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The Uninhabitable Earth
Famine, economic collapse, a sun that cooks us: What climate change could wreak — sooner than you think.

By David Wallace-Wells

In the jungles of Costa Rica, where humidity routinely tops 90 percent, simply moving around outside when it’s over 105 degrees Fahrenheit would be lethal. And the effect would be fast: Within a few hours, a human body would be cooked to death from both inside and out. Fossils by Heartless Machine
July 9, 2017

I. ‘Doomsday’
Peering beyond scientific reticence.

It is, I promise, worse than you think. If your anxiety about global warming is dominated by fears of sea-level rise, you are barely scratching the surface of what terrors are possible, even within the lifetime of a teenager today. And yet the swelling seas — and the cities they will drown — have so dominated the picture of global warming, and so overwhelmed our capacity for climate panic, that they have occluded our perception of other threats, many much closer at hand. Rising oceans are bad, in fact very bad; but fleeing the coastline will not be enough.

Indeed, absent a significant adjustment to how billions of humans conduct their lives, parts of the Earth will likely become close to uninhabitable, and other parts horrifically inhospitable, as soon as the end of this century.

Even when we train our eyes on climate change, we are unable to comprehend its scope. This past winter, a string of days 60 and 70 degrees warmer than normal baked the North Pole, melting the permafrost that encased Norway’s Svalbard seed vault — a global food bank nicknamed “Doomsday,” designed to ensure that our agriculture survives any catastrophe, and which appeared to have been flooded by climate change less than ten years after being built.

The Doomsday vault is fine, for now: The structure has been secured and the seeds are safe. But treating the episode as a parable of impending flooding missed the more important news. Until recently, permafrost was not a major concern of climate scientists, because, as the name suggests, it was soil that stayed permanently frozen. But Arctic permafrost contains 1.8 trillion tons of carbon, more than twice as much as is currently suspended in the Earth’s atmosphere. When it thaws and is released, that carbon may evaporate as methane, which is 34 times as powerful a greenhouse-gas warming blanket as carbon dioxide when judged on the timescale of a century; when judged on the timescale of two decades, it is 86 times as powerful. In other words, we have, trapped in Arctic permafrost, twice as much carbon as is currently wrecking the atmosphere of the planet, all of it scheduled to be released at a date that keeps getting moved up, partially in the form of a gas that multiplies its warming power 86 times over.

Maybe you know that already — there are alarming stories in the news every day, like those, last month, that seemed to suggest satellite data showed the globe warming since 1998 more than twice as fast as scientists had thought (in fact, the underlying story was considerably less alarming than the headlines). Or the news from Antarctica this past May, when a crack in an ice shelf grew 11 miles in six days, then kept going; the break now has just three miles to go — by the time you read this, it may already have met the open water, where it will drop into the sea one of the biggest icebergs ever, a process known poetically as “calving.”


Watch: How Climate Change Is Creating More Powerful Hurricanes

But no matter how well-informed you are, you are surely not alarmed enough. Over the past decades, our culture has gone apocalyptic with zombie movies and Mad Max dystopias, perhaps the collective result of displaced climate anxiety, and yet when it comes to contemplating real-world warming dangers, we suffer from an incredible failure of imagination. The reasons for that are many: the timid language of scientific probabilities, which the climatologist James Hansen once called “scientific reticence” in a paper chastising scientists for editing their own observations so conscientiously that they failed to communicate how dire the threat really was; the fact that the country is dominated by a group of technocrats who believe any problem can be solved and an opposing culture that doesn’t even see warming as a problem worth addressing; the way that climate denialism has made scientists even more cautious in offering speculative warnings; the simple speed of change and, also, its slowness, such that we are only seeing effects now of warming from decades past; our uncertainty about uncertainty, which the climate writer Naomi Oreskes in particular has suggested stops us from preparing as though anything worse than a median outcome were even possible; the way we assume climate change will hit hardest elsewhere, not everywhere; the smallness (two degrees) and largeness (1.8 trillion tons) and abstractness (400 parts per million) of the numbers; the discomfort of considering a problem that is very difficult, if not impossible, to solve; the altogether incomprehensible scale of that problem, which amounts to the prospect of our own annihilation; simple fear. But aversion arising from fear is a form of denial, too.

In between scientific reticence and science fiction is science itself. This article is the result of dozens of interviews and exchanges with climatologists and researchers in related fields and reflects hundreds of scientific papers on the subject of climate change. What follows is not a series of predictions of what will happen — that will be determined in large part by the much-less-certain science of human response. Instead, it is a portrait of our best understanding of where the planet is heading absent aggressive action. It is unlikely that all of these warming scenarios will be fully realized, largely because the devastation along the way will shake our complacency. But those scenarios, and not the present climate, are the baseline. In fact, they are our schedule.

The present tense of climate change — the destruction we’ve already baked into our future — is horrifying enough. Most people talk as if Miami and Bangladesh still have a chance of surviving; most of the scientists I spoke with assume we’ll lose them within the century, even if we stop burning fossil fuel in the next decade. Two degrees of warming used to be considered the threshold of catastrophe: tens of millions of climate refugees unleashed upon an unprepared world. Now two degrees is our goal, per the Paris climate accords, and experts give us only slim odds of hitting it. The U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issues serial reports, often called the “gold standard” of climate research; the most recent one projects us to hit four degrees of warming by the beginning of the next century, should we stay the present course. But that’s just a median projection. The upper end of the probability curve runs as high as eight degrees — and the authors still haven’t figured out how to deal with that permafrost melt. The IPCC reports also don’t fully account for the albedo effect (less ice means less reflected and more absorbed sunlight, hence more warming); more cloud cover (which traps heat); or the dieback of forests and other flora (which extract carbon from the atmosphere). Each of these promises to accelerate warming, and the history of the planet shows that temperature can shift as much as five degrees Celsius within thirteen years. The last time the planet was even four degrees warmer, Peter Brannen points out in The Ends of the World, his new history of the planet’s major extinction events, the oceans were hundreds of feet higher.*

The Earth has experienced five mass extinctions before the one we are living through now, each so complete a slate-wiping of the evolutionary record it functioned as a resetting of the planetary clock, and many climate scientists will tell you they are the best analog for the ecological future we are diving headlong into. Unless you are a teenager, you probably read in your high-school textbooks that these extinctions were the result of asteroids. In fact, all but the one that killed the dinosaurs were caused by climate change produced by greenhouse gas. The most notorious was 252 million years ago; it began when carbon warmed the planet by five degrees, accelerated when that warming triggered the release of methane in the Arctic, and ended with 97 percent of all life on Earth dead. We are currently adding carbon to the atmosphere at a considerably faster rate; by most estimates, at least ten times faster. The rate is accelerating. This is what Stephen Hawking had in mind when he said, this spring, that the species needs to colonize other planets in the next century to survive, and what drove Elon Musk, last month, to unveil his plans to build a Mars habitat in 40 to 100 years. These are nonspecialists, of course, and probably as inclined to irrational panic as you or I. But the many sober-minded scientists I interviewed over the past several months — the most credentialed and tenured in the field, few of them inclined to alarmism and many advisers to the IPCC who nevertheless criticize its conservatism — have quietly reached an apocalyptic conclusion, too: No plausible program of emissions reductions alone can prevent climate disaster.

Over the past few decades, the term “Anthropocene” has climbed out of academic discourse and into the popular imagination — a name given to the geologic era we live in now, and a way to signal that it is a new era, defined on the wall chart of deep history by human intervention. One problem with the term is that it implies a conquest of nature (and even echoes the biblical “dominion”). And however sanguine you might be about the proposition that we have already ravaged the natural world, which we surely have, it is another thing entirely to consider the possibility that we have only provoked it, engineering first in ignorance and then in denial a climate system that will now go to war with us for many centuries, perhaps until it destroys us. That is what Wallace Smith Broecker, the avuncular oceanographer who coined the term “global warming,” means when he calls the planet an “angry beast.” You could also go with “war machine.” Each day we arm it more.

II. Heat Death
The bahraining of New York.

In the sugar­cane region of El Salvador, as much as one-fifth of the population has chronic kidney disease, the presumed result of dehydration from working the fields they were able to comfortably harvest as recently as two decades ago. Photo: Heartless Machine
Humans, like all mammals, are heat engines; surviving means having to continually cool off, like panting dogs. For that, the temperature needs to be low enough for the air to act as a kind of refrigerant, drawing heat off the skin so the engine can keep pumping. At seven degrees of warming, that would become impossible for large portions of the planet’s equatorial band, and especially the tropics, where humidity adds to the problem; in the jungles of Costa Rica, for instance, where humidity routinely tops 90 percent, simply moving around outside when it’s over 105 degrees Fahrenheit would be lethal. And the effect would be fast: Within a few hours, a human body would be cooked to death from both inside and out.

Climate-change skeptics point out that the planet has warmed and cooled many times before, but the climate window that has allowed for human life is very narrow, even by the standards of planetary history. At 11 or 12 degrees of warming, more than half the world’s population, as distributed today, would die of direct heat. Things almost certainly won’t get that hot this century, though models of unabated emissions do bring us that far eventually. This century, and especially in the tropics, the pain points will pinch much more quickly even than an increase of seven degrees. The key factor is something called wet-bulb temperature, which is a term of measurement as home-laboratory-kit as it sounds: the heat registered on a thermometer wrapped in a damp sock as it’s swung around in the air (since the moisture evaporates from a sock more quickly in dry air, this single number reflects both heat and humidity). At present, most regions reach a wet-bulb maximum of 26 or 27 degrees Celsius; the true red line for habitability is 35 degrees. What is called heat stress comes much sooner.

