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          Cuttlefish Gum      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

For those feeling a little peckish between meals, gum can be an efficient way to stave off hunger, but when strolling the immaculate streets of Singapore, law-abiding citizens prefer the chewy squish of shredded cuttlefish.

Beginning in the early 1990s, Singaporeans had to find an alternative to gum after the government banned the import of the chewy substance, which had become a costly nuisance as it found its way onto train door sensors, under public benches, and into keyholes. As a longtime producer of the deliberately tough and chewy “prepared cuttlefish,” Ken-Ken Food Manufacturing was perfectly poised to fill the void with their “‘Chewing-Gum’ of the Orientals.” The foil-lined pouches offer a tray of stringy cephalopod bits prepared by cooking, cooling, grating, and drying cuttlefish. The snack is flavored with the likes of sugar, chile, salt, and an umami-bomb of monosodium glutamate (MSG).

And while renegades may continue to sneak traditional gum across the border, law-abiders have learned to get their creative juices flowing without gumming up public property.


          Vending Machine Technician - Hunter Employment Pte Ltd - Sembawang      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
ONLY Singaporean * Repair Vending machine, troubleshoot vending machine * Do maintenance and servicing for vending machine Qualification: Diploma holder... $2,200 - $2,500 a month
From Indeed - Sun, 22 Jul 2018 12:04:29 GMT - View all Sembawang jobs
          Senior Solution Consultant (Pre-sales) Thailand - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd. A multi-national enterprise software company headquartered in New York City, is looking for a Senior Solution...
From Hudson - Tue, 07 Aug 2018 05:09:27 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          IT Finance Manager - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd. We are recruiting a Regional IT Finance Manager for a leading international financial services company....
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 17:10:23 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Senior FP&A Manager - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
- Senior FP&A Manager - US communications MNC - APAC remit THE COMPANY Optimal for candidates wanting to be on a challenging learning curve to become a...
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:38 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Management Accountant - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd. Management Accountant (Finance Manager level)....
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:33 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Accounting Manager - Retail - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
- Accounting Manager - Retail US MNC - ASEAN remit THE COMPANY Our client is a US FMCG retail brand based centrally in Singapore. They are seeking a...
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:33 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Accounting Controller - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
- Accounting Controller - Medical devices US MNC - APAC remite THE COMPANY Our client is a medical device US MNC in central Singapore. The company has been...
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:32 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Treasury Analyst - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
- Treasury Analyst - US Chemicals MNC - APAC remit THE COMPANY Our client is a multi-billion manufacturing MNC operating globally with a strong presence in...
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:32 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Financial Controller - SAP transformation - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd. Financial Controller - SAP transformation....
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:29 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Financial Controller - FMCG - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
- Financial Controller - SEA - Luxury FMCG brand - ASEAN remit FINANCIAL CONTROLLER THE COMPANY A highly regarded European retail MNC is hiring for a...
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:29 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Project finance analyst - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
- Project Finance Analyst - US Healthcare MNC - APAC remit THE COMPANY Our client is a major US healthcare MNC based in central Singapore with a big finance...
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:29 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Head of Field Marketing (APAC) - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Leadership role APAC & China Region Report directly to Chief Marketing Officer Head of Field Marketing (APAC) * Leadership role * APAC & China Region *...
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:22 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Senior Marketing Manager - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd. One of the fastest growing tech start-ups....
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:19 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Director, Customer Engagement & Rentention (APAC) - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Global leader in Tech industry Drive increase of engagement Report directly to Managing Director of Digital business Director, Customer Engagement &...
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:19 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          E-Commerce Manager (FMCG/Retail) - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Low Wei Jun, Alex Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd EA License Number:. Our Client is a MNC in the Retail/FMCG industry with operations across 20...
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:18 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Digital Marketing Manager - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
R1653685 Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd EA Licence:. Leading Global FMCG company....
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 05:09:17 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Training Manager - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd EA Licence:. Alternatively, you may contact Sara Ungos in our Hudson Singapore office for a confidential discussion....
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 05:09:16 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Cost Accountant - Manufacturing - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
R1873098 Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd EA Licence #:. Our client is currently seeking a high performing Cost Accountant to join their...
From Hudson - Fri, 03 Aug 2018 11:26:21 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Test Automation Engineer - Java - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
*MNC IT consultancy firm *Highly competitive salary package *Banking & Financial exposure * MNC IT consultancy firm * Highly competitive salary package *...
From Hudson - Fri, 03 Aug 2018 11:25:30 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Senior HR Operations Manager - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd. Opportunity to work directly with the CEO, and be a key member of the leadership team!...
From Hudson - Fri, 03 Aug 2018 11:25:01 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          HR Manager (Start-up) - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd. Opportunity to join a multinational company in their start-up office in Singapore!...
From Hudson - Fri, 03 Aug 2018 11:25:01 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
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           Amid engagement news with Nick Jonas, Priyanka Chopra says her personal life is not for public consumption       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Priyanka Chopra is in headlines every single day either for her current or upcoming projects or due to her relationship with American singer Nick Jonas. As their whirlwind romance continues to be in news, the actress says that her personal life is not for public consumption. The actress returned to India this morning to speak at a session titled 'Challenging the Status Quo & Forging New Paths' organised Jointly by FICCI Ladies Organisation (FLO) and Yes Bank.

Amid engagement news with Nick Jonas, Priyanka Chopra says her personal life is not for public consumption

The interactive session was hosted by Vir Sanghvi where Priyanka Chopra talked about various aspects of her life. Talking about her personal life and why she wants it to be protected, she said, "My personal life is not for public consumption. 90 per cent of my life is for public consumption but 10 per cent is for me. I am a girl and I have the right to keep that to myself. My family, friendship, my relationships are things I don't think I need to defend or explain it to anyone. I am not running for the Office, so I don't think I need to give explanations."

"Sometimes I laugh, sometimes I get annoyed... But mostly, I tell my publicists 'Let it be, today's news is tomorrow's trash'," Priyanka said here on Monday.

It was only in July end that the foreign media reported that after dating for over two months, Nick Jonas and Priyanka Chopra were reportedly engaged. The 25-year-old singer proposed to Priyanka on her birthday in London. While the couple is yet to officially confirm their engagement, fans are very excited about them. Just this past weekend, Priyanka flew off to Singapore where Nick performed at Hyperplay concert organised by MTV Asia.

Meanwhile, on the work front, Priyanka Chopra recently wrapped up Hollywood flick Isn’t It Romantic alongside Adam Devine, Rebel Wilson and Liam Hemsworth. The film is scheduled for Valentine’s Day release next year. She is also starring in Shonali Bose’s tentatively titled The Sky Is Pink with Farhan Akhtar and Zaira Wasim. Besides these two films, she has booked a leading role in Hollywood film Cowboy Ninja Viking opposite Chris Pratt.

Also Read: Salman Khan DENIES knowing about Priyanka Chopra – Nick Jonas’ engagement at Loveratri trailer launch


          Mayfair Modern Announces New Condo Launch In Singapore’s Premier Condo Residential Location.      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
One of Singapore's premier condo residential locations is scheduled for launch soon. The Bukit Timah Plaza site is under development by Oxley Holdings.
          Điểm Tin Thứ Năm 09.08.2018 (hậu 10/6/18 và ANM)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
BREAKING NEWS
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  • Vì sao Trung Quốc liên tục bức hiếp Đài Loan? (RFI) - Theo tiến sĩ Trương Trí Trình (Chih Cheng Chang) trên The Diplomat, Trung Quốc chèn ép Đài Loan liên tục không chỉ vì không ưa đảng Dân Tiến của bà Thái Anh Văn, mà đây là chủ trương nằm trong chiến lược lâu dài của Bắc Kinh.
  • Xuất khẩu TQ tăng tốc dù Trump leo thang chiến tranh thương mại (VOA) - Xuất khẩu của Trung Quốc tăng mạnh hơn dự kiến trong tháng 7 bất chấp thuế nhập khẩu của Mỹ và thặng dư thương mại được theo dõi sát của nước này với Mỹ vẫn ở mức cao kỉ lục, trong khi hai cường quốc kinh tế lớn của thế giới leo thang tranh chấp thương mại.
  • Website của BBC bị chặn ở Trung Quốc (BBC) - Khi website bị chặn, BBC kêu gọi chính phủ Trung Quốc tuân thủ Tuyên bố Nhân quyền của Liên Hợp Quốc về quyền cá nhân tự do biểu đạt và tiếp nhận thông tin.
  • Vụ 1MDB : Cựu thủ tướng Malaysia tiếp tục bị truy tố (RFI) - Cựu thủ tướng Malaysia Najib Razak tiếp tục bị truy tố trong một vụ án khác, cũng liên quan đến quỹ đầu tư 1MDB. Ông Najib Razak đối mặt với ba cáo buộc tham nhũng mới, và có nguy cơ bị phạt tổng cộng 45 năm tù.
  • Cựu Tổng thống Philippines kêu gọi đề phòng Trung Quốc (VOA) - Hành động của Trung Quốc bồi đắp đảo và quân sự hóa các thực thể trên Biển Đông một lần nữa đã gây chia rẽ sâu sắc thể chế chính trị ở Philippines vốn đang cố gắng tìm kiếm một lập trường tối ưu được đồng thuận để bảo vệ các lợi ích chủ quyền và chiến lược của đất nước.
  • Bầu bổ sung: Đảng Cộng Hòa Mỹ thắng sít sao ở Ohio, điềm xấu cho TT Trump (RFI) - Cuộc bỏ phiếu bầu bổ sung một dân biểu tại Ohio, ngày hôm qua, 07/08/2018, được coi là một trắc nghiệm đối với uy tín của tổng thống Trump. Ứng cử viên đảng Cộng Hòa tuyên bố thắng cử với 50,2% phiếu, tại một khu vực bầu cử vốn được coi là lãnh địa của đảng Cộng Hòa từ hơn 30 năm nay. Theo giới quan sát, nếu xu thế này tái diễn phe Cộng Hòa có thể sẽ mất đa số tại Hạ Viện sau cuộc bầu cử giữa kỳ vào tháng 11/2018.
  • Mỹ trừng phạt Iran: Đức cảnh báo gia tăng bất ổn tại Trung Đông (RFI) - Hôm nay, 08/08/2018, một ngày sau khi Washington tái áp đặt các trừng phạt kinh tế đối với Iran, nhằm ngăn chặn tham vọng mở rộng ảnh hưởng của Teheran tại Trung Đông, ngoại trưởng Đức lên tiếng cảnh báo, quyết định của Mỹ có thể có tác dụng ngược, khiến tình hình khu vực này thêm trầm trọng hơn.
  • Ả Rập Xê Út làm căng với bên ngoài để ổn định bên trong ? (RFI) - Thái độ cứng rắn bất ngờ của chính quyền Ả Rập Xê Út với Canada trong những ngày qua đã làm cho không ít nhà quan sát ngạc nhiên. Thế nhưng động thái gây căng thẳng này của chế độ Ryad dưới quyền điều hành của thái tử Mohammed ben Salmane được cho là nhắm vào đối nội, tăng cường uy tín trong nước của thái tử vào lúc nhân vật này đang cho tiến hành những biện pháp cải tổ đầy rủi ro vì đụng chạm tới thành phần bảo thủ còn rất mạnh ở vương quốc này.
  • Cựu giám đốc tranh cử của Donald Trump bị dồn vào chân tường (RFI) - Hôm qua, thứ Ba 07/08/2018, là ngày thứ hai mà ông Paul Manafort - nguyên giám đốc chương trình tranh cử tổng thống 2016 của Donald Trump - phải đối mặt với người cựu cộng sự thân tín Rick Gates, được coi là một nhân chứng quyết định trong vụ án rửa tiền và trốn thuế đang diễn ra. Cựu giám đốc tranh cử của tổng thống Trump bị cáo buộc trốn hàng triệu đô la thuế, với khoản tiền mà công ty tư vấn của ông nhận được từ chính quyền của cựu tổng thống Ukraina Viktor Ianoukovitch thân Nga trước đây.
  • Cháy rừng trên quy mô chưa từng thấy ở châu Âu và Hoa Kỳ (RFI) - Thời tiết khô nóng hiện nay đã gây ra các đám cháy lớn tại nhiều nơi ở châu Âu, mà nghiêm trọng nhất là ở Bồ Đào Nha, cũng như tại bang California Hoa Kỳ, huy động hàng ngàn lính cứu hỏa, nhưng cho đến hôm nay, 08/08/2018, vẫn chưa khống chế nổi.
  • Chứng rụng tóc (VOA) - Tại sao chúng ta bị rụng tóc? Khắc phục bằng cách nào? Mời quý vị cùng tìm hiểu với bác sĩ Nguyễn Ý Đức.

          8/9/2018: Disruption: Startups & Tech: PhonePe Gets another Tranche from Flipkart      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
PhonePe has received an infusion of .₹ 451 crore from Flipkart, just months after it received .₹ 518 crore from the parent company earlier this year. The fresh infusion came from Flipkart Payments, a Singapore-registered entity, according to regulatory...
          8/9/2018: Money: NSE to Seek Sebi Nod to Resolve Co-location Case      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

New Delhi: The National Stock Exchangewillsoonapproachmarket regulator Sebi to seek resolution of its co-location case through the consent mechanism and is also working on a structure to address its issues withSingaporeExchange,NSEchief executive...
          CRAZY RICH ASIANS: A BOLD STEP FORWARD      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

  Do you feel it? We’re talking about the buzz around the highly anticipated release of Crazy Rich Asians: the film adaptation of the bestselling novel by Kevin Kwan. It follows the story of Rachel Chu, an Asian American New Yorker, who travels to Singapore with her boyfriend, Nick Young, to celebrate his best friend’s ... Continued

The post CRAZY RICH ASIANS: A BOLD STEP FORWARD appeared first on Apex for Youth.


          Visa - For France & UK - Indian citizen / Working in Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hi,

I'm an Indian Citizen holding Employment Pass (not Permanent Residency) in Singapore.

I want to make a trip to London (23/24) - Paris (25/26 - Disneyland) - London (27/28) from Singapore.

I'm looking for Visa guidance on which visa / embassy should I apply for in Singapore. Any tips on landed tour agency in UK/ France would also help.
           Trade war will hurt S'pore, but ASEAN will uphold WTO rules      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Singapore Foreign Affairs Minister Vivian Balakrishnan has conveyed the country's concerns to both the US and China about the rising trade tensions between the two powers, reports Channel News Asia.Speaking to the press conference at the end of Association of Southeast Asian Nations meeting, Dr Balakrishnan explained that any trade war or unilateral sanctions has "disproportionate impact" on Singapore.Singapore has good relations with both the US and China, he said, and has "courteously and directly" expressed its position to both of them, he said, in response to questions from reporters."Obviously, we don't control the agenda of their decisions, but for what it is worth, we conveyed our concerns."Dr Balakrishnan's comments come amid escalating trade tensions between the US and China. In early July, the US imposed 25 per cent tariffs on US$34 billion of Chinese goods, prompting retaliatory tariffs on an equivalent volume of US exports to China. In response, China said it was prepared to impose new tariffs on US$60 billion worth of American goods.Dr Balakrishnan said Singapore believes in a multilateral, rules-based system, and noted that "in an ideal world", everyone resolves their differences on trade through the World Trade Organisation (WTO), or at least in a WTO-compliant fashion."It's not exactly identical to what the US or China may want, but Singapore gets to state what we believe in, because we say the same thing to both sides, they know that we are being transparent and honest, and we are not playing games," he said.He added that this position is "entirely consistent" with that of the ASEAN regional bloc.Nevertheless, he said, people acknowledged that there has been some progress, and the June 12 Singapore Summit did "change the tone of the conversation".Dr Balakrishnan also described ASEAN and China's arrival at a single draft negotiating text on the South China Sea code of conduct as a "significant milestone".He added that the single draft made a "big difference" to the tone of the discussion on the topic this time, as compared to previous ASEAN meetings.Asked if ASEAN if is at risk of becoming an arena for big power rivalry to play out, Dr Balakrishnan said: "We have no intention of allowing that to happen. We will be united, we will be relevant, we will maintain centrality and we will continue to convene these regional and extra-regional platforms."Dr Balakrishnan also revealed to reporters that an agreement has been reached to conclude negotiations on the ASEAN-European Union comprehensive Air Transport Agreement by the end of the year. Negotiations for an ASEAN-European Union Free Trade Agreement will also be negotiated.

Source: Transportweekly
          Top 5 Events in 2018 that Made Us Proud Singaporeans      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
For our nation’s 53rd birthday, let us recollect moments this year that would make you go
          3 Year JC?: Studying in the only Centralised Institute in Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
If you’re taking your O levels soon and you’re considering Millennia Institute as one of
          Prediksi Togel Singapore Hari Ini Rabu      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Prediksi Togel Hari Ini Singapore Tanggal 09 Agustus 2018 Kamis Prediksi Togel Hongkong dari Prediks
          Happy 53rd National Day Singapore!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
I would like to wish Singapore and my fellow Singaporeans a very happy 53rd National Day. Happy birt
          Elderly suicides on a rise in Singapore a serious misrepresentation of data      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
On 30 July, the Samaritans of Singapore (SOS) issued a press release, highlighting that while the to
          Newest Knee Replacement Options in Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Orthopaedic departments in Singaporean hospitals are always swamped with work, knee replacement surg
          Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Must do/see:  Marina Bay Sands Singapore Botanic Gardens Gardens by the bay Sentosa Beach
          Films at the Fort      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Fort Canning, Singapore
          Happy National Day! Well-wishes for Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
none
          New on 500px : Singapore park by manjik      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Gardens by the Bay in Singapore Feel free to follow me on : Instagram Facebook Flickr Twitter via 50
          New on 500px : Singapore park by manjik by manjik      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Gardens by the Bay in Singapore Feel free to follow me on : Instagram Facebook Flickr Twitter from 5
          Expeditor - Hijo International Trading Singapore Pte. Ltd - Tagum      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Inspects goods upon delivery to ensure the level of quality and quantity, and to ensure adherence to specifications.... PHP 12,000 - PHP 14,000 a month
From Indeed - Thu, 02 Aug 2018 05:45:21 GMT - View all Tagum jobs
          Donald Trump talks about G7 post Singapore summit      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
none
          Effects of Expiratory Muscle Strength Training on Airway Protection and Swallowing in Chronic Dysphagia After Radiation Therapy      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Condition:   Cancer of the Head and Neck
Intervention:   Device: Expiratory Muscle Strength Training (EMST)
Sponsor:   Singapore General Hospital
Not yet recruiting
          Ubuntu Server development summary – 07 August 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Ubuntu is available in Cloud Server Linux. Contact us to find out our latest offers! The purpose of this communication is to provide a status update and highlights for any interesting subjects from the Ubuntu Server Team. If you would like to reach the server team, you can find us Continue Reading

The post Ubuntu Server development summary – 07 August 2018 appeared first on ReadySpace Singapore.


          cPanel & WHM Version 74 to RELEASE!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

cPanel is a control panel for Web Hosting Providers available here – Cloud Server cPanel. Contact us to find out our latest offers! We are happy to announce that cPanel, Inc. has released cPanel & WHM Version 74 to the RELEASE tier! Version 74 includes updates for some of our biggest Continue Reading

The post cPanel & WHM Version 74 to RELEASE! appeared first on ReadySpace Singapore.


          GPU Accelerated SQL queries with PostgreSQL & PG-Strom in OpenShift-3.10      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Openshift is integrated with Cloud Infrastructure Server Cluster. Contact us to find out our latest offers! Introduction In the OpenShift 3.9 GPU blog, we leveraged machine learning frameworks on OpenShift for image recognition. And in the How To Use GPUs with DevicePlugin in OpenShift 3.10 blog, we installed and configured Continue Reading

The post GPU Accelerated SQL queries with PostgreSQL & PG-Strom in OpenShift-3.10 appeared first on ReadySpace Singapore.


          API Access and Live Video Stream Considerations With Wowza Streaming Cloud      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Wowza Media Server is integrated with Cloud Server Wowza. Contact us to find out our latest offers! In this video tutorial, we’ll walk you through gaining API access, and cover some key considerations for building a livestream app with Wowza Streaming Cloud. Wowza Media Server is integrated with Cloud Server Continue Reading

The post API Access and Live Video Stream Considerations With Wowza Streaming Cloud appeared first on ReadySpace Singapore.


          Zimbra ACTIV8 Vietnam a HUGE Success!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Zimbra is an enterprise collaboration software installed Cloud Server Linux. Contact us to find out our latest offers!

The post Zimbra ACTIV8 Vietnam a HUGE Success! appeared first on ReadySpace Singapore.


