borders and translation created for us the phrase "May you live in exciting times, and come to the attention of the mighty". Changing borders may make that apply once more to Britain and the UK.
          EPL: Arsenal vs Manchester City Preview      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
EPL: Arsenal vs Manchester City Preview

The opening round of the 2018/19 Premier League campaign kicks off with a bang as Arsenal begin life after Arsene Wenger with a match against champions Manchester City. 

New Gunners boss Unai Emery will come face to face with fellow Spaniard Pep Guardiola at the Emirates Stadium on Sunday.

Arsenal vs Manchester City
Sunday 12 August
Emirates Stadium
17:00


Guardiola’s men achieved a record 100 points last season to secure the title, so Emery will certainly have his work cut out for him.

To Win
Arsenal 24/10
Draw 11/4
Man City 21/20

Arsenal
This will be Emery’s first big challenge as Arsenal manager and a good result against his Spanish adversary would really stake his claim in the toughest league in the world. The Gunners were torn to shreds against Manchester City last season. In three meetings which they all lost, they conceded nine goals – three in each game – while finding the net just once. Emery will be keen to make an instant impression on Arsenal fans after replacing the legendary Wenger.

In May, Guardiola praised Arsenal’s appointment of Emery, citing his success in Spain and France.

“[Emery is a] top manager. His career speaks for itself,” Guardiola said.

“He did it perfectly in Spain with many teams: Valencia, Sevilla - and he did really well in France.”So, welcome to England. Another good manager is coming here.”
Arsenal have looked impressive under Emery in pre-season. They started off with an emphatic 8-0 win at non-league Boreham Wood behind closed doors. In the International Champions Cup, they played to a 1-1 draw against Atletico Madrid, losing in a meaningless penalty shoot-out. The Gunners then ran riot against Paris Saint-Germain in a 5-1 victory with Alexandre Lacazette bagging a brace.

Up next was a tough test against Chelsea which Emery’s side drew 1-1 thanks to Petr Cech’s penalty save against Alvaro Morata and Lacazette's injury-time equalizer. Arsenal beat their London rivals 6-5 on penalties. The Gunners ended their preseason campaign with a 2-0 victory over Lazio in Sweden. With 17 goals scored and just three conceded, Arsenal should have built up a lot of confidence in the last few weeks, as well as gaining the fitness required for the physically demanding Premier League.

Arsenal finished sixth in the Premier League last season, but that was largely due to suffering from travel sickness, losing 11 times on the road. At the Emirates Stadium, they secured 15 victories and were only outscored at home by City.

Of Emery’s signings, I’m only expecting Sokratis Papastathopoulos to start this match, alongside Shkodran Mustafi in defence, although, Lucas Torreira, who joined from Sampdoria, is a possibility in midfield. French youngster Matteo Guendouzi impressed in the friendlies but he isn’t likely to feature, while Sead Kolasinac and Laurent Koscielny are certain to miss the game with long-term injuries.

City will need to pay close attention to Pierre-Emerick Aubameyang, a one-time target for Guardiola. The former African Footballer of the Year joined the north London club from Borussia Dortmund in January, making 13 appearances (12 starts) and scoring 10 goals with four assists. Aubameyang will look to fire the Gunners to victory on Sunday.

Arsenal’s last win against City came in December 2015 when goals from Theo Walcott and Olivier Giroud gave them a 2-1 win at the Emirates. With a number of Guardiola’s key players returning late from Russia 2018, the Gunners will prefer taking City on at this stage, before Guardiola can get them back to full speed.

Manchester City
Manchester City come into their opening Premier League match high on confidence after beating Chelsea 2-0 at Wembley last Sunday to win the Community Shield. Sergio Aguero hit a brace for Guardiola's side, becoming the first player to score 200 goals for Manchester City, taking his club record to 201.

Guardiola was happy with the result but revealed his players are still well short of full fitness after only a handful of training sessions following the World Cup.

"We are satisfied, but still we are far away from the (best) physical condition. The players are in bad, bad conditions," Guardiola said.

City played just three pre-season friendlies before beating Chelsea last weekend. Guardiola was without many of his stars in USA for the International Champions Cup due to their World Cup exploits. City lost their opening friendlies against Borussia Dortmund and Liverpool, but did extremely well to come from 2-0 down to beat Bayern Munich.

City started last season’s record-breaking campaign by dropping just two points in 20 games and Guardiola's men will look to get their title defence off to a winning start against Emery’s side. The Citizens faced the north London outfit three times last season, coming out on top in all three meetings, netting three goals in each match. They completed a league double over the Gunners in Wenger’s final season at the helm, winning 3-1 at the Etihad and 3-0 at the Emirates. City also beat Arsenal 3-0 at Wembley to lift the Carabao Cup.

Guardiola's men will look to extend their winning streak over the north London side. Last season, City won 16 of their 19 games away from home, losing just once – 4-3 away to Liverpool in January. They were the only side to hit the 40-goal mark on their travels, netting 45 goals while they shipped 13.

Probable line-ups:
Arsenal: 4-2-2-2
Cech; Bellerin, Mustafi, Sokratis, Maitland-Niles; Xhaka, Ramsey; Ozil, Mkhitaryan; Aubameyang, Lacazette.

Manchester City: 4-3-3
Ederson; Walker, Stones, Laporte, Mendy; David Silva, Fernandinho, Bernardo; Mahrez, Sane, Aguero.

Verdict: Draw (11/4)
This is a very tough call because it’s so early in the season. It’s Unai Emery’s first home game in charge of Arsenal and you’d expect the Gooners in the stands to be fired up. Although Emery is a coach who enjoys attacking football, he’ll be cautious when attacking City. As much as both teams will want to start the season off with a win, neither side will want to lose the opening game. It’s always a big call when you don’t back a City win, but I’m going for the draw here.


Written by  Chadley Nagel


Twitter - HollywoodbetsInstagram - HollywoodbetsFacebook - Hollywoodbets

Bet Now on Soccer with Hollywoodbets!


Register now and start betting with Hollywoodbets today!

Win a car with Hollywoodbets and Boxer. Buy Top Up Vouchers at any Boxer Store for R50 or more.

          ALVEZ Mens Soft Leather Reptile Cuban Heel Shoes Black      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
ALVEZ Mens Soft Leather Reptile Cuban Heel Shoes Black

ALVEZ Mens Soft Leather Reptile Cuban Heel Shoes Black

Hand Made In Spain All Leather Shoe Approx: 1100g/Pair 4.5cm / 1.7" Cuban Heel


          Estonia, Spain Defense Ministers Talk After Spanish Eurofighter Accidentally Fires Missile      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Estonia’s Minister of Defence, Jüri Luik talked Wednesday to Spanish Minister of Defence, Margarita Robles Fernández on the incident with the Spanish Eurofighter aircraft, which accidentally fired an air-to-air missile in the Estonian airspace during the exercise on Tuesday. The Spanish ...
          0L134 Régi dioptriás szemüveg csomag 14 darab - Jelenlegi ára: 25 500 Ft      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Régi, klasszikus szemüvegek, szemüveg keretek. A keretekben különböző dioptriás lencsék találhatók. Összesen 14 darab.
Feliratok:
- FRAME GERMANY VIENNALINE III
- QUEEN M. C. DESIGN
- KARPY KADIMA FRAME SPAIN
- ROMEO
- ALBERT CR
- FRAME AUSTRIA SK MOD. 105 (1/1012 KGF SK 16)
- RIVIERA
- ALBERT
- TERRI BROGANSúly: 0. 63 kg
Termékeim között több szemüveg található, kérem tekintse meg őket ide kattintva!
A termékről további nagy felbontású képek!
ÁRUIM ZÖME ANTIK ÉS RÉGI TÁRGYAKBÓL ÁLL.
SZEMÉLYES ÁTVÉTELI LEHETŐSÉG BUDAPESTEN (IX. ) ILLETVE SZEGEDEN!
 
Szállítás
Termékeinket az MPL futárszolgálattal küldjük! Terjedelmes tárgyaink szállításában külön díjazás mellett tudunk segíteni! Szállítási módok az alábbiak szerint alakulnak
 
Személyes átvétel Budapest IX.
 