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Actually, we’re about there already. Since 1980, the planet has experienced a 50-fold increase in the number of places experiencing dangerous or extreme heat; a bigger increase is to come. The five warmest summers in Europe since 1500 have all occurred since 2002, and soon, the IPCC warns, simply being outdoors that time of year will be unhealthy for much of the globe. Even if we meet the Paris goals of two degrees warming, cities like Karachi and Kolkata will become close to uninhabitable, annually encountering deadly heat waves like those that crippled them in 2015. At four degrees, the deadly European heat wave of 2003, which killed as many as 2,000 people a day, will be a normal summer. At six, according to an assessment focused only on effects within the U.S. from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, summer labor of any kind would become impossible in the lower Mississippi Valley, and everybody in the country east of the Rockies would be under more heat stress than anyone, anywhere, in the world today. As Joseph Romm has put it in his authoritative primer Climate Change: What Everyone Needs to Know, heat stress in New York City would exceed that of present-day Bahrain, one of the planet’s hottest spots, and the temperature in Bahrain “would induce hyperthermia in even sleeping humans.” The high-end IPCC estimate, remember, is two degrees warmer still. By the end of the century, the World Bank has estimated, the coolest months in tropical South America, Africa, and the Pacific are likely to be warmer than the warmest months at the end of the 20th century. Air-conditioning can help but will ultimately only add to the carbon problem; plus, the climate-controlled malls of the Arab emirates aside, it is not remotely plausible to wholesale air-condition all the hottest parts of the world, many of them also the poorest. And indeed, the crisis will be most dramatic across the Middle East and Persian Gulf, where in 2015 the heat index registered temperatures as high as 163 degrees Fahrenheit. As soon as several decades from now, the hajj will become physically impossible for the 2 million Muslims who make the pilgrimage each year.

It is not just the hajj, and it is not just Mecca; heat is already killing us. In the sugarcane region of El Salvador, as much as one-fifth of the population has chronic kidney disease, including over a quarter of the men, the presumed result of dehydration from working the fields they were able to comfortably harvest as recently as two decades ago. With dialysis, which is expensive, those with kidney failure can expect to live five years; without it, life expectancy is in the weeks. Of course, heat stress promises to pummel us in places other than our kidneys, too. As I type that sentence, in the California desert in mid-June, it is 121 degrees outside my door. It is not a record high.

III. The End of Food
Praying for cornfields in the tundra.

Climates differ and plants vary, but the basic rule for staple cereal crops grown at optimal temperature is that for every degree of warming, yields decline by 10 percent. Some estimates run as high as 15 or even 17 percent. Which means that if the planet is five degrees warmer at the end of the century, we may have as many as 50 percent more people to feed and 50 percent less grain to give them. And proteins are worse: It takes 16 calories of grain to produce just a single calorie of hamburger meat, butchered from a cow that spent its life polluting the climate with methane farts.

Pollyannaish plant physiologists will point out that the cereal-crop math applies only to those regions already at peak growing temperature, and they are right — theoretically, a warmer climate will make it easier to grow corn in Greenland. But as the pathbreaking work by Rosamond Naylor and David Battisti has shown, the tropics are already too hot to efficiently grow grain, and those places where grain is produced today are already at optimal growing temperature — which means even a small warming will push them down the slope of declining productivity. And you can’t easily move croplands north a few hundred miles, because yields in places like remote Canada and Russia are limited by the quality of soil there; it takes many centuries for the planet to produce optimally fertile dirt.

Drought might be an even bigger problem than heat, with some of the world’s most arable land turning quickly to desert. Precipitation is notoriously hard to model, yet predictions for later this century are basically unanimous: unprecedented droughts nearly everywhere food is today produced. By 2080, without dramatic reductions in emissions, southern Europe will be in permanent extreme drought, much worse than the American dust bowl ever was. The same will be true in Iraq and Syria and much of the rest of the Middle East; some of the most densely populated parts of Australia, Africa, and South America; and the breadbasket regions of China. None of these places, which today supply much of the world’s food, will be reliable sources of any. As for the original dust bowl: The droughts in the American plains and Southwest would not just be worse than in the 1930s, a 2015 NASA study predicted, but worse than any droughts in a thousand years — and that includes those that struck between 1100 and 1300, which “dried up all the rivers East of the Sierra Nevada mountains” and may have been responsible for the death of the Anasazi civilization.

Remember, we do not live in a world without hunger as it is. Far from it: Most estimates put the number of undernourished at 800 million globally. In case you haven’t heard, this spring has already brought an unprecedented quadruple famine to Africa and the Middle East; the U.N. has warned that separate starvation events in Somalia, South Sudan, Nigeria, and Yemen could kill 20 million this year alone.

IV. Climate Plagues
What happens when the bubonic ice melts?

Rock, in the right spot, is a record of planetary history, eras as long as millions of years flattened by the forces of geological time into strata with amplitudes of just inches, or just an inch, or even less. Ice works that way, too, as a climate ledger, but it is also frozen history, some of which can be reanimated when unfrozen. There are now, trapped in Arctic ice, diseases that have not circulated in the air for millions of years — in some cases, since before humans were around to encounter them. Which means our immune systems would have no idea how to fight back when those prehistoric plagues emerge from the ice.

The Arctic also stores terrifying bugs from more recent times. In Alaska, already, researchers have discovered remnants of the 1918 flu that infected as many as 500 million and killed as many as 100 million — about 5 percent of the world’s population and almost six times as many as had died in the world war for which the pandemic served as a kind of gruesome capstone. As the BBC reported in May, scientists suspect smallpox and the bubonic plague are trapped in Siberian ice, too — an abridged history of devastating human sickness, left out like egg salad in the Arctic sun.

Experts caution that many of these organisms won’t actually survive the thaw and point to the fastidious lab conditions under which they have already reanimated several of them — the 32,000-year-old “extremophile” bacteria revived in 2005, an 8 million-year-old bug brought back to life in 2007, the 3.5 million–year–old one a Russian scientist self-injected just out of curiosity — to suggest that those are necessary conditions for the return of such ancient plagues. But already last year, a boy was killed and 20 others infected by anthrax released when retreating permafrost exposed the frozen carcass of a reindeer killed by the bacteria at least 75 years earlier; 2,000 present-day reindeer were infected, too, carrying and spreading the disease beyond the tundra.

What concerns epidemiologists more than ancient diseases are existing scourges relocated, rewired, or even re-evolved by warming. The first effect is geographical. Before the early-modern period, when adventuring sailboats accelerated the mixing of peoples and their bugs, human provinciality was a guard against pandemic. Today, even with globalization and the enormous intermingling of human populations, our ecosystems are mostly stable, and this functions as another limit, but global warming will scramble those ecosystems and help disease trespass those limits as surely as Cortés did. You don’t worry much about dengue or malaria if you are living in Maine or France. But as the tropics creep northward and mosquitoes migrate with them, you will. You didn’t much worry about Zika a couple of years ago, either.

As it happens, Zika may also be a good model of the second worrying effect — disease mutation. One reason you hadn’t heard about Zika until recently is that it had been trapped in Uganda; another is that it did not, until recently, appear to cause birth defects. Scientists still don’t entirely understand what happened, or what they missed. But there are things we do know for sure about how climate affects some diseases: Malaria, for instance, thrives in hotter regions not just because the mosquitoes that carry it do, too, but because for every degree increase in temperature, the parasite reproduces ten times faster. Which is one reason that the World Bank estimates that by 2050, 5.2 billion people will be reckoning with it.

V. Unbreathable Air
A rolling death smog that suffocates millions.


By the end of the century, the coolest months in tropical South America, Africa, and the Pacific are likely to be warmer than the warmest months at the end of the 20th century. Photo: Heartless Machine
Our lungs need oxygen, but that is only a fraction of what we breathe. The fraction of carbon dioxide is growing: It just crossed 400 parts per million, and high-end estimates extrapolating from current trends suggest it will hit 1,000 ppm by 2100. At that concentration, compared to the air we breathe now, human cognitive ability declines by 21 percent.

Other stuff in the hotter air is even scarier, with small increases in pollution capable of shortening life spans by ten years. The warmer the planet gets, the more ozone forms, and by mid-century, Americans will likely suffer a 70 percent increase in unhealthy ozone smog, the National Center for Atmospheric Research has projected. By 2090, as many as 2 billion people globally will be breathing air above the WHO “safe” level; one paper last month showed that, among other effects, a pregnant mother’s exposure to ozone raises the child’s risk of autism (as much as tenfold, combined with other environmental factors). Which does make you think again about the autism epidemic in West Hollywood.

Already, more than 10,000 people die each day from the small particles emitted from fossil-fuel burning; each year, 339,000 people die from wildfire smoke, in part because climate change has extended forest-fire season (in the U.S., it’s increased by 78 days since 1970). By 2050, according to the U.S. Forest Service, wildfires will be twice as destructive as they are today; in some places, the area burned could grow fivefold. What worries people even more is the effect that would have on emissions, especially when the fires ravage forests arising out of peat. Peatland fires in Indonesia in 1997, for instance, added to the global CO2 release by up to 40 percent, and more burning only means more warming only means more burning. There is also the terrifying possibility that rain forests like the Amazon, which in 2010 suffered its second “hundred-year drought” in the space of five years, could dry out enough to become vulnerable to these kinds of devastating, rolling forest fires — which would not only expel enormous amounts of carbon into the atmosphere but also shrink the size of the forest. That is especially bad because the Amazon alone provides 20 percent of our oxygen.

Then there are the more familiar forms of pollution. In 2013, melting Arctic ice remodeled Asian weather patterns, depriving industrial China of the natural ventilation systems it had come to depend on, which blanketed much of the country’s north in an unbreathable smog. Literally unbreathable. A metric called the Air Quality Index categorizes the risks and tops out at the 301-to-500 range, warning of “serious aggravation of heart or lung disease and premature mortality in persons with cardiopulmonary disease and the elderly” and, for all others, “serious risk of respiratory effects”; at that level, “everyone should avoid all outdoor exertion.” The Chinese “airpocalypse” of 2013 peaked at what would have been an Air Quality Index of over 800. That year, smog was responsible for a third of all deaths in the country.

VI. Perpetual War
The violence baked into heat.

Climatologists are very careful when talking about Syria. They want you to know that while climate change did produce a drought that contributed to civil war, it is not exactly fair to saythat the conflict is the result of warming; next door, for instance, Lebanon suffered the same crop failures. But researchers like Marshall Burke and Solomon Hsiang have managed to quantify some of the non-obvious relationships between temperature and violence: For every half-degree of warming, they say, societies will see between a 10 and 20 percent increase in the likelihood of armed conflict. In climate science, nothing is simple, but the arithmetic is harrowing: A planet five degrees warmer would have at least half again as many wars as we do today. Overall, social conflict could more than double this century.

This is one reason that, as nearly every climate scientist I spoke to pointed out, the U.S. military is obsessed with climate change: The drowning of all American Navy bases by sea-level rise is trouble enough, but being the world’s policeman is quite a bit harder when the crime rate doubles. Of course, it’s not just Syria where climate has contributed to conflict. Some speculate that the elevated level of strife across the Middle East over the past generation reflects the pressures of global warming — a hypothesis all the more cruel considering that warming began accelerating when the industrialized world extracted and then burned the region’s oil.