          School Administration Manager - Rainbow Centre, Singapore - Woodlands      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Administration Manager (AM) plays a key role in ensuring the smooth operations of the school and will assist the Principal/Vice Principal in all matters...
From Indeed - Wed, 25 Jul 2018 09:20:31 GMT - View all Woodlands jobs
          Account Manager - X-TRA Communication Pte Ltd - North-East Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
*Responsibilities* * Generate new sales, accounts and prospects in, amongst others, Enterprise Grade Network Infrastructure Setups and Communications Solutions...
From Indeed - Tue, 19 Jun 2018 02:45:49 GMT - View all North-East Singapore jobs
          Social Services Manager - Tzu Chi Singapore - Pasir Ris      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Assist Head of Department in the leading of Charity Development Department and overall administration of its services Casework Develop professional and...
From Tzu Chi Singapore - Wed, 18 Apr 2018 15:04:37 GMT - View all Pasir Ris jobs
          Embedded Software Engineer - Advanced Material Engineering Pte Ltd - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
• Design, architecture and implementation of embedded software systems • Participate in requirements and specifications capturing • Work with...
From Singapore Technologies Electronics - Wed, 18 Jul 2018 12:26:50 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          Production Controller (Contract for 2 years) - ST Engineering Land Systems Ltd. - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Access and perform basic functions related to production order and material visibility in SAP system Coordinate and facilitate movement of spares/Work in...
From Singapore Technologies Electronics - Wed, 13 Jun 2018 06:27:35 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          Technical Manager - ICS/NSD/TM/CCW - ST Electronics (Info-comm Systems) Pte Ltd - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Able to manage team where team member comprises of Intra and inter SBU. Scope, define, design & architect platform C4I solution based on project requirements....
From Singapore Technologies Electronics - Fri, 08 Jun 2018 12:27:25 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
           Hey friends iv'e purchased this bicycle at 6,700       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 5,500,
Hey friends iv'e purchased this bicycle at 6,700 and im liking to sell it .
I haven't driven it for more than one month.
""SLIGHTLY "" negotiable
9.2.4.6.3.9.4.7.8.6 cont me https://www.olx.in/item/hey-friends-ive-purchased-this-bicycle-at-6-700-ID1mAoOr.html
           Un used in good condition       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 3,500,
Un used in good condition https://www.olx.in/item/un-used-in-good-condition-ID1mAoJr.html
           Brand New Hero kyoto 26T single speed sealed box       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 3,500,
Brand New Hero kyoto 26T single speed sealed box Available https://www.olx.in/item/brand-new-hero-kyoto-26t-single-speed-sealed-box-ID1mAoGT.html
           Brand New Hero Kyoto 26T (Black)       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 3,999,
Wish to sell Brand New unusesd Hero Kyoto 26T Cycle (Black)
at just 3999 Rs
Contact me on 9.7.7.31.14.15.5/Whats.App https://www.olx.in/item/brand-new-hero-kyoto-26t-black-ID1mAoxw.html
           Brand New Hero kyoto 26T single speed sealed box       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 3,500,
Brand New Hero kyoto 26T single speed sealed box Available https://www.olx.in/item/brand-new-hero-kyoto-26t-single-speed-sealed-box-ID1mAoqH.html
           Brand new cycle for sell       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 3,200,
Brand new cycle for sell https://www.olx.in/item/brand-new-cycle-for-sell-ID1mAonz.html
           Silver Bicycle Chain       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 4,500, IR Generated Title: 1 , IR Generated Description: 1 , IR Generated Category: 1 ,
Silver Bicycle Chain https://www.olx.in/item/silver-bicycle-chain-ID1mAohh.html
           Mongoose fat tyre cycle       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 15,000,
Mongoose fat tyre cycle https://www.olx.in/item/mongoose-fat-tyre-cycle-ID1mAobj.html
           BMW Foldable Cycle       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 15,500,
BMW Foldable Cycle https://www.olx.in/item/bmw-foldable-cycle-ID1mAo8p.html
           Brand new sealed pack. Not negotiable       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 4,200,
Brand new sealed pack. Not negotiable, new item hai not old
If you buy 2 pieces then 7500 last price , thank you https://www.olx.in/item/brand-new-sealed-pack-not-negotiable-ID1mAo6r.html
           Car driving training       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 2,000, IR Generated Title: 0, IR Generated Description: 0, IR Generated Category: 1 ,
Car driving training https://www.olx.in/item/car-driving-training-ID1mAo5x.html
           Mongoose fat tyre cycle       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 15,000,
Mongoose fat tyre cycle https://www.olx.in/item/mongoose-fat-tyre-cycle-ID1mAo13.html
           Biccycil good candishan. 63 974.. 64 .. 8 4       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 1,800,
Biccycil good candishan 63 974 64 8 4 six https://www.olx.in/item/biccycil-good-candishan-63-974-64-8-4-ID1mAnOH.html
           Cb hornet 160r 2 yrss old Vs 4 engine Engine       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 67,000,
Cb hornet 160r
2 yrss old
Vs 4 engine
Engine sealed pack
No need to repair jst take n ride...
16km running exchange also.. https://www.olx.in/item/cb-hornet-160r-2-yrss-old-vs-4-engine-engine-ID1mAnER.html
           BTWN Bike 13 gears.       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 8,000,
BTWN Bike 13 gears. https://www.olx.in/item/btwn-bike-13-gears-ID1mAnAt.html
           Only 1month used full tip top condition       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 11,786,
Only 1month used full tip top condition https://www.olx.in/item/only-1month-used-full-tip-top-condition-ID1mAnxF.html
           Mach city FRAME The Mach City iBike Multi Speed       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 7,999,
Mach city

FRAME

The Mach City iBike Multi Speed is built with a light weight Steel frame designed with a comfort oriented geometry and excellent durability for urban cyclists.

GEARING

The iBike Multi Speed from Mach City is equipped with a 1 x 7 speed Shimano Tourney rear derailleur with an eas... https://www.olx.in/item/mach-city-frame-the-mach-city-ibike-multi-speed-ID1jJ7Ht.html
           Hero cycle new condition       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 4,500,
Hero cycle new condition https://www.olx.in/item/hero-cycle-new-condition-ID1mAno9.html
           New Audi foldable 21 gears foldable bicycles in all colours       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 15,500,
New Audi foldable 21gears foldable bicycles in all colours https://www.olx.in/item/new-audi-foldable-21-gears-foldable-bicycles-in-all-colours-ID1mAngj.html
           contact 81267148.74       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 175, IR Generated Title: 0, IR Generated Description: 0, IR Generated Category: 1 ,
contact 81267148.74 https://www.olx.in/item/contact-81267148-74-ID1mAnj5.html
           Condition is good 5 gear       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 6,500,
Condition is good 5 gear https://www.olx.in/item/condition-is-good-5-gear-ID1mAndp.html
           New bmw x6 21 gears foldable bicycles in all       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 15,500,
New bmw x6 21 gears foldable bicycles in all colours https://www.olx.in/item/new-bmw-x6-21-gears-foldable-bicycles-in-all-ID1mAn9T.html
           Pink And Blue Half-button Shirt Screenshot       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 150, IR Generated Title: 1 , IR Generated Description: 1 , IR Generated Category: 1 ,
Pink And Blue Half-button Shirt Screenshot https://www.olx.in/item/pink-and-blue-half-button-shirt-screenshot-ID1mAn7Z.html
           New bmw x6 21 gears foldable bicycles in all       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 15,500,
New bmw x6 21 gears foldable bicycles in all colours https://www.olx.in/item/new-bmw-x6-21-gears-foldable-bicycles-in-all-ID1mAn7j.html
           New Mercedes Benz 21 gears foldable bicycles in       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 15,500,
New Mercedes Benz 21 gears foldable bicycles in all colours https://www.olx.in/item/new-mercedes-benz-21-gears-foldable-bicycles-in-ID1mAn4L.html
           Avon cycle with two shocker. Argent need to sell       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 2,500,
Avon cycle with two shocker.
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           New bmw x6 21 gears foldable bicycles in all       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Price: ₹ 15,500,
New bmw x6 21 gears foldable bicycles in all colours https://www.olx.in/item/new-bmw-x6-21-gears-foldable-bicycles-in-all-ID1mAn2f.html
           New Mercedes Benz 21 gears foldable bicycles in       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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          Cities Are Taxing Ride-Hailing Services Like Uber and Lyft. Is This a Good Thing?      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Cities Are Taxing Ride-Hailing Services Like Uber and Lyft. Is This a Good Thing?

With ride-hailing services like Uber and Lyft continuing to gain popularity and drawing attention for their impact on congestion and other urban ills, cities from Washington to São Paulo are moving to the seemingly inevitable next step: special taxes.

This is unsurprising. Recent research shows that ride-hailing services are contributing to dropping public transport rates and increased private vehicle travel on already-clogged streets.

However, new taxes and fees shouldn't just raise revenue. They can do more than that: they can make cities more livable and transport more sustainable. If ride-hailing is taxed, the mechanism and revenue should be used in carefully targeted ways that improve urban mobility overall.

Taxes on Ride-Hailing Enter the Scene

More than a handful of governments have enacted or are considering fees or taxes, that range from flat-rate fees per ride to taxing as a percent of the ride to systems that target certain types and locations of trips.

These take a variety of forms. For example, Mexico City charges 1.5 percent of ride fare; Washington, D.C., recently raised its tax from 1 to 6 percent of ride fare. Massachusetts levies a 20-cent tax on every trip. Porto Alegre has a monthly fee per licensed vehicle.

A full inventory of city measures to gain revenue from ride-hailing services is provided in a spreadsheet compiled by WRI Ross Center for Sustainable Cities.

Improving Mobility for the City

While new taxes bring in new revenue, these monies aren't necessarily making it easier to get around. For example, in Rhode Island a 7 percent tax on ride-hailing sends revenue directly to the state's general fund. In Philadelphia, a 1.4 percent tax sends money mostly to schools and the remaining third to the city's parking authority. These taxes are also not high enough to change travel behavior in a meaningful way, since transport can sometimes be less sensitive to higher prices.

A tax or charge on ride-hailing—and private traffic as a whole—should improve cities' transport systems overall, as stated in the Shared Mobility Principles for Livable Cities: "Every vehicle and mode should pay their fair share for road use, congestion, pollution, and use of curb space. The fair share shall take the operating, maintenance and social costs into account."

While ride-hailing trends are still changing, and will continue to change as technologies evolve, here are considerations for any city to contemplate in levying taxes that not only raise money but improve mobility for residents too:

1. Encourage more sustainable trips for all users. Any discussion should begin with a consideration of allvehicle traffic. People driving their own private cars continue to dominate traffic, and cause congestion, in most cities.

Places like London, Singapore and Stockholm are known for their congestion charges, but no city has yet comprehensively factored in ride-hailing.

Efforts to charge all road users are bubbling up, however. New York City flirted with a proposal to implement a congestion charging zone coupled with ride-hailing fees, but the State of New York balked and implemented only the ride-hailing fees, leaving anyone driving their own personal car into Manhattan's central business district untouched.

If cities are going ahead with taxes only on ride-hailing, they should encourage sustainable and shared travel over single-occupant rides. This means taxing ride-hailing as a percent of the fare or indexing to distance travelled, rather than a flat fee that would be the same regardless of the ride fare or distance. Most cities are already going this route.

Moreover, shared rides can be taxed at a lower rate than solo rides, or rather, solo rides could be taxed more to incentivize pooled rides. A current proposal in Washington, D.C., aims to reduce the planned tax to 1 percent for pooled rides.

<p>São Paulo has some interesting wrinkles to its ridesharing tax. Flickr/Arnaud Matar</p>

São Paulo has some interesting wrinkles to its ridesharing tax. Flickr/Arnaud Matar

2. Promote equity and access. Taxes should encourage service to transit-poor areas of the city and connectivity to transit generally. Most especially, they shouldn't hinder new mobility services where they may provide low-cost rides to residents in low-income areas or areas poorly serviced by public transport.

São Paulo, the first city to regulate ride-hailing in Brazil, applies its tax according not only to vehicle miles traveled but also equity factors such as whether a driver is a woman and whether the vehicle is accessible to the handicapped. Shared, electric/hybrid, off-peak and weekend trips are all further discounted. A next consideration of cities may be how to incentivize integration with public transit or access to poorly service areas.

3. Invest revenue in multiple modes. Revenue from ride-hailing taxes, like many existing gas taxes or subway fares, should go toward improving mobility systems. It's also important to support other modes of transport beyond the large public transit systems most commonly assumed to suffer from ride-hailing (like metro rail and buses). Improving road safety or adding bicycle lanes and pedestrian spaces are also ways to support a more holistic approach to urban transport.

Washington, DC's 6 percent tax on all ride-hail fares will fund the metro area's public transport agency, yet it is limited to public transport and not aimed at increasing cycling or walking. Fortaleza, Brazil, on the other hand, reduces its 2 percent tax on every trip to 1 percent for companies that make contributions towards urban mobility projects, such as sidewalks, bus lanes, bicycle lanes and bikeshare stations.

Ironically, a more useful guide may be London's congestion charge, which exempts for-hire vehicles such as ride-hailing services. To reduce traffic in highly-congested areas, the city charges all cars entering central London and uses the £1.7 billion ($2.2 billion) revenue to improve bus services, bicycle commuting and walking, and road safety. And recently, Transport for London is proposing expansion of its congestion charge to for-hire vehicles.

How Does Ride-Hailing Fit the Bigger Picture?

As new mobility services change cities and the way people move, today's decisions on taxes and other regulations can help shape a more sustainable mobility for all. There is more to consider, in terms of how to tax, how much to charge and where to send revenues—but taking a more holistic approach to understanding the impact of those policies is a good start.


          Chinese Immersion Classroom Instructional Assistant - Singapore American School - Woodlands      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Supervision and Student Care. The Instructional Assistant is responsible for working within the Immersion Program to support the learning, safety and emotional...
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          Admissions Specialist - Singapore American School - Woodlands      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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          Việt Nam phải ngụy trang khi sang Mỹ mua vũ khí?       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Tướng Đỗ Bá Tỵ tại Ngũ Giác Đài, 23 tháng Bảy, 2018. (DoD photo by Air Force Master Sgt. Angelita M. Lawrence)

Phải mất đến hai năm kể từ lúc Tổng thống Mỹ Barak Obama bất ngờ tuyên bố dỡ bỏ hoàn toàn lệnh cấm bán vũ khí sát thương cho Việt Nam vào tháng Năm năm 2016, Bộ Quốc phòng Việt Nam mới thỏa thuận được hợp đồng đầu tiên mua vũ khí của Mỹ, giá trị gần 100 triệu USD, dù chưa được tiết lộ là bao gồm các loại vũ khí nào và liệu có được Quốc hội Hoa Kỳ chuẩn thuận hay không.

Quốc hội Việt Nam đi mua vũ khí Mỹ?

Điều tréo ngoe là một lần nữa trong rất nhiều lần, tin tức trên được tiết lộ từ phía Mỹ, qua đài VOA, chứ không phải do chính thể Việt Nam vốn bị Tổ chức Minh bạch quốc tế (TI) xếp vào nhóm chót bảng thế giới về độ minh bạch.

Một sự thể oái oăm khác là đơn đặt hàng trên có vẻ không được giao kết bởi giới quan chức Bộ Quốc phòng Việt Nam, mà lại thông qua… Quốc hội nước này.

Trước khi tin tức trên xuất hiện trên VOA vào ngày 2/8/2018, đã có một chuyến công du đến Mỹ của Phó chủ tịch Quốc hội Việt Nam Đỗ Bá Tỵ. Khác với chuyến công du Hoa Kỳ trước đây vào năm 2013 trên cương vị Thứ trưởng Bộ quốc phòng Việt Nam, vào lần này Phó chủ tịch quốc hội Đỗ Bá Tỵ không phải thăm viếng lưỡng viện Hoa Kỳ mà đã đến thẳng Lầu Năm Góc - nơi ở đó quan chức này được đón tiếp bởi Thứ trưởng Bộ Quốc phòng Mỹ Patrick M. Shanahan vào ngày 23/7.

Tuy nhiên, chuyến công du Hoa Kỳ lần này của ông Tỵ chỉ được báo chí nhà nước Việt Nam tường thuật ngắn gọn đến mức khiến phát sinh dư luận cho rằng chẳng biết vị phó chủ tịch quốc hội này thực chất đi Mỹ để làm gì, hay chỉ là một chuyến du ngoạn như cái cách mà vào năm ngoái viên thứ trưởng Bộ quốc phòng Nguyễn Chí Vịnh đã đến Mỹ để trao trả vài lá thư thời chiến tranh Việt Nam cho cựu phi công bị bắn rơi là John McCain.

Trước đại hội 12 của đảng cầm quyền ở Việt Nam vào đầu năm 2016, Đỗ Bá Tỵ mang cấp hàng đại tướng, là Thứ trưởng Bộ Quốc phòng. Tuy nhiên vì bị xem là ‘cánh Nguyễn Tấn Dũng’ (thủ tướng Việt Nam khi đó), ông tướng quân đội Đỗ Bá Tỵ đã bị điều chuyển sang Quốc hội làm cấp phó cho bà Nguyễn Thị Kim Ngân ăn mặc diêm dúa ngay sau đại hội 12.

Cuộc gặp của Đỗ Bá Tỵ với Patrick M. Shanahan trong cuộc gặp cuối tháng Bảy năm 2018 lại đề cập đến hàng loạt vấn đề thuộc khối quốc phòng, chứ không phải là nội dung của quốc hội, như an ninh trên biển, gìn giữ hòa bình, quân y và an ninh mạng, và đặc biệt là Biển Đông – một chủ đề đang rất nhanh chóng biến thành mối xung đột tay ba Mỹ - Trung - Việt.

Trong khi chuyến công du Hoa Kỳ của Đỗ Bá Tỵ vẫn còn gây nghi ngờ trong giới quan sát chính trị về vai trò của ông Tỵ không biết về thực chất là Phó chủ tịch quốc hội hay ‘Đại tướng’ thay mặt cho Bộ Quốc phòng Việt Nam, chỉ hai tuần sau đó, một quan chức Bộ Ngoại giao Mỹ bất ngờ khẳng định với VOA tiếng Việt rằng Việt Nam có các hợp đồng mua các thiết bị quân sự với Hoa Kỳ trị giá tới 94,7 triệu đôla.

Quan chức này nói thêm: “Tuy nhiên, chúng tôi lưu ý rằng Việt Nam hiện có 24 trường hợp trong chương trình Mua bán Quân sự Nước ngoài với tổng trị giá là 69,7 triệu đôla”.

Theo VOA Việt Ngữ, các vụ này đã được thông báo cho Quốc hội Mỹ và đang trong các giai đoạn khác nhau để triển khai và chuyển giao cho Việt Nam. Trong khoảng thời gian từ năm 2012 tới 2017, Bộ Ngoại giao Mỹ cũng đã cho phép Việt Nam mua các mặt hàng quân sự, trong đó có các thiết bị điện tử quân sự, trị giá 25 triệu đôla thông qua chương trình Mua bán Thương mại Trực tiếp. Mua bán Quân sự Nước ngoài (FMS) và Mua bán Thương mại Trực tiếp (DCS) là hai chương trình chính để Hoa Kỳ chuyển giao các dịch vụ và thiết bị quốc phòng cho đồng minh và đối tác. Cụ thể, FMS là một chương trình chuyển giao giữa hai chính phủ. Theo đó, Bộ Ngoại giao Mỹ thông qua đơn đặt hàng, rồi đối tác trả tiền cho thiết bị và Bộ Quốc phòng Mỹ sử dụng hệ thống của mình để mua rồi chuyển cho đối tác. Trong khi đó, theo chương trình DCS, đối tác đạt thỏa thuận với một nhà sản xuất Mỹ, nhưng nhà sản xuất phải được Bộ Ngoại giao Hoa Kỳ cấp giấy phép thông qua vụ mua bán trước khi chuyển giao thiết bị…

Đến lúc này, vai trò đi Mỹ của Đỗ Bá Tỵ đã dần lộ ra: Bộ Chính trị Việt Nam muốn cho ông Tỵ ‘sắm hai vai’ - vừa lập lờ trong tư thế ‘cựu thứ trưởng quốc phòng’ để làm việc với Bộ Quốc phòng Mỹ về mua vũ khí, vừa trong vai trò một quan chức cao cấp của Quốc hội để vận động Quốc hội Hoa Kỳ mau chóng thông qua chương trình cho Việt Nam mua vũ khí của Mỹ.

Trong khi đó, đã không có bất kỳ quan chức lãnh đạo nào của Bộ Quốc phòng Việt Nam xuất hiện để ký kết với Mỹ về mua vũ khí.

Vì sao thế?