 
Személyes átvétel Szeged
 
 
MPL csomag előre utalással
 
 
MPL csomag utánvét
 
 
Fizetés
A vételár és szállítási költség kiegyenlítésére az alábbi lehetőségeket biztosítjuk
 
Személyes átvételkor készpénzben
 
 
Banki átutalás
 
 
Utánvét
 
 
Paypal (MasterCard, Visa)
 
 
Szállítási, átvételi idő
A termék vásárlását követően a szállítási, kézhez vételi idő az alábbiak szerint alakul belföldön
 
Személyes átvétel
1-5 munkanap
 
 
MPL csomag előre utalással
2-3 munkanap
 
 
MPL csomag utánvét
1-3 munkanap
 
( szemüveg keret szemüvegkeret )
0L134 Régi dioptriás szemüveg csomag 14 darab
Jelenlegi ára: 25 500 Ft
Az aukció vége: 2018-08-09 03:48
          REPONEDOR/A SANLUCAR - Supersol Spain S.L.U - Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Cádiz provincia      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Supersol Spain ofrece en todos sus procesos de selección igualdad de trato y oportunidades entre todos los candidatos sin diferenciación de sexo y promueve la...
De Indeed - Wed, 08 Aug 2018 10:44:27 GMT - Ver todo: empleo en Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Cádiz provincia
          Translate Spanish To English With English Voice over      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Basically what has to be done, is to get the script of the video in Spanish, translate it into the English language, and record the audio in english, since I only have the videos in the Spanish language... (Budget: $30 - $250 USD, Jobs: English (US), Spanish, Spanish (Spain), Translation, Voice Talent)
          #moto - el_mundo_de_neno      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
#f1 #f12018 #car #coche #momo #motivacion #motocross #moto #redbull #carrefour #influencers #wwe #ufc #comedy #deporte #spain #sport
          #jump - mesutglerr      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Eski Mit'çilerden kim artistlik bizim işimiz. :)) #insta #instavideo #instagood #instatopic #daily #dailylook #likeforfollow #like #followforfollowback #follow #video #korea #seoul #busan #japan #tokyo #LA #NY #CA #Turkey #istanbul #spain #italy #sport #jump #rope #rome #paris #beğeni
          #jump - mesutglerr      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
#insta #instavideo #instagood #instatopic #daily #dailylook #likeforfollow #like #followforfollowback #follow #video #korea #seoul #busan #japan #tokyo #LA #NY #CA #Turkey #istanbul #spain #italy #sport #jump #rope #rome #paris #beğeni #takip
          #109/118 - Neckwear - 118 Pictures in 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Krasivaya Liza posted a photo:

#109/118 - Neckwear - 118 Pictures in 2018

San Fermin festival in Pasaia, Spain


          Masabi deploys m-ticketing service in Spain with Lurraldebus      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
(Telecompaper) Masabi announced that Spanish intercity public transport service Lurraldebus launched mobile ticketing using the Justride platform...
          Xiaomi commences sales of Mi 8 in France, Spain      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
(Telecompaper) Chinese smartphone maker Xiaomi launched sales of its new Mi 8 flagship device in France and Spain...
          Surveillance Market to Grow at a CAGR of 12.0% During 2018-2025      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The global Surveillance market is valued at 28000 million US$ in 2017 and will reach 69400 million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of 12.0% during 2018-2025.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- This report studies the global https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1868700/global-surveillance-professional-survey-report-market-research-reports#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000">Surveillance market status and forecast, categorizes the global Surveillance market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top manufacturers in North America, Europe, Japan, China, India, Southeast Asia and other regions (Central & South America, and Middle East & Africa).

This report focuses on surveillance system used for residential, commercial and Public & Government Infrastructure.

In the report, the surveillance market refers to the video surveillance market. The video surveillance market includes hardware segment, Software and Service segment.

The hardware comprised of cameras, recorders, storage, encoders and monitors.
Software and Service segment includes Video Analytics, Video Management Systems, VSaaS Service and Installation & Maintenance Service etc.

Request For Sample Copy OF Report @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/sample/sample/1868700

Currently, there are many producing companies in the world. The main market players are Hikvision, Dahua Technology, Axis Communications AB, Panasonic, Honeywell Security, Hanwha, United Technologies, Tyco, Bosch Security Systems, Pelco, Huawei Technologies, Siemens AG, Avigilon Corporation, Uniview, Flir Systems, Inc and so on. The revenue of Surveillance is about 22308 Million USD in 2016.

China is the largest consumption region of Surveillance, with a consumption market share nearly 38.30% in 2016. The second place is North America; following China with the consumption market share over 20.68% in 2016. Europe is another important consumption market of Surveillance.

Surveillance used in industry including Residential Use, Commercial Use and Public & Government Infrastructure. Report data showed that 13.60% of the Surveillance market demand in Residential Use, 36.56% in Commercial Use, and 49.84% in Public & Government Infrastructure in 2016.

The major manufacturers covered in this report
Hikvision
Dahua Technology
Axis Communications AB
Panasonic
Honeywell Security
Hanwha
United Technologies
Tyco
Bosch Security Systems
Pelco
Huawei Technologies
Siemens AG
Avigilon Corporation
Uniview
Flir Systems, Inc

Geographically, this report studies the top producers and consumers, focuses on product capacity, production, value, consumption, market share and growth opportunity in these key regions, covering
North America
Europe
China
Japan
India
Southeast Asia
Other regions (Central & South America, Middle East & Africa)

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Asia-Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Australia
Indonesia
Singapore
Rest of Asia-Pacific
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Spain
Russia
Rest of Europe
Central & South America
Brazil
Argentina
Rest of South America
Middle East & Africa
Saudi Arabia
Turkey
Rest of Middle East & Africa

Request to Get Complete List of Tables and Figures @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1868700/global-surveillance-professional-survey-report-market-research-reports/toc

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
Camera
Other Hardware
Software &Services

By Application, the market can be split into
Residential Use
Commercial Use
Public & Government Infrastructure

The study objectives of this report are:

To analyze and study the global Surveillance capacity, production, value, consumption, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
Focuses on the key Surveillance manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.
To strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trend and their contribution to the market.
To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market.
To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Surveillance are as follows:
History Year: 2013-2017
Base Year: 2017
Estimated Year: 2018
Forecast Year 2018 to 2025

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2017 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

Request to Get More Related Reports @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/category/63

Key Stakeholders
Surveillance Manufacturers
Surveillance Distributors/Traders/Wholesalers
Surveillance Subcomponent Manufacturers
Industry Association
Downstream Vendors

Available Customizations
With the given market data, QYResearch offers customizations according to the company's specific needs. The following customization options are available for the report:
Regional and country-level analysis of the Surveillance market, by end-use.
Detailed analysis and profiles of additional market players.

About MarketResearchReports.biz
MarketResearchReports.biz is a seller of syndicated market studies, featuring an exhaustive collection of research reports from leading international publishers. Our repositoryis diverse, spanningvirtually every industrial sector and even more every category and sub-category within the industry. We also provide consulting services to enable our clients have adynamicbusiness perspective.

Contact Us
State Tower
90 State Street, Suite 700
Albany, NY 12207
United States
Toll Free: 866-997-4948
(USA-Canada)
Tel: +1-518-621-2074
E: sales@marketresearchreports.biz

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/surveillance-market-to-grow-at-a-cagr-of-120-during-2018-2025-1025651.htm

Media Relations Contact

MRR Biz
Business Head
MarketResearchReports.Biz
Telephone: 1-518-621-2074
Email: Click to Email MRR Biz
Web: http://www.marketresearchreports.biz/

#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000


          Printed Sensor Sales Market Report 2018-2025: Europe Held the Largest Share in 2017      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Recent released report by MarketResearchReports.Biz on "Global Printed Sensor Sales Market Report 2018."

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- Printed sensors, a subset of printed electronics, are manufactured by using techniques like screen printing, flexography, gravure, and inkjet. Printed sensor technology makes sensing much easier and improves monitoring substantially, because it can be integrated into flexible substrates such as paper, plastic, and foil. These sensors can be woven into cloth to measure bodily functions, used to create human-centered interfaces, or can be directly attached to the skin for healthcare purposes.

The smart packing application is expected to grow at a high CAGR during the forecast period. Printed sensors play a major role in the smart packaging application as they help the manufacturers to keep track of their inventories. They are also used to monitor temperature, humidity, and gas for sensitive products, especially food and beverages. Moreover, given the rise in the adoption of smart packaging across the globe to increase the visibility, hygiene, quality, and safety of the product, there is a demand for printed sensors.

Request For Sample Copy Of Report @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/sample/sample/1868666

Europe held the largest share of the printed market in 2017, while the market in Asia-Pacific is expected to grow at the highest rate during the forecast period. The high growth of the Asia-Pacific market is attributed to the presence of a number of leading consumer electronics manufacturers, rapid industrialization in the region, the growth in the production of commercial as well as non-commercial vehicles with driver assistance systems and touch infotainment systems, and the increasing number of patients of lifestyle diseases such as diabetes.

This report studies the global https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1868666/global-printed-sensor-sales-report-market-research-reports#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000">Printed Sensor market status and forecast, categorizes the global Printed Sensor market size (value & volume) by key players, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top players in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia India and Other regions (Middle East & Africa, Central & South America).

The global Printed Sensor market is valued at xx million US$ in 2017 and will reach xx million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of xx% during 2018-2025.