What accounts for the relationship between climate and conflict? Some of it comes down to agriculture and economics; a lot has to do with forced migration, already at a record high, with at least 65 million displaced people wandering the planet right now. But there is also the simple fact of individual irritability. Heat increases municipal crime rates, and swearing on social media, and the likelihood that a major-league pitcher, coming to the mound after his teammate has been hit by a pitch, will hit an opposing batter in retaliation. And the arrival of air-conditioning in the developed world, in the middle of the past century, did little to solve the problem of the summer crime wave.

VII. Permanent Economic Collapse
Dismal capitalism in a half-poorer world.

The murmuring mantra of global neoliberalism, which prevailed between the end of the Cold War and the onset of the Great Recession, is that economic growth would save us from anything and everything.
But in the aftermath of the 2008 crash, a growing number of historians studying what they call “fossil capitalism” have begun to suggest that the entire history of swift economic growth, which began somewhat suddenly in the 18th century, is not the result of innovation or trade or the dynamics of global capitalism but simply our discovery of fossil fuels and all their raw power — a onetime injection of new “value” into a system that had previously been characterized by global subsistence living. Before fossil fuels, nobody lived better than their parents or grandparents or ancestors from 500 years before, except in the immediate aftermath of a great plague like the Black Death, which allowed the lucky survivors to gobble up the resources liberated by mass graves. After we’ve burned all the fossil fuels, these scholars suggest, perhaps we will return to a “steady state” global economy. Of course, that onetime injection has a devastating long-term cost: climate change.

The most exciting research on the economics of warming has also come from Hsiang and his colleagues, who are not historians of fossil capitalism but who offer some very bleak analysis of their own: Every degree Celsius of warming costs, on average, 1.2 percent of GDP (an enormous number, considering we count growth in the low single digits as “strong”). This is the sterling work in the field, and their median projection is for a 23 percent loss in per capita earning globally by the end of this century (resulting from changes in agriculture, crime, storms, energy, mortality, and labor).
Tracing the shape of the probability curve is even scarier: There is a 12 percent chance that climate change will reduce global output by more than 50 percent by 2100, they say, and a 51 percent chance that it lowers per capita GDP by 20 percent or more by then, unless emissions decline. By comparison, the Great Recession lowered global GDP by about 6 percent, in a onetime shock; Hsiang and his colleagues estimate a one-in-eight chance of an ongoing and irreversible effect by the end of the century that is eight times worse.

The scale of that economic devastation is hard to comprehend, but you can start by imagining what the world would look like today with an economy half as big, which would produce only half as much value, generating only half as much to offer the workers of the world. It makes the grounding of flights out of heat-stricken Phoenix last month seem like pathetically small economic potatoes. And, among other things, it makes the idea of postponing government action on reducing emissions and relying solely on growth and technology to solve the problem an absurd business calculation.
Every round-trip ticket on flights from New York to London, keep in mind, costs the Arctic three more square meters of ice.

VIII. Poisoned Oceans
Sulfide burps off the skeleton coast.

That the sea will become a killer is a given. Barring a radical reduction of emissions, we will see at least four feet of sea-level rise and possibly ten by the end of the century. A third of the world’s major cities are on the coast, not to mention its power plants, ports, navy bases, farmlands, fisheries, river deltas, marshlands, and rice-paddy empires, and even those above ten feet will flood much more easily, and much more regularly, if the water gets that high. At least 600 million people live within ten meters of sea level today.

But the drowning of those homelands is just the start. At present, more than a third of the world’s carbon is sucked up by the oceans — thank God, or else we’d have that much more warming already. But the result is what’s called “ocean acidification,” which, on its own, may add a half a degree to warming this century. It is also already burning through the planet’s water basins — you may remember these as the place where life arose in the first place. You have probably heard of “coral bleaching” — that is, coral dying — which is very bad news, because reefs support as much as a quarter of all marine life and supply food for half a billion people. Ocean acidification will fry fish populations directly, too, though scientists aren’t yet sure how to predict the effects on the stuff we haul out of the ocean to eat; they do know that in acid waters, oysters and mussels will struggle to grow their shells, and that when the pH of human blood drops as much as the oceans’ pH has over the past generation, it induces seizures, comas, and sudden death.

That isn’t all that ocean acidification can do. Carbon absorption can initiate a feedback loop in which underoxygenated waters breed different kinds of microbes that turn the water still more “anoxic,” first in deep ocean “dead zones,” then gradually up toward the surface. There, the small fish die out, unable to breathe, which means oxygen-eating bacteria thrive, and the feedback loop doubles back. This process, in which dead zones grow like cancers, choking off marine life and wiping out fisheries, is already quite advanced in parts of the Gulf of Mexico and just off Namibia, where hydrogen sulfide is bubbling out of the sea along a thousand-mile stretch of land known as the “Skeleton Coast.” The name originally referred to the detritus of the whaling industry, but today it’s more apt than ever. Hydrogen sulfide is so toxic that evolution has trained us to recognize the tiniest, safest traces of it, which is why our noses are so exquisitely skilled at registering flatulence. Hydrogen sulfide is also the thing that finally did us in that time 97 percent of all life on Earth died, once all the feedback loops had been triggered and the circulating jet streams of a warmed ocean ground to a halt — it’s the planet’s preferred gas for a natural holocaust. Gradually, the ocean’s dead zones spread, killing off marine species that had dominated the oceans for hundreds of millions of years, and the gas the inert waters gave off into the atmosphere poisoned everything on land. Plants, too. It was millions of years before the oceans recovered.

IX. The Great Filter
Our present eeriness cannot last.

So why can’t we see it? In his recent book-length essay The Great Derangement, the Indian novelist Amitav Ghosh wonders why global warming and natural disaster haven’t become major subjects of contemporary fiction — why we don’t seem able to imagine climate catastrophe, and why we haven’t yet had a spate of novels in the genre he basically imagines into half-existence and names “the environmental uncanny.” “Consider, for example, the stories that congeal around questions like, ‘Where were you when the Berlin Wall fell?’ or ‘Where were you on 9/11?’ ” he writes. “Will it ever be possible to ask, in the same vein, ‘Where were you at 400 ppm?’ or ‘Where were you when the Larsen B ice shelf broke up?’ ” His answer: Probably not, because the dilemmas and dramas of climate change are simply incompatible with the kinds of stories we tell ourselves about ourselves, especially in novels, which tend to emphasize the journey of an individual conscience rather than the poisonous miasma of social fate.

Surely this blindness will not last — the world we are about to inhabit will not permit it. In a six-degree-warmer world, the Earth’s ecosystem will boil with so many natural disasters that we will just start calling them “weather”: a constant swarm of out-of-control typhoons and tornadoes and floods and droughts, the planet assaulted regularly with climate events that not so long ago destroyed whole civilizations. The strongest hurricanes will come more often, and we’ll have to invent new categories with which to describe them; tornadoes will grow longer and wider and strike much more frequently, and hail rocks will quadruple in size. Humans used to watch the weather to prophesy the future; going forward, we will see in its wrath the vengeance of the past. Early naturalists talked often about “deep time” — the perception they had, contemplating the grandeur of this valley or that rock basin, of the profound slowness of nature. What lies in store for us is more like what the Victorian anthropologists identified as “dreamtime,” or “everywhen”: the semi-mythical experience, described by Aboriginal Australians, of encountering, in the present moment, an out-of-time past, when ancestors, heroes, and demigods crowded an epic stage. You can find it already watching footage of an iceberg collapsing into the sea — a feeling of history happening all at once.

It is. Many people perceive climate change as a sort of moral and economic debt, accumulated since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and now come due after several centuries — a helpful perspective, in a way, since it is the carbon-burning processes that began in 18th-century England that lit the fuse of everything that followed. But more than half of the carbon humanity has exhaled into the atmosphere in its entire history has been emitted in just the past three decades; since the end of World War II, the figure is 85 percent. Which means that, in the length of a single generation, global warming has brought us to the brink of planetary catastrophe, and that the story of the industrial world’s kamikaze mission is also the story of a single lifetime. My father’s, for instance: born in 1938, among his first memories the news of Pearl Harbor and the mythic Air Force of the propaganda films that followed, films that doubled as advertisements for imperial-American industrial might; and among his last memories the coverage of the desperate signing of the Paris climate accords on cable news, ten weeks before he died of lung cancer last July. Or my mother’s: born in 1945, to German Jews fleeing the smokestacks through which their relatives were incinerated, now enjoying her 72nd year in an American commodity paradise, a paradise supported by the supply chains of an industrialized developing world. She has been smoking for 57 of those years, unfiltered.

Or the scientists’. Some of the men who first identified a changing climate (and given the generation, those who became famous were men) are still alive; a few are even still working. Wally Broecker is 84 years old and drives to work at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory across the Hudson every day from the Upper West Side. Like most of those who first raised the alarm, he believes that no amount of emissions reduction alone can meaningfully help avoid disaster. Instead, he puts his faith in carbon capture — untested technology to extract carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which Broecker estimates will cost at least several trillion dollars — and various forms of “geoengineering,” the catchall name for a variety of moon-shot technologies far-fetched enough that many climate scientists prefer to regard them as dreams, or nightmares, from science fiction. He is especially focused on what’s called the aerosol approach — dispersing so much sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere that when it converts to sulfuric acid, it will cloud a fifth of the horizon and reflect back 2 percent of the sun’s rays, buying the planet at least a little wiggle room, heat-wise. “Of course, that would make our sunsets very red, would bleach the sky, would make more acid rain,” he says. “But you have to look at the magnitude of the problem. You got to watch that you don’t say the giant problem shouldn’t be solved because the solution causes some smaller problems.” He won’t be around to see that, he told me. “But in your lifetime …”

Jim Hansen is another member of this godfather generation. Born in 1941, he became a climatologist at the University of Iowa, developed the groundbreaking “Zero Model” for projecting climate change, and later became the head of climate research at NASA, only to leave under pressure when, while still a federal employee, he filed a lawsuit against the federal government charging inaction on warming (along the way he got arrested a few times for protesting, too). The lawsuit, which is brought by a collective called Our Children’s Trust and is often described as “kids versus climate change,” is built on an appeal to the equal-protection clause, namely, that in failing to take action on warming, the government is violating it by imposing massive costs on future generations; it is scheduled to be heard this winter in Oregon district court. Hansen has recently given up on solving the climate problem with a carbon tax alone, which had been his preferred approach, and has set about calculating the total cost of the additional measure of extracting carbon from the atmosphere.