‘Đảng anh’ và ‘đảng em’

Lý do đơn giản và dễ hiểu nhất vẫn là lời truyền miệng dân gian đương đại: ‘đảng em’ Việt Nam luôn lo ngại và sợ hãi ‘đảng anh’ Trung Quốc. Bối cảnh Biển Đông đang khá nhanh lao vào không khí xung đột giữa Mỹ với Trung Quốc và đương nhiên kéo theo kẻ phải chịu số phận ‘lời nguyền địa lý’ là Việt Nam đã luôn khiến Bộ Chính trị đảng Việt Nam nhất cử nhất động đều sợ sệt Bắc Kinh.

Một trong những bằng chứng hùng hồn nhất về ý chí tăng trưởng đến mức á khẩu như thế là kể từ đầu năm 2016 khi quân đội Trung Quốc đưa tên lửa ra đảo Phú Lâm thuộc quần đảo Hoàng Sa - nơi mà từ năm 1974 đến nay chỉ còn tồn tại trên bản đồ hành chính Việt Nam như tên gọi một địa danh, Bộ Quốc phòng Việt Nam đã chẳng hề dám công bố bất kỳ thông tin nào về động tác trả đũa, dù rằng vào nửa cuối năm 2016 cơ quan rất có năng khiếu về ‘kinh tế quốc phòng’ này - như công trình sân golf Tân Sơn Nhất gây bão tố dư luận xã hội - đã được báo chí phương Tây phát hiện đã đưa tên lửa ra quần đảo Trường Sa nhằm ‘dằn mặt’ Trung Quốc.

Chỉ sau cơn khủng hoảng mang tên ‘Hải Dương 981’ vào năm 2014 và sau vụ tên lửa Trung Quốc năm 2016, đến gần đây mới hiện ra những bằng chứng cho thấy chính thể Việt Nam và quân đội bị xem là không có mấy tinh thần ‘sẵn sàng chiến đấu’ của nước này muốn gia cố lại hệ thống vũ khí và khí tài quân sự đã khá lạc hậu sau nhiều năm dùng của Liên Xô.

Một trong những bằng chứng quan tâm đến vũ khí phương Tây là sau khi được dỡ bỏ lệnh cấm mua vũ khí sát thương, Việt Nam đã âm thầm mua chịu nửa tỷ USD tín dụng quân sự của Ấn Độ và hỏa tiễn của Israel - đều là những đồng minh quân sự của Mỹ.

Thế nhưng lịch sử quá ngắn ngủi về ‘mua vũ khí Mỹ’ của Việt Nam lại không hề thuận buồm xuôi gió, đặc biệt quá kém tính trong sáng.

‘Lại quả’

Vào tháng Tám năm 2017, đài VOA dẫn lại một phát hiện độc đáo trong bài viết có tựa đề “Quan chức Việt Nam đòi Mỹ ‘lại quả’ từ các hợp đồng mua vũ khí”.

‘Lại quả’ là một từ lóng thuộc về dân làm ăn khuất tất, chạy chọt và hối lộ ở miền Bắc Việt Nam.

Theo đó, một hãng tin tình báo quốc phòng của Anh đã tiết lộ rằng các quan chức chính phủ Việt Nam yêu cầu các đối tác của Mỹ trả 25% hoa hồng cho các thương vụ mua bán vũ khí.

Thông tin của Shephard Media trích dẫn một nguồn tin quốc phòng của Mỹ cho biết các giới chức quốc phòng Việt Nam thông báo cho phái đoàn của Mỹ ở Hà Nội rằng các thương vụ mua bán vũ khí phải được “lại quả” 1/4 của tổng giá trị. Cũng theo nguồn tin này, cuộc họp đã “đột ngột dừng lại” sau khi phía Việt Nam đưa ra yêu cầu đó. Nguồn tin quốc phòng Mỹ cho Shephard Media biết thông tin này tại một Hội nghị và triển lãm phòng thủ hàng hải IMDEX được tổ chức ở Singapore tháng 5/2017…

Chưa đầy 1/% của ‘12 tỷ đô thương mại’!

Ngân sách quốc phòng của Việt Nam đã tăng từ 1,3 tỷ đôla lên đến 4,6 tỷ đôla (tăng 258%) trong vòng 10 năm, từ năm 2006 - 2015, và hiện thời chiếm khoảng 9% tổng chi ngân sách quốc gia.

Tuy nhiên, ngày càng nhiều thông tin cho biết ngân sách quốc phòng phải “giật gấu vá vai” trong những năm qua, đặc biệt trong bối cảnh ngân sách quốc gia có xu hướng cạn kiệt nhanh chóng và Việt Nam đặc biệt thiếu ngoại tệ để nhập khẩu hàng hóa và trả nợ nước ngoài.

Nói cách khác, Việt Nam đang rơi vào hố trũng hết tiền. Hết tiền cho nhiều chương trình, dự án đầu tư phát triển và cho cả quốc phòng.

Hẳn đó là nguồn cơn sâu xa vì sao những bản hợp đồng đầu tiên của Việt Nam mua vũ khí Mỹ chưa đầy 100 triệu USD - chỉ bằng chưa đầy 1/% so với giá trị các hợp đồng thương mại trên danh nghĩa mà chưa có cơ sở nào để coi là thực chất - mà Thủ tướng Phúc đã mang nụ cười cầu tài mang đến Washington tháng Năm năm 2017 để ve vuốt Tổng thống Trump.


Phạm Chí Dũng
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          ‘Some people think I’m crazy’: What makes Singapore’s ant-man tick      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
When the sun goes down, Zat Low collects creatures the rest of society considers to be pests. To him, keeping ants isn’t only a hobby, but a source of solace that’s provided much more.
          Former President Tony Tan tops list of National Day Awards recipients      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
SINGAPORE: Former President Tony Tan Keng Yam was given the top honour at this year’s National Day Awards, receiving the Order of Temasek (First Class) on Thursday (Aug 9). He was among 4,624 people who were recognised for their significant contributions to the nation. Recipients came from varied ...
          Woman fined for allowing maids to climb scaffold to clean windows of two-storey bungalow      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
SINGAPORE: A woman who failed to provide a safe working environment for her two maids and employed them as a scaffolder and maintenance worker illegally was fined S$46,000 in total on Wednesday (Aug 8).  Willow Phua Brest, 46, pleaded guilty to four charges of breaching work permit conditions and ...
          11 defective trains sent back to China repaired and returned to Singapore: LTA      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
SINGAPORE: Eleven defective trains sent back to China for repairs have been repaired and returned to Singapore, according to an update from the Land Transport Authority (LTA) on Wednesday (Aug 8). It was revealed in 2016 that defects were found on 26 North-South and East-West Line China-made SMRT ...
          UPDATE 3-Cathay Pacific losses narrow on higher air fares, sees better H2      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
*Posts loss of HK $263 million for H1 2018; costs rise. SHANGHAI/ SINGAPORE, Aug 8- Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd posted a narrower half-year loss on a strong rise in airfares and cargo rates and flagged expectations for a better second half, although its failure to curb costs fueled market concerns. The airline is halfway through its turnaround schedule that has been...
          UPDATE 2-Cathay Pacific narrows losses on higher air fares, flags better H2      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
*Posts loss of HK $263 million for H1 2018; costs rise. SHANGHAI/ SINGAPORE Aug 8- Cathay Pacific Airways Ltd on Wednesday posted a narrower half-year loss on a strong rise in airfares and cargo rates and flagged expectations for a better second half, although its failure to curb costs fuelled market concerns. Shares of the Hong Kong airline fell 3.3 percent to their...
          Commentary: Kampung spirit not a wish to revert to the past, but a longing for togetherness      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Many Singaporeans long for the sense of community and resilience we shared in the kampung, says famed author Josephine Chia.
          Lý Minh Thuận, Phạm Văn Phương tái hợp màn ảnh sau 9 năm kết hôn      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Sau 9 năm kể từ ngày thành thân, cặp sao nức tiếng Singapore Lý Minh Thuận và Phạm Văn Phương hiệp tác trở lại trong bộ phim truyền hình Kẻ thế vai (Doppelganger) . Tác phẩm đánh dấu sự tái hợp của đôi uyên ương, sau bộ phim hài lãng mạn The Wedding Game, năm 2009.

Trailer phim "Kẻ thế vai"

Lý Minh Thuận, Phạm Văn Phương tái hợp màn ảnh sau 10 năm kết hôn#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000
Lý Minh Thuận, Phạm Văn Phương tái hợp màn ảnh sau 10 năm thành hôn

san sẻ về lần tái hợp này, Lý Minh Thuận tiết lậu: " Trong dĩ vãng, chúng tôi hợp tác khi cả hai là thanh niên và đốn đóng phim thần tượng. Giờ đây, cả hai đã có nhiều kinh nghiệm sống và trưởng thành, hy vọng sẽ cho mọi người thấy sự khác biệt trong cách diễn xuất". Trong khi đó, bà xã anh tiết lộ: " trở nên bố mẹ đã đổi thay nhận thức và hiểu biết trong tình cảm của chúng tôi. Hơn thế nữa, cả hai đã có một thời kì vui vẻ khi cùng nhau diễn xuất". dự định, phim sẽ lên sóng HTV7 lúc 12h30 từ thứ hai đến thứ bảy từ ngày 8/8/2018.

Kẻ thế vai là câu chuyện về một người đàn ông mạo xưng thương gia phong lưu - người được cho là đã thiệt mạng trong một tai nạn. Trong phim, nhân vật của Lý Minh Thuận là kẻ đào hoa, lăng loàn. Ngôi sao Singapore tâm can vợ không hề ghen khi anh tình tứ với cô gái khác: "Tôi không phải hỏi Văn Phương khi đóng cảnh thân tình hay hôn nhau với các nữ diễn viên khác, cô ấy đích thực tin cậy tôi".

Văn Phương và Minh Thuận trong một bức ảnh chia sẻ trên mạng xã hội hồi đầu tháng 7.

Văn Phương và Minh Thuận trong một bức ảnh Chia sẻ trên mạng từng lớp hồi đầu tháng 7.

Lý Minh Thuận - Phạm Văn Phương được ví là cặp kim đồng - ngọc nữ Singapore. Gần 20 năm bên nhau, họ không chỉ khiến khán giả ái mộ vì tình cảm thắm thiết như thuở ban đầu, mà còn bởi bộ sưu tập các tác phẩm phim ảnh đóng chung đa dạng. Hai người vừa là tình nhân trên màn ảnh, vừa là bạn đời của nhau.

Phạm Văn Phương và Lý Minh Thuận hợp tác lần trước tiên vào năm 1996 trong bộ phim Một đường phong trần . Trong phim, Lý Minh Thuận vào vai Lý Gia Lạc còn Phạm Văn Phương diễn vai Lâm Hiểu Vân.

Năm 1998, họ tái hợp với câu chuyện tình kinh điển giữa chàng đại hiệp Dương Quá và nàng Tiểu Long Nữ xinh đẹp. Thần Điêu Đại Hiệp 1998 cũng chính là bộ phim "se duyên" cho cặp đôi Phạm - Lý.

Sau đó, hai người tiếp chuyện hợp tác trong một số bộ phim như: Khóa sao (2000), Thanh xà bạch xà (2001), Có tình có nghĩa (2002), Bôn nguyệt (2003)...

Vợ chồng Văn Phương - Minh Thuận.

Vợ chồng Văn Phương - thi bằng lái xe a2 Minh Thuận.

Năm 2009, cặp sao chính thức tuyên bố thành hôn. Hôn lễ của họ được phát sóng trực tiếp trên truyền hình Singapore. Sau khi hôn phối, Phạm Văn Phương dần rút lui khỏi làng giải trí để chuyên tâm chăm lo cho gia đình, trong khi Lý Minh Thuận vẫn nối sự nghiệp đóng phim. Năm 2014, Văn Phương sinh con trai đầu lòng, khiến cuộc sống hôn nhân càng thêm viên mãn.

Ảnh : News

Nguyễn nhang


          Nhà máy lọc dầu Nghi Sơn sẽ đạt 100% công suất vào tháng 9      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Nhà máy lọc dầu Nghi Sơn sẽ đạt 100% công suất vào tháng 9#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000

Nhà máy lọc dầu trị giá 9 tỷ USD này sẽ cho phép Việt Nam giảm lượng xăng và dầu diesel du nhập từ các nước hàng xóm như Hàn Quốc, Singapore và Malaysia.

Hãng tin Bloomberg dẫn lời giám đốc điều hành nhà máy lọc dầu Nghi Sơn cho biết nhà máy lọc dầu lớn nhất Việt Nam đang gia tăng vận hành và dự định sẽ đạt công suất tối đa vào tháng tới, chậm hơn kế hoạch ban sơ 16 tháng do một số vấn đề trong quá trình xây dựng.

Chia sẻ trong buổi phỏng vấn được thực hiện tại nhà máy ở Thanh Hóa, Tổng giám đốc Shintaro Ishida cho biết theo kế hoạch nhà máy lọc dầu Nghi Sơn sẽ bắt đầu sản xuất thương mại vào 15/11 tới. Nhà máy đang trên lịch trình đạt công suất xử lý tối đa 200.000 thùng dầu thô mỗi ngày vào tháng 9, sau đó sẽ hoàn thành các cuộc kiểm nghiệm và hoàn tất các thủ tục cấp thiết để chính thức đi vào hoạt động thương mại giữa tháng 11.

Kuwait Petroleum (1 tập đoàn quốc doanh của Kuwait) và tập đoàn Idemitsu Kosan của Nhật Bản mỗi bên sở hữu 35% cổ phần của nhà máy lọc dầu Nghi Sơn. Theo ông Ishida, nguyên cớ chính khiến liên doanh này – được biết đến với tên gọi chính thức là Công ty TNHH liên hiệp Lọc hóa dầu Nghi Sơn – chậm tiến độ hơn so với kế hoạch ban đầu là do một số vấn đề trong quá trình xây dựng mà chủ yếu là "một số lỗi kỹ thuật về hàn". Nhà máy dự kiến sẽ có thể xuất khẩu các sản phẩm nhiên liệu vào tháng 9 và tháng 10 tới, có thể là tới các thị trường ở châu Á, sau đó sẽ chuyển hướng hoàn toàn tiêu thụ sản phẩm tại Việt Nam.

Nhà máy lọc dầu trị giá 9 tỷ USD này sẽ cho phép Việt Nam giảm lượng xăng và dầu diesel nhập khẩu từ các nước láng giềng như Hàn Quốc, Singapore và Malaysia. Với việc xử dụng dầu thô nhập từ Kuwait, Nghi Sơn cũng là 1 phần trong xu hướng các nước phá hoang dầu ở Trung Đông đang tìm cách đầu tư vào các nhà máy lọc dầu ở châu Á để bảo đảm doanh thu ở khu vực tiêu thụ dầu lớn nhất thế giới này. Việt Nam cũng được đánh giá là 1 thị trường đầy tiềm năng với tốc độ tăng trưởng kinh tế đạt 6,8% trong quý II, dự kiến sẽ tiếp ở trong nhóm các nền kinh tế tăng trưởng nhanh nhất thế giới.

Nghi Sơn đang nhắm tới thị trường nội địa để bán các sản phẩm xăng dầu, diesel và nhiên liệu máy bay. Cùng lúc đó, phải nhu cầu và tình hình thị trường ở nước ngoài đủ tốt, "chúng tôi sẽ xem xét xuất khẩu" có thể là sau tháng 10, ông Ishida cho biết. Trên nguyên tắc thì nhà máy đã được Chính phủ cấp phép xuất khẩu, mặc dầu vậy, vẫn cần phải xin giấy phép cho từng đợt xuất hàng.

Nhà máy sẽ bắt thi bằng lái xe a2 đầu sản xuất polypropylene và các sản phẩm hóa dầu khác từ năm 2019, và sẽ bán chúng cho các đối tác Nhật Bản và Kuwait. Nhà máy dự kiến sẽ tạm dừng để bảo dưỡng định kỳ vào tháng 4 và tháng 5 năm sau, giám đốc điều hành Ishida cho biết.

Thu Hương

Theo Nhịp sống kinh tế/Bloomberg


          A goat herd is helping Trump pay tens of thousands of dollars less in property taxes on his New Jersey properties      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Trump Goats bedminister

  • A goat herd is helping President Donald Trump pay thousands of dollars less in property taxes on his New Jersey properties, thanks to a state law designed to benefit farmers.
  • The Wall Street Journal estimated in 2016 that Trump paid less than $1,000 a year in property taxes on land that would typically require roughly $80,000. 

President Donald Trump is able to pay tens of thousands of dollars less in property taxes on his New Jersey golf courses because of a goat herd, according to The Wall Street Journal.

Citing public records, The Journal reported in 2016 that Trump had been able to save thousands of dollars in property taxes on his two properties in Bedminster — where he is this week for a "working vacation" — and Colts Neck. Because the properties have a goat herd, as well as hay farming and woodcutting, New Jersey law permits them to receive a farmland tax break.

Therefore, Trump pays reduced property taxes on the parts of his golf courses dedicated to farming, the report says.

Trump National Golf Club in Bedminster maintains 113 acres of hay farming and eight goats, and the property in Colts Neck has 40 acres of hay production and trees, The Journal reported, citing tax-break applications reviewed in 2016 during the presidential campaign.

The Journal estimated that Trump paid less than $1,000 a year in property taxes on land that would typically require roughly $80,000.

The farmland-assessment program Trump is benefitting from was added to the New Jersey Constitution in 1963 to prevent overdevelopment in the already crowded Garden State, the report says.

The tax break is both popular and controversial in New Jersey, a state that has some of the highest property taxes in the country and is trying to maintain a semblance of its agricultural history as its population density continues to rise.

At the time of the Journal report, Trump's New Jersey properties, both of which are in wealthy areas of the state known for their horse farms, had last been approved for farmland assessments in 2015.

It's not the first time Trump has received a tax break for one of his properties. Trump famously received massive tax breaks from New York City on some of his most notable real-estate projects, including Trump Tower and The Grand Hyatt.

SEE ALSO: US government reportedly spent at least $60,000 at Trump's Scottish golf resort

DON'T MISS: Trump is on a 'working vacation' at his private golf club in Bedminster, New Jersey. Here's how his vacation time compares to past presidents.

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          FBI arrests GOP congressman on insider-trading charges      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Chris Collins

  • Rep. Chris Collins, a New York Republican, was arrested by the FBI and charged with securities fraud.
  • Federal prosecutors say Collins engaged in insider trading of the stock of Innate Immunotherapeutics, an Australian biotech company for which Collins was a board member.
  • A congressional ethics report in 2017 found that the congressman was able to buy discounted Innate stock that was not available to the public.

Rep. Chris Collins, a New York Republican, was arrested Wednesday by the FBI and indicted on allegations of securities fraud.

The indictment accuses Collins of passing nonpublic information about a tiny Australian biotech company whose board he served on, Innate Immunotherapeutics, to his son, Cameron, that was then used to make timely trades of stock. Cameron Collins is accused of giving that information to Stephen Zarsky, his fiancée's father, according to the indictment.

Prosecutors say the trades were made before the release of clinical-trial results for one of Innate's drugs in development.

According to the indictment, Innate's drug MIS416 was undergoing clinical trials early last year. They appeared promising at the time. But on June 22, 2017, researchers informed Innate's CEO that the drug had failed the trial.

Innate's CEO then informed board members, including Collins, of the trial failure. Prosecutors say Collins told his son of the drug trial's failure the same day, prompting Cameron to sell his US shares of Innate the next morning. According to the indictment, Cameron Collins sold a little over 1.3 million shares of Innate between June 23 and June 26, the day the trial results became public.

In addition to Zarsky, the younger Collins is accused of passing the information to a handful of other associates including Cameron's then-girlfriend, Zarsky's wife, and others who executed similar sales. All told, prosecutors say the people involved in the indictment avoided $768,000 in losses.

Collins, Cameron, and Zarsky are also alleged to have lied to federal investigators looking into the stocks sales.

In a statement following the news, attorneys for Collins said they planned to "mount a vigorous defense to clear his good name."

"It is notable that even the government does not allege that Congressman Collins traded a single share of Innate Therapeutics stock," the statement said."We are confident he will be completely vindicated and exonerated."

House Speaker Paul Ryan announced that Collins would be stripped of his congressional committee assignment while the case in ongoing and demanded an ethic investigation.

"While his guilt or innocence is a question for the courts to settle, the allegations against Rep. Collins demand a prompt and thorough investigation by the House Ethics Committee," Ryan said in a statement. "Insider trading is a clear violation of the public trust. Until this matter is settled, Rep. Collins will not be serving on the House Energy and Commerce Committee."

Collins' stock-trading activities came under scrutiny last year when it was revealed that the congressman recommended Innate to several colleagues, including Tom Price, the former secretary of health and human services. Collins was a board member of the company and was Innate's second-largest shareholder as of June 2017.