The major players covered in this report
Interlink Electronics
Thin Film Electronics
GSI Technologies
ISORG
KWJ Engineering
Peratech Holdco
Canatu
Mc10
Polyic
PST Sensors
Tekscan

Geographically, this report studies the key regions, focuses on product sales, value, market share and growth opportunity in these regions, covering
United States
Europe
China
Japan
Southeast Asia
India

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Asia-Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Australia
Indonesia
Singapore
Rest of Asia-Pacific
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Spain
Russia
Rest of Europe
Central & South America
Brazil
Argentina
Rest of South America
Middle East & Africa
Saudi Arabia
Turkey
Rest of Middle East & Africa

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
By Type
Printed Biosensor
Printed Touch Sensor
Printed Gas Sensor
Printed Humidity Sensor
Printed Image Sensor
Printed Pressure Sensor
Printed Temperature Sensor
Printed Proximity Sensor
By Printing Technology
Gravure Printing
Inkjet Printing
Screen Printing
Flexography
Others

On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, sales volume, market share and growth rate for each application, including
Automotive
Consumer Electronics
Environmental Testing
Industrial Equipment
Medical Devices
Building Automation
Smart Packaging
Others

Get Complete Report List of Tables and Figures @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1868666/global-printed-sensor-sales-report-market-research-reports/toc

The study objectives of this report are:

To analyze and study the global Printed Sensor sales, value, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
To analyze the top players in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, to study the sales, value and market share of top players in these regions.
Focuses on the key Printed Sensor players, to study the sales, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.
To strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trend and their contribution to the market
To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market
To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Printed Sensor are as follows:
History Year: 2013-2017
Base Year: 2017
Estimated Year: 2018
Forecast Year 2018 to 2025

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2017 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

Explore more related reports @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/category/63

Key Stakeholders
Printed Sensor Manufacturers
Printed Sensor Distributors/Traders/Wholesalers
Printed Sensor Subcomponent Manufacturers
Industry Association
Downstream Vendors

Available Customizations
With the given market data, QYResearch offers customizations according to the company's specific needs. The following customization options are available for the report:
Regional and country-level analysis of the Printed Sensor market, by end-use.
Detailed analysis and profiles of additional market players.

About MarketResearchReports.biz
MarketResearchReports.biz is a seller of syndicated market studies, featuring an exhaustive collection of research reports from leading international publishers. Our repositoryis diverse, spanningvirtually every industrial sector and even more every category and sub-category within the industry. We also provide consulting services to enable our clients have adynamicbusiness perspective.

Contact Us
State Tower
90 State Street, Suite 700
Albany, NY 12207
United States
Toll Free: 866-997-4948
(USA-Canada)
Tel: +1-518-621-2074
E: sales@marketresearchreports.biz

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/printed-sensor-sales-market-report-2018-2025-europe-held-the-largest-share-in-2017-1025624.htm

Media Relations Contact

MRR Biz
Business Head
MarketResearchReports.Biz
Telephone: 1-518-621-2074
Email: Click to Email MRR Biz
Web: http://www.marketresearchreports.biz/

#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000


          Smart Wearables Market to Grow at a CAGR of 14.4% During 2018-2025: Apple Is World Leading Brand to Account Market Share of 37.68%      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The global Smart Wearables market is valued at 11300 million US$ in 2017 and will reach 33000 million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of 14.4% during 2018-2025.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- This report studies the Smart Wearables market, which covers the consumer Smart Wearables device. Smart wearable technology is defined as the gadgets which are worn on, or attached to, the body, while being used; and smart wearables use application-enabled advanced computing and wireless technologies to process the inputs. Some of the consumer smart wearable devices are Google Glass, Samsung Gear, Nike wristbands and Google cardboard. These devices are used for fitness, healthcare, lifestyle, and entertainment purposes.

Wearable technology is the incorporation of technology with regular accessories which allow users to make their life easier. It has changed the lifestyle of users in order to achieve their particular goals. This technology has immense potential for rapid growth and can provide benefits to the different classes of people in their daily lives.

Request For Sample Copy Of Report @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/sample/sample/1868715

Apple is the world leading brand in global Smart Wearables market with the market share of 37.68%, in terms of revenue, followed by Fitbit, Samsung and Huawei.

This report studies the global https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1868715/global-smart-wearables-professional-survey-market-research-reports#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000">Smart Wearables market status and forecast, categorizes the global Smart Wearables market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top manufacturers in North America, Europe, Japan, China, India, Southeast Asia and other regions (Central & South America, and Middle East & Africa).

The major manufacturers covered in this report
Fitbit
Xiaomi
Apple
Garmin
Samsung
Jawbone
Misfit
Polar
Moto
Huawei
BBK(XTC)
Lifesense
Razer

Geographically, this report studies the top producers and consumers, focuses on product capacity, production, value, consumption, market share and growth opportunity in these key regions, covering
North America
Europe
China
Japan
India
Southeast Asia
Other regions (Central & South America, Middle East & Africa)

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Asia-Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Australia
Indonesia
Singapore
Rest of Asia-Pacific
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Spain
Russia
Rest of Europe
Central & South America
Brazil
Argentina
Rest of South America
Middle East & Africa
Saudi Arabia
Turkey
Rest of Middle East & Africa

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
Fitness Band
Smart Watches
Smart Glasses
Others

By Application, the market can be split into
Fitness and Wellness
Infotainment

Get Complete Report List of Tables and Figures @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1868715/global-smart-wearables-professional-survey-market-research-reports/toc

The study objectives of this report are:

To analyze and study the global Smart Wearables capacity, production, value, consumption, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
Focuses on the key Smart Wearables manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.
To strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trend and their contribution to the market.
To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market.
To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Smart Wearables are as follows:
History Year: 2013-2017
Base Year: 2017
Estimated Year: 2018
Forecast Year 2018 to 2025

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2017 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

Key Stakeholders
Smart Wearables Manufacturers
Smart Wearables Distributors/Traders/Wholesalers
Smart Wearables Subcomponent Manufacturers
Industry Association
Downstream Vendors

Explore more related reports @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/category/63

Available Customizations
With the given market data, QYResearch offers customizations according to the company's specific needs. The following customization options are available for the report:
Regional and country-level analysis of the Smart Wearables market, by end-use.
Detailed analysis and profiles of additional market players.

About MarketResearchReports.biz
MarketResearchReports.biz is a seller of syndicated market studies, featuring an exhaustive collection of research reports from leading international publishers. Our repositoryis diverse, spanningvirtually every industrial sector and even more every category and sub-category within the industry. We also provide consulting services to enable our clients have adynamicbusiness perspective.

Contact Us
State Tower
90 State Street, Suite 700
Albany, NY 12207
United States

Toll Free: 866-997-4948
(USA-Canada)

Tel: +1-518-621-2074
E: sales@marketresearchreports.biz

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/smart-wearables-market-to-grow-at-a-cagr-of-144-during-2018-2025-apple-is-world-leading-brand-to-account-market-share-of-3768-1025616.htm

Media Relations Contact

MRR Biz
Business Head
MarketResearchReports.Biz
Telephone: 1-518-621-2074
Email: Click to Email MRR Biz
Web: http://www.marketresearchreports.biz/

#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000


          Battery Market Will Reach 119700 Million US$ by the End of 2025      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The global Battery market is valued at 89200 million US$ in 2017 and will reach 119700 million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of 3.7% during 2018-2025.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- This research study involved the extensive usage of both primary and secondary data sources. The research process involved the study of various factors affecting the industry, including the government policy, market environment, competitive landscape, historical data, present trends in the market, technological innovation, upcoming technologies and the technical progress in related industry, and market risks, opportunities, market barriers and challenges. The following illustrative figure shows the market research methodology applied in this report.

For industry structure analysis, the Battery industry is concentrated. These manufacturers are large multinational corporations. The top ten producers account for about 88% of the revenue market.
The production of Battery increased from 56918 K MT in 2013 to 63641 K MT in 2017 with an average growth rate of 2.25%.

Request For Sample Copy Of Report @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/sample/sample/1868776

Asia-Pacific occupied 45.20% of the sales market in 2017. It is followed by South America and Europe, which respectively account for around 19.23% and 18.43% of the global total industry. Other countries have a smaller amount of sales.

This report studies the global Battery market status and forecast, categorizes the global Battery market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top manufacturers in North America, Europe, Japan, China, India, Southeast Asia and other regions (Central & South America, and Middle East & Africa).

The major manufacturers covered in this report
Johnson Controls
LG Chem
Panasonic
SAMSUNG
GS Yuasa
Exide
EnerSys
East Penn
BYD
ATL
Duracell
Energizer
BAK
Tianjin Lishen
SONY
GP Batteries
Furukawa Battery
AtlasBX
C&D Technologies
Maxell
Nanfu Battery
FUJIFILM
Zhongyin (Ningbo) Battery

Geographically, this report studies the top producers and consumers, focuses on product capacity, production, value, consumption, market share and growth opportunity in these key regions, covering
North America
Europe
China
Japan
India
Southeast Asia
Other regions (Central & South America, Middle East & Africa)

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Asia-Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Australia
Indonesia
Singapore
Rest of Asia-Pacific
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Spain
Russia
Rest of Europe
Central & South America
Brazil
Argentina
Rest of South America
Middle East & Africa
Saudi Arabia
Turkey
Rest of Middle East & Africa

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
By Electrolyte
Alkaline Battery
Acid Battery
Organic Battery
By Use Type
Primary Battery
Rechargeable Battery
By Positive and Negative Matetials
Lead-acid Battery
Lithium Battery
Other

By Application, the market can be split into
Home Use
Commercial Use

Get Complete Report List of Tables and Figures @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1868776/global-battery-professional-survey-report-market-research-reports/toc

The study objectives of this report are:

To analyze and study the global Battery capacity, production, value, consumption, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
Focuses on the key Battery manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.
To strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trend and their contribution to the market.
To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market.
To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Battery are as follows:
History Year: 2013-2017
Base Year: 2017
Estimated Year: 2018
Forecast Year 2018 to 2025

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2017 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

Key Stakeholders
Battery Manufacturers
Battery Distributors/Traders/Wholesalers
Battery Subcomponent Manufacturers
Industry Association
Downstream Vendors

Available Customizations
With the given market data, QYResearch offers customizations according to the company's specific needs. The following customization options are available for the report:
Regional and country-level analysis of the Battery market, by end-use.
Detailed analysis and profiles of additional market players.