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Hansen began his career studying Venus, which was once a very Earth-like planet with plenty of life-supporting water before runaway climate change rapidly transformed it into an arid and uninhabitable sphere enveloped in an unbreathable gas; he switched to studying our planet by 30, wondering why he should be squinting across the solar system to explore rapid environmental change when he could see it all around him on the planet he was standing on. “When we wrote our first paper on this, in 1981,” he told me, “I remember saying to one of my co-authors, ‘This is going to be very interesting. Sometime during our careers, we’re going to see these things beginning to happen.’ ”

Several of the scientists I spoke with proposed global warming as the solution to Fermi’s famous paradox, which asks, If the universe is so big, then why haven’t we encountered any other intelligent life in it? The answer, they suggested, is that the natural life span of a civilization may be only several thousand years, and the life span of an industrial civilization perhaps only several hundred. In a universe that is many billions of years old, with star systems separated as much by time as by space, civilizations might emerge and develop and burn themselves up simply too fast to ever find one another. Peter Ward, a charismatic paleontologist among those responsible for discovering that the planet’s mass extinctions were caused by greenhouse gas, calls this the “Great Filter”: “Civilizations rise, but there’s an environmental filter that causes them to die off again and disappear fairly quickly,” he told me. “If you look at planet Earth, the filtering we’ve had in the past has been in these mass extinctions.” The mass extinction we are now living through has only just begun; so much more dying is coming.

And yet, improbably, Ward is an optimist. So are Broecker and Hansen and many of the other scientists I spoke to. We have not developed much of a religion of meaning around climate change that might comfort us, or give us purpose, in the face of possible annihilation. But climate scientists have a strange kind of faith: We will find a way to forestall radical warming, they say, because we must.

It is not easy to know how much to be reassured by that bleak certainty, and how much to wonder whether it is another form of delusion; for global warming to work as parable, of course, someone needs to survive to tell the story. The scientists know that to even meet the Paris goals, by 2050, carbon emissions from energy and industry, which are still rising, will have to fall by half each decade; emissions from land use (deforestation, cow farts, etc.) will have to zero out; and we will need to have invented technologies to extract, annually, twice as much carbon from the atmosphere as the entire planet’s plants now do. Nevertheless, by and large, the scientists have an enormous confidence in the ingenuity of humans — a confidence perhaps bolstered by their appreciation for climate change, which is, after all, a human invention, too. They point to the Apollo project, the hole in the ozone we patched in the 1980s, the passing of the fear of mutually assured destruction. Now we’ve found a way to engineer our own doomsday, and surely we will find a way to engineer our way out of it, one way or another. The planet is not used to being provoked like this, and climate systems designed to give feedback over centuries or millennia prevent us — even those who may be watching closely — from fully imagining the damage done already to the planet. But when we do truly see the world we’ve made, they say, we will also find a way to make it livable. For them, the alternative is simply unimaginable.

*This article appears in the July 10, 2017, issue of New York Magazine.

*This article has been updated to provide context for the recent news reports about revisions to a satellite data set, to more accurately reflect the rate of warming during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, to clarify a reference to Peter Brannen’s The Ends of the World, and to make clear that James Hansen still supports a carbon-tax based approach to emissions.


          AFCON U17 Qualifiers: Uganda cubs Conduct first training in Tanzania      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Fixtures Sunday 12 August Uganda vs Ethiopia Friday 17th August South Sudan vs Uganda Sunday 19th August Kenya vs Uganda Wednesday 22nd August Uganda vs Djibouti After arriving safely in Tanzania on Tuesday evening, the Uganda Under 17 National team underwent the mandatory CAF MRI tests on Wednesday before conducting their first training session later...

The post AFCON U17 Qualifiers: Uganda cubs Conduct first training in Tanzania appeared first on FUFA: Federation of Uganda Football Associations.


          President Kiir pardons SPLM-IO leader Riek Machar      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
President Salva Kiir and Riek Machar in Khartoum on 26 June 2018 (Photo SUNA) August 8, 2018 (JUBA) – South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir has pardoned the leader of the main armed opposition group, SPLM-IO, Riek Machar after nearly five years of fighting, said a presidential decree released on Wednesday. In accordance with the Republican […]
          President Kiir pardons SPLM-IO leader Riek Machar      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
President Salva Kiir and Riek Machar in Khartoum on 26 June 2018 (Photo SUNA) August 8, 2018 (JUBA) – South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir has pardoned the leader of the main armed opposition group, SPLM-IO, Riek Machar after nearly five years of fighting, said a presidential decree released on Wednesday. In accordance with the Republican […]
          South Sudan’s Kiir grants amnesty to Machar      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
South Sudan President Salva Kiir on Wednesday night declared an amnesty for Riek Machar, who had signed a new peace deal with him in Khartoum. Riek Machar, the main South Sudanese opposition leader, was one of the opposition leaders that Kiir said he had pardoned, in a decree read out on state media. The East […]
          Sudanese pound strengthens on black market after South Sudan peace deal      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
KHARTOUM, Aug 8 (Reuters) – The Sudanese pound strengthened on the black market on Wednesday on optimism that oil supplies from South Sudan could resume following a peace deal between the warring sides in the country, and some traders expected a further improvement. The pound was trading at 41 to the U.S. dollar on the […]
          JMEC lauds signing of peace agreement      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission (JMEC), a body tasked with overseeing implementation of the 2015 peace accord, welcomed the signing of the outstanding issues on governance between parties to the conflict in South Sudan. The signing ceremony took place in the Sudanese capital Khartoum on 5 August. In a press release extended to Radio […]
          Deng Alor: Mistrust between Kiir, Machar may hinder peace      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
South Sudan’s former foreign minister said that the existing mistrust between President Salva Kiir and opposition leader Riek Machar is among other obstacles that are likely to hinder the new peace deal. In an interview with Radio Tamazuj on Tuesday, Deng Alor Kuol, who signed the peace agreement in Khartoum said he sees the deep […]
          Progress in South Sudan peace but more to do - Shearer      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The people of South Sudan have been celebrating the signing of a power-sharing deal aimed at ending a brutal five-year civil war. The South Sudanese President, Salva Kiir, and the head of the country's main rebel group, Riek Machar, signed the agreement in neighbouring Sudan. The deal will see the rebel leader Riek Machar return to government as one of five vice-presidents. Previous attempts to find a solution to the conflict in South Sudan have failed. The head of the UN mission in South Sudan and former Labour leader David Shearer says progress is being made but there's still alot of work to do.
          Comic Book Project: Illustrator and/or Comic Writer - Canadian Association of Midwives/ Association canadienne des sages-femmes - Montréal, QC      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Strengthening Midwifery Services (SMS) Project, South Sudan*. Empowerwomen and girls to access quality midwifery care....
From Indeed - Tue, 17 Jul 2018 19:32:55 GMT - View all Montréal, QC jobs
          South Sudan: Juba residents jubilant over new peace deal      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Former foes Kiir and Machar have three months to form a transitional government once a final peace deal is signed.
          South Sudan president Kiir grants amnesty to rebel leader Machar, others      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
South Sudan President Salva Kiir has given an amnesty to all those involved in the nation's civil war, including rebel leader Riek Machar, state-run television said, days after the signing of a peace deal.

          South Sudan president Kiir grants amnesty to rebel leader Machar, others      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
South Sudan President Salva Kiir has given an amnesty to all those involved in the nation's civil war, including rebel leader Riek Machar, state-run television said, days after the signing of a peace deal.

          SOUTH SUDAN / BUNJ ATTACK REAX      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The head of the United Nations mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) David Shearer said he was “horrified” by violent attacks and the looting of the humanitarian compounds in the town of Bunj on 23 July. UNMISS
          Comic Book Project: Illustrator and/or Comic Writer - Canadian Association of Midwives/ Association canadienne des sages-femmes - Montréal, QC      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Strengthening Midwifery Services (SMS) Project, South Sudan*. Empowerwomen and girls to access quality midwifery care....
From Indeed - Tue, 17 Jul 2018 19:32:55 GMT - View all Montréal, QC jobs
          South Sudan: Release Peace Activist       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Peter Biar Ajak in Nairobi, May 2017 

© Private
(Nairobi) – The South Sudanese National Security Service (NSS) should immediately and unconditionally release peace activist and academic Peter Biar Ajak or take him to court and charge him with a recognizable crime. The authorities should also end the arbitrary detention of many others held by the security service, in violation of their rights.
 
“South Sudan’s security agents have long harassed and arbitrarily detained people, apparently to silence independent voices,” said Jehanne Henry, associate Africa
director at Human Rights Watch. “South Sudan desperately needs public dialogue and greater respect for human rights, not more repression and violations.”
 
Ajak’s detention is part of a deeply troubling pattern of increasing government repression against its critics since December 2013, when a political dispute between President Salva Kiir Mayardit and his then Vice President Riek Machar led to armed conflict. This latest arrest underlines the need for major reforms to the security service.
 
Security officials arrested Ajak, a doctoral candidate at the University of Cambridge, on July 28, 2018, at Juba International Airport. Ajak was waiting to board a flight to Aweil County to attend Martyr Day celebrations organized by the Red Army Foundation, a national veterans’ organization. Security officials are holding him in a solitary cell at the NSS Headquarters in Juba, known as the Blue House. They have allowed him family visits, but he is yet to be given access to legal counsel.  
 
The grounds for Ajak’s arrest are not known. He has been a vocal critic of government policies and founded a youth group, the South Sudan Young Leaders Forum, which engages in peace, reconciliation, and state-building activities. On August 2, the security service director established a three-member committee to investigate Ajak’s social media activities, political commentary, and the youth group’s activities, informed sources told Human Rights Watch. 
 
Human Rights Watch has documented widespread harassment and unlawful detention of journalists, activists, and members of political opposition groups over the past four and a half years, creating an atmosphere of fear and self-censorship. Most of those detained have been held without charge, and often denied access to their families or lawyers.
 
Many of those released have reported harsh conditions of detention and abuse, including: beatings and torture, and a lack of adequate food, water, and medical care. One journalist released in January, after nine months in detention on the condition of quitting journalism, told Human Rights Watch that security officials routinely abused him, including beating and kicking him, putting him in stress positions, and putting gasoline in his eyes: “There was no air in my cell, it was difficult to breathe, they refused me to take a bath and put me in a room officers used to urinate in.” 
 