In October, the Office of Congressional Ethics determined that Collins might have violated House rules and federal law with his trading activities.

"Representative Collins may have also purchased discounted Innate stock that was not available to the public and that was offered to him based on his status as a Member of the House of Representatives," the report said. "If Representative Collins purchased discounted stock that was not available to the public and that was offered to him based on his status as a Member of the House of Representatives, then he may have violated House rules, standards of conduct, and federal law."

Collins, who represents New York's 27th Congressional District, has served in Congress since 2013. He was Donald Trump's first congressional backer in the 2016 election cycle.

A press conference by the US attorney for the Southern District of New York regarding the charges is expected later Wednesday.

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NOW WATCH: North Korean defector: Kim Jong Un 'is a terrorist'


          Singapore Government Invites Jumia CEO To Speak On Digital Economy & Consumerism In Africa      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The government of Singapore, through Enterprise Singapore has invited the chief executive officer of Jumia Nigeria, Mrs Juliet Anammah to join other respected business leaders across Africa and Asia to lead discussions around digital economy, business financing, and consumerism. Enterprise Singapore is the country rsquo;s agency vested wi ...
          Singapore: STI Index (.STI) shares closed lower on Wednesday      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Singapore: STI Index (.STI) shares closed lower on Wednesday Asian stock markets ended mixed on Wednesday, with investors largely staying on the sidelines and refraining from making significant moves due to lack of triggers. The overnight positive close on Wall Street set up a higher opening for the markets, but lack of support at higher […]

The post Singapore: STI Index (.STI) shares closed lower on Wednesday appeared first on Live Trading News.


          Therapy Assistant - Tzu Chi Singapore - Pasir Ris      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Update clinical skills related to home physiotherapy service. Areas of Accountabilities....
From Tzu Chi Singapore - Wed, 18 Apr 2018 15:04:37 GMT - View all Pasir Ris jobs
          Deputy Head for Project House Tissue Engineering - Evonik (SEA) Pte. Ltd. - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Experience translating in vitro to pre-clinical to clinical models is an advantage. Innovation Management (R&amp;D)....
From Evonik - Wed, 08 Aug 2018 15:17:17 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Senior Project Manager - Icon plc - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Science degree or above education background, major in clinical or pharmacy area is preferred. Thorough knowledge of ICH GCP and relevant regulations and a...
From Icon plc - Wed, 08 Aug 2018 13:17:17 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Clinical Scientist - Advanced Research (Cosmetics) - Ethos BC Global - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
As a Clinical Scientist, you will be responsible for driving upstream clinical validation of efficacy of bioactives, formulations and diagnostics that will be...
From Ethos BeathChapman - Wed, 08 Aug 2018 10:50:29 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Siemens: ATS System Design Engineer      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Competitive: Siemens: What are my responsibilities? Represent as a key member of the team to focus on delivering the signaling portion of the project.Require to perform a Singapore, Central Singapore, Singapore
          Sunmoon Food: Endlich geschafft?      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Die vorliegende Analyse beschäftigt sich mit der Aktie Sunmoon Food, die im Segment "Nahrungsmittelverteiler" geführt wird. Die Aktie schloss den Handel am 08.08.2018 an ihrer Heimatbörse Singapore mit 0,053 SGD. In einem komplexen Analyseprozess haben Analysten unseres Hauses Sunmoon Food auf Basis von insgesamt 5 Bewertungskriterien eingeschätzt. [mehr]
          Manager, Wireless Networks (Smart Nation Sensor Platform) - Government Technology Agency - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Familiar with LAN and WAN technologies e.g. Mesh Wifi, LoRaWAN, Wi-SUN, 3GPP standards like NB-IoT, LTE-cat M1, Low Power Wide Area network technologies....
From Careers@Gov - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 05:57:39 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Retail Associate - M1 Limited - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
M1 Shop Function:. M1 Shops Years of Experience:. Perform sales transactions and handle customers’ enquiries on mobile/smart phone &amp; M1 services....
From M1 Limited - Mon, 23 Jul 2018 06:39:17 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Sales Consultant, Broadband - M1 Limited - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
M1 Shop Function:. Actively promote M1 broadband solution/GSM/Prepaid services through site visits, road-shows and contact database. SHOP-SC-BB-2 Job Type:....
From M1 Limited - Mon, 28 May 2018 06:38:08 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Big mistake if Umno plans to partner PAS in Sabah, say analysts - Free Malaysia Today      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Free Malaysia Today

Big mistake if Umno plans to partner PAS in Sabah, say analysts
Free Malaysia Today
KOTA KINABALU: Two political analysts here believe Umno will be making a grave mistake if it were to partner with PAS in any upcoming election in Sabah. Universiti Malaysia Sabah's Lee Kuok Tiung and Rahezzal Shah Abd Karim of UiTM Sabah agreed ...
Titiwangsa Umno Youth chief slams Johari over Najib commentMalaysiakini
Umno senator: Alliance with PAS cost party in Sg Kandis by-electionYahoo Singapore News
Show Najib some respect, Umno president tells JohariMalay Mail
TODAYonline -The Malaysian Insight
all 14 news articles »

          Umno sec-gen: Sg Kandis is only start of Umno-PAS cooperation, can go further - The Star Online      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The Star Online

Umno sec-gen: Sg Kandis is only start of Umno-PAS cooperation, can go further
The Star Online
PETALING JAYA: The Sungai Kandis by-election results should not be used as a yardstick to gauge the cooperation between Umno and PAS, said Tan Sri Annuar Musa (pic). While cooperation between the two parties has been widely speculated for the ...
PAS, Umno supporters no longer believe in pact, says donFree Malaysia Today
Umno-PAS cooperation not capable of undermining PKR yetThe Sun Daily
Selangor by-election: Ballot a litmus test for PH and UmnoThe Straits Times
Malaysiakini -Yahoo Singapore News -The Malaysian Insight
all 130 news articles »

          8/9/2018: COMMERCIAL PROPERTY: Keppel pushes deeper into data      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
ASSETS: Major data centre companies are forging deeper into Sydney, with Singapore’s Keppel DC REIT saying it will expand its local network by building a new complex on vacant land in the city’s Macquarie Business Park. The project will be undertaken...
          China claims victory on Korean nuclear issue      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
At a time when much of the world is concerned about how to implement the denuclearization agreement reached between US President Donald Trump and North Korean leader Kim Jong-un on June 12 in Singapore, China is quietly patting itself on the back even though it wasn’t party to the talks. Beijing considers the outcome a […]
          Karuannidhi a giant in Indian politics, says Singapore Minister Vivian Balakrishnan      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Singapore’s Minister for Foreign Affairs Vivian Balakrishnan has condoled the passing of former Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi. In a message to his son
          WILDLIFE: Group launches spoof ivory store in awareness stunt      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
A wildlife charity set up a fake online ivory shop in Singapore, attracting widespread condemnation, in a stunt to underline local laws that it says continue to facilitate the illicit ivory trade globally.
          North Korea Reportedly Building More ICBMs      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Satellite imagery gathered by U.S. intelligence agencies indicates that North Korea is building new ballistic missiles at a factory just outside its capital, according to The Washington Post. The newspaper, quoting "officials familiar with the intelligence," says North Korea is working on "one and possibly two liquid-fueled ICBMs" at its Sanumdong facility on the outskirts of Pyongyang. The report follows last month's summit in Singapore between President Trump and North Korean leader Kim Jong Un, after which Trump hailed in a tweet that "There is no longer a Nuclear Threat from North Korea." On Tuesday, North and South Korea held their second round of military talks since June, when the first such meeting took place at the border village of Panmunjom in the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), where the two sides pledged to halt "all hostile acts." According to the Post 's latest report, "The new intelligence does not suggest an expansion of North Korea's capabilities but shows that work on
          North Korea Hands Over Possible Remains Of U.S. Servicemen Killed In Korean War      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
What are believed to be the remains of some 55 U.S. servicemen killed in the Korean War have arrived in South Korea aboard a U.S. Air Force transport plane from the North in accordance with an agreement made last month between President Trump and Kim Jong Un at their summit in Singapore. "A U.S. Air Force C-17 aircraft containing remains of fallen service members has departed Wonsan, North Korea," the White House said in a statement late Thursday. The Associated Press later confirmed that the plane had landed at Osan Air Base at Pyeongtaek, South Korea, where a formal repatriation ceremony is planned for Aug. 1. The transfer took place Friday local time, which marks the anniversary of the armistice that halted the Korean War in 1953. No formal peace treaty ending the conflict has ever been signed. According to AP: "At Osan, U.S. servicemen and a military honor guard lined up on the tarmac to receive the remains, which were carried in boxes covered in blue United Nations flags. Details
          Database Manager - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Able to handle and streamline database on a cloud platform and set up a new team within a greenfield space Database Manager - handle and streamline database...
From Hudson - Wed, 08 Aug 2018 05:09:35 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Sr. B2C Integrated Marketing Exec - Internet Services Leader - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd. Our client is a leading Internet Services company looking to hire a new Senior B2C Integrated Marketing Executive....
From Hudson - Wed, 08 Aug 2018 05:09:23 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Senior Solution Consultant (Pre-sales) Thailand - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd. A multi-national enterprise software company headquartered in New York City, is looking for a Senior Solution...
From Hudson - Tue, 07 Aug 2018 05:09:27 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          IT Finance Manager - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd. We are recruiting a Regional IT Finance Manager for a leading international financial services company....
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 17:10:23 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Senior FP&A Manager - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
- Senior FP&A Manager - US communications MNC - APAC remit THE COMPANY Optimal for candidates wanting to be on a challenging learning curve to become a...
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:38 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Management Accountant - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd. Management Accountant (Finance Manager level)....
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:33 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Accounting Manager - Retail - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
- Accounting Manager - Retail US MNC - ASEAN remit THE COMPANY Our client is a US FMCG retail brand based centrally in Singapore. They are seeking a...
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:33 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Accounting Controller - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
- Accounting Controller - Medical devices US MNC - APAC remite THE COMPANY Our client is a medical device US MNC in central Singapore. The company has been...
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:32 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Treasury Analyst - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
- Treasury Analyst - US Chemicals MNC - APAC remit THE COMPANY Our client is a multi-billion manufacturing MNC operating globally with a strong presence in...
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:32 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Financial Controller - SAP transformation - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd. Financial Controller - SAP transformation....
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:29 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Financial Controller - FMCG - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
- Financial Controller - SEA - Luxury FMCG brand - ASEAN remit FINANCIAL CONTROLLER THE COMPANY A highly regarded European retail MNC is hiring for a...
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:29 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Project finance analyst - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
- Project Finance Analyst - US Healthcare MNC - APAC remit THE COMPANY Our client is a major US healthcare MNC based in central Singapore with a big finance...
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:29 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Head of Field Marketing (APAC) - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Leadership role APAC & China Region Report directly to Chief Marketing Officer Head of Field Marketing (APAC) * Leadership role * APAC & China Region *...
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:22 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Senior Marketing Manager - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd. One of the fastest growing tech start-ups....
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:19 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Director, Customer Engagement & Rentention (APAC) - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Global leader in Tech industry Drive increase of engagement Report directly to Managing Director of Digital business Director, Customer Engagement &...
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:19 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          E-Commerce Manager (FMCG/Retail) - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Low Wei Jun, Alex Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd EA License Number:. Our Client is a MNC in the Retail/FMCG industry with operations across 20...
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 11:09:18 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Digital Marketing Manager - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
R1653685 Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd EA Licence:. Leading Global FMCG company....
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 05:09:17 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Training Manager - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd EA Licence:. Alternatively, you may contact Sara Ungos in our Hudson Singapore office for a confidential discussion....
From Hudson - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 05:09:16 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Cost Accountant - Manufacturing - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
R1873098 Hudson Global Resources (Singapore) Pte Ltd EA Licence #:. Our client is currently seeking a high performing Cost Accountant to join their...
From Hudson - Fri, 03 Aug 2018 11:26:21 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Test Automation Engineer - Java - Hudson - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
*MNC IT consultancy firm *Highly competitive salary package *Banking & Financial exposure * MNC IT consultancy firm * Highly competitive salary package *...
From Hudson - Fri, 03 Aug 2018 11:25:30 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Soil and Plant Analyst - Hijo International Trading Singapore Pte. Ltd - Surigao City      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
College Degree in Agriculture (Soil and Plant Tech/ entomologist, soil science and the like). Must be willing to work at Trento, Agusan del Sur.... PHP 12,000 - PHP 15,000 a month
From Indeed - Mon, 23 Jul 2018 06:38:41 GMT - View all Surigao City jobs
          EU And Japan Sign Trade Agreement That Was 5 Years In The Making      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Copyright 2018 NPR. To see more, visit ARI SHAPIRO, HOST: The Trump administration is taking a hard line with major U.S. trading partners, so those countries are looking for opportunities elsewhere. The European Union and Japan today signed a trade agreement that will eliminate virtually all tariffs on the goods they sell to each other. NPR's Jim Zarroli reports. JIM ZARROLI, BYLINE: The agreement was five years in the making. It will form a single trading bloc of some 600 million people, one that comprises nearly 30 percent of the world's economy. Jeffrey Schott of the Peterson Institute for International Economics says the agreement... JEFFREY SCHOTT: Opens up new opportunities for the Japanese to sell cars in Europe and for the Europeans to sell cars and cheese and wine and lots of other products in Japan. ZARROLI: The deal comes at a time when European officials have been working to lock down trade agreements all over the world with Canada, Singapore and Vietnam. Schott says
          RM18b or 93% of GST refunds missing - The Edge Markets MY      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The Edge Markets MY

RM18b or 93% of GST refunds missing
The Edge Markets MY
KUALA LUMPUR: About RM18 billion or 93% of the RM19.4 billion input tax credit under the goods and services tax (GST) system since 2015 has gone missing, alleged Finance Minister Lim Guan Eng. “According to records of the Royal Malaysian Customs ...
Government to refund GST input tax credit next yearThe Sun Daily
RM18 bil in GST refunds missing, says finance ministerFree Malaysia Today
No need for GST, SST if gov't follows zakat tax model - PASMalaysiakini
Business Standard -New Straits Times Online -The Straits Times -Yahoo Singapore News
all 105 news articles »

          Former Kedah MB's son questions Rafizi's motives to slam 3rd national car - The Star Online      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The Star Online

Former Kedah MB's son questions Rafizi's motives to slam 3rd national car
The Star Online
PETALING JAYA: The son of a former Kedah Mentri Besar has questioned Rafizi Ramli's motives in criticising the third national car project, adding that the project can instead help the country join the new technology race in automobiles. Akhramsyah ...
For Rafizi, winning PKR deputy presidency means changing party's 'feudal culture'Yahoo Singapore News

all 6 news articles »

           Việt Nam sẽ đón số lượng kỷ lục lãnh đạo quốc gia dự WEF-ASEAN 2018       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Ngày 8/8, Diễn đàn Kinh tế thế giới (WEF) cho biết, một số lượng kỷ lục các lãnh đạo quốc gia sẽ tham dự Diễn đàn kinh tế thế giới về ASEAN tại Hà Nội vào tháng 9 tới để bàn về chủ đề “ASEAN 4.0: Doanh nghiệp và cuộc Cách mạng công nghiệp lần thứ 4.”Theo thông cáo của WEF, sẽ có 8 quốc gia ASEAN cử nguyên thủ tới tham dự, trong đó có Tổng thống Philippines Rodrigo Duterte, tân Thủ tướng Malaysia Mahathir Mohammad, nhà lãnh đạo Aung San Suu Kyi của Myanmar, Thủ tướng Singapore Lý Hiển Long, Thủ tướng Campuchia Samdech Techo Hunsen…Ảnh minh họa. (Nguồn: World Economic Forum)Các nhà lãnh đạo này cùng...
          Copyright/Intellectual Property Question      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

So, I know this seems to crop up once in a while, but there never seems to be a clear answer...

 

Quite often my and other's photos get rejected as Copyright Infringement or Intellectual Property Violations. Most of the time these are completely correct and justified. Fair enough right, we'd be angry if someone stole our photos too.

 

However, what confuses me (and I think other people) is that you can search for the same subject matter in Stock and find the same images listed, and not even as editorial use only. As an example, I found images of Singapore's paper currency (current paper currency) which is absolutely not permitted for commercial use, and probably very strict about what editorial use also. I haven't taken any currency shots ever, so its not like I'm jealous, but I'm curious about why some things like that are allowed, and some aren't? Is it just an error on the review process?

 

If you download these as a customer, there's no property/model release attached, but obviously it's not Adobe who would get the take-down notice and possible legal action. So how does that work?

 

My curiosity is also if one of my photos slips under the wire unnoticed as a copyrighted piece of material, then who is culpable for litigation? Adobe? The trained reviewer? The contributor?

 

I'm just curious is all.


          U.S.-North Korea Summit Is One For The History Books      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Copyright 2018 NPR. To see more, visit RACHEL MARTIN, HOST: History happened here today as President Donald Trump and North Korea's leader greeted each other in front of flags from both of their countries. The two men then met for several hours before emerging to sign an agreement that included a commitment to denuclearize the Korean Peninsula. President Trump touted the agreement at a news conference this morning. (SOUNDBITE OF PRESS CONFERENCE) PRESIDENT DONALD TRUMP: Today is the beginning of an arduous process. Our eyes are wide open. But peace is always worth the effort, especially in this case. They should have been done years ago. They should have been resolved a long time ago. MARTIN: NPR's Elise Hu is normally based in Seoul, South Korea. She is here with me in Singapore covering the summit and joins me now. Hi, Elise. ELISE HU, BYLINE: Hi there. MARTIN: So a big headline out of this agreement today signed between the American president and the leader of North Korea is that
          Trump Says North Korea Summit Plans 'Moving Along' After Surprise Moon-Kim Meeting      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Updated 2:55 a.m. ET Sunday Hours after a surprise meeting between the leaders of the two Koreas aimed at shoring up diplomacy, President Trump seemed to keep hope alive for a summit with Kim Jong Un to go ahead as planned on June 12 in Singapore. Speaking at the White House Saturday evening, Trump said plans for the summit were "going along very well." He said meetings were ongoing and that the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula "would be a great thing for North Korea." "A lot of people are working on it. It's moving along very nicely. We're looking at June 12 in Singapore. That hasn't changed. And it's moving along pretty well, so we'll see what happens," Trump said in the Oval Office Saturday. South Korea's presidential Blue House announced earlier Saturday that President Moon Jae-in had held a secret meeting with North Korean leader Kim Jong Un in an effort to keep diplomacy between Washington and Pyongyang alive. "The two leaders frankly exchanged their opinions on
          WWF uses fake Singapore ivory store in awareness campaign      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

An apparent online ivory store which caused a furore in Singapore has been exposed as a hoax set up by environmental group WWF to highlight perceived shortcomings in local laws. It is still legal to sell pre-1990 items in Singapore. After a few days, a post from someone claiming to be the store’s owner appeared […]

The post WWF uses fake Singapore ivory store in awareness campaign appeared first on RocketNews | Top News Stories From Around the Globe.


          “Who Are You Calling ‘Mate’, Mate?”      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Newspeak? It is Washington’s new “Indo-Pacific” strategy, that is driving the current “Century of Mateship” propaganda exercise out of Canberra. Australia’s foundation and development as a collection of British colonies is being barefacedly elided in favour of the Orwellian contention that: “Australia and the United States are mates. Australia and the United States have been mates for 100 years. Australia and the United States will always be mates.”

NEW ZEALAND’S RELATIONSHIP with Australia is under considerable strain. Though they have yet to state their position openly, Australia’s leaders are clearly less than enthusiastic about the tradition of “automatic entry” for New Zealand’s economic migrants. It is certainly difficult to read the Australian Government’s denial of non-emergency health care, higher education and social welfare benefits to Kiwi citizens as anything other than a pretty strong signal of Australia’s rising impatience with the ANZAC myth of eternal “mateship”.

Indeed, if the programmes currently featuring on Sky TV’s “History Channel” are anything to go by, there is a concerted effort underway to attach the “mateship” label to Australia’s relationship with the United States. Under the rubric of “One Hundred Years of Mateship” Australian documentary-makers are advancing the far-from-convincing argument that the Commonwealth of Australia – one of the British Empire’s most important economic and strategic “dominions across the seas” – and the United States of America have been bosom buddies from the moment they clapped eyes on each other across the battlefields of the Western Front in 1918.