About MarketResearchReports.biz
MarketResearchReports.biz is a seller of syndicated market studies, featuring an exhaustive collection of research reports from leading international publishers. Our repositoryis diverse, spanningvirtually every industrial sector and even more every category and sub-category within the industry. We also provide consulting services to enable our clients have adynamicbusiness perspective.

Contact Us
State Tower
90 State Street, Suite 700
Albany, NY 12207
United States

Toll Free: 866-997-4948
(USA-Canada)

Tel: +1-518-621-2074
E: sales@marketresearchreports.biz

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/battery-market/battery-industry/release-1025596.htm

Media Relations Contact

MRR Biz
Business Head
MarketResearchReports.Biz
Telephone: 1-518-621-2074
Email: Click to Email MRR Biz
Web: http://www.marketresearchreports.biz/

#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000


          #EYM18: Semi Final Running Orders      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The running orders for this year’s Eurovision Young Musicians semi finals have been made. Each semi final will be split into three, featuring three countries in each. Semi Final 1 – 18th August A1 – Malta A2 – UK A3 – Spain B4 – Slovenia B5 – San […]
          Xiaomi Mi A2 Android One Smartphone With Dual Rear Cameras, 20MP Front Camera, Launched at Rs. 16,999      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Xiaomi has launched today Mi A2 Android One smartphone in India which was unveiled first in Spain last month. This phone comes with 4GB LPDDR4x RAM with 64GB of internal storage. Xiaomi has announced that they will be launching soon another variant with 6GB LPDDR4x RAM with 128GB storage. On the specifications front, the Mi A2 sports […]

The post Xiaomi Mi A2 Android One Smartphone With Dual Rear Cameras, 20MP Front Camera, Launched at Rs. 16,999 appeared first on TechVorm.


          Re:Al Fakher me rasca la garganta      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
A mi parecer hay poco tabaco.
Estás echando al fakher a ras del phunnel en lugar de a ras del borde.
La...

          Re:Cachimba pequeña pero de buena calidad      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Gracias por hacerme una idea de cómo está el mercado y de las distintas opciones, cuando me decida y haga con ella lo comentaré por aquí, muchas gracias a todos  :)
          Portugal welcomes more Chinese tourists, while Spain lose its appeal following terror attacks      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Following the launch of Beijing Capital Airlines’ direct flight route from the Chinese capital to Lisbon in July 2017, Portugal has benefitted from a jump in demand from Chinese travellers and has seen it challenge Spain’s growth in arrival numbers. Read More...

[[ This is a content summary only. Visit ftnnews.com for full links, other content and more! ]]

          Offer - Singles Chat Lines - SPAIN      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Rules on h᧐w to play volleyball Ꮋow Ԁo i finger myѕеlf Hоԝ to make beaded coaster Hⲟw tο install an archery peep sight Hoᴡ to write a letter ѡhen moving to аnother job How long to save impօrtant. In the event you adored thіѕ informative article aⅼong with yοu wish to receive guidance ѡith rеgards tо lavalife chat line Mole Valley kindly check out the webpage.
          BREAKING NEWS: Chelsea capture Kepa for world-record fee      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Chelsea have paid a reported world-record £71.6million to sign Kepa Arrizabalaga from Athletic Bilbao as a successor to Real Madrid-bound Thibaut Courtois. The highly rated Spain international was announced as signing a seven-year deal at Stamford Bridge just hours after the club confirmed the sale of Thibaut Courtois to Real Madrid pending the completion of a medical. […]

The post BREAKING NEWS: Chelsea capture Kepa for world-record fee appeared first on Soccer News.


          8/9/2018: Femailmagazine: KNACKERED MOTHERS’ WINE CLUB      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

BARGAIN OF THE WEEK ANDA tempranillo/syrah 2016, £5.99 (normally £7.99), Waitrose THIS is one of the few wines available on our shelves from the Andalucia region in Spain, and with £2 off the normal price, now’s the time to try one if you haven’t...
          Roxanne Pallett - Bikini Poolside in Spain - August 04, 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
none
          7 incríveis cidades europeias com canais (que não são veneza nem amesterdão)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Há lá coisa mais romântica do que cidades com canais para passear? Em vez de andar a pé de mão dada, está encostado à sua cara-metade, sentadinho num barco ou numa gôndola. É tão bom! E, claro, quando pensamos em canais, a primeira cidade que nos vem à cabeça é Veneza, em segundo lugar associo logo Amesterdão, mas tanto uma como a outra têm sofrido um enorme flagelo: as suas ruas, restaurantes, hotéis e canais estão apinhados de turistas. Há filas para tudo, excursões para todo o lado, enfim, multidões de mapa numa mão e máquina fotográfica na outra.

Mas não desespere. Há cidades lindas por essa Europa fora que também são banhadas por pitorescos canais e ainda não foram inundadas por um tsunami de turistas. Aqui ficam algumas sugestões eleitas pelo site Matador.

 

Annecy, França

Annecy-France-canal.jpg

Situada entre o Lago Annecy e a montanha Semnoz, é conhecida como a “Pérola dos Alpes franceses”. Devido à sua localização, não pode crescer mais, por isso preservou as construções originais com séculos de História. Erguida em volta de um maravilhoso castelo do século XIV, Annecy parece uma aldeia de bonecas com mais canais do que ruas. E o seu charme é irresistível: as casas pitorescas sobre os canais albergam bares, restaurantes e gelatarias.

Sinta-se num autêntico conto de fadas enquanto vagueia por ruelas e canais, pelas dezenas de pontes e pelos mercados, até chegar ao impressionante Castelo de Annecy, no cimo da colina.

 

Bruges, Bélgica

Medieval-buildings-on-canal-in-Brussels.jpg

Já lá fomos duas vezes e, por mim, voltava já amanhã. Bruges, também conhecida pela “Veneza do Norte”, é linda de morrer. Não vai conseguir parar de fotografar: as cores das casas, a impressionante rede de canais, os edifícios do século XV, as igrejas, as praças. Tudo. Não é de estranhar que o centro histórico da cidade tenha sido considerado Património Mundial, pela UNESCO, em 2000.

Bruges foi durante a Idade Média o centro da economia europeia. Pode conhecer a cidade a pé, de bicicleta, de barco ou até de charrete. Ah! E tem um restaurante com 3 estrelas Michelin: o Hertog Jan.

 

Empuriabrava, Espanha

Empuriabrava-Spain-canal.jpg

Situada onde antigamente havia um pântano, esta luxuosa cidade da Costa Brava também é conhecida como a Veneza de Espanha. Com uns surpreendentes 25 quilómetros de canais navegáveis, nos anos 60, um grupo de habitantes visionários investiu na requalificação da zona, recuperando marinas e casas, com um sonho: ter um barco para cada casa.

Hoje é uma cidade luxuosa com tentadoras marisqueiras, centenas de iates e barcos de recreio, que recebe todos os verões cerca de 80 mil pessoas. Além disso, vale a pena explorar a região com as suas vilas medievais, óptimas praias de areia branca e um património histórico invejável.

 

Utrecht, Holanda

Utrecht-Netherlands.jpg

Se já conhece Amesterdão e adorou, não deixe de visitar Utrecht. Os canais da cidade são animados por lojas, cafés e restaurantes nas suas margens. E os cais, onde antigamente atravacam os navios mercantes medievais, têm hoje espaçosos pátios e terraços com vistas deslumbrantes para apreciar com um belo copo de vinho na mão.

Os carros não podem entrar no centro da cidade, por isso não deixe de explorar as sinuosas ruas de pedra a pé ou de bicicleta e de passear de gôndola nos canais. Se tiver energia, não perca a melhor vista da cidade subindo ao topo da Torre do Domo. São "só" 465 degraus para atingir o campanário mais alto dos Países Baixos.

 

Copenhaga, Dinamarca

Nyhavn-Copenhagen.jpg

Nyhavn, que significa “porto novo”, é o mais famoso canal de Copenhaga. Liga o bairro histórico da capital dinamarquesa ao mar e, como foi durante anos paragem obrigatória para milhares de marinheiros, era uma espécie de Red Light District, com tabernas e bordéis em cada esquina.

Hoje, as tabernas e os bordéis deram lugar a restaurantes e a bares que ocupam as casas coloridas ao longo do canal. Foi aqui que o mais famoso escritor dinamarquês, Hans Christian Anderson, autor de A Pequena Sereia, viveu durante duas décadas e foi aqui, mais precisamente no seu apartamento do número 20 do canal Nyhavn, que escreveu o clássico A Princesa e a Ervilha.