Even after his release, he still feels unsafe. “They told me I was still under surveillance… I live in fear, I restrict my movement. My children who are far from me, I cannot see, I fear being kidnapped and killed. I don’t know what to do.” 
 
Another journalist, Joseph Afandi, arrested in December 2015, was held for two and a half months, allegedly in connection with an article he wrote for the newspaper El Tabeer criticizing the ruling Sudan People’s Liberation Movement. He was beaten and otherwise abused in detention. 
 
Another journalist who worked for the United Nations radio Miraya, George Livio, was arrested in Wau on August 22, 2014, and then detained at the Blue House. He was released on May 26, 2017, after two and a half years in detention without charge.
 
The security service has also been implicated in enforced disappearances. Dong Samuel Luak, a human rights lawyer and a vocal critic of the government, and Aggrey Idri, a member of the political opposition, were abducted in Nairobi, Kenya on January 23 and 24, 2017, respectively. Witnesses told Human Rights Watch they saw the men at the NSS headquarters in Juba on January 27, 2017, before they were moved to a different location. Their current whereabouts and situation remain unknown. Kenyan and South Sudanese authorities have denied holding them. 
 
Two UN national staff members were also forcibly disappeared. National security agents arrested them in 2014, and they were last seen at the Riverside detention facility in January 2016.
 
In May 2017, Salva Kiir announced that he would release all political prisoners, but human rights monitors report that dozens of people remain detained without charge in the NSS headquarters and other detention sites in Juba.
 
Authorities should release all unlawfully held detainees and uphold all detainees’ basic due process protections such as for access to a lawyer and family visits. The government should also initiate prompt, effective and impartial investigations into the security agency’s detention practices and revise elements of the NSS Act that violate human rights, Human Rights Watch said.
 
The Act, which came into force in March 2015, grants the agency sweeping powers of search, seizure, arrest, and detention. It does not guarantee those deprived of liberty the right to counsel or to be tried within a reasonable period of time, or specify that detainees may only be held in official places of detention. The law also does not explicitly prohibit ill treatment and torture or proscribe the use of force by its officials. 
 
The 2015 peace agreement, the Agreement on Resolution of Conflict in South Sudan, requires revision of the National Security Service Act by a National Constitution Amendment Committee. The committee started drafting amendments in November 2017 but has yet to finalize this process.
 
“South Sudanese authorities should release everyone being held arbitrarily and change the way the national security agency operates,” Henry said. “National Security officials should be subject to the same oversight as all security forces and held accountable for their abuses.

          South Sudan president Kiir grants amnesty to rebel leader Machar, others      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
South Sudan President Salva Kiir granted an amnesty to all those involved in the nation's civil war including rebel leader Riek Machar, according to a television broadcast, days after they signed a peace deal.
          Somalia: East Africa Key Message Update, August 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Yemen

Key Messages

Protracted conflict drives food insecurity; and flooding in the north affects livelihoods

  • Continued conflict and subsequent displacement have disrupted livelihoods and access to key sources of food and income in South Sudan, Yemen, and parts of Somalia, Sudan, and Ethiopia. Large populations are experiencing Crisis (IPC Phase 3) or Emergency (IPC Phase 4) outcomes across these areas, which are likely to persist through January 2019. South Sudan and Yemen remain the areas of greatest concern. In a worst-case scenario, if there is a sustained absence of humanitarian assistance in South Sudan, and in Yemen, if commercial imports decline significantly for an extended period of time and conflict restricts trade and humanitarian assistance, Famine (IPC Phase 5) is possible.

  • From June to early August, there has been above-average rainfall across parts of central and western regions of Ethiopia into Sudan and South Sudan, which has led to flooding, with the greatest intensity in Sudan. While the heavy rainfall has been beneficial for some crop development and pasture regeneration, it has also caused displacement, infrastructure, crop, and livestock losses, and disrupted household livelihoods in affected areas. Given the forecast, there is the likelihood for additional flash floods in these countries.

  • Crisis (IPC Phase 3) outcomes persist over parts of southeastern Ethiopia and southern and central Somalia, but food security continues to improve as livestock production and prices have increased substantially. Somalia Gu production in southern agropastoral areas is expected to be above average, while total Meher production in Ethiopia and marginal production in Kenya is likely to be near average. By January 2019, food security outcomes are expected to further improve to Stressed (IPC Phase 2) or Minimal (IPC Phase 1) across many areas of the Eastern Horn; however, Somalia’s Guban Pastoral Livelihood Zone is likely to remain in Emergency (IPC Phase 4).

  • According to UNCHR as of mid-July, a total of nearly 11.3 million people are internally displaced in Burundi, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, and Yemen, while there are 4.6 million refugees from these countries living in Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Uganda, and Tanzania. The majority of these populations have limited capacities to access food and income and are dependent on humanitarian assistance amidst substantial funding gaps. Current food ration cuts of up to 30 percent for refugees and asylum seekers could lead to a deterioration in food security outcomes if they persist.


          Ethiopia: UNICEF Ethiopia Humanitarian Situation Report #6 – Reporting Period January-June 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Source: UN Children's Fund
Country: Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan

Highlights

▪ The current number of internally displaced people in Ethiopia has increased to 2.4 million from 1.6 million at the beginning of the year. Seasonal flooding from July to September is expected to affect 2.5 million people.

▪ With UNICEF support, more than 111,000 children under five have received treatment for severe acute malnutrition since January.

▪ UNICEF-supported Mobile Health and Nutrition Teams have provided medical consultations to 231,529 people, including 89,798 under five children.

▪ UNICEF has provided access to safe water to 1.9 million people.

▪ The Humanitarian and Disaster Resilience Plan (HDRP) for Ethiopia, costed at US$1.6 billion, will be revised in August with humanitarian asks expected to increase.

▪ Access to affected communities either due to security concerns or lack of infrastructure have been significant challenges to the provision of humanitarian assistance.

Situation Overview and Humanitarian Needs

Conflict-induced internal displacement has led to significant humanitarian needs in the first half of this year. At the start of the year, there were 1.6 million people displaced by conflict and drought, including just over one million conflict IDPs along the Oromia/Somali regional borders. However, renewed conflict along the border of the Oromia and the Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples (SNNP) regions has increased the number of IDPs to 2.4 million. Conflict in Moyale in March led to the displacement of over 10,000 people across the border into Kenya. While some have returned to their places of origin, community tensions in Moyale remain high.

The HDRP was launched in March with the expectation that Ethiopia would enter its fourth consecutive year of protracted drought. However, the country has been receiving above average rainfall in most of the country which has led to unexpected flooding and landslides in several regions (SNNP, Somali) and caused extensive damage to homes, livelihoods and infrastructure. In fact, Ethiopia received heavy winds and rain from a first - tropical storm Sagar in May. The flooding is expected to continue through September as the National Meteorological Agency (NMA) has predicted an extended and above normal (Kiremt) season affecting all regions, except Southern Somali region. The NMA currently estimates that 2.5 million people are at risk of being affected, of which 637,000 are likely to be displaced. A national flood contingency planning exercise is underway.

While reported rates of Acute Watery Diarrhea (AWD) have fallen short of last years’ caseload, there have been several reported outbreaks, with an outbreak in Afar yet to be contained. The number of reported cases in Afar has reached 799.

Five woredas have been affected and three are currently reporting active cases. As the Awash river is the source of infection, 16 woredas connected to the Awash river plain are considered high risk. Active AWD outbreaks have also been reported in Tigray and Somali regions.

Following the reported Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia has increased its preparedness levels and is screening travelers at ports of entry. An isolation center has been activated at Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa and a treatment unit established at Bole Health Center. A National Task Force led by the Minister of Health is currently reviewing preparedness and response plans. UNICEF Ethiopia has updated its Ebola Contingency Plan.

As of end May, 920,262 refugees were residing in Ethiopia – 48.2 per cent from South Sudan, 27.8 per cent from Somalia, 18.4 per cent from Eritrea, and 4.8 per cent from Sudan. In the first five months of this year, 29, 211 refugees arrived in Ethiopia.


          World: Humanitarian Funding Update July 2018 - United Nations Coordinated Appeals      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Haiti, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, World, Yemen

Funding Required: $25.41B
Funding Received: $9.39B
Unmet Requirements: $16.02B
Coverage: 37.0%

People in need: 134.0M
People to receive aid: 95.8M
Countries affected: 41

As of the end of July 2018, 21 Humanitarian Response Plans (HRP) and the Syria Regional Response Plan (3RP) require US$25.41 billion to assist 95.8 billion people in urgent need of humanitarian support. The 21 HRPs and the Syria 3RP were funded at $9.52 billion: 37 per cent of financial requirements for 2018. Humanitarian organisations still require $16.02 billion to meet the needs covered by these plans.

Requirements are $2 billion higher than last year at the same time. Overall coverage is also slightly higher (three per cent), with $1.4 billion more received this year than last.

Pooled funds

Between 1 January and 31 July 2018, the Emergency Relief Coordinator approved $333 million through the Central Emergency Response Fund, including $233 million through the rapid response window and $100 million through the underfunded emergencies window. In July, $24 million was approved in rapid response grants to respond to displacement in Ethiopia, population movement from Venezuela into Colombia, worsening food insecurity in Niger, and a volcanic eruption in Guatemala. The largest allocation was $15 million to provide relief items, safe water, sanitation facilities, and health and nutrition treatment to 800,000 people displaced by inter-communal violence in Gedeo and West Guji in Ethiopia.

Between 1 January and 6 August 2018, 17 country-based pooled funds (CBPF) received $536 million in contributions from 30 donors (including $80 million in pledges). During this period, $369 million were allocated to a total of 663 humanitarian projects, implemented by 443 partners, with the funds in Yemen ($92 million), DRC ($36 million) and Iraq ($34 million) allocating the largest amounts. During July, the funds in Afghanistan, Jordan, Nigeria, South Sudan and Turkey were processing allocations. As for overall CBPF allocations, 58 per cent were disbursed to NGOs, including 19 per cent ($71 million) directly to national and local NGOs. Another 41 per cent ($150 million) was allocated to UN agencies and 1 per cent of funding was allocated to Red Cross/Red Crescent organizations.