It is rare in the English-speaking nations of the twenty-first century to witness such a blatant attempt to re-write history. Up until the Second World War, elite Australia’s attachment to British imperialism was as fervent as it was unquestioning. The Aussie working-class, much of it Irish and Catholic, may have had little cause to love the English and the Scots-Irish Orangemen from Ulster, but its dangerously radical opinions were vigorously rejected by the “respectable” settlers of New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia. For these sons and daughters of the Empire, “Mother England” was the source of all economic, military and cultural power. The USA and its teeming millions were impertinent upstarts – not “mates”.

That all changed, of course, when a squadron of Japanese navy bombers, almost nonchalantly, sank the two great British battleships, HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse, off the Malaysian coast on 10 December 1941 – just three days after Japan’s surprise attack on the American Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbour. The fall of “impregnable” Singapore, which followed soon after, on 15 February 1942, brought home to Australians just how far away Mother England really was and forced them to shift their strategic gaze eastward to the United States. Every Australian understood that if the Japanese were going to be defeated, it would not be by the British, who had proved to be a busted-flush, but by the Americans. For most Aussies, therefore, the Yanks were more than their “mates” – they were Australia’s bloody saviours!

Post-World War II, however, the case for US-Australian “mateship” grows progressively stronger. The two countries have fought alongside each other in Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan and Iraq. The view from Canberra is unequivocally that of a steadfast ally upon whom Washington can rely without the slightest hesitation or doubt. The Liberal Party Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard, confirmed this subaltern status by describing his country as America’s “deputy-sheriff”.

Howard’s Liberal successor, Malcolm Turnbull, has developed this relationship to the point where Australia now sees itself as a geostrategic bridge between the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Australian landmass is thus being presented to Washington as not only an unassailable thoroughfare for American power, but also as a barrier against the further extension of Chinese influence into either ocean.

It is this, Washington’s new “Indo-Pacific” strategy, that is, almost certainly, driving Foxtel’s “100 Years of Mateship” propaganda exercise on the History Channel. Australia’s foundation and development as a collection of British colonies is being barefacedly elided in favour of the Orwellian contention that: “Australia and the United States are mates. Australia and the United States have been mates for 100 years. Australia and the United States will always be mates.”

Which just leaves New Zealand, Australia’s former “mate”, positioned strategically off the lucky country’s eastern seaboard like an unsinkable aircraft carrier which has, unaccountably, pushed all its fighter aircraft into the sea. An unreliable aircraft carrier, whose unreliable crew has, for more than 30 years, been bloody rude to Australia’s best mates – the Americans. A crew which insists on taking shore leave in Brisbane and Sydney and Melbourne where it spreads its downright subversive views about the rights of indigenous people and nuclear disarmament and practical feminism and need to do something big and meaningful about climate change among Australia’s dangerously persuadable citizens.

Right-wing Australia would like nothing more than to close its borders to these damned annoying Kiwis. Unfortunately, that would involve tearing up the Australian-New Zealand Closer Economic Relationship and toppling New Zealand into a full-scale economic and social crisis.

Now, there are some Aussies who’d like to say “tough luck, Kiwi” and walk away. Fortunately for New Zealand, however, there are wiser heads in the discussion who warn that a New Zealand in the grip of a life-or-death struggle for survival might feel it had no choice but to extend the hand of “mateship” to its largest remaining trading partner. That if Australia goes on mistreating Kiwis, then it just might wake up one morning to discover that unsinkable aircraft carrier across the Tasman Sea bristling with Chinese bombers.

This essay was originally posted on The Daily Blogof Friday, 3 August 2018.

          #hangover - o_oican      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Class of 95, reunited after nearly 23yrs! Our class ⚽ football, 🏃4x100m & tra 👣 X-country team is present, but not in shape... Then again, 🔘 round is still a shape, complete, in fact. Menu of the day: liquid diet 🍻 P.s.: rewrote school record for highest passing percentile for GCE N'Levels 94 + O'Levels 95 #classof95 #westlakesecondary #5n3 #singapore #nationalday #mahjulahsingapura #singaporeanson #sonsofsingapore #weweresoldiers #mindefreserve #eveofpublicholiday #thereunion #wednesday #humpday #mensnight #tigerbeer #uncaged #hallpass #hangover #grownups
          #hangover - toshi.world      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Billecart salmon and.. Tequila evening. When you know it's gonna end up badly and you still do it. No matter how old you are.. You can still be stupid. Dying on National Day. Bleeeh #aboutlastnight #manhattanbar #tequila #billecartsalmon #champagne #champagnelife #beingstupid #singapore #nightife #singaporenightlife #hangover #feellikedeath #nationalday #9aug2018 #fun #funevening #badmorning #lifeisgood #thegoodlife #goodfriends
          The Australian Dollar: An Unlikely Trade War Casualty      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Authored by Alex Kimani via SafeHaven.com,

The Australian dollar has been the worst performer among the world’s major currencies this year, dropping like a rock against most other currencies apart from the Swedish krona. AUD has weakened about nine percent against the U.S. dollar, currently changing hands at 73.91 cents against the greenback from the January high of 81.15 cents.

Despite the deep slide, the current optimism that the Aussie has found a bottom may be a tad premature.

The currency might get another drubbing if the U.S.-China trade war plays out in the current trajectory and things continue heading south for Australia’s major trading partner. Meanwhile, the Australian central bank is expected to soon reaffirm its commitment to keep interest rates at record lows when it meets later this week.

(Click to enlarge)

Here are three key reasons why the AUD might still be a juicy short candidate:

#1 Trade war casualty

Deteriorating U.S.-China trade relations will send ripples across many economies across the globe. But few countries are likely to feel the heat more than Australia, China’s leading trading partner. AUD tumbled 1.5 percent on June 14 when President Trump warned that he could confront China very strongly.

And it just keeps getting worse...

After imposing 10 percent tariffs on $200-billion of Chinese imports, Trump has threatened to not only bring the country’s entire range of exports worth half a trillion dollars under the tariffs but also to raise the rate to 25 percent. Top Aussie forecaster Marcus Wong of Singapore’s CIMB Bank has said escalating trade tensions mean the worst is yet to come for the currency. Meanwhile, Morgan Stanley recommends shorting the AUD/USD pair as well as the yen on “rising protectionist risks”.

#2 Iron prices plateau

(Click to enlarge)

Iron-ore prices have grinded higher from this year’s low to trade around $69 per metric ton. They, however, are still 8.6 percent off their 52-week high and nearly 50 percent below their 2014 highs.

And they might fall even further. The Department of Industry, Innovation and Science slashed its forecast for the commodity last month to $51.10 next year as China starts dialing back purchases. That’s good for 26-percent downside.

The technical outlook is not good either, with prices approaching the 200-day moving average for the first time since March. Recent history has shown that prices frequently fall back whenever they approach that level.

#3 Low Interest Rates

The Fed has raised benchmark interest rates seven times during the current cycle. The Reserve Bank of Australia, in contrast, has kept the country’s interest rates at a record low of 1.5 percent where they have remained stuck for two years running.

Australia’s 10-year bond yields dropped more than 30 basis points vs. their U.S.’ counterpart by July and the divergence is expected to keep widening since RBA is expected to keep rates low until well into 2019, while the Fed is expected to raise benchmark rates another two times before the end of the year.

Positioning data strongly backs up the bearish assessment for the Aussie.

Hedge funds and other large speculators have opened up a net short position for the currency to the tune of 28,441 contracts as at July 31 - the biggest net short position in two years. Aussie bets were in a net long position as recently as in May.


          Chinese Immersion Classroom Instructional Assistant - Singapore American School - Woodlands      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Clerical, typing and Google App skills preferred; The Instructional Assistant is responsible for working within the Immersion Program to support the learning,...
From Singapore American School - Mon, 23 Jul 2018 12:45:38 GMT - View all Woodlands jobs
          Executive Assistant to SAS School Board - Singapore American School - Woodlands      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Exemplary writing and editing skills, with proficiency in Google Docs, Spreadsheet, Google Drive, Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel....
From Singapore American School - Fri, 01 Jun 2018 12:46:05 GMT - View all Woodlands jobs
          Theater Specialist - Singapore American School - Woodlands      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Google drive and Docs, presentation software, set design and CAD software, LX Beams, Qlab, Logic Pro, Final Cut Pro, etc)....
From Singapore American School - Mon, 28 May 2018 06:46:00 GMT - View all Woodlands jobs
          Swim Coach (SASCSA) - Singapore American School - Woodlands      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Able to read, write, and perform basic math to complete daily chemical logs and individual must possess strong organizational, budgetary, computer (especially...
From Singapore American School - Tue, 22 May 2018 06:46:08 GMT - View all Woodlands jobs
          Digital Marketing Specialist (based in Singapore) - Joey Yap Research International Sdn Bhd - North-East Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Experience with B2C social media, Google Adwords, email campaigns and SEO/SEM. Loads of Fun....
From Joey Yap Research International Sdn Bhd - Wed, 01 Aug 2018 13:30:29 GMT - View all North-East Singapore jobs
          Seeking Clinic AssistantsMedical Assistants Punggol - Zenith Medical Clinic - North-East Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Please leave your interest on the google form. Partfull time medical assistant to work on permanent weekday evening sessions ie wednesday, thursday and friday...
From Best Jobs Singapore - Wed, 01 Aug 2018 06:15:12 GMT - View all North-East Singapore jobs
          MARCOM EXECUTIVE - Compex Systems Pte Ltd - North-East Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Monitor traffic of sites and generate analytic reports using Google suite of web analytic software – provide suggestion/advice to improve on the effectiveness... $2,000 - $2,800 a month
From Indeed - Fri, 22 Jun 2018 02:29:57 GMT - View all North-East Singapore jobs
          Learning & Development Assistant - Enhance Personnel Services - East Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
SAP, reporting, excel, powerpoint, google suit and graphics skills. _Our client,_an international chemical Group.... $3,000 - $3,500 a month
From Indeed - Thu, 19 Jul 2018 08:30:40 GMT - View all East Singapore jobs
          Marketing Manager - Singapore Press Holdings - East Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Familiar with digital marketing especially in areas of email marketing, SEO, SEM, Google Adwords and Google Display Network strategies;...
From Singapore Press Holdings - Wed, 27 Jun 2018 22:41:09 GMT - View all East Singapore jobs
          Surveillance Market to Grow at a CAGR of 12.0% During 2018-2025      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The global Surveillance market is valued at 28000 million US$ in 2017 and will reach 69400 million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of 12.0% during 2018-2025.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- This report studies the global https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1868700/global-surveillance-professional-survey-report-market-research-reports#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000">Surveillance market status and forecast, categorizes the global Surveillance market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top manufacturers in North America, Europe, Japan, China, India, Southeast Asia and other regions (Central & South America, and Middle East & Africa).

This report focuses on surveillance system used for residential, commercial and Public & Government Infrastructure.

In the report, the surveillance market refers to the video surveillance market. The video surveillance market includes hardware segment, Software and Service segment.

The hardware comprised of cameras, recorders, storage, encoders and monitors.
Software and Service segment includes Video Analytics, Video Management Systems, VSaaS Service and Installation & Maintenance Service etc.

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Currently, there are many producing companies in the world. The main market players are Hikvision, Dahua Technology, Axis Communications AB, Panasonic, Honeywell Security, Hanwha, United Technologies, Tyco, Bosch Security Systems, Pelco, Huawei Technologies, Siemens AG, Avigilon Corporation, Uniview, Flir Systems, Inc and so on. The revenue of Surveillance is about 22308 Million USD in 2016.

China is the largest consumption region of Surveillance, with a consumption market share nearly 38.30% in 2016. The second place is North America; following China with the consumption market share over 20.68% in 2016. Europe is another important consumption market of Surveillance.

Surveillance used in industry including Residential Use, Commercial Use and Public & Government Infrastructure. Report data showed that 13.60% of the Surveillance market demand in Residential Use, 36.56% in Commercial Use, and 49.84% in Public & Government Infrastructure in 2016.

The major manufacturers covered in this report
Hikvision
Dahua Technology
Axis Communications AB
Panasonic
Honeywell Security
Hanwha
United Technologies
Tyco
Bosch Security Systems
Pelco
Huawei Technologies
Siemens AG
Avigilon Corporation
Uniview
Flir Systems, Inc

Geographically, this report studies the top producers and consumers, focuses on product capacity, production, value, consumption, market share and growth opportunity in these key regions, covering
North America
Europe
China
Japan
India
Southeast Asia
Other regions (Central & South America, Middle East & Africa)

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Asia-Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Australia
Indonesia
Singapore
Rest of Asia-Pacific
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Spain
Russia
Rest of Europe
Central & South America
Brazil
Argentina
Rest of South America
Middle East & Africa
Saudi Arabia
Turkey
Rest of Middle East & Africa

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On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
Camera
Other Hardware
Software &Services

By Application, the market can be split into
Residential Use
Commercial Use
Public & Government Infrastructure

The study objectives of this report are:

To analyze and study the global Surveillance capacity, production, value, consumption, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
Focuses on the key Surveillance manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.
To strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trend and their contribution to the market.
To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market.
To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Surveillance are as follows:
History Year: 2013-2017
Base Year: 2017
Estimated Year: 2018
Forecast Year 2018 to 2025

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2017 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

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Key Stakeholders
Surveillance Manufacturers
Surveillance Distributors/Traders/Wholesalers
Surveillance Subcomponent Manufacturers
Industry Association
Downstream Vendors

Available Customizations
With the given market data, QYResearch offers customizations according to the company's specific needs. The following customization options are available for the report:
Regional and country-level analysis of the Surveillance market, by end-use.
Detailed analysis and profiles of additional market players.

About MarketResearchReports.biz
MarketResearchReports.biz is a seller of syndicated market studies, featuring an exhaustive collection of research reports from leading international publishers. Our repositoryis diverse, spanningvirtually every industrial sector and even more every category and sub-category within the industry. We also provide consulting services to enable our clients have adynamicbusiness perspective.

Contact Us
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Albany, NY 12207
United States
Toll Free: 866-997-4948
(USA-Canada)
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E: sales@marketresearchreports.biz

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/surveillance-market-to-grow-at-a-cagr-of-120-during-2018-2025-1025651.htm

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          Printed Sensor Sales Market Report 2018-2025: Europe Held the Largest Share in 2017      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Recent released report by MarketResearchReports.Biz on "Global Printed Sensor Sales Market Report 2018."

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- Printed sensors, a subset of printed electronics, are manufactured by using techniques like screen printing, flexography, gravure, and inkjet. Printed sensor technology makes sensing much easier and improves monitoring substantially, because it can be integrated into flexible substrates such as paper, plastic, and foil. These sensors can be woven into cloth to measure bodily functions, used to create human-centered interfaces, or can be directly attached to the skin for healthcare purposes.

The smart packing application is expected to grow at a high CAGR during the forecast period. Printed sensors play a major role in the smart packaging application as they help the manufacturers to keep track of their inventories. They are also used to monitor temperature, humidity, and gas for sensitive products, especially food and beverages. Moreover, given the rise in the adoption of smart packaging across the globe to increase the visibility, hygiene, quality, and safety of the product, there is a demand for printed sensors.

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Europe held the largest share of the printed market in 2017, while the market in Asia-Pacific is expected to grow at the highest rate during the forecast period. The high growth of the Asia-Pacific market is attributed to the presence of a number of leading consumer electronics manufacturers, rapid industrialization in the region, the growth in the production of commercial as well as non-commercial vehicles with driver assistance systems and touch infotainment systems, and the increasing number of patients of lifestyle diseases such as diabetes.

This report studies the global https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1868666/global-printed-sensor-sales-report-market-research-reports#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000">Printed Sensor market status and forecast, categorizes the global Printed Sensor market size (value & volume) by key players, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top players in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia India and Other regions (Middle East & Africa, Central & South America).

The global Printed Sensor market is valued at xx million US$ in 2017 and will reach xx million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of xx% during 2018-2025.

The major players covered in this report
Interlink Electronics
Thin Film Electronics
GSI Technologies
ISORG
KWJ Engineering
Peratech Holdco
Canatu
Mc10
Polyic
PST Sensors
Tekscan

Geographically, this report studies the key regions, focuses on product sales, value, market share and growth opportunity in these regions, covering
United States
Europe
China
Japan
Southeast Asia
India

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Asia-Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Australia
Indonesia
Singapore
Rest of Asia-Pacific
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Spain
Russia
Rest of Europe
Central & South America
Brazil
Argentina
Rest of South America
Middle East & Africa
Saudi Arabia
Turkey
Rest of Middle East & Africa

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
By Type
Printed Biosensor
Printed Touch Sensor
Printed Gas Sensor
Printed Humidity Sensor
Printed Image Sensor
Printed Pressure Sensor
Printed Temperature Sensor
Printed Proximity Sensor
By Printing Technology
Gravure Printing
Inkjet Printing
Screen Printing
Flexography
Others

On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, sales volume, market share and growth rate for each application, including
Automotive
Consumer Electronics
Environmental Testing
Industrial Equipment
Medical Devices
Building Automation
Smart Packaging
Others

Get Complete Report List of Tables and Figures @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1868666/global-printed-sensor-sales-report-market-research-reports/toc

The study objectives of this report are:

To analyze and study the global Printed Sensor sales, value, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
To analyze the top players in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, to study the sales, value and market share of top players in these regions.
Focuses on the key Printed Sensor players, to study the sales, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.
To strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trend and their contribution to the market
To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market
To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Printed Sensor are as follows:
History Year: 2013-2017
Base Year: 2017
Estimated Year: 2018
Forecast Year 2018 to 2025

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2017 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

Explore more related reports @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/category/63

Key Stakeholders
Printed Sensor Manufacturers
Printed Sensor Distributors/Traders/Wholesalers
Printed Sensor Subcomponent Manufacturers
Industry Association
Downstream Vendors

Available Customizations
With the given market data, QYResearch offers customizations according to the company's specific needs. The following customization options are available for the report:
Regional and country-level analysis of the Printed Sensor market, by end-use.
Detailed analysis and profiles of additional market players.

About MarketResearchReports.biz
MarketResearchReports.biz is a seller of syndicated market studies, featuring an exhaustive collection of research reports from leading international publishers. Our repositoryis diverse, spanningvirtually every industrial sector and even more every category and sub-category within the industry. We also provide consulting services to enable our clients have adynamicbusiness perspective.

Contact Us
State Tower
90 State Street, Suite 700
Albany, NY 12207
United States
Toll Free: 866-997-4948
(USA-Canada)
Tel: +1-518-621-2074
E: sales@marketresearchreports.biz

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/printed-sensor-sales-market-report-2018-2025-europe-held-the-largest-share-in-2017-1025624.htm

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          Smart Wearables Market to Grow at a CAGR of 14.4% During 2018-2025: Apple Is World Leading Brand to Account Market Share of 37.68%      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The global Smart Wearables market is valued at 11300 million US$ in 2017 and will reach 33000 million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of 14.4% during 2018-2025.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- This report studies the Smart Wearables market, which covers the consumer Smart Wearables device. Smart wearable technology is defined as the gadgets which are worn on, or attached to, the body, while being used; and smart wearables use application-enabled advanced computing and wireless technologies to process the inputs. Some of the consumer smart wearable devices are Google Glass, Samsung Gear, Nike wristbands and Google cardboard. These devices are used for fitness, healthcare, lifestyle, and entertainment purposes.

Wearable technology is the incorporation of technology with regular accessories which allow users to make their life easier. It has changed the lifestyle of users in order to achieve their particular goals. This technology has immense potential for rapid growth and can provide benefits to the different classes of people in their daily lives.

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Apple is the world leading brand in global Smart Wearables market with the market share of 37.68%, in terms of revenue, followed by Fitbit, Samsung and Huawei.

This report studies the global https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1868715/global-smart-wearables-professional-survey-market-research-reports#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000">Smart Wearables market status and forecast, categorizes the global Smart Wearables market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top manufacturers in North America, Europe, Japan, China, India, Southeast Asia and other regions (Central & South America, and Middle East & Africa).

The major manufacturers covered in this report
Fitbit
Xiaomi
Apple
Garmin
Samsung
Jawbone
Misfit
Polar
Moto
Huawei
BBK(XTC)
Lifesense
Razer

Geographically, this report studies the top producers and consumers, focuses on product capacity, production, value, consumption, market share and growth opportunity in these key regions, covering
North America
Europe
China
Japan
India
Southeast Asia
Other regions (Central & South America, Middle East & Africa)

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Asia-Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Australia
Indonesia
Singapore
Rest of Asia-Pacific
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Spain
Russia
Rest of Europe
Central & South America
Brazil
Argentina
Rest of South America
Middle East & Africa
Saudi Arabia
Turkey
Rest of Middle East & Africa

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
Fitness Band
Smart Watches
Smart Glasses
Others

By Application, the market can be split into
Fitness and Wellness
Infotainment

Get Complete Report List of Tables and Figures @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1868715/global-smart-wearables-professional-survey-market-research-reports/toc

The study objectives of this report are:

To analyze and study the global Smart Wearables capacity, production, value, consumption, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
Focuses on the key Smart Wearables manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.
To strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trend and their contribution to the market.
To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market.
To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Smart Wearables are as follows:
History Year: 2013-2017
Base Year: 2017
Estimated Year: 2018
Forecast Year 2018 to 2025

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2017 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

Key Stakeholders
Smart Wearables Manufacturers
Smart Wearables Distributors/Traders/Wholesalers
Smart Wearables Subcomponent Manufacturers
Industry Association
Downstream Vendors

Explore more related reports @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/category/63

Available Customizations
With the given market data, QYResearch offers customizations according to the company's specific needs. The following customization options are available for the report:
Regional and country-level analysis of the Smart Wearables market, by end-use.
Detailed analysis and profiles of additional market players.