Vale a pena espreitar a Cidade Livre de Christiania, uma comunidade independente do governo de Copenhaga, onde o movimento hippie e anarquista se instalou nos anos 70.

 

Estocolmo, Suécia

Stockholm-canals.jpg

A capital sueca é deslumbrante. Eu adorei lá estar. É uma cidade para se passear, para ser vivida. Não só por causa dos pitorescos canais mas também devido a uma arquitetura com muita pinta e bom ar, com edifícios que datam do século XIII. A cidade foi contruída sobre 14 ilhas ligadas por mais de 50 pontes.

Comece por visitar Gamla Stan, o centro histórico da cidade e onde se situa o Palácio de Estocolmo, residência oficial da família real. O bairro é único, animado e colorido e garanto-lhe que não vai conseguir parar de fotografar tudo à sua volta. E, claro, explore a cidade de barco, fazendo um tour pelos canais para ter uma perspectiva única da capital da Suécia.

 

São Petersburgo, Rússia

Saint-Isaac-Cathedral-across-canal-in-St-Petersbur

A segunda maior cidade da Rússia também foi fundada sobre um pântano. Pedro, o Grande, mandou drenar o pântano, construindo uma série de rios artificiais e canais, inspirados nos de Amesterdão. Apanhe um barco no Rio Moika e deixe-se deslumbrar pelas incríveis mansões e palácios do século XVIII, construídos nas suas margens.

Vá até à Ponte Azul com 97 metros de largura: é tão grande que parece uma extensão de Praça de São Isaac. Não deixe de navegar pelo Canal de Inverno de onde pode ver o deslumbrante Palácio de Inverno, palco da Revolução de fevereiro de 1917.

Estou dividida, meu querido Marido Mistério. Escolhe tu que eu não sou esquisita. Para onde vamos primeiro?

 

Boa viagem para nós,

Ela

 

fotos: matador


          Growth Opportunities in Global Water-Based Spray Adhesives Industry - Market Analysis & Outlook 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Brooklyn, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- Qyresearchreports include new market research report "Global Water-based Spray Adhesives Market Professional Survey Report 2018" to its huge collection of research reports.

This report studies the global Water-based Spray Adhesives market status and forecast, categorizes the global Water-based Spray Adhesives market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top manufacturers in North America, Europe, Japan, China, India, Southeast Asia and other regions (Central & South America, and Middle East & Africa).

The major manufacturers covered in this report
-Bostik SA (US)
-H.B. Fuller (US)
-Henkel (Germany)
-Kissel+Wolf GmbH (Germany)
-Quin Global (US)
-SIKA AG (Switzerland)
-3M (US)

Geographically, this report studies the top producers and consumers, focuses on product capacity, production, value, consumption, market share and growth opportunity in these key regions, covering
-North America
-Europe
-China
-Japan
-India
-Southeast Asia

To Download free Sample Report With TOC: https://www.qyresearchreports.com/sample/sample.php?rep_id=1844840&type=S

The regional scope of the study is as follows:
-North America
-United States
-Canada
-Mexico
-Asia-Pacific
-China
-India
-Japan
-South Korea
-Australia
-Indonesia
-Singapore
-Rest of Asia-Pacific
-Europe
-Germany
-France
-UK
-Italy
-Spain
-Russia
-Rest of Europe
-Central & South America

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
-Epoxy
-Polyurethane
-Synthetic Rubber
-Vinyl Acetate Ethylene

You can find the detailed table to contents for this report at : https://www.qyresearchreports.com/report/global-water-based-spray-adhesives-market-professional-survey-report-2018.htm

By Application, the market can be split into
-Transportation
-Construction
-Furniture

The study objectives of this report are:
To analyze and study the global Water-based Spray Adhesives capacity, production, value, consumption, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
Focuses on the key Water-based Spray Adhesives manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.

About QYResearchReports.com
QYResearchReports.com delivers the latest strategic market intelligence to build a successful business footprint in China. Our syndicated and customized research reports provide companies with vital background information of the market and in-depth analysis on the Chinese trade and investment framework, which directly affects their business operations. Reports from QYResearchReports.com feature valuable recommendations on how to navigate in the extremely unpredictable yet highly attractive Chinese market.

Contact Us:

1820 Avenue
M Suite #1047
Brooklyn, NY 11230
United States
Toll Free: 866-997-4948 (USA-CANADA)
Tel: +1-518-621-2074
Web: http://www.qyresearchreports.com
Email: sales@qyresearchreports.com
Blog: https://studyanalyst.blogspot.in

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/growth-opportunities-in-global-water-based-spray-adhesives-industry-market-analysis-outlook-2018-1025574.htm

Media Relations Contact

Ivan Gary
Manager
QYResearchreports
Telephone: 866-997-4948
Email: Click to Email Ivan Gary
Web: https://www.qyresearchreports.com/report/global-water-based-spray-adhesives-market-professional-survey-report-2018.htm

#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000


          Global Agriculture and Farm Equipment/Machinery Market Forecast 2018-2025: J.C. Bamford Excavators Limited, Kubota Corporation, Mahindra & Mahindra Limited, Deere & Compa      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Brooklyn, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- Qyresearchreports include new market research report "Global Agriculture And Farm Equipment/Machinery Sales Market Report 2018" to its huge collection of research reports.

This report studies the global Agriculture And Farm Equipment/Machinery market status and forecast, categorizes the global Agriculture And Farm Equipment/Machinery market size (value & volume) by key players, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top players in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia India and Other regions (Middle East & Africa, Central & South America).

Agriculture Machinery is any kind of machinery used on a farm to help with farming. There are many types of such equipment, from hand tools and power tools to tractors and the countless kinds of farm implements that they tow or operate.
North America dominated the market in 2015. This is ascribed to the advent of machines with better fuel efficiency and improved features in this region that have encouraged farmers to purchase new machinery for agriculture.Another major factor driving the demand for agriculture equipment in North America is the shortage of farm labor.

The strong economic growth in developing nations such as China, India, and the Middle Eastern countries is projected to further drive the farm machinery industry. Asia Pacific is expected to witness the fastest growth over the forecast period. China alone held over 20% of the regional revenue share in 2015.

Fill the form for an exclusive free sample of this report @ https://www.qyresearchreports.com/sample/sample.php?rep_id=1866735&type=S

The major players covered in this report
-AGCO Corp.
-CNH Industrial N.V.
-Iseki & Co., Ltd.
-Same Deutz-Fahr Group S.p.A. (SDF)
-J.C. Bamford Excavators Limited
-Kubota Corporation
-Mahindra & Mahindra Limited
-Deere & Company

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
-North America
-United States
-Canada
-Mexico
-Asia-Pacific
-China
-India
-Japan
-South Korea
-Australia
-Indonesia
-Singapore
-Rest of Asia-Pacific
-Europe
-Germany
-France
-UK
-Italy
-Spain

You can find the detailed table to contents for this report at : https://www.qyresearchreports.com/report/global-agriculture-and-farm-equipmentmachinery-sales-market-report-2018.htm

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
-Tractors
-Harvesters
-Planting Equipment
-Irrigation & Crop Processing Equipment
-Spraying Equipment
-Hay & Forage Equipment

On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, sales volume, market share and growth rate for each application, including
-Land Development & Seed Bed Preparation
-Sowing & Planting
-Weed Cultivation
-Plant Protection
-Harvesting & Threshing
-Post-harvest & Agro Processing

The study objectives of this report are:
To analyze and study the global Agriculture And Farm Equipment/Machinery sales, value, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
To analyze the top players in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, to study the sales, value and market share of top players in these regions.
Focuses on the key Agriculture And Farm Equipment/Machinery players, to study the sales, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.

About QYResearchReports.com
QYResearchReports.com delivers the latest strategic market intelligence to build a successful business footprint in China. Our syndicated and customized research reports provide companies with vital background information of the market and in-depth analysis on the Chinese trade and investment framework, which directly affects their business operations. Reports from QYResearchReports.com feature valuable recommendations on how to navigate in the extremely unpredictable yet highly attractive Chinese market.

Contact Us:

1820 Avenue
M Suite #1047
Brooklyn, NY 11230
United States
Toll Free: 866-997-4948 (USA-CANADA)
Tel: +1-518-621-2074
Web: http://www.qyresearchreports.com
Email: sales@qyresearchreports.com
Blog: https://studyanalyst.blogspot.in

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/global-agriculture-and-farm-equipmentmachinery-market-forecast-2018-2025-jc-bamford-excavators-limited-kubota-corporation-mahindra-mahindra-limited-deere-compa-1025571.htm

Media Relations Contact

Ivan Gary
Manager
QYResearchreports
Telephone: 866-997-4948
Email: Click to Email Ivan Gary
Web: https://www.qyresearchreports.com/report/global-agriculture-and-farm-equipmentmachinery-sales-market-report-2018.htm

#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000


          Heat Pump Market 2025: Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast: Danfoss, Mitsubishi Electric, NIBE, Airwell      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Brooklyn, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- Qyresearchreports include new market research report "Global Heat Pump Market Research Report 2018" to its huge collection of research reports.