Country updates

Yemen is the world’s largest humanitarian crisis. Some 22.2 million people – about 75 per cent of the population – require humanitarian assistance or protection. This includes 8.4 million people who do not know where their next meal is coming from. An unprecedented outbreak of cholera and acute watery diarrhoea has resulted in more than 1.1 million cases since April 2017. Escalating conflict in Hudaydah has displaced more than 350,000 people since 1 June. More than 90 per cent of these people have received emergency relief packages distributed by humanitarian partners. Sustained hostilities in Hudaydah city, interruptions to port operations or a siege would be catastrophic and must be avoided. Humanitarian programmes have expanded significantly across Yemen. In June, partners provided emergency food assistance to 7.5 million people – an increase of 200,000 people since January. Similar increases have occurred in other sectors. As of mid-year, about 60 per cent of people targeted with assistance had been reached. Generous and flexible funding has been key. Donors have provided more than 60 per cent of the HRP’s $3 billion requirements – including an early, unearmarked $930 million contribution from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. Partners recently sequenced the HRP to show first-line, second-line and full response activities, and require full funding to deliver all programmes based on this plan.

Needs remain high in Ethiopia with 7.88 million people food insecure, as per the Humanitarian and Disaster Resilience Plan (HDRP) released in March. There has been a major surge in displacement since the beginning of June around Gedeo (SNNPR) and West Guji (Oromia) zones resulting in the release of a response plan which seeks $117.7m to assist the 818,250 recently displaced people. Some funding has already been mobilized by Government and partners, primarily through reallocating resources that were originally intended for important response elsewhere in the country under the HDRP.

Fighting in south-west Syria continued to impact hundreds of thousands of civilians, with 180,000 people remaining newly displaced as of the end of July. Aerial bombardment and artillery shelling resulted in civilian deaths and destruction of civilian infrastructure in many areas. Humanitarian workers and service providers were caught up in the violence, with many displaced alongside other civilians. Humanitarian response continued in Dar’a governorate, building on cross-border prepositioning and subsequently drawing on programming from inside Syria. However more than 100,000 newly displaced people remained largely cut off from sustained assistance in Quneitra governorate. Partners identified priority requirements of $85 million to cover the most urgent protection and assistance needs of 300,000 people across the south-west up until mid-October. Concerns also persist around the threat of further military escalation in the north-west of the country, where the number of people in need of humanitarian assistance in Aleppo and Idleb governorates had increased by close to 600,000 by mid-year, to a total of 4.2 million, of whom half were in acute need. Response across the north-west continues to depend on cross-border assistance delivered from Turkey.

At least 3.4 million people in Cameroon need humanitarian assistance and protection. Six out of ten regions are affected by humanitarian crises related to Boko Haram in the Far North, the conflict in the Central African Republic and the worsening situation in the Anglophone regions. Further, growing levels of food insecurity and malnutrition are affecting over 2.6 million people, including 1.5 million children, and there is an ongoing cholera outbreak in the Center and North regions. The 2018 HRP calls for $319.7 million but is only 23 per cent funded. Additional donor support is critical to ensure life-saving assistance to the most vulnerable populations, especially the newly displaced persons in the Far North and the South-West.

Although the number of IDPs in the Central African Republic (CAR) fell to 608,000 during June, a seven per cent decrease compared to May, this does not indicate an improvement of the situation. The tensions and armed violence that erupted in April continue, and are causing new displacements in areas with very limited access. More than half (354,017) of the IDPs are staying with host families, while some 249,522 are in IDP sites and settlements, and another 4,489 are scattered in the bush, in desperate need of assistance. Increasing insecurity is affecting the delivery of aid, as five humanitarian workers have been killed since the beginning of 2018, making CAR one of the most dangerous countries in the world for the delivery of humanitarian aid. Moreover, underfunding remains one of the biggest impediments to stepping up the humanitarian response. At mid-year, the 2018 HRP had only received 26 per cent of its $515.6 million requirement. Without additional funding, humanitarian actors will be unable to address the needs of 1.9 million people targeted in the Plan.

The Marawi Conflict Response and Resources Overview (Mindanao, Philippines) seeks $61 million to provide essential services, food security, protection, livelihood and early recovery support for 199,000 conflict-affected people in Mindanao, of whom 69,412 are still displaced, from July 2017 to December 2018. While an organized return is underway, the majority of those who were forced to flee during the conflict will continue to require humanitarian assistance until sustainable recovery activities are underway, especially for those from the most affected areas of the city. Some $11 million (18%) has been received to-date.

Afghanistan is in the midst of a drought, the scale of which has not been seen since 2011. It has already resulted in some 84,000 people being displaced to Hirat City in western Afghanistan, with up to 150,000 at risk of being displaced. In 2017, wheat production was at an all-time low (57 per cent under the five-year average) and the expected shortfall in production in 2018 is decreasing further -- from 4.2 million metric tonnes to 3.5 million metric tonnes. This decrease is impacting some two million already food insecure people across two thirds of Afghanistan. The ongoing drought led the Humanitarian Country Team to increase the Afghanistan 2018 Humanitarian Response Plan requirements by $117 million, for a total of $547 million. The HRP is currently only 29 per cent funded. Additional funding is required to provide food security, agriculture, water, sanitation, hygiene and nutritional support. The humanitarian community is currently conducting a multi-sectoral humanitarian-development assessment, led by OCHA and UNDP, to examine both humanitarian needs and the wider, long-term complexities underpinning the drought crisis, that would need structural support through development programming.

Four years of conflict have put a tremendous strain on the civilian population in eastern Ukraine. Disrupted access to critical facilities and diminished livelihoods mean that some 3.4 million people are without basic supplies and services and need assistance for protection and survival. Some 200,000 people live under constant fear of shelling every day. One and a half million Ukrainians have been displaced across the country and cannot return home due to hostilities or lost livelihoods. Over 1 million civilians cross the “contact line” every month through operational checkpoints, which lack required shade, cooling spaces and healthcare facilities. Under these conditions, coupled with prolonged waiting hours and summer heat, civilians—many of them elderly—suffer health-related complications. Funding for the Humanitarian Response Plan is urgently needed, as only 27 per cent of the required $187 million has been received so far to respond to the urgent needs of 2.3 million vulnerable Ukrainians with assistance and protection throughout 2018.

Haiti is well into the hurricane season and increased international support for emergency preparedness efforts is required. Haitians are still recovering from consecutive natural disasters, including a major earthquake, hurricanes, floods and drought, and need sustained support. This support is not only to obtain life’s basic necessities, but also to move beyond recurring disasters and build sustainable livelihoods and live in resilient communities that are prepared for future shocks. Humanitarian actors aim to provide humanitarian assistance and protection services to the 2.2 million most vulnerable Haitians, but they have received only 9 per cent of the required $252 million this year.


           South Sudan president Kiir grants Machar, other rebels...       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
By Denis DumoJUBA, Aug 9 (Reuters) - President Salva Kiir granted a general amnesty to rebels in South Sudan's civil war, including his former deputy Riek...
           South Sudan president pardons rival, rebels: state radio       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
South Sudan's President Salva Kiir has issued a decree offering a blanket amnesty to rebels, including his bitter rival Riek Machar, state radio reported...
           South Sudan president Kiir grants amnesty to rebel...       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
JUBA, Aug 9 (Reuters) - South Sudan President Salva Kiir has given an amnesty to all those involved in the nation's civil war, including rebel leader Riek...
          Did Victorian police act properly by making no arrests? - داتن: إذا لم تحزم حكومة فكتوريا أمرها فإن أحداً ما سيُقتل!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Home Affairs Minister Peter Dutton has blamed Victorian Premier Daniel Andrews for the latest spate of violence among Australian youths from South Sudanese background.

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تفاعلت حادثة العراك الجديدة بين العشرات من الشبيبة الأسترالية المتحدرة من جنوب السودان في أكثر من  مكان من ضواحي ملبورن الليلة الماضية.


          South Sudan president pardons rival, rebels: state radio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
South Sudan's President Salva Kiir has issued a decree offering a blanket amnesty to rebels, including his bitter rival Riek Machar, state radio reported Thursday.
          South Sudan president Kiir grants Machar, other rebels amnesty      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
President Salva Kiir granted a general amnesty to rebels in South Sudan's civil war, including his former deputy Riek Machar, as a rights organization said authorities in Africa's youngest country should also free its critics.

          Comic Book Project: Illustrator and/or Comic Writer - Canadian Association of Midwives/ Association canadienne des sages-femmes - Montréal, QC      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Strengthening Midwifery Services (SMS) Project, South Sudan*. Empowerwomen and girls to access quality midwifery care....
From Indeed - Tue, 17 Jul 2018 19:32:55 GMT - View all Montréal, QC jobs
          South Sudan’s president grants amnesty to Machar, all rebels      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

South Sudan leader grants amnesty to Machar, all rebel groups after power-sharing deal signed

The post South Sudan’s president grants amnesty to Machar, all rebels appeared first on FederalNewsRadio.com.