About MarketResearchReports.biz
MarketResearchReports.biz is a seller of syndicated market studies, featuring an exhaustive collection of research reports from leading international publishers. Our repositoryis diverse, spanningvirtually every industrial sector and even more every category and sub-category within the industry. We also provide consulting services to enable our clients have adynamicbusiness perspective.

Contact Us
State Tower
90 State Street, Suite 700
Albany, NY 12207
United States

Toll Free: 866-997-4948
(USA-Canada)

Tel: +1-518-621-2074
E: sales@marketresearchreports.biz

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/smart-wearables-market-to-grow-at-a-cagr-of-144-during-2018-2025-apple-is-world-leading-brand-to-account-market-share-of-3768-1025616.htm

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          Battery Market Will Reach 119700 Million US$ by the End of 2025      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The global Battery market is valued at 89200 million US$ in 2017 and will reach 119700 million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of 3.7% during 2018-2025.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- This research study involved the extensive usage of both primary and secondary data sources. The research process involved the study of various factors affecting the industry, including the government policy, market environment, competitive landscape, historical data, present trends in the market, technological innovation, upcoming technologies and the technical progress in related industry, and market risks, opportunities, market barriers and challenges. The following illustrative figure shows the market research methodology applied in this report.

For industry structure analysis, the Battery industry is concentrated. These manufacturers are large multinational corporations. The top ten producers account for about 88% of the revenue market.
The production of Battery increased from 56918 K MT in 2013 to 63641 K MT in 2017 with an average growth rate of 2.25%.

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Asia-Pacific occupied 45.20% of the sales market in 2017. It is followed by South America and Europe, which respectively account for around 19.23% and 18.43% of the global total industry. Other countries have a smaller amount of sales.

This report studies the global Battery market status and forecast, categorizes the global Battery market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top manufacturers in North America, Europe, Japan, China, India, Southeast Asia and other regions (Central & South America, and Middle East & Africa).

The major manufacturers covered in this report
Johnson Controls
LG Chem
Panasonic
SAMSUNG
GS Yuasa
Exide
EnerSys
East Penn
BYD
ATL
Duracell
Energizer
BAK
Tianjin Lishen
SONY
GP Batteries
Furukawa Battery
AtlasBX
C&D Technologies
Maxell
Nanfu Battery
FUJIFILM
Zhongyin (Ningbo) Battery

Geographically, this report studies the top producers and consumers, focuses on product capacity, production, value, consumption, market share and growth opportunity in these key regions, covering
North America
Europe
China
Japan
India
Southeast Asia
Other regions (Central & South America, Middle East & Africa)

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Asia-Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Australia
Indonesia
Singapore
Rest of Asia-Pacific
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Spain
Russia
Rest of Europe
Central & South America
Brazil
Argentina
Rest of South America
Middle East & Africa
Saudi Arabia
Turkey
Rest of Middle East & Africa

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
By Electrolyte
Alkaline Battery
Acid Battery
Organic Battery
By Use Type
Primary Battery
Rechargeable Battery
By Positive and Negative Matetials
Lead-acid Battery
Lithium Battery
Other

By Application, the market can be split into
Home Use
Commercial Use

Get Complete Report List of Tables and Figures @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1868776/global-battery-professional-survey-report-market-research-reports/toc

The study objectives of this report are:

To analyze and study the global Battery capacity, production, value, consumption, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
Focuses on the key Battery manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.
To strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trend and their contribution to the market.
To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market.
To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Battery are as follows:
History Year: 2013-2017
Base Year: 2017
Estimated Year: 2018
Forecast Year 2018 to 2025

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2017 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

Key Stakeholders
Battery Manufacturers
Battery Distributors/Traders/Wholesalers
Battery Subcomponent Manufacturers
Industry Association
Downstream Vendors

Available Customizations
With the given market data, QYResearch offers customizations according to the company's specific needs. The following customization options are available for the report:
Regional and country-level analysis of the Battery market, by end-use.
Detailed analysis and profiles of additional market players.

About MarketResearchReports.biz
MarketResearchReports.biz is a seller of syndicated market studies, featuring an exhaustive collection of research reports from leading international publishers. Our repositoryis diverse, spanningvirtually every industrial sector and even more every category and sub-category within the industry. We also provide consulting services to enable our clients have adynamicbusiness perspective.

Contact Us
State Tower
90 State Street, Suite 700
Albany, NY 12207
United States

Toll Free: 866-997-4948
(USA-Canada)

Tel: +1-518-621-2074
E: sales@marketresearchreports.biz

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/battery-market/battery-industry/release-1025596.htm

Media Relations Contact

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MarketResearchReports.Biz
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          All the world political leaders are not good enough for Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
"To any one of us here, $1 million is a lot of money. So where do you want to get your ministers from? From people who earn only $500,000 a year, whose capacity is $500,000 a year? So (when) I look for ministers, anybody who wants to be paid more than half a million, I won't take him. You are going to end up with very very mediocre people, who can't even earn a million dollars outside to be our minister. Think about that. Is it good for you, or is it worse for us in the end?" - August 2018
          Singapore - Kulicke & Soffa Industries, Inc. - Engineer, BC      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Degree in Mechanical Engineering. Participate in a multi-disciplinary team performing Research and Development of high precision automated semiconductor...
From Kulicke & Soffa Industries, Inc. - Wed, 18 Jul 2018 06:40:29 GMT - View all Engineer, BC jobs
          Offer - Uno Apparel Pte Ltd - SINGAPORE      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Uno Apparel is an apparel company in Singapore that offers products such as t-shirts, polo shirts, corporate & safety wear and other items. We provide services like customizing apparel and printing of logo. Uno Apparel produces the products using material and fabrics that are in high quality. Our products are available in cotton and quick-dry types. We help different companies to customize their corporate shirt and safety wear.
          Senior Digital Design Engineer - Singapore Changi Technology - Woodlands      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Posting month end journals. Responsible for bank reconciliations and posting of the Company’s sales. Assist in the smooth running of the branch....
From Singapore Changi Technology - Thu, 26 Jul 2018 10:59:44 GMT - View all Woodlands jobs
          Finance Executive - Singapore Technologies Engineering Ltd - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Role 1: Job Descriptions: Billing to Customers Posting of Customer Receipts Preparation of AR Schedules such as AR Ageing Sending out Statement of Accounts to...
From Singapore Technologies Electronics - Fri, 03 Aug 2018 06:26:43 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          HR Intern (Talent Acquisition) - Singapore Technologies Aerospace Ltd - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Posting of job advertisements on job portals. ST Engineering Aerospace is the world’s largest commercial airframe maintenance MRO provider with a global...
From Singapore Technologies Electronics - Tue, 10 Jul 2018 12:26:31 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          QA Inspector - ICS/QAD/QAI/ES - ST Electronics (Info-comm Systems) Pte Ltd - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Posting of inspection results to SAP &amp; IQC database. Perform IQC inspection &amp; testing of incoming parts....
From Singapore Technologies Electronics - Fri, 06 Jul 2018 06:27:56 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          Accounting and Finance (FNC) - ST Electronics (e-Services) Pte Ltd - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
ST Electronics (e-Services) Pte Ltd Assistant Executive (Finance & Accounting) [FNC] Job Responsibilities: Process AP, AR, FA transactions and Journal...
From Singapore Technologies Electronics - Fri, 29 Jun 2018 12:27:48 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          Operations Manager - Emerson - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Operations Manager Requisition ID: (18006231) Primary Location: Singapore-Singapore-Ang Mo Kio Job Function: Manufacturing & Operations Job Posting Date: May...
From Emerson - Fri, 04 May 2018 14:22:12 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          Dance Teachers For Classical Ballet, Jazz, Tap, Hip Hop, and Contemporary - Dancepointe - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Requirements For Classical Ballet Teacher (Singapore &amp; China Posting). For China posting , accommodation and 2 return air tickets are provided per year....
From Dancepointe - Sun, 29 Apr 2018 08:34:01 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          Guest Service Officer, Transit Hotel - Plaza Premium Lounge Singapore Pte Ltd - Changi Airport      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Performing cashier related functions like posting charges to guest accounts, currency exchange. Performs cashiering tasks like bill / invoice settlement,... $1,600 a month
From Indeed - Thu, 02 Aug 2018 09:58:32 GMT - View all Changi Airport jobs
          June & July: Summer Times      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Tropical night, relaxing under the stars A chilly breeze; sticky Singaporean heat In the same four w
          seo agencies singapore より 1SEAT. x HIBIKI x ZN. へのコメント      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
This site was... how do you say it? Relevant!! Finally I have found something that helped me. Thanks!
          Điểm Tin Thứ Năm 09.08.2018 (hậu 10/6/18 và ANM)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Điểm Tin Thứ Năm 09.08.2018 (hậu 10/6/18 và ANM)
Anh Tuấn Phạm

  • VNTB - Dự án đặc khu: Cần bỏ hẳn chứ không chỉ hoãn (VNTB) - Nguyễn Tường Thụy (VNTB) Khi Dự Luật đặc khu được đưa ra kỳ họp thứ 5 để thông qua, người ta mới sững sờ và tìm hiểu mới biết, dự án luật này đã được ráo riết chuẩn bị từ nhiều năm trước đó. Không có gì mới. Chương trình kỳ họp thứ 26 của UB Thường vụ Quốc hội không còn nội dung cho ý kiến về Dự Luật đặc khu như đã lên trước đó. Lý do của việc này là dự án luật đang được cân nhắc lại, trên cơ sở lắng nghe ý kiến của nhân dân - theo Tổng Thư ký Quốc hội Nguyễn Hạnh Phúc. Ông Phúc cho rằng cũng chưa vội vã lắm vì còn 2 tháng nữa kỳ họp thứ 6 của Quốc hội mới diễn ra.
  • Vì sao Tổng thống Trump quyết ‘ăn thua đủ’ với Trung Quốc về thương mại? (BoxitVN) - Mỹ Khánh - Ngày 6/7, Mỹ và Trung Quốc chính thức bước vào cuộc chiến thương mại “lớn nhất lịch sử”, theo cách gọi của Trung Quốc. Washington và Bắc Kinh đồng thời tăng thuế 25% lên các mặt hàng nhập khẩu của đối phương trị giá 34 tỷ USD. Đây là một phần trong gói áp thuế 50 tỷ USD mà Tổng thống Mỹ Donald Trump đã đe dọa ngày 15/6. Gói thuế 14 tỷ USD nữa sẽ được Mỹ xem xét công bố trong 2 tuần tới. Chính quyền Trump cũng cảnh báo sẽ ...
  • Mỹ lo ngại khả năng nước lớn ép nước nhỏ trong đàm phán Biển Đông (RFI) - Vào lúc ASEAN và Trung Quốc loan báo thúc đẩy đàm phán về Bộ Quy Tắc Ứng Xử trên Biển Đông, Hoa Kỳ, qua lời quan chức ngoại giao phụ trách Hiệp Hội các nước Đông Nam Á hôm 07/08/2018, đã nhấn mạnh là cần phải tránh việc nước lớn gây áp lực trên nước nhỏ trong cuộc thương thuyết. Washington cũng cho rằng bộ quy tắc ứng xử đang đàm phán phải chú ý đến các mối quan ngại của các quốc gia bên ngoài Biển Đông.
  • Việt Nam chưa mua vũ khí ‘khủng’ của Mỹ? (VOA) - Một nhà nghiên cứu kỳ cựu nhận định rằng Việt Nam có thể không mua ngay các loại vũ khí “khủng” của Mỹ, ít ngày sau khi quan chức ngoại giao Hoa Kỳ xác nhận với VOA tiếng Việt rằng Hà Nội có các hợp đồng mua các thiết bị quân sự với quốc gia cựu thù trị giá tới gần 100 triệu đôla.
  • Việt Nam phải ngụy trang khi sang Mỹ mua vũ khí? (VOA) - Vào tháng Tám năm 2017, đài VOA dẫn lại một phát hiện độc đáo trong bài viết có tựa đề “Quan chức Việt Nam đòi Mỹ ‘lại quả’ từ các hợp đồng mua vũ khí”. ‘Lại quả’ là một từ lóng thuộc về dân làm ăn khuất tất, chạy chọt và hối lộ ở miền Bắc Việt Nam.
  • Vụ bắt cóc Trịnh Xuân Thanh trở thành chuyện lớn tại châu Âu (RFI) - Kinh tế Iran dưới sức ép của Donald Trump, thương mại Pháp thâm thủng nghiêm trọng, một người thợ làm vườn ở California làm run rẩy tập đoàn hóa chất đa quốc gia Monsanto là những tựa lớn của báo chí Pháp hôm nay bên cạnh hồ sơ « Trịnh Xuân Thanh bị Hà Nội đánh thuốc mê và bắt cóc », chiếm một phần ba trang quốc tế của Le Monde.
  • VNTB - Cái bắt tay đầy 'tham nhũng' giữa Hà nội và Slovakia (VNTB) - Ánh Liên (VNTB) Điều buồn cười trong mối quan hệ giữa Slovakia và Hà nội không nằm ở việc cựu Bộ trưởng Nội Vụ Slovakia chối phăng việc tiếp tay cho bên kia, hay thậm chí là chính trường Slovakia rối loạn vì vụ bắt cóc táo tợn Hà Nội. Mà những sự thể có phần rắc rối ngày hôm nay đáng lẽ phải được ngăn chặn từ 4 năm trước, qua sự cảnh báo thông tin của fanpage Corruption Slovakia embassy in Hanoi (Tham nhũng ở Đại sứ quán Slovakia tại Hà nội) - fanpage chỉ có 30 lượt thích.
  • Ai đang cản trở EVFTA? (BoxitVN) - Nguyễn Anh Tuấn - Như trong bài viết, tác giả đã nêu rất rõ rằng, hiệp định EVFTA không những ích nước lợi dân Việt Nam nói chung, mà còn có lợi ích thiết thực cho chính họ (nhóm đương quyền hiện nay). Rõ ràng họ cũng đang rất “máu” kí được Hiệp định để hòng thoát khỏi tình trạng mong manh dường như sắp đổ vỡ về tài chính – kinh tế vốn đe dọa đến cái ghế của họ từng ngày. Thế nhưng…, như mang một cố tật tâm lý giống ...
  • Tuyên bố của nhóm "lão mà chưa an" về Luật Đặc khu (VNTB) - Chính phủ Việt Nam đã trình dự thảo “Luật Đơn vị hành chính - kinh tế đặc biệt Vân Đồn, Bắc Vân Phong, Phú Quốc” (Luật Đặc khu) để Quốc Hội thảo luận và thông qua trong kỳ họp thứ V, Quốc hội khoá XIV, từ ngày 21-5-2018 đến 15-6-2018. Do sự phản đối mạnh mẽ của nhân dân, ngày 11-6-2018 Quốc hội đã quyết định lùi thời gian xem xét thông qua dự án luật này sang kỳ họp thứ VI, dự kiến vào tháng 10-2018.
  • Khủng hoảng Đồng Tâm: chìa khóa giải quyết đang nằm trong tay ai? (BoxitVN) - Nguyễn Đăng Quang - Cuộc khủng hoảng Đồng Tâm vẫn đang bế tắc. Người dân đã 2 lần gửi TÂM THƯ đến HNTƯ7 và Kỳ họp lần 5 QH vừa qua, nhưng không có ai trả lời họ. Mới đây, cụ Lê Đình Kình, người được coi là thủ lĩnh của người dân Đồng Tâm, với danh nghĩa người bị hại trong biến cố Đồng Tâm, đã gửi tới Ủy ban Tư pháp Quốc hội và bà Lê Thị Nga, Chủ nhiệm Ủy ban này một “Thư công dân gửi ĐBQH”. Thư ...
  • Trả lời thẳng: tại sao dày đặc cảng biển, khu kinh tế nhưng miền Trung… vẫn chưa giàu? (BoxitVN) - Trúc Giang - Theo thông cáo mới nhất từ Văn phòng Quốc hội, dự án luật Đơn vị hành chính – kinh tế đặc biệt (còn gọi là Luật Đặc khu) chưa được Ủy ban Thường vụ Quốc hội xem xét vào kỳ họp tháng 8 này. Thiếu sức mạnh của “hậu phương công nghiệp”? Thay vì hưởng ứng lời tuyên bố đầy phấn khích của bà chủ tịch Quốc hội “Một đồng rót vào đặc khu để hút về hàng chục, hàng trăm đồng”, thì cần trả lời câu hỏi rất quen ...
  • Đi tìm nguyên nhân đưa đến thảm họa tuyển sinh (BoxitVN) - Trần Đình Thu - Dù xảy ra thảm họa tuyển sinh kinh hoàng nhưng hiện nay do ông Bộ trưởng Nhạ vẫn khăng khăng phương án Bộ ông ấy làm là đúng, nên cộng đồng mạng cần có những bài phân tích để vạch ra cái sai lầm của Bộ ông ấy, để ông bớt ngủ gục trong Quốc hội đi. Và đây là một bài như thế. Nhắc lại một chút. Trước 2015, học trò Việt có 2 kỳ thi rất vất vả, nên đến năm 2015, nhu cầu thực tiễn đòi hỏi ...
  • Sức mạnh mềm của Trung Quốc ở Việt Nm ra sao? (RFA) - Các nhà lãnh đạo Việt Nam khi đi chữa bệnh ở nước ngoài thì họ không sang Trung Quốc nữa. Người cuối cùng làm việc đó là ông Lê Đức Anh nguyên Chủ tịch nước, năm nay đã 97 tuổi.
  • Phiếu tín nhiệm – sự phức tạp của đẳng thức xã hội (BoxitVN) - Tô Văn Trường - “Vì quy chế lấy phiếu tín nhiệm hiện nay chưa được đầu tư xây dựng phù hợp vẫn còn mang tính dân chủ hình thức nên việc lấy phiếu tín nhiệm đại biểu ở Quốc hội đến bây giờ vẫn không thể được như mong muốn của cử tri vì cách làm như kiểu của Quốc hội ta giống như một người ban ngày “ăn chay” song  tối lại “ngủ mặn”! Và, nếu có việc các đại biểu được tự do bỏ phiếu kín thì kết quả đó ...
  • ‘Đánh’ mãi như thế làm sao đỡ? (VOA) - “Bí mật quốc phòng”, “an ninh quốc gia” giúp Thượng tướng Phương Minh Hòa (cựu Tư lệnh Quân chủng Phòng không – Không quân),  Trung tướng Nguyễn Văn Thanh (cựu Chính ủy Quân chủng Phòng không – Không quân) chỉ bị cảnh cáo...
  • Việt Nam cách chức, giáng quân hàm tướng công an (RFA) - Thủ tướng Việt Nam Nguyễn Xuân Phúc vào ngày 8/8 đã ký quyết định cách chức thứ trưởng đối với hai tướng công an Trần Việt Tân và Bùi Văn Thành, đồng thời đề nghị giáng quân hàm hai tướng này.
  • Mỹ sẽ đánh thuế thêm 16 tỷ đô la hàng Trung Quốc (VOA) - Mỹ sẽ bắt đầu đánh thuế lên thêm 16 tỷ đô la hàng hóa nhập khẩu của Trung Quốc kể từ ngày 23/8, văn phòng của đại diện thương mại Mỹ cho biết hôm 7/8 khi họ công bố danh sách chung quyết các mặt hàng bị đánh thuế.
  • Trung Quốc sẽ áp thêm thuế lên 16 tỉ đôla hàng của Mỹ (VOA) - Trung Quốc sẽ áp thuế quan bổ sung 25 phần trăm lên 16 tỉ đôla giá trị hàng hóa nhập khẩu của Mỹ từ nhiên liệu và các sản phẩm thép cho tới xe hơi và thiết bị y tế, Bộ Thương mại Trung Quốc cho biết, trong khi hai nền kinh tế lớn nhất thế giới leo thang tranh chấp thương mại.
  • Vì sao Trung Quốc liên tục bức hiếp Đài Loan? (RFI) - Theo tiến sĩ Trương Trí Trình (Chih Cheng Chang) trên The Diplomat, Trung Quốc chèn ép Đài Loan liên tục không chỉ vì không ưa đảng Dân Tiến của bà Thái Anh Văn, mà đây là chủ trương nằm trong chiến lược lâu dài của Bắc Kinh.
  • Xuất khẩu TQ tăng tốc dù Trump leo thang chiến tranh thương mại (VOA) - Xuất khẩu của Trung Quốc tăng mạnh hơn dự kiến trong tháng 7 bất chấp thuế nhập khẩu của Mỹ và thặng dư thương mại được theo dõi sát của nước này với Mỹ vẫn ở mức cao kỉ lục, trong khi hai cường quốc kinh tế lớn của thế giới leo thang tranh chấp thương mại.
  • Website của BBC bị chặn ở Trung Quốc (BBC) - Khi website bị chặn, BBC kêu gọi chính phủ Trung Quốc tuân thủ Tuyên bố Nhân quyền của Liên Hợp Quốc về quyền cá nhân tự do biểu đạt và tiếp nhận thông tin.
  • Vụ 1MDB : Cựu thủ tướng Malaysia tiếp tục bị truy tố (RFI) - Cựu thủ tướng Malaysia Najib Razak tiếp tục bị truy tố trong một vụ án khác, cũng liên quan đến quỹ đầu tư 1MDB. Ông Najib Razak đối mặt với ba cáo buộc tham nhũng mới, và có nguy cơ bị phạt tổng cộng 45 năm tù.
  • Cựu Tổng thống Philippines kêu gọi đề phòng Trung Quốc (VOA) - Hành động của Trung Quốc bồi đắp đảo và quân sự hóa các thực thể trên Biển Đông một lần nữa đã gây chia rẽ sâu sắc thể chế chính trị ở Philippines vốn đang cố gắng tìm kiếm một lập trường tối ưu được đồng thuận để bảo vệ các lợi ích chủ quyền và chiến lược của đất nước.
  • Bầu bổ sung: Đảng Cộng Hòa Mỹ thắng sít sao ở Ohio, điềm xấu cho TT Trump (RFI) - Cuộc bỏ phiếu bầu bổ sung một dân biểu tại Ohio, ngày hôm qua, 07/08/2018, được coi là một trắc nghiệm đối với uy tín của tổng thống Trump. Ứng cử viên đảng Cộng Hòa tuyên bố thắng cử với 50,2% phiếu, tại một khu vực bầu cử vốn được coi là lãnh địa của đảng Cộng Hòa từ hơn 30 năm nay. Theo giới quan sát, nếu xu thế này tái diễn phe Cộng Hòa có thể sẽ mất đa số tại Hạ Viện sau cuộc bầu cử giữa kỳ vào tháng 11/2018.
  • Mỹ trừng phạt Iran: Đức cảnh báo gia tăng bất ổn tại Trung Đông (RFI) - Hôm nay, 08/08/2018, một ngày sau khi Washington tái áp đặt các trừng phạt kinh tế đối với Iran, nhằm ngăn chặn tham vọng mở rộng ảnh hưởng của Teheran tại Trung Đông, ngoại trưởng Đức lên tiếng cảnh báo, quyết định của Mỹ có thể có tác dụng ngược, khiến tình hình khu vực này thêm trầm trọng hơn.
  • Ả Rập Xê Út làm căng với bên ngoài để ổn định bên trong ? (RFI) - Thái độ cứng rắn bất ngờ của chính quyền Ả Rập Xê Út với Canada trong những ngày qua đã làm cho không ít nhà quan sát ngạc nhiên. Thế nhưng động thái gây căng thẳng này của chế độ Ryad dưới quyền điều hành của thái tử Mohammed ben Salmane được cho là nhắm vào đối nội, tăng cường uy tín trong nước của thái tử vào lúc nhân vật này đang cho tiến hành những biện pháp cải tổ đầy rủi ro vì đụng chạm tới thành phần bảo thủ còn rất mạnh ở vương quốc này.
  • Cựu giám đốc tranh cử của Donald Trump bị dồn vào chân tường (RFI) - Hôm qua, thứ Ba 07/08/2018, là ngày thứ hai mà ông Paul Manafort - nguyên giám đốc chương trình tranh cử tổng thống 2016 của Donald Trump - phải đối mặt với người cựu cộng sự thân tín Rick Gates, được coi là một nhân chứng quyết định trong vụ án rửa tiền và trốn thuế đang diễn ra. Cựu giám đốc tranh cử của tổng thống Trump bị cáo buộc trốn hàng triệu đô la thuế, với khoản tiền mà công ty tư vấn của ông nhận được từ chính quyền của cựu tổng thống Ukraina Viktor Ianoukovitch thân Nga trước đây.
  • Cháy rừng trên quy mô chưa từng thấy ở châu Âu và Hoa Kỳ (RFI) - Thời tiết khô nóng hiện nay đã gây ra các đám cháy lớn tại nhiều nơi ở châu Âu, mà nghiêm trọng nhất là ở Bồ Đào Nha, cũng như tại bang California Hoa Kỳ, huy động hàng ngàn lính cứu hỏa, nhưng cho đến hôm nay, 08/08/2018, vẫn chưa khống chế nổi.
  • Chứng rụng tóc (VOA) - Tại sao chúng ta bị rụng tóc? Khắc phục bằng cách nào? Mời quý vị cùng tìm hiểu với bác sĩ Nguyễn Ý Đức.
    PhonePe raises Rs 452 crore from Flipkart Payments   Bengaluru: Leading online payment system provider PhonePe raised Rs 452 crore from Flipkart Payments Ltd by allotting 21 lakh shares at a premium under a rights issue, said Chennai-based business intelligence platform Paper.vc on Wednesday. “PhonePe raised Rs 452 crore ($66 million) from Singapore-based Flipkart Payments […]
     