This report studies the global Heat Pump market status and forecast, categorizes the global Heat Pump market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top manufacturers in North America, Europe, Japan, China, and other regions (India, Southeast Asia, Central & South America, and Middle East & Africa).

The device used to pull heat from a lower temperature zone and deliver it to a higher temperature zone is known as a heat pump. These heat pumps use refrigerant in closed or open cycle, which acts as an intermediate medium of heat exchange between source and destination. Heat pumps are of various types such as working on the basis of heat source, air source, water source, ground source, and hybrid.

Growth of the construction industry along with increasing implementation of stringent new building regulations by governments worldwide, especially in China, Japan, U.S., South Korea, and Europe are expected to be the key factors driving demand for heat pumps for residential applications. In countries such as Japan, Australia, U.S., and countries of Europe, governments are providing subsidies on purchase of heat pumps in order to reduce their carbon footprint and increase use of renewable sources of energy for heating and cooling purposes. Also, certain countries like Japan and China have their own renewable energy policies for heating purposes, which promote the use of heat pumps over conventional heating devices.

Lack of consumer awareness along with higher initial installment costs are expected to restrain the market growth over the period. Technical difficulty in installing these units in existing infrastructures is also a major restraint for the overall growth. Lack of government support in some regions is also a key factor restraining the demand.

Enter your information below to receive a free sample copy of this report @ https://www.qyresearchreports.com/sample/sample.php?rep_id=1865185&type=S

The major manufacturers covered in this report
-Carrier Corporation
-Daikin
-Danfoss
-Mitsubishi Electric
-NIBE
-Airwell
-BDR Thermea
-Bryant Heating & Cooling
-Emerson Climate Technologies
-Enertech

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
-North America
-United States
-Canada
-Mexico
-Asia-Pacific
-China
-India
-Japan
-South Korea
-Australia
-Indonesia
-Singapore
-Rest of Asia-Pacific
-Europe
-Germany
-France
-UK
-Italy
-Spain
-Russia

Read Complete Table of Content @ https://www.qyresearchreports.com/report/global-heat-pump-market-research-report-2018.htm

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
-Air-to-Air
-Air-to-Water

On the basis of the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate for each application, including
-Residential
-Commercial
-Industrial

The study objectives of this report are:
To analyze and study the global Heat Pump capacity, production, value, consumption, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
Focuses on the key Heat Pump manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.
To strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trend and their contribution to the market

About QYResearchReports.com
QYResearchReports.com delivers the latest strategic market intelligence to build a successful business footprint in China. Our syndicated and customized research reports provide companies with vital background information of the market and in-depth analysis on the Chinese trade and investment framework, which directly affects their business operations. Reports from QYResearchReports.com feature valuable recommendations on how to navigate in the extremely unpredictable yet highly attractive Chinese market.

Contact Us:

1820 Avenue
M Suite #1047
Brooklyn, NY 11230
United States
Toll Free: 866-997-4948 (USA-CANADA)
Tel: +1-518-621-2074
Web: http://www.qyresearchreports.com
Email: sales@qyresearchreports.com
Blog: https://studyanalyst.blogspot.in

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/heat-pump-market-2025-global-industry-analysis-size-share-growth-trends-and-forecast-danfoss-mitsubishi-electric-nibe-airwell-1025553.htm

Media Relations Contact

Ivan Gary
Manager
QYResearchreports
Telephone: 866-997-4948
Email: Click to Email Ivan Gary
Web: https://www.qyresearchreports.com/report/global-heat-pump-market-research-report-2018.htm

#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000


          Comment on The Walking Dead Issue 182 Reader Discussion by xokox      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hey! I'm from Spain too! I suppose that you were born in 1997 or that you have 97 years xD. I was born in 1997, dude! Where are you from?
          Rustic land For sell in Tiana in Barcelona      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
225936
Tiana is a town situated in the east of the Province of Barcelona in northeastern Spain, near the Mediterranean Sea. Its people are called tianencs in Catalan, and tianenses in Spanish. Its total surface is 7.96 km², with a total population...
Tue, 07 Aug 2018 11:56:03 -0400
          Hunt for 250 specialists      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The Ministry of Health will this month go on a recruiting drive for 250 specialised doctors from Cuba to service the public health care system.

This was revealed yesterday by Health Minister Terrence Deyalsingh at a press conference at his ministry’s Port-of-Spain headquarters.

Deyalsingh went to great lengths to explain that the Regional Health Authorities (RHA) have been experiencing problems with recruiting local doctors to fill 11 specialty areas for the past year, adding every doctor wants to work in what he called the “Cathedral of Medicine”, either the Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex (EWMSC), San Fernando General Hospital or Port-of-Spain General Hospital rather than the rural communities. However, he could not say if this “demand” was as a result of the prestige of working at these facilities.

“I have a need, therefore I would go to Cuba. That is why we have to employ foreigners because our locals do not have the skill set or don’t take advantage of the opportunity to work in the public sector for whatever reason,” Deyalsingh said.

He said even primary healthcare doctors have been resisting work in rural areas, which led to the ministry engaging the United Nations to get UN doctors to come here to work.

“So if every House Officer wants to work in A&E, but you need House Officers in oncology what are we to do? And that is the position we are faced with.”

In a bid to serve the public’s needs, Deyalsingh said this month the ministry will be sending a team to Cuba to recruit healthcare professionals in these 11 specialised areas that the RHAs cannot source locally.

Among them are paediatricians, gastroenterologists, cardiologists, haematologists, nephrologists, specialists in internal medicine, orthopaedic surgeons, paediatric cardiologists, maxillofacial surgeons, ophthalmologists and specialists in Accident and Emergency.

The contract for the Cuban doctors will be three years with an option to renew for a fourth, he said.

But Deyalsingh still also invited unemployed local specialists to join the RHAs, stating that the country needed them urgently.

Questioned how many speciality doctors will be sourced from Cuba, Deyalsingh said “about 250.”

Of the speciality areas, Deyalsingh said haematology, paediatric cardiology, orthopaedic surgeons and maxillofacial surgeons are in highest demand.

At the EWMSC, he said there is currently just one paediatric cardiologist while there are only two Cuban maxillofacial surgeons in the public sector.

Pressed on if specialists can be compelled to work in the public sector, Deyalsingh said this can only be applied if they obtain their specialist qualification via the Government, noting that to force them to work in the public sector would be a violation of their constitutional rights.

Asked how Government will bridge the gap, given that hundreds of medical students are graduating from UWI in areas where they cannot fill the public sector vacancies, Deyalsingh said UWI has started a DM (Doctorate in Medicine) programme in speciality fields.

“You are not going to get the output immediately. It takes time to train them and then they have to work under supervision…there is a lag time.”

He said as soon as graduates exit the DM programme, positions will be offered to them.

In May, Cabinet also agreed to employ 75 interns at public hospitals. Deyalsingh said the 75 interns will be employed at the nation’s hospitals “because UWI was producing all these interns. Now, it’s not that we needed these 75. I want to make that abundantly clear.”

He said these positions will “soak up” the supply coming out of UWI.

Although the Cuban recruitment drive will begin shortly, Deyalsingh also could not say when the positions will be filled and how soon the doctors are expected to arrive here to serve the public.

“We are trying to do it as soon as humanly possible. I am treating it with urgency.”

Asked if the ministry will pay more to attract the Cubans’ services, Deyalsingh said, “No, not necessarily, but we do pay for the board and so on here. So it is not really more.”


          Missing London Irishman’s remains identified after 33 years      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

An Irish scheme to identify bodies washed up on shore – that has thus far identified seven missing persons by their DNA – is to be extended beyond British coastal waters to France, Spain and Portugal. Operation Runabay was originally set up last year by the garda’s missing persons bureau to establish the identities of […]

The post Missing London Irishman’s remains identified after 33 years appeared first on The Irish World.


          John Beilein undergoes double bypass procedure, will miss foreign tour      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
John Beilein underwent a scheduled double bypass procedure and will miss Michigan’s trip to Spain later this month. Michigan will be touring Spain from August 17th through 26th and will play thr ... - Source: umhoops.com
          Hello again!!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hello guys!! I am Carlos Silva from Madrid, Spain.
I have had another account in the forum since 10 years ago, but i missed the password And the email account. So i decides to start again in the forum with a new nick And a new account.
I published some pics in the past, with my other nick (xarly), And since long time playing another Games, i decided to come back again And prepare a new warband.
          Dufour 2800, EUR 12.500,-      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
>SUNBIRD International SpainInternational Yacht Brokers In The BalearicsEven before the new marina of Puerto Portals was completed, Sunbird s.a. was already established as the first brokerage company in the port in 198630 years experience of working in the BalearicsRecently we have expanded our broking activities to include larger motor and sailing yachts for sale.We offer our clients the benefit of 30 years experience of working in the Balearics.
          Вболіваю за "Шахтар" і хотіла, щоб Андрій грав саме там, – дівчина Луніна      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Дівчина українського голкіпера "Реала" Андрія Луніна Анастасія Тамазова відверто розповіла про стосунки зі своїм коханим.