          South Sudan’s president grants amnesty to Machar, all rebels      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

JUBA, South Sudan (AP) — South Sudan’s president has granted amnesty to armed opposition leader Riek Machar and all rebel groups days after signing a power-sharing agreement in the latest effort to end a five-year civil war. The South Sudan Broadcasting Corporation reported the announcement by President Salva Kiir. As part of the power-sharing deal, […]
          IGAD FMs to discuss implementation matrix of South Sudan peace      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
August 8, 2018 (KHARTOUM) – The IGAD foreign ministers will meet on Thursday in Khartoum to discuss the South Sudan peace talks, reported the semi-official SMC on Wednesday. “The extraordinary meeting of the IGAD Council of Ministers will discuss the implementation matrix and a detailed timetable to implement the revitalized peace agreement,’” Sudanese minister of […]
          HRW urges release of South Sudan peace activist      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
August 9, 2018 – (JUBA) – Human Rights Watch (HRW) Friday urged the South Sudanese authorities to release or to take to the court Peter Biar Ajak, a peace activist that has been detained without charges since the 28th July. Further, the rights group stressed that Ajak’s detention is part of a deeply troubling pattern […]
          Opposition governor of Bieh appoints three county commissioners      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
 The rebel-appointed governor of South Sudan’s Bieh State on Wednesday appointed commissioners to three counties in their controlled territory.  In a decree seen by Radio Tamazuj, Governor Simon Hoth Duol appointed three county commissioners in Nyirol East, Pulchuol, and Yol counties.  The SPLM-IO official appointed John Deng Nguth as the new commissioner of Nyirol East […]
          Analysis: Temporary peace in South Sudan?      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Will the latest power-sharing agreement between South Sudanese President Salva Kiir and opposition leader Riek Machar hold, asks Haitham Nouri. A new power-sharing agreement between the South Sudanese government and the country’s armed opposition was signed this week in the hope of ending the years of violence that have torn South Sudan, one of the youngest […]
          South Sudan president Kiir grants amnesty to rebel leader Machar, others      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
JUBA, Aug 9 (Reuters) – South Sudan President Salva Kiir has given an amnesty to all those involved in the nation’s civil war, including rebel leader Riek Machar, state-run television said, days after the signing of a peace deal. “Republican order number 14 for the year 2018 for the grant of general amnesty to the […]
          UPDATE 2-South Sudan president Kiir grants Machar, other rebels amnesty      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
(Adds details, background) By Denis Dumo JUBA, Aug 9 (Reuters) – South Sudan President Salva Kiir granted an amnesty to all those involved in the nation’s civil war including rebel leader Riek Machar, according to a television broadcast, days after they signed a peace deal. On Sunday Kiir, SPLM-IO leader Machar – the president’s former […]
          South Sudan's president grants amnesty to Machar, all rebels      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
South Sudan's president has granted amnesty to armed opposition leader Riek Machar and all rebel groups days after signing a power-sharing agreement in the latest effort to end a five-year civil war.
          South Sudan president Kiir grants Machar, other rebels amnesty      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
JUBA: President Salva Kiir granted a general amnesty to rebels in South Sudan's civil war, including his former deputy Riek Machar, as a rights organisation said authorities in Africa's youngest country should also free its unarmed critics. The amnesty order was read out on state-run television ...
          More children released from South Sudanese armed groups      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

More than 100 children have been released by two armed groups in South Sudan, bringing the total number released this year to over 900.

More than 100 children were released by two armed groups in South Sudan on 7 August 2018, bringing the total number released this year to over 900.

This was the fourth release ceremony in 2018 and like two previous events, it took place in the town of Yambio in the south of the country. Additional releases are expected in the coming months.

“The progress made this year gives us reason to hope that one day all of the 19,000 children still serving in the ranks of armed groups and armed forces will be able to return to their families,” said Mahimbo Mdoe, UNICEF’s Representative in South Sudan. “Until that goal is achieved, the work to end the use and recruitment of children must continue.”

During the ceremony, the children were formally disarmed and provided with civilian clothes. Medical screenings will now be carried out, and the children will receive counselling and psychosocial support as part of the reintegration programme, which is implemented by UNICEF and partners.

When the children return to their homes, their families will be provided with three months’ worth of food assistance by the World Food Programme to support their initial reintegration. The children will also be provided with vocational training aimed at improving household income and food security. Being unable to support themselves economically can be a key factor in children becoming associated with armed groups. In addition to services related to livelihoods, UNICEF and partners will ensure the released children have access to psychosocial support, age-specific education services in schools and accelerated learning centres.

“These releases are a joint effort between UNICEF, UNMISS and government partners. Negotiations with the parties to the conflict require considerable energy and commitment from all involved,” said Mdoe. “I am very grateful to our partners and our government counterparts for their efforts on behalf of the children of South Sudan.”

The majority of the 128 (90 boys and 38 girls) children released were from the ranks of the South Sudan National Liberation Movement (SSNLM) – which in 2016 signed a peace agreement with the government and is now integrating its ranks into the national army – while a small number were released from the Sudan People’s Liberation Army-In Opposition (SPLA-IO).

Adequate funding for UNICEF’s release programme is also essential. UNICEF South Sudan requires more than £34 million to support release, demobilisation and reintegration of 19,000 children over the next three years.

* UNICEF UK https://www.unicef.org.uk/

[Ekk/6]


          South Sudan's president grants amnesty to Machar, all rebels      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

JUBA, South Sudan (AP) - South Sudan's president has granted amnesty to armed opposition leader Riek Machar and all rebel groups days after signing a power-sharing agreement in the latest effort to end a five-year civil war.

The South Sudan Broadcasting Corporation reported the announcement by President Salva Kiir.

As ...

          Comment on Time to draw a line by Hugo      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Far Right (Andrew Bolt etc... ) worry about Oz becoming a nation of disconnected tribes then do everything in their power to make the prophecy come true by sowing the seeds of hate, fear and distrust. As to African gangs etc. , I am happy to report that there is a thriving and accepted South Sudanese community in the country town nearest my farm. The only trouble I'm aware of is an incident in which a bunch of white yobs from out of town jumped out of a car and bashed a young South Sudanese man they had never met while racially abusing him. News Corp never picked up on that story but it was in the local newspaper. I understand that there has been a problem in some parts of Melbourne with male African youths engaging in home invasions and so on. My view is that you reform errant youth with love and compassion. You don't demonise them and treat them like hardened criminals because if you do you'll lose them forever.
          Rebels free over 100 child soldiers in South Sudan      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
From RAJI BASHIR in Khartoum, Sudan KHARTOUM, (CAJ News) – REBEL groups in war-torn South Sudan have this week released more than 100 child soldiers. The 128 minors, consisting of 90 boys and 38 girls, have been freed from the ranks of the Sudan People’s Liberation Army-In Opposition (SPLA-IO) and South Sudan National Liberation Movement […]
          South Sudan president Kiir grants Machar, other rebels amnesty      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
President Salva Kiir granted a general amnesty to rebels in South Sudan's civil war, including his former deputy Riek Machar, as a rights organisation said authorities in Africa's youngest country should also free its critics.

          South Sudan's president grants amnesty to Machar, all rebels      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
JUBA, South Sudan (AP) — South Sudan's president has granted amnesty to armed opposition leader Riek Machar and all rebel groups days after signing a power-sharing agreement in the latest effort to end a five-year civil war.The...
          South Sudan’s Kiir grants rebel leader Machar, others amnesty      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

President Kiir pardoned all those involved in the nation’s civil war as part of a recent peace deal.

The post South Sudan’s Kiir grants rebel leader Machar, others amnesty appeared first on RocketNews | Top News Stories From Around the Globe.


          South Sudan's Kiir grants rebel leader Machar, others amnesty      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
President Kiir pardoned all those involved in the nation's civil war as part of a recent peace deal.
          South Sudan president pardons rival, rebels: state radio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Juba, South Sudan, Aug 9 – South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir has issued a decree offering a blanket amnesty to rebels, including his bitter rival Riek Machar, state radio reported Thursday. The announcement comes days after the two men signed a power-sharing deal in the Sudanese capital Khartoum aimed at ending a nearly five-year civil […]
          Uganda: East, Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes region - Refugees and asylum-seekers by country of asylum | as of 30 June 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Country: Burundi, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania


          World: Humanitarian Access Overview (August 2018)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Source: Assessment Capacities Project
Country: Afghanistan, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Libya, Mali, Myanmar, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

OVERVIEW

This report compares current humanitarian crises based on their level of humanitarian access. Affected populations in more than 40 countries are not getting proper humanitarian assistance due to access constraints. Out of 44 countries included in the report, nearly half of them are currently facing critical humanitarian access constraints, with four countries (Eritrea, Syria, Venezuela, and Yemen) being considered as inaccessible. Moderate humanitarian access constraints are an issue in eight countries, and 15 face low humanitarian access constraints.

METHODOLOGY

Our methodology groups 9 variables under 3 dimensions:

  1. Access of humanitarian actors to affected population comprised of 4 variables:

• Impediments to entry
• Restriction of movement
• Interference with activities
• Violence against personnel

  1. Access of people in need to humanitarian aid comprised of 2 variables:

• Denial of needs
• Restriction of population’s access to aid

  1. Security and physical constraints comprised of 3 variables:

• Active hostilities
• UXO and mines
• Physical constraints Each indicator is given a score from 0 to 3, and marked with an X when there is an information gap identified.

The overall access score by country is ranked according to the following scale: 0 - No constraints 1 - Accessible with low constraints 2 - Accessible with moderate constraints 3 - Accessible with high constraints 4 - Nearly inaccessible 5 - Inaccessible We are providing analytical narratives for countries scored between level 3 to 5.


          South Sudan's president grants amnesty to Machar, all rebels      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
South Sudan's president has granted amnesty to armed opposition leader Riek Machar and all rebel groups days after signing a power-sharing agreement in the latest effort to end a five-year civil war.
          South Sudan's Kiir grants rebel leader Machar, others amnesty      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
President Kiir pardoned all those involved in the nation's civil war as part of a recent peace deal.
          South Sudan president Kiir grants amnesty to rebels      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
South Sudan president Kiir grants amnesty to rebelsMachar spokesman rejects offer as 'meaningless'
          When Being Filled With the Spirit Causes You to Scream and Jump—Not With Joy, But Remorse      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Every morning when Achol Kuol wakes up, she borrows a Bible from her neighbor and reads a verse to comfort herself before she meets others in an open-air church rigged from timber. They sing, dance and speak in tongues during the service. Some who feel filled with the Holy Spirit scream and jump—not with joy, but remorse.

Confessions flow as they recall the ones they killed in the civil war back home in South Sudan. They cry out, lamenting ordeals they endure at night. Others weep in prayer as they ask God for forgiveness.

"I can't sleep unless I keep on praying," said Kuol, 38, a mother of five. "I always have nightmares. In my dreams I go back to my old village and I see how my friends were shot dead. They keep on calling me, 'Achol! Achol! Achol!' And I would wake up screaming."

For thousands of South Sudanese here in the world's largest refugee camp, the search for healing from recent horrors involves a quest for God. Saddled with post-traumatic stress disorder in many cases, refugees are often encouraged by camp counselors to attend church as a pathway to healing.

"Many refugees usually go to church because it's the only likely place in the camp where they can get help to recover from the trauma," said Gabriel Mayen, a trauma counselor at Bidi Bidi. "The church gives them new hope, which is important to refugees and any person who has experienced trauma."

South Sudan, the world's youngest nation, broke into civil war in late 2013 when troops loyal to then-Vice President Riek Machar clashed with forces loyal to President Salva Kiir. The conflict spread quickly into an ethnic clash as the two leaders were representing two major tribes. Christianity is the majority religion in South Sudan.

As a result, thousands have been killed, 2 million have been displaced in South Sudan, and another 2 million have sought refuge in neighboring countries. More than 1 million have fled to Uganda.