    The post PhonePe raises Rs 452 crore from Flipkart Payments appeared first on Mangalorean.com.


          Transmigrator Meets Reincarnator Chapter 396      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

It’s National Day in my country!! Happy 53rd birthday to Singapore~ <3 If you have the chance, come over and pig out on all the good food we have here >:3 Read Chapter 396 here! Translated by: timebun Edited by: renderedreversed

The post Transmigrator Meets Reincarnator Chapter 396 appeared first on volare novels.


          Chinese Immersion Classroom Instructional Assistant - Singapore American School - Woodlands      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Clerical, typing and Google App skills preferred; The Instructional Assistant is responsible for working within the Immersion Program to support the learning,...
From Singapore American School - Mon, 23 Jul 2018 12:45:38 GMT - View all Woodlands jobs
          Executive Assistant to SAS School Board - Singapore American School - Woodlands      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Exemplary writing and editing skills, with proficiency in Google Docs, Spreadsheet, Google Drive, Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel....
From Singapore American School - Fri, 01 Jun 2018 12:46:05 GMT - View all Woodlands jobs
          Theater Specialist - Singapore American School - Woodlands      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Google drive and Docs, presentation software, set design and CAD software, LX Beams, Qlab, Logic Pro, Final Cut Pro, etc)....
From Singapore American School - Mon, 28 May 2018 06:46:00 GMT - View all Woodlands jobs
          Swim Coach (SASCSA) - Singapore American School - Woodlands      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Able to read, write, and perform basic math to complete daily chemical logs and individual must possess strong organizational, budgetary, computer (especially...
From Singapore American School - Tue, 22 May 2018 06:46:08 GMT - View all Woodlands jobs
          Digital Marketing Specialist (based in Singapore) - Joey Yap Research International Sdn Bhd - North-East Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Experience with B2C social media, Google Adwords, email campaigns and SEO/SEM. Loads of Fun....
From Joey Yap Research International Sdn Bhd - Wed, 01 Aug 2018 13:30:29 GMT - View all North-East Singapore jobs
          Seeking Clinic AssistantsMedical Assistants Punggol - Zenith Medical Clinic - North-East Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Please leave your interest on the google form. Partfull time medical assistant to work on permanent weekday evening sessions ie wednesday, thursday and friday...
From Best Jobs Singapore - Wed, 01 Aug 2018 06:15:12 GMT - View all North-East Singapore jobs
          MARCOM EXECUTIVE - Compex Systems Pte Ltd - North-East Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Monitor traffic of sites and generate analytic reports using Google suite of web analytic software – provide suggestion/advice to improve on the effectiveness... $2,000 - $2,800 a month
From Indeed - Fri, 22 Jun 2018 02:29:57 GMT - View all North-East Singapore jobs
          Learning & Development Assistant - Enhance Personnel Services - East Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
SAP, reporting, excel, powerpoint, google suit and graphics skills. _Our client,_an international chemical Group.... $3,000 - $3,500 a month
From Indeed - Thu, 19 Jul 2018 08:30:40 GMT - View all East Singapore jobs
          Marketing Manager - Singapore Press Holdings - East Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Familiar with digital marketing especially in areas of email marketing, SEO, SEM, Google Adwords and Google Display Network strategies;...
From Singapore Press Holdings - Wed, 27 Jun 2018 22:41:09 GMT - View all East Singapore jobs
          English review writer      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Good English / Creative writing for a product review, only a few sentences needed. Freelancers located in US, Singapore and Europe only. ///Do not waste your time if you are based in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Venezuela, Egypt, Philippines and Africa area... (Budget: $30 - $250 USD, Jobs: Article Rewriting, Article Writing, Content Writing, Copywriting, Ghostwriting)
          English review writer      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Good English / Creative writing for a product review, only a few sentences needed. Freelancers located in US, Singapore and Europe only. ///Do not waste your time if you are based in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Venezuela, Egypt, Philippines and Africa area... (Budget: $30 - $250 USD, Jobs: Article Rewriting, Article Writing, Content Writing, Copywriting, Ghostwriting)
          Singapore (SGP) SINGAPORE - Johor Bahru (JOH) (MYS) MALAYSIA       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Carpool Singapore - #JohorBahruCitySquare Johor Bahru
          Senior Digital Design Engineer - Singapore Changi Technology - Woodlands      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Posting month end journals. Responsible for bank reconciliations and posting of the Company’s sales. Assist in the smooth running of the branch....
From Singapore Changi Technology - Thu, 26 Jul 2018 10:59:44 GMT - View all Woodlands jobs
          Finance Executive - Singapore Technologies Engineering Ltd - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Role 1: Job Descriptions: Billing to Customers Posting of Customer Receipts Preparation of AR Schedules such as AR Ageing Sending out Statement of Accounts to...
From Singapore Technologies Electronics - Fri, 03 Aug 2018 06:26:43 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          HR Intern (Talent Acquisition) - Singapore Technologies Aerospace Ltd - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Posting of job advertisements on job portals. ST Engineering Aerospace is the world’s largest commercial airframe maintenance MRO provider with a global...
From Singapore Technologies Electronics - Tue, 10 Jul 2018 12:26:31 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          QA Inspector - ICS/QAD/QAI/ES - ST Electronics (Info-comm Systems) Pte Ltd - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Posting of inspection results to SAP &amp; IQC database. Perform IQC inspection &amp; testing of incoming parts....
From Singapore Technologies Electronics - Fri, 06 Jul 2018 06:27:56 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          Accounting and Finance (FNC) - ST Electronics (e-Services) Pte Ltd - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
ST Electronics (e-Services) Pte Ltd Assistant Executive (Finance & Accounting) [FNC] Job Responsibilities: Process AP, AR, FA transactions and Journal...
From Singapore Technologies Electronics - Fri, 29 Jun 2018 12:27:48 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          Operations Manager - Emerson - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Operations Manager Requisition ID: (18006231) Primary Location: Singapore-Singapore-Ang Mo Kio Job Function: Manufacturing & Operations Job Posting Date: May...
From Emerson - Fri, 04 May 2018 14:22:12 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          Dance Teachers For Classical Ballet, Jazz, Tap, Hip Hop, and Contemporary - Dancepointe - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Requirements For Classical Ballet Teacher (Singapore &amp; China Posting). For China posting , accommodation and 2 return air tickets are provided per year....
From Dancepointe - Sun, 29 Apr 2018 08:34:01 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          Guest Service Officer, Transit Hotel - Plaza Premium Lounge Singapore Pte Ltd - Changi Airport      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Performing cashier related functions like posting charges to guest accounts, currency exchange. Performs cashiering tasks like bill / invoice settlement,... $1,600 a month
From Indeed - Thu, 02 Aug 2018 09:58:32 GMT - View all Changi Airport jobs
          Film Review: ‘Crazy Rich Asians’      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
At New York’s Serendipity 3 cafe, money-is-no-object customers can order a $1,000 sundae that’s garnished with 23-carat gold leaf. Like the cherry atop such an extravagant dessert, the delightful and deliriously over-the-top “Crazy Rich Asians” ends with fireworks exploding along the roof of Singapore’s Marina Bay Sands hotel — one of the world’s most expensive […]
          Growth Opportunities in Global Water-Based Spray Adhesives Industry - Market Analysis & Outlook 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Brooklyn, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- Qyresearchreports include new market research report "Global Water-based Spray Adhesives Market Professional Survey Report 2018" to its huge collection of research reports.

This report studies the global Water-based Spray Adhesives market status and forecast, categorizes the global Water-based Spray Adhesives market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top manufacturers in North America, Europe, Japan, China, India, Southeast Asia and other regions (Central & South America, and Middle East & Africa).

The major manufacturers covered in this report
-Bostik SA (US)
-H.B. Fuller (US)
-Henkel (Germany)
-Kissel+Wolf GmbH (Germany)
-Quin Global (US)
-SIKA AG (Switzerland)
-3M (US)

Geographically, this report studies the top producers and consumers, focuses on product capacity, production, value, consumption, market share and growth opportunity in these key regions, covering
-North America
-Europe
-China
-Japan
-India
-Southeast Asia

To Download free Sample Report With TOC: https://www.qyresearchreports.com/sample/sample.php?rep_id=1844840&type=S

The regional scope of the study is as follows:
-North America
-United States
-Canada
-Mexico
-Asia-Pacific
-China
-India
-Japan
-South Korea
-Australia
-Indonesia
-Singapore
-Rest of Asia-Pacific
-Europe
-Germany
-France
-UK
-Italy
-Spain
-Russia
-Rest of Europe
-Central & South America

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
-Epoxy
-Polyurethane
-Synthetic Rubber
-Vinyl Acetate Ethylene

You can find the detailed table to contents for this report at : https://www.qyresearchreports.com/report/global-water-based-spray-adhesives-market-professional-survey-report-2018.htm

By Application, the market can be split into
-Transportation
-Construction
-Furniture

The study objectives of this report are:
To analyze and study the global Water-based Spray Adhesives capacity, production, value, consumption, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
Focuses on the key Water-based Spray Adhesives manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.

About QYResearchReports.com
QYResearchReports.com delivers the latest strategic market intelligence to build a successful business footprint in China. Our syndicated and customized research reports provide companies with vital background information of the market and in-depth analysis on the Chinese trade and investment framework, which directly affects their business operations. Reports from QYResearchReports.com feature valuable recommendations on how to navigate in the extremely unpredictable yet highly attractive Chinese market.

Contact Us:

1820 Avenue
M Suite #1047
Brooklyn, NY 11230
United States
Toll Free: 866-997-4948 (USA-CANADA)
Tel: +1-518-621-2074
Web: http://www.qyresearchreports.com
Email: sales@qyresearchreports.com
Blog: https://studyanalyst.blogspot.in

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/growth-opportunities-in-global-water-based-spray-adhesives-industry-market-analysis-outlook-2018-1025574.htm

Media Relations Contact

Ivan Gary
Manager
QYResearchreports
Telephone: 866-997-4948
Email: Click to Email Ivan Gary
Web: https://www.qyresearchreports.com/report/global-water-based-spray-adhesives-market-professional-survey-report-2018.htm

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          Global Agriculture and Farm Equipment/Machinery Market Forecast 2018-2025: J.C. Bamford Excavators Limited, Kubota Corporation, Mahindra & Mahindra Limited, Deere & Compa      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Brooklyn, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- Qyresearchreports include new market research report "Global Agriculture And Farm Equipment/Machinery Sales Market Report 2018" to its huge collection of research reports.

This report studies the global Agriculture And Farm Equipment/Machinery market status and forecast, categorizes the global Agriculture And Farm Equipment/Machinery market size (value & volume) by key players, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top players in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia India and Other regions (Middle East & Africa, Central & South America).

Agriculture Machinery is any kind of machinery used on a farm to help with farming. There are many types of such equipment, from hand tools and power tools to tractors and the countless kinds of farm implements that they tow or operate.
North America dominated the market in 2015. This is ascribed to the advent of machines with better fuel efficiency and improved features in this region that have encouraged farmers to purchase new machinery for agriculture.Another major factor driving the demand for agriculture equipment in North America is the shortage of farm labor.

The strong economic growth in developing nations such as China, India, and the Middle Eastern countries is projected to further drive the farm machinery industry. Asia Pacific is expected to witness the fastest growth over the forecast period. China alone held over 20% of the regional revenue share in 2015.

Fill the form for an exclusive free sample of this report @ https://www.qyresearchreports.com/sample/sample.php?rep_id=1866735&type=S

The major players covered in this report
-AGCO Corp.
-CNH Industrial N.V.
-Iseki & Co., Ltd.
-Same Deutz-Fahr Group S.p.A. (SDF)
-J.C. Bamford Excavators Limited
-Kubota Corporation
-Mahindra & Mahindra Limited
-Deere & Company

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
-North America
-United States
-Canada
-Mexico
-Asia-Pacific
-China
-India
-Japan
-South Korea
-Australia
-Indonesia
-Singapore
-Rest of Asia-Pacific
-Europe
-Germany
-France
-UK
-Italy
-Spain

You can find the detailed table to contents for this report at : https://www.qyresearchreports.com/report/global-agriculture-and-farm-equipmentmachinery-sales-market-report-2018.htm

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
-Tractors
-Harvesters
-Planting Equipment
-Irrigation & Crop Processing Equipment
-Spraying Equipment
-Hay & Forage Equipment

On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, sales volume, market share and growth rate for each application, including
-Land Development & Seed Bed Preparation
-Sowing & Planting
-Weed Cultivation
-Plant Protection
-Harvesting & Threshing
-Post-harvest & Agro Processing

The study objectives of this report are:
To analyze and study the global Agriculture And Farm Equipment/Machinery sales, value, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
To analyze the top players in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, to study the sales, value and market share of top players in these regions.
Focuses on the key Agriculture And Farm Equipment/Machinery players, to study the sales, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.

About QYResearchReports.com
QYResearchReports.com delivers the latest strategic market intelligence to build a successful business footprint in China. Our syndicated and customized research reports provide companies with vital background information of the market and in-depth analysis on the Chinese trade and investment framework, which directly affects their business operations. Reports from QYResearchReports.com feature valuable recommendations on how to navigate in the extremely unpredictable yet highly attractive Chinese market.

Contact Us:

1820 Avenue
M Suite #1047
Brooklyn, NY 11230
United States
Toll Free: 866-997-4948 (USA-CANADA)
Tel: +1-518-621-2074
Web: http://www.qyresearchreports.com
Email: sales@qyresearchreports.com
Blog: https://studyanalyst.blogspot.in

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/global-agriculture-and-farm-equipmentmachinery-market-forecast-2018-2025-jc-bamford-excavators-limited-kubota-corporation-mahindra-mahindra-limited-deere-compa-1025571.htm

Media Relations Contact

Ivan Gary
Manager
QYResearchreports
Telephone: 866-997-4948
Email: Click to Email Ivan Gary
Web: https://www.qyresearchreports.com/report/global-agriculture-and-farm-equipmentmachinery-sales-market-report-2018.htm

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          Heat Pump Market 2025: Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast: Danfoss, Mitsubishi Electric, NIBE, Airwell      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Brooklyn, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- Qyresearchreports include new market research report "Global Heat Pump Market Research Report 2018" to its huge collection of research reports.

This report studies the global Heat Pump market status and forecast, categorizes the global Heat Pump market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top manufacturers in North America, Europe, Japan, China, and other regions (India, Southeast Asia, Central & South America, and Middle East & Africa).

The device used to pull heat from a lower temperature zone and deliver it to a higher temperature zone is known as a heat pump. These heat pumps use refrigerant in closed or open cycle, which acts as an intermediate medium of heat exchange between source and destination. Heat pumps are of various types such as working on the basis of heat source, air source, water source, ground source, and hybrid.

Growth of the construction industry along with increasing implementation of stringent new building regulations by governments worldwide, especially in China, Japan, U.S., South Korea, and Europe are expected to be the key factors driving demand for heat pumps for residential applications. In countries such as Japan, Australia, U.S., and countries of Europe, governments are providing subsidies on purchase of heat pumps in order to reduce their carbon footprint and increase use of renewable sources of energy for heating and cooling purposes. Also, certain countries like Japan and China have their own renewable energy policies for heating purposes, which promote the use of heat pumps over conventional heating devices.