Анастасія зізналась який її улюблений клуб, та розповіла про стосунки голкіпера з батьками коханої.

Я вболіваю за донецький "Шахтар", подобається їхня гра. Чесно кажучи, хотіла, щоб Андрій грав саме там. Мої батьки дуже добре поставилися до Андрія з першого дня знайомства. Мені навіть іноді здається, що його вони люблять навіть більше, ніж мене. Особливо мама. Вона завжди хотіла сина, а не дочку, тому у неї особлива любов до нього: завжди переживає, щоб він був ситим, не отримав травм, – цитує Анастасію видання FootBoom.

Зазначимо, що після переходу Луніна в "Реал" іспанські ЗМІ насамперед почали обговорювати не персону нового стража воріт, а його другої половинки Анастасії Томазової, яка, згідно з їх думкою, цілком може затьмарити наречену Роналду, Джорджину Родрігес, і дружину капітана "Галактікос" Серхіо Рамоса, Пілар Рубіо.

Більше новин зі світу спорту читайте у нашому розділі Спорт24


          Real Madrid's Luka Modric, Mateo Kovacic train amid transfer reports      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Julen Lopetegui says there is a buoyant mood at Real Madrid ahead of the new season. Real Madrid's Julen Lopetegui insists his transfer wishes with the club are private but believes Luka Modric and Matteo Kovacic will stay put. Gareth Bale provided a goal and an assist in the first half as Real Madrid cruised to a 2-1 victory over Roma. Thibaut Courtois is linked to Real Madrid, but Shaka Hislop thinks Los Blancos' current keeper Keylor Navas isn't getting the respect he deserves. Real Madrid midfielders Luka Modric and Mateo Kovacic both trained on Wednesday morning amid continuing speculation that one or both could leave the club. Madrid coach Julen Lopetegui said after Tuesday's 2-1 International Champions Cup victory against Roma that Kovacic "wants to leave," with a loan move to Chelsea being reported in Spain although a permanent transfer is also possible ahead of Thursday's Premier League window closing. Transfer news must-reads -&nbsp;Transfer Talk LIVE: The very...
          Comment on Dunkin’ Donuts Opens Two New Stores in Atwater Village and DTLA by Mats      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
George Eric: Most likely beacuse we have a long 'Fika'-culture in Sweden where donuts isn't a real part of it, we have so many other pastries that ppl prefer, also - the donuts have been 'so so' - made in Spain, frozen, transported and after-heated in the stores here, making the experience rather 'Meh'. I liked DD, but liked it more for the world of DD so to speak, the actual donuts didn't really give you any whohoo-feeling.
          Dufour 2800, EUR 12.500,-      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
>SUNBIRD International SpainInternational Yacht Brokers In The BalearicsEven before the new marina of Puerto Portals was completed, Sunbird s.a. was already established as the first brokerage company in the port in 198630 years experience of working in the BalearicsRecently we have expanded our broking activities to include larger motor and sailing yachts for sale.We offer our clients the benefit of 30 years experience of working in the Balearics.
          Comment on WATCH: Brazen couple have full on beach romp in broad daylight in Spain by tamtamgo      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
and I always thought Sex on the Beach was a COCKtail!!!
          Comment on Spain’s PP leader Pablo Casado probed over party’s SECOND fake degree scandal by tamtamgo      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Ok Pablo now it is your turn to follow Cristina!!!
          Basic Flamenco Moves - A Flamenco Workout      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Video: Basic Flamenco Moves - A Flamenco Workout
Watch This Video!
Studio: ICRR
This offers women and men a challenging opportunity to learn authentic Flamenco dance moves while building up endurance and strengthening hands, arm and feet coordination. It is choreographed into a systematic, effective, artistic, professional flamenco workout, for both high and low impact. It is broken down into three main workout segments.
Part One - Warm up. The program begins with a "Flamenco Floreo" exercise, essential to the Spanish Dance. It also focuses on neck exercises, knee bends, ankle flexes, lunges, and side stretches. Part Two - Footwork. Flexing the foot and striking the floor with the ball of the foot, then bringing down the heel to make two separate sounds - known as the Classic Flamenco Toe-Heel Step and Sound. Then, you learn how to embellish the Toe-Heel dance steps with combinations of arms and footwork. Part Three - The Spanish Jota. The Jota is the name of a Regional Dance in Spain, with many variations. Learning and practicing the Jota with us will help improve your endurance, as it naturally requires cardio-vascular progression. Ballet terms and techniques are used to teach these specialized movements properly.

Stars: Amanda, Ricardo Ramirez, Ms. Eva Amador, Riena Contreras

          Hard Rock | Southern | Stoner :: El Numero De Shannon - Carpe Diem (2018)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Autor: vlada
Asunto: El Numero De Shannon - Carpe Diem (2018)
Publicado: Mie 08 Ago, 2018 15:43 (GMT -3)

[align=center][img]https://s33.postimg.cc/aizsmuk5r/66c4607799c2921022596a3cba205be5.jpg[/img]



[b]El Numero De Shannon - Carpe Diem (2018)

Country: Spain | Bitrate: 320 kbps | Size; 112 mb | Genre: Melodic Hard Rock [/b]



Tracklist:

01. Un Paraíso Donde Ir

02. Miedos

03. Grita al Viento

04. Solo Con Oír Su Voz

05. Ladrón de Recuerdos

06. Al Fin Libre

07. Canta

08. Lanzando Monedas

09. Carpe Diem

10. Por Amor

11. 11 Viejos Amigos



[hide]

https://www85.zippyshare.com/v/l9nHauJx/file.html



[/hide][/align]


          Basic Flamenco Moves - A Flamenco Workout      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Video: Basic Flamenco Moves - A Flamenco Workout
Watch This Video!
Studio: ICRR
This offers women and men a challenging opportunity to learn authentic Flamenco dance moves while building up endurance and strengthening hands, arm and feet coordination. It is choreographed into a systematic, effective, artistic, professional flamenco workout, for both high and low impact. It is broken down into three main workout segments.
Part One - Warm up. The program begins with a "Flamenco Floreo" exercise, essential to the Spanish Dance. It also focuses on neck exercises, knee bends, ankle flexes, lunges, and side stretches. Part Two - Footwork. Flexing the foot and striking the floor with the ball of the foot, then bringing down the heel to make two separate sounds - known as the Classic Flamenco Toe-Heel Step and Sound. Then, you learn how to embellish the Toe-Heel dance steps with combinations of arms and footwork. Part Three - The Spanish Jota. The Jota is the name of a Regional Dance in Spain, with many variations. Learning and practicing the Jota with us will help improve your endurance, as it naturally requires cardio-vascular progression. Ballet terms and techniques are used to teach these specialized movements properly.

Stars: Amanda, Ricardo Ramirez, Ms. Eva Amador, Riena Contreras

          Europe Forecast: Thundery rain France, moving into Scandinavia - Mostly dry in the south and east, Aug 09 - 10:13      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Still some hot weather but becoming cooler and fresher for many northern and western parts Thursday Much of Portugal and Spain dry but with thundery showers in the far north, drifting into the Balearics later. Sunny spells for Corsica, Sardinia and Italy showers starting to die out, whilst it will stay mostly dry over into the Adriatic and Croatia. Isolated showers in the north of Greece with thunderstorms for the north and east of Turkey, otherwise dry and sunny. Thunderstorms over Switzerland, extending into Austria but staying mostly dry with sunny spells towards central and southeastern parts of Europe. A large area of heavy rain and thunderstorms over the north and west of France will move steadily northeast, on into the Low Countries and then Denmark, Southern Norway and Sweden later. Rain or showers further to the north and west at first in Scandinavia, dying out. Thunderstorms develop in the north and west of Germany and Poland but many parts stay dry with sunshine. Still some high temperatures across Central Europe, Southern Spain into the Mediterranean, near to 30C, locally exceeding 35 in parts of Italy, and up to around a hot 40C for some southern parts of Turkey. Cooler and fresher generally further north and west, although Finland, Southern Sweden and the Baltic States will see temperatures into the high 20s.

Friday Much of Portugal and Spain dry and sunny but with showers in the north and east and Balearics. Sunny spells for Corsica, Sardinia, Italy and the Adriatic but with a few showers, perhaps heavy in the north. Isolated showers for Greece with thunderstorms in the far northeast of Turkey, otherwise dry and sunny. Largely dry around Southeast Europe, towards the Balkan States but with thunderstorms again over Switzerland, extending into Austria and northeast into Poland. Dry and fairly sunny across Central and Southern France but with showers, some heavy, further north and into the Low Countries. Heavy, locally thundery, rain associated with a deepening low continues to move steadily north across Norway, Sweden and Northern Finland with areas further to the south and east around the Baltic also likely to catch some showers. Much of Germany will become dry, though. Little change temperature-wise across the south and east, peaks of 30C, locally exceeding 35C. Progressively cooler and fresher generally further north and west, although Finland, some southern parts of Sweden and the Baltic States will see temperatures well into the high 20s.