This camp, known as Bidi Bidi, is home to more than 250,000 people. Here, dozens of churches have cropped up and are becoming increasingly popular as the traumatized seek a foundation to put their lives back together.

Kuol's husband was murdered in June last year when government soldiers attacked her town of Yei in southwest South Sudan. She fled with her children, arriving at Bidi Bidi three days later. One child died from hunger during the journey.

"I passed through a difficult time," she said. "God saved me from death, and I had to accept him. In God I find peace, and I don't have nightmares ... though the memories of the killings still haunt me."

More than 30 churches spread across the camp are headed by South Sudanese pastors, according to Ugandan officials. Many church leaders, including pastors, bishops, priests, evangelists and others, moved with their South Sudanese congregations into exile when civil war erupted.

"When these church leaders arrived at the camp, they began their own churches," said Deng Bol, a refugee teacher and representative. "We have different denominations. Refugees have options here. If they want to go to Catholic or Protestant churches, they can go."

Pastor John Deng of Christ Ministry Church fled South Sudan in 2016. He said his church is bringing together members of warring tribes, the Nuer and Dinka, and fostering cooperation across tribal lines. The church also provides emotional healing if one loses a family member at the camp or back home in South Sudan, he said.

"The church has played a vital role in unifying the people of South Sudan who had hated each other," he said. "We are happy that people are living peaceful in the camp away from home."

Peace can be elusive at Bidi Bidi. Those traumatized by torture, rape and other violence often bring vengeful habits with them, Mayen said. Many drink alcohol in excess and become violent, he said.

"Some even take machetes and attack other refugees," he said.

Spiritual warfare is a theme heard often around the camp. During a recent worship service, Deng warned the people of South Sudan that civil war in their country will not end until they turn to God and ask for forgiveness. Quoting from Proverbs 6:16-19, Deng said his home country was already under curse.

"Our country is cursed," he said. "The only hope we have is heaven. It's written that shedding someone's blood is the work of the devil, and anybody who is killing people is doing the work of the devil. We need to kneel down and ask God for forgiveness if we want him to bring peace in our country."

The new churches make a point to offer hope. When rebel soldiers attacked Yei town last year in the middle of the night, Akur Piok and her husband escaped in different directions. Since then they have not once seen each other. Piok escaped with three of her children, leaving behind two.

"I'm traumatized," she said as she walked toward the church. "I don't know if my children and husband are still alive or dead. I have many problems. It's only God who can solve them. I want to go and sing, worship and pray so that God can be the answer to my problems."

Deng agreed. In his view, only God can solve the daunting challenges these refugees face.

"If you see them praying and crying, they have a reason: These refugees have problems," he said. "They have no food to eat. No hospitals to take their families when they are sick, and their children are not going to school. The only hope they have is God."

Kuol, a Dinka tribeswoman, credits God with sustaining her desire to live, despite her overwhelming troubles. Her church has helped her focus on the future rather than the past, she said. Her plans include a church wedding to her Nuer prayer partner.

"I don't know where I would have been without God," Kuol said. "I would have died a long time ago. I have so many problems that I sometimes think of committing suicide. But God always comes to my rescue." {eoa}

© 2018 Religion News Service. All rights reserved.


          East Africa: 'Mediating South Sudan Accord Is in Sudan's Best Interests' - AllAfrica.com      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Charlotte Observer

East Africa: 'Mediating South Sudan Accord Is in Sudan's Best Interests'
AllAfrica.com
Khartoum — Researchers and strategists in Sudanese affairs said that the resolution of the conflict in South Sudan mediated by Sudan, which produced a power-sharing deal and final security arrangements, has been motivated by reasons of security, ...
South Sudan's Kiir Grants Pardon to Bitter Rival, All RebelsVoice of America

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          East Africa:'Mediating South Sudan Accord Is in Sudan's Best Interests'      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
[Radio Dabanga] Khartoum -Researchers and strategists in Sudanese affairs said that the resolution of the conflict in South Sudan mediated by Sudan, which produced a power-sharing deal and final security arrangements, has been motivated by reasons of security, economic, and political considerations as a catalyst to enter as an intermediary for peace.
           Ugandan leader says S.Sudanese refugees should return...       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
By Elias BiryabaremaKAMPALA, Aug 9 (Reuters) - Uganda hopes around a million South Sudanese refugees on its territory can return home by January after this...
          South Sudan's Kiir Grants Pardon to Bitter Rival, All Rebels      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
South Sudanese President Salva Kiir has granted a blanket amnesty to rival Riek Machar and other rebels. The decree, announced Thursday on South Sudan's state-run radio and television, took effect Wednesday, just three days after Kiir and Machar signed a power-sharing deal in the Sudanese capital of Khartoum aimed at ending a five-year civil war.   South Sudan gained independence from neighboring Sudan in 2011, but in late 2013 erupted into violence over a power struggle between Kiir and Machar, the vice president. The fighting has left tens of thousands of South Sudanese dead and forced millions of the country's citizens to flee their homes. The new pact will see Machar return from exile in South Africa as the first of five vice presidents under a transitional government of national unity.    
          In Uganda’s Refugee Camps, South Sudanese Children Seek the Families They’ve Lost      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Since Sudan’s civil war started in 2013, 17,600 minors have crossed into Uganda without their parents.
           South Sudanese man who threatened and raped a teenage girl is stripped of Australian citizenship       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Jal Galuak attacked his 17-year-old victim as she walked through Springthorpe Gardens, in the south-east Melbourne suburb of Murrumbeena, on the night of April 8, 2007.
          In Uganda’s Refugee Camps, South Sudanese Children Seek the Families They’ve Lost      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Since Sudan’s civil war started in 2013, 17,600 minors have crossed into Uganda without their parents. Reported by NYTimes.com 2 hours ago.
          South Sudan president Kiir grants amnesty to rebels      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
South Sudan president Kiir grants amnesty to rebelsMachar spokesman rejects offer as 'meaningless'
          South Sudan:Rebels Free Over 100 Child Soldiers      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
[CAJ News] Khartoum -REBEL groups in war-torn South Sudan have this week released more than 100 child soldiers.
          Trauma victims seek healing in God      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

For thousands of South Sudanese here in the world's largest refugee camp, the search for healing from recent horrors involves a quest for God. 

The post Trauma victims seek healing in God appeared first on Urban Faith.


          World: Record number of forcibly displaced people lived in sub-Saharan Africa in 2017      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Source: Pew Research Center
Country: Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Uganda, World

By Phillip Connor and Jens Manuel Krogstad

The total number of people living in sub-Saharan Africa who were forced to leave their homes due to conflict reached a new high of 18.4 million in 2017, up sharply from 14.1 million in 2016 – the largest regional increase of forcibly displaced people in the world, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees data.

The world’s displaced population has increased dramatically since 2012, reaching its highest levels since World War II. The Middle East drove much of the increase between 2012 and 2015 due to conflicts in Syria, Iraq and Yemen, but in 2017, the vast majority of growth has come from displaced populations living in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2015, the region’s displaced population has jumped by 42%, with most of this increase taking place in 2017 alone. By comparison, the number of displaced people living in the Middle East-North Africa region fell 8% between 2015 and 2017, though it remains the world’s largest total overall.

Due to these trends, the geography of the world’s displaced population has started to shift: Some 30% of forcibly displaced people globally lived in sub-Saharan Africa in 2017, up from 23% in 2015. Meanwhile, the Middle East-North Africa share dropped from 41% of the world’s total in 2015 to 35% in 2017.

Most of the increase in sub-Saharan Africa has come from a wave of internally displaced persons – those forced from their communities due to conflict and who remain within their home country. In sub-Saharan Africa, this population grew to 12.5 million in 2017, a 40% increase from the previous year, when the population was 8.9 million.

The Democratic Republic of the Congo has the largest internally displaced population within sub-Saharan Africa, due to the country’s many conflicts. In 2017, its internally displaced population reached 4.4 million, almost double the 2.2 million reported the year before. Meanwhile, in Ethiopia, border disputes between ethnic groups helped push the country’s internally displaced population from near zero in 2016 to more than a million people in 2017.

The number of displaced people who have left their home country due to conflict or persecution and received international protection – otherwise known as refugees – has grown more modestly within sub-Saharan Africa. The region’s number of refugees reached 5.4 million in 2017, up 16% over 2016 but short of the record 6.5 million refugees reported in 1994 during the Rwandan genocide.

Uganda hosted the highest number of sub-Saharan refugees (nearly 1.4 million) in 2017, mostly from South Sudan. Nearly 900,000 refugees lived in Ethiopia, with nearly half from South Sudan, and many of the rest from Somalia and Eritrea. The Democratic Republic of the Congo had more than 500,000 refugees from various neighboring countries, including Rwanda, Central African Republic and South Sudan.

Sub-Saharan African countries hosted a relatively small number of asylum seekers – people who have left their home country and asked for protection. There were about 500,000 asylum seekers living in the region in 2017, with the vast majority coming from other sub-Saharan African countries.

Another way to view displacement is to look at the home countries for all displaced people, whether forcibly displaced within their home country or living in other countries. Nearly four-in-five displaced persons (79%) living in sub-Saharan Africa came from just five nations in 2017: Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan, Somalia, Nigeria and Central African Republic. (Many refugees from these origin countries also belong to long-term refugee populations – communities that have had 25,000 or more refugees for five or more years.)

With more than a billion people living in sub-Saharan Africa, the number of displaced people in the region made up just 1.8% of the region’s population in 2017. Nonetheless, this share has increased in recent years and is at its highest level since records on displaced persons began in 1993. In 2017, only the Middle East-North Africa region had a higher share of its population living as internally displaced persons, refugees or asylum seekers (3.8%).

Note: See details on our regional grouping of countries (PDF).

Phillip Connor is a senior researcher focusing on demography and migration studies at Pew Research Center.

Jens Manuel Krogstad is a senior writer/editor focusing on Hispanics, immigration and demographics at Pew Research Center.


          Comic Book Project: Illustrator and/or Comic Writer - Canadian Association of Midwives/ Association canadienne des sages-femmes - Montréal, QC      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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Melburnians who thought police were responsible for public safety have had another shocking wake-up call. The failure of Victoria Police, some in riot gear, to arrest even one of the scores of South Sudanese youth who turned on them and hurled rocks at...
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Juba, August 9,2018. South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir has issued an executive announcement extending an amnesty to his political rival, Riek Machar, and  to the rebel groups. Reported on State…


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