Lack of consumer awareness along with higher initial installment costs are expected to restrain the market growth over the period. Technical difficulty in installing these units in existing infrastructures is also a major restraint for the overall growth. Lack of government support in some regions is also a key factor restraining the demand.

Enter your information below to receive a free sample copy of this report @ https://www.qyresearchreports.com/sample/sample.php?rep_id=1865185&type=S

The major manufacturers covered in this report
-Carrier Corporation
-Daikin
-Danfoss
-Mitsubishi Electric
-NIBE
-Airwell
-BDR Thermea
-Bryant Heating & Cooling
-Emerson Climate Technologies
-Enertech

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
-North America
-United States
-Canada
-Mexico
-Asia-Pacific
-China
-India
-Japan
-South Korea
-Australia
-Indonesia
-Singapore
-Rest of Asia-Pacific
-Europe
-Germany
-France
-UK
-Italy
-Spain
-Russia

Read Complete Table of Content @ https://www.qyresearchreports.com/report/global-heat-pump-market-research-report-2018.htm

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
-Air-to-Air
-Air-to-Water

On the basis of the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate for each application, including
-Residential
-Commercial
-Industrial

The study objectives of this report are:
To analyze and study the global Heat Pump capacity, production, value, consumption, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
Focuses on the key Heat Pump manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.
To strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trend and their contribution to the market

About QYResearchReports.com
QYResearchReports.com delivers the latest strategic market intelligence to build a successful business footprint in China. Our syndicated and customized research reports provide companies with vital background information of the market and in-depth analysis on the Chinese trade and investment framework, which directly affects their business operations. Reports from QYResearchReports.com feature valuable recommendations on how to navigate in the extremely unpredictable yet highly attractive Chinese market.

Contact Us:

1820 Avenue
M Suite #1047
Brooklyn, NY 11230
United States
Toll Free: 866-997-4948 (USA-CANADA)
Tel: +1-518-621-2074
Web: http://www.qyresearchreports.com
Email: sales@qyresearchreports.com
Blog: https://studyanalyst.blogspot.in

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/heat-pump-market-2025-global-industry-analysis-size-share-growth-trends-and-forecast-danfoss-mitsubishi-electric-nibe-airwell-1025553.htm

Media Relations Contact

Ivan Gary
Manager
QYResearchreports
Telephone: 866-997-4948
Email: Click to Email Ivan Gary
Web: https://www.qyresearchreports.com/report/global-heat-pump-market-research-report-2018.htm

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          PREDIKSI AKURAT MASTER TOGEL JEPANG (JPN) 09 Agustus 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
PREDIKSI TOGEL TERPERCAYA Selamat datang di Togel jakarta, togel jakarta jitu, result togel jakarta, pengeluaran togel jakarta, nomor Jakarta ini adalah tempat untuk berkumpulnya para pecinta nomor dan pecinta angka. Di sini kita akan membantu sobat untuk mendapatkan jackpot dalam bermain taruhan togel, di sini kami memberikan prediksi togel singapore live, togel singapura live, live […]
          PREDIKSI AKURAT MASTER TOGEL KOREA (KOR) 09 Agustus 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
PREDIKSI TOGEL TERPERCAYA Selamat datang di Togel jakarta, togel jakarta jitu, result togel jakarta, pengeluaran togel jakarta, nomor Jakarta ini adalah tempat untuk berkumpulnya para pecinta nomor dan pecinta angka. Di sini kita akan membantu sobat untuk mendapatkan jackpot dalam bermain taruhan togel, di sini kami memberikan prediksi togel singapore live, togel singapura live, live […]
          PREDIKSI AKURAT MASTER TOGEL SINGAPORE (SGP) 09 Agustus 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
PREDIKSI TOGEL TERPERCAYA Selamat datang di Togel jakarta, togel jakarta jitu, result togel jakarta, pengeluaran togel jakarta, nomor Jakarta ini adalah tempat untuk berkumpulnya para pecinta nomor dan pecinta angka. Di sini kita akan membantu sobat untuk mendapatkan jackpot dalam bermain taruhan togel, di sini kami memberikan prediksi togel singapore live, togel singapura live, live […]
          PREDIKSI AKURAT MASTER TOGEL SIDNEY (SDY) 09 Agustus 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
PREDIKSI TOGEL TERPERCAYA Selamat datang di Togel jakarta, togel jakarta jitu, result togel jakarta, pengeluaran togel jakarta, nomor Jakarta ini adalah tempat untuk berkumpulnya para pecinta nomor dan pecinta angka. Di sini kita akan membantu sobat untuk mendapatkan jackpot dalam bermain taruhan togel, di sini kami memberikan prediksi togel singapore live, togel singapura live, live […]
          PREDIKSI AKURAT MASTER TOGEL HONGKONG (HK) 09 Agustus 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
PREDIKSI TOGEL TERPERCAYA Selamat datang di Togel jakarta, togel jakarta jitu, result togel jakarta, pengeluaran togel jakarta, nomor Jakarta ini adalah tempat untuk berkumpulnya para pecinta nomor dan pecinta angka. Di sini kita akan membantu sobat untuk mendapatkan jackpot dalam bermain taruhan togel, di sini kami memberikan prediksi togel singapore live, togel singapura live, live […]
          TOGEL HARI INI JEPANG (JPN) 08 Agustus 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
PREDIKSI TOGEL TERPERCAYA Selamat datang di Togel jakarta, togel jakarta jitu, result togel jakarta, pengeluaran togel jakarta, nomor Jakarta ini adalah tempat untuk berkumpulnya para pecinta nomor dan pecinta angka. Di sini kita akan membantu sobat untuk mendapatkan jackpot dalam bermain taruhan togel, di sini kami memberikan prediksi togel singapore live, togel singapura live, live […]
          TOGEL HARI INI KOREA (KOR) 08 Agustus 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
PREDIKSI TOGEL TERPERCAYA Selamat datang di Togel jakarta, togel jakarta jitu, result togel jakarta, pengeluaran togel jakarta, nomor Jakarta ini adalah tempat untuk berkumpulnya para pecinta nomor dan pecinta angka. Di sini kita akan membantu sobat untuk mendapatkan jackpot dalam bermain taruhan togel, di sini kami memberikan prediksi togel singapore live, togel singapura live, live […]
          TOGEL HARI INI SINGAPORE (SGP) 08 Agustus 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
PREDIKSI TOGEL TERPERCAYA Selamat datang di Togel jakarta, togel jakarta jitu, result togel jakarta, pengeluaran togel jakarta, nomor Jakarta ini adalah tempat untuk berkumpulnya para pecinta nomor dan pecinta angka. Di sini kita akan membantu sobat untuk mendapatkan jackpot dalam bermain taruhan togel, di sini kami memberikan prediksi togel singapore live, togel singapura live, live […]
          TOGEL HARI INI SIDNEY (SDY) 08 Agustus 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
PREDIKSI TOGEL TERPERCAYA Selamat datang di Togel jakarta, togel jakarta jitu, result togel jakarta, pengeluaran togel jakarta, nomor Jakarta ini adalah tempat untuk berkumpulnya para pecinta nomor dan pecinta angka. Di sini kita akan membantu sobat untuk mendapatkan jackpot dalam bermain taruhan togel, di sini kami memberikan prediksi togel singapore live, togel singapura live, live […]
          TOGEL HARI INI HONGKONG (HK) 08 Agustus 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
PREDIKSI TOGEL TERPERCAYA Selamat datang di Togel jakarta, togel jakarta jitu, result togel jakarta, pengeluaran togel jakarta, nomor Jakarta ini adalah tempat untuk berkumpulnya para pecinta nomor dan pecinta angka. Di sini kita akan membantu sobat untuk mendapatkan jackpot dalam bermain taruhan togel, di sini kami memberikan prediksi togel singapore live, togel singapura live, live […]
          5-night stay in well-rated hotel on Langkawi + flights from Singapore for just $123!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Spend some days in Langkawi!
          Flagged As Inappropriate      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Our country’s colours Bleached into a stale canvas Reeking of red tape. 🇸🇬 * Singapore’s
          Only 43.5 pct of services subject to sst — Finance Minister - The Borneo Post      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The Borneo Post

Only 43.5 pct of services subject to sst — Finance Minister
The Borneo Post
KUALA LUMPUR: Only 43.5 per cent of services will be subject to the Sales and Services Tax (SST) come Sept 1, compared with the 64.8 per cent of services which were subjected to the Goods and Services Tax (GST). During the second reading of the ...
M'sians can enjoy dining out as 7000 eateries exemptedThe Star Online
RM18b or 93% of GST refunds missingThe Edge Markets MY
RM18 bil in GST refunds missing, says finance ministerFree Malaysia Today
Yahoo Singapore News -The Straits Times -Channel NewsAsia -Malaysiakini
all 112 news articles »

          Review: A flawed but vital milestone, ‘Crazy Rich Asians’ pays exuberant tribute to Singapore's 1%      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Before it whisks you off on the sunniest, most extravagant Singaporean holiday imaginable, “Crazy Rich Asians” begins on a curiously dark and stormy night.

When Eleanor Young (a mesmerizing Michelle Yeoh) arrives dripping wet at an exclusive London hotel, the snob at the front desk declines her...


          Macau có thể soán ngôi nền kinh tế giàu nhất thế giới của Qatar      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Macau có thể soán ngôi nền kinh tế giàu nhất thế giới của Qatar#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000

“Thủ phủ bài bạc” châu Á đang nắm chắc khả năng trở thành nền kinh tế no đủ nhất thế giới...

Được biết đến với biệt danh "thủ phủ cờ bạc" châu Á, vùng cương vực Macau đang nắm chắc khả năng trở thành nền kinh tế giàu có nhất thế giới.

Tờ Bưu điện Hoa Nam buổi sáng (SCMP) dẫn dữ liệu mới nhất từ Quỹ Tiền tệ Quốc tế (IMF) dự báo đến năm 2020, Macau sẽ vượt qua quốc gia vùng Vịnh Qatar để trở thành nền kinh tế có tổng sản phẩm trong nước (GDP) bình quân đầu người cao nhất thế giới.

ít Cập nhật triển vọng kinh tế thế giới do IMF ban bố vào cuối tháng trước dự báo rằng sự tăng trưởng kinh tế duy trì của Macau đến năm 2020 sẽ đưa vùng bờ cõi này vượt qua Qatar về GDP bình quân đầu người.

Theo xếp hạng năm 2018 của IMF, Qatar là nền kinh tế có thu nhập bình quân đầu người cao nhất thế giới, ở mức 128.702 USD/người/năm. Macau xếp thứ nhì với 122.489 USD; công quốc Luxembourg xếp thứ ba với 110.870 USD, và Singapore xếp thứ tư với 98.014 USD.

IMF dự báo, đến năm 2020, thu nhập bình quân đầu người của Macau sẽ đạt mức 143.116 USD, vượt con số dự báo 139.151 USD dành cho Qatar.

Với dân số hơn 650.000 người và diện tích 30,8 km vuông, Macau cũng là nơi có mật độ dân số cao nhất thế giới, theo Liên hiệp quốc. Tính trung bình, mỗi km vuông ở vùng bờ cõi này có 21.322 người sinh sống.

Nơi có mật độ dân số cao thứ nhì và thứ ba thế giới là Monaco và Singapore, kế đến là Hồng Kông - tỉnh thành có 6.490 người trên mỗi km vuông diện tích.

Theo Diệp Vũ

VnEconomy


          93% du khách hài lòng du lịch Việt: Khảo sát ai?      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Du lịch trong nước muốn phát triển phải so sánh với những nước như Thái Lan, Singapore, không nên ta chỉ nhìn vào ta...

Chỉ để tham khảo?

Ông Vũ Hoài Phương - Hiệu trưởng trường Cao đẳng nghề du lịch Huế, thông tõ nhiều băn khoăn về tỷ lệ 93,5% du khách quốc tế ưng với du lịch Việt Nam vừa được Tổng Cục du lịch Việt Nam (Bộ VH-TT-DL) ban bố.

93% du khách hài lòng du lịch Việt: Khảo sát ai? - Ảnh 1.

Tình trạng chèo kéo khách du lịch còn phổ biến. Ảnh: Internet

So sánh với thực tế, ông Phương cho rằng với chỉ số 93% Tổng Cục du lịch ban bố, có lẽ đây chỉ là số liệu tham khảo từ việc đánh giá mức độ chấp thuận về nơi ăn, chỗ ngủ trong khách sạn 4, 5 sao mà chưa có những khảo sát các dịch vụ khác ngoài khách sạn. Trong trường hợp này, chỉ số trên vẫn còn khiêm tốn, còn thấp so với nhiều nước.Ông Phương cho biết, ông tin tức số liệu trên được đưa ra là có cơ sở, tuy nhiên, để đánh giá được ngành du lịch phải dựa trên rất nhiều nhân tố trong đó bao gồm từ cơ sở hạ tầng khách sạn, chất lượng dịch vụ trong khách sạn cho tới thái độ ứng xử, cơ sở hạ tầng ngoài đường phố, chất lượng dịch vụ văn hóa, môi trường ngoài đường phố... Đó mới là những yếu tố đầy đủ đo lường chừng độ chấp nhận hay không hài lòng của du khách.

"Ở những khách sạn lớn,đạt chuẩn quốc tế thì yêu cầu về dịch vụ, hạ tầng phục vụ du khách phải đáp ứng tối thiểu 95% đề nghị, thậm chí còn cao hơn nhiều nữa", ông Phương cho biết.

Kết luận lại, trong việc phát mẫu lấy quan điểm khảo sát, ông Phương cho rằng, cần phải giải đáp nhiều câu hỏi.

Thứ nhất, đối tượng du khách được lấy quan điểm là ai? Thứ hai, vùng khảo sát, điểm khảo sát thuộc khu vực nào, phân khúc nào của nhóm du khách quốc tế khi đến tham quan Việt Nam? Thứ ba, những nội dung cụ thể trong phiếu khảo sát thể hiện, phục vụ mục tiêu gì? Hướng tới nội dung nào?

"Lấy tiêu chuẩn của khách sạn 1, 2 sao để hỏi du khách ở khách sạn 4,5 sao thì đương nhiên là ưng hết.

Tiếp nữa, nếu một du khách thuộc phân khúc tiêu dùng thấp, nhưng lại được lấy ý kiến dùng các dịch vụ cao thì không phải 93% mà cả thảy đều ưng ý", ông Phương nếu cụ thể.

Đừng chỉ so ta với ta

Một vấn đề khác cũng được Hiệu trưởng trường Cao đẳng nghề du lịch Huế đề cập tới đó là chỉ số hơn 40% du khách muốn quay lại Việt Nam. Ông Phương khẳng định, đối với du khách du lịch thuần túy, đây là con số xa xỉ, không bao giờ có được.

Ông Phương băn khoăn, số liệu trên được ghi nhận dựa trên thống kê những du khách ra vào chỉ vì mục đích du lịch hay còn dựa trên tiêu chí du lịch và thương mại?

"Nếu chỉ tính khách du lịch thuần túy, tôi tin con số 40% là chẳng thể có được.

Còn nếu bao gồm cả du khách ra vào theo nhiều hình thức khác nhau như đi làm việc, đi cần lao, đi khảo sát, nghiên cứu... thì đây không phải là con số đáng tự hào", ông Phương cho hay.

Sau nhiều băn khoăn đặt ra, Hiệu trưởng trường Cao đẳng nghề thi bằng a2 du lịch Huế giải thích, đó là do ông nhìn vào tính đồng bộ của ngành du lịch trong nước.

Ông Vũ Hà Phương đánh giá, Việt Nam là giang sơn có rất nhiều tiềm năng, nhiều tài nguyên để phát triển du lịch, tuy nhiên, cơ sở hạ tầng phát triển chưa đồng bộ, trong khi đó, khả năng tiếp cận tài nguyên lại chưa tới, thành ra, dù có tài nguyên nhưng nhiều khi vẫn đang bị bỏ quên, phung phí.

Chỉ rõ mấy vấn đề, ông Phương phân tách:

trước hết là quy hoạch du lịch Việt Nam chưa đồng bộ, bị chia cắt, ngăn trở bởi những quy hoạch vùng, quy hoạch ngành.

Tiếp đến, có nhiều sản phẩm, dịch vụ tốt nhưng lại chưa biết cách phá hoang. Cùng là một sản phẩm dịch vụ đó, có chất lượng thậm chí còn tốt hơn ở Thái Lan nhưng du khách ở Thái Lan, Maylaysia thì khôn xiết thích trong khi ở Việt Nam lại không thể bán được.

Vấn đề nữa, đầu tư cho quảng bá, giới thiệu các sản phẩm du lịch còn hạn chế. Công tác bảo đảm vệ sinh an toàn thực phẩm, công tác thứ tự đô thị còn yếu, kém, gây bất bình, bức xúc cho du khách.

Một vấn đề khác là, tính đồng bộ của cơ chế, chính sách chưa cao, vẫn còn quy định mở nhưng lại có quy định trói, gây khó khăn trong phát triển du lịch.

rút cục, văn hóa xử sự, tính chuyên nghiệp trong tiếp đón, phục vụ dùng các dịch vụ, hạ tầng chưa cao, còn nhiều bất cập, mang tính địa phương, vùng miền, gây khó chịu cho du khách.

"Nếu muốn du lịch trong nước tiến bộ thì cần phải so sánh với các nước có ngành du lịch phát triển như Singapore, Maylaysia, Thái Lan chứ không nên chỉ biết tự so sánh với mình. Ta so với ta sẽ không có một mốc nào để đổi thay, phát triển cả.

Tôi lấy tỉ dụ, khi du khách sang Thái Lan, Maylaysia, du khách được hưởng một kỳ nghỉ đúng nghĩa, được đón tiếp, sử dụng các dịch vụ tốt thật sự, tốt từ đầu tới cuối. Từ khâu bắt đầu bước chân đến nước họ, gặp một người tài xế, kéo dài suốt quá trình và cho tới khi chấm dứt chuyến đi, ra về... tất tật đều khiến du khách rất ưng.

Ở Việt Nam thì khác, thái độ phục vụ lỗ chỗ, nơi tốt, nơi thì rất dở, viên chức còn cáu gắt, khó chịu, chưa cởi mở, trong khi hiện tượng lừa đảo, chèo kéo còn nhiều...

Điều này cho chúng ta thấy, tiềm năng du lịch thì nhiều nhưng khả năng phá hoang, phát huy các thế mạnh du lịch thì làm chưa tốt, chưa hiệu quả", ông Phương kết luận.



Theo Lam Nguyên

Đất Việt


          Triều Tiên bác thời gian biểu phi hạt nhân hóa của Pompeo      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Ngoại trưởng Mỹ Mike Pompeo (trái) bắt tay lãnh đạo Triều Tiên Kim Jong-un trong chuyến thăm Bình Nhưỡng hồi tháng 5. Ảnh: KCNA.

Ngoại trưởng Mỹ Mike Pompeo (trái) bắt tay lãnh đạo Triều Tiên Kim Jong-un trong chuyến thăm Bình Nhưỡng hồi tháng 5. Ảnh: KCNA.

Triều Tiên đã nhiều lần từ chối thực hiện tiến trình phi hạt nhân hóa trong suốt hai tháng qua, trong bối cảnh các cuộc đàm phán về chương trình hạt nhân của nước này vẫn tiếp kiến, tập san Vox của Mỹ bữa qua dẫn hai nguồn tin thân cận với quá trình đàm phán cho hay. Bộ Ngoại giao Mỹ chưa bình luận về thông tin này.

Nguồn tin của Vox tiết lộ rằng trong quá trình đàm phán, Ngoại trưởng Mỹ Mike Pompeo đưa ra đề xuất Bình Nhưỡng cần bàn giao 60–70% đầu đạn hạt nhân cho bên thứ ba trong vòng 6–8 tháng. Tuy nhiên, do Mỹ chưa rõ Triều Tiên sở hữu bao nhiêu đầu đạn, việc xác minh Bình Nhưỡng có thực sự bàn giao theo đúng tỷ lệ thỏa thuận hay không trở thành khó khăn.

Một nguồn tin nói thêm rằng ưu tiên lớn nhất của Pompeo trong giai đoạn đàm phán này là xác định chuẩn xác số lượng vũ khí hạt nhân mà Triều Tiên đang sở hữu. Trong cuộc phỏng vấn tuần trước với CNA, Pompeo cho biết ít nhất một phần trong thời khắc biểu chung cuộc cho tiến trình phi hạt nhân hóa sẽ do lãnh đạo