          Muralla Romana de Lugo #muralla #lugo #galicia #murallaromana #total_lugo #sitiosdeEspaña #Vision_Spain #VisitSpain #Vision_Galicia #world_great #Ok_Spain #descobregalicia #total_galicia #SienteGalicia #lugaressecretosdegalicia #visitgalicia #galiciaenf      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

DIEGO MURUÁIS JARTÍN posted a photo:

Muralla Romana de Lugo  #muralla #lugo #galicia #murallaromana #total_lugo #sitiosdeEspaña #Vision_Spain #VisitSpain #Vision_Galicia #world_great #Ok_Spain #descobregalicia #total_galicia #SienteGalicia  #lugaressecretosdegalicia #visitgalicia #galiciaenf

Muralla Romana de Lugo

#muralla #lugo #galicia #murallaromana #total_lugo #sitiosdeEspaña #Vision_Spain #VisitSpain #Vision_Galicia #world_great #Ok_Spain #descobregalicia #total_galicia #SienteGalicia #lugaressecretosdegalicia #visitgalicia #galiciaenfotos #galiciaviva #paseandoporgalicia #presumedegalicia #gzenfoto #TurismoSpain #GaliciaMola #conocer_galicia #galiciapassion #galiciaworld #estaes_galicia #loves_galicia #fotogalicia


          Ganadores de los Premios Visual Artist Awards 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

El vídeo mapping sigue evolucionando gracias al talento y la creatividad  de visualistas que quieren llegar más allá. Los premios “The Visual Artist Awards”, llamados coloquialmente, “Zizzys” han querido medir la excelencia internacional de este tipo de proyectos, premiando a los expertos en vídeo mapping. Se trata de una plataforma establecida para reconocer y honrar […]

La entrada Ganadores de los Premios Visual Artist Awards 2018 aparece primero en Vjspain Comunidad Audiovisual, Mapping, Vj, Diseño Interactivo.


          WOMAD18 Korrontzi from the Basque Country Spain      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

inyathi posted a photo:

WOMAD18 Korrontzi from the Basque Country Spain


          My audience      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
My audience always surprises me even if it is bots as some people have said. In the past couple of hours I have had over 400 hits by people living in Russia. It certainly isn't my political views that they are looking at as I rarely publish political posts. It is H11 haplogroup. It shows just how small the world really is. My ancient maternal line finds its resting spot in Ayrshire/Argyllshire Scotland and probably has been there for 8000 years or more but H11 is one of those smaller H haplogroups that has resting spots in specific areas of the world. Likely H11 wintered in the Ice Refuge known as Ukraina and located in the Ossettia/Georgia/Ukraine area from 15 to 20 thousand years ago. From there H11 went mostly westward with some making the great trek through the Scandinavian Peninsula and then across to Scotland and Ireland. Another migration crossed through Poland into Germany, the Netherlands, France and into southern England and perhaps also to Ireland. Another arm of migration went southward into Hungary moving towards Greece and can also be found in Spain. The Spanish arm may have also come south from France. But our numbers are small; about 1.5% of H haplogroup but that still numbers in the millions! My H11 project at FT DNA includes quite a few people who live in Russia. I publish an H11 Newsletter quarterly and the latest was just published on the FT DNA website as well as my blog.
          Estonia califica de "incidente grave" el misil disparado por un Eurofighter español      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Un Eurofighter pilotado por el entonces príncipe Felipe, en la base de Morón de la Frontera (Sevilla), en abril de 2008.

El primer ministro de Estonia, Jüri Ratas, ha pedido explicaciones al secretario general de la OTAN, Jens Stoltenberg, sobre lo ocurrido este martes, cuando un Eurofighter español disparó de forma accidental un misil cuando participaba en unas maniobras sobre el país báltico. "Le transmití a Jens Stoltenberg que es un incidente grave y que estamos lógicamente preocupados", ha indicado Ratas, según un comunicado emitido por su Ejecutivo, tras mantener una conversación telefónica con el jefe de la Alianza Atlántica.

Ratas ha sostenido que "afortunadamente, nadie resultó herido" y ha pedido que "se esclarezcan sin demora" las circunstancias en que ocurrió ese incidente en el espacio aéreo estonio. "La misión de la OTAN contribuye de forma importante a la seguridad de Estonia y de toda la alianza", prosigue Ratas, a quien, según apunta, Stoltenberg aseguró que todos los aliados implicados en esa operación investigarán lo ocurrido.

El ministro de Defensa estonio, Jüri Luik, ha informado además en el medio local Postimees de que, mientras se aclara lo sucedido, los aparatos españoles en la misión báltica de la ONU quedan temporalmente apartados. Su labor en las maniobras aéreas la ejercerán, de momento, cazas portugueses.

La respuesta de España

El Ministerio de Defensa de España informó ayer mismo del incidente protagonizado por el Eurofighter español que realizaba maniobras de adiestramiento con aparatos franceses y disparó accidentalmente un misil aire-aire. Los aviones regresaron sin novedad a la base aérea de Siauliai, en Lituania, prosiguió el ministerio español, que ha abierto una investigación para esclarecer las causas del incidente.

Las aeronaves implicadas son dos Eurofighter españoles y otros dos Mirage 2000 galos.El Eurofighter español, destacado en Lituania, realizaba una misión de adiestramiento junto con los aviones franceses en una zona del suroeste de Estonia, que está autorizada para este tipo de ejercicios. Los ejercicios que realizaban los aparatos son los habituales para las aeronaves destacadas en esa zona, en el marco de la operación de Policía Aérea en el Báltico (Lituania), en el que participa el destacamento español Vilkas Bap-47.

QUERRÁS VER ESTO

Baltic Air Police. Eurofighter españoles en el Báltico.

TAMBIÉN TE PUEDE INTERESAR

- Un Eurofighter español dispara accidentalmente un misil durante una misión en Estonia

- La UE trasladará el cuartel general de la operación contra la piratería a Rota

- Despedidos a los 45 años: el drama de la reinserción laboral de soldados y marineros

- Defensa autorizará 5.000 millones de gasto en armamento antes de que termine el año por "urgencia" y creación de empleo


          ΟΤΑΝ Ο ΤΡΟΜΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΘΑΝΑΤΟΥ ΓΙΝΕΤΑΙ ΟΡΓΗ ΤΟΤΕ ΣΤΗΝ ΑΚΡΗ ΟΛΟΙ. ΕΙΔΙΚΑ ΟΤΑΝ ΕΙΣΑΙ .. ΤΑΥΡΟΣ. ΚΙ ΑΝΕΒΕΙΣ ΣΤΗΝ ΕΞΕΔΡΑ ΤΩΝ "ΠΟΛΙΤΙΣΜΕΝΩΝ !! ΘΕΑΤΩΝ" ΠΟΥ ΓΛΕΝΤΟΥΝ ΤΟ ΘΑΝΑΤΟ ΣΟΥ, ΒΙΝΤΕΟ      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Καποιες φορες το παιχνιδι αλλαζει και γινεται επικίνδυνα ΠΙΟ ΔΙΚΑΙΟ ..!!! ΒΙΝΤΕΟ>>


          Grove concern: Trump tariffs take toll on Spanish olive growers      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

US import duties are having a profound effect on a Spanish market worth £50m last year

The scratchy song of the cicadas loops through the olive groves, growing louder as the sun climbs through a hazy August sky. “They’re telling us to get into the shade,” says Juan de Dios Segura. “It’s going to get hotter.”

Not only has the first heatwave of the summer hit, but the farmer and agricultural engineer is also grappling with a rabbit insurgency whose scale is apparent from the holes in the orange earth and the raptors hovering in the air above.

Continue reading...
          Jose Travieso - Navigator (2016)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Исполнитель: Jose Travieso
Название диска: Navigator
Лейбл: Abracadaver Music
Страна: Spain
Жанр: Ambient, Berlin school, Experimental, Electronic
Год выпуска: 2016
Количество треков: 9
Формат: MP3
Качество: 320 kbps
Время звучания: 00:53:44
Размер файла: 125,55 МБ
          #russiangirl - weeklygirll      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
autumn #spain #clothes #fancy #brand #roparetro #tiendasmalasaña #tiendas #velarde #smashbox #makeupaddictmi #glamour #urbanstyle #editorial #january #retouch #russiangirl #vogue #fashionmen #fashionpost #fashionart #fashionable #fashionlove #fashionph #fashionbag #fashionist #curvygirl #plussizemodels #fashionforward #moda
          #russiangirl - blonde_moscowcity      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
#Barcelona #spain #model #blonde #sensual #prettywoman #sexylady #sexy #барселона #испания #модель #блондинка #фотосессия ##чувственность #красиваядевушка #бикини #bikini #bikinimodel #hotgirls #russianbeauty #russiangirl
          P2083790      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

P2083790

Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


          P2083737      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

P2083737

Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


          P2083770      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

P2083770

Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


          P2083736      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

P2083736

Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


          P2083800      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

P2083800

Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


          P2083780      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

P2083780

Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


          P2083809      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

P2083809

Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


          P2083764      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

P2083764

Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


          P2083751      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

P2083751

Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


          P2083758      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

P2083758

Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


          P2083741      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

P2083741

Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


          P2083783      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

P2083783

Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


          P2083785      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

P2083785

Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


          P2083807      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

P2083807

Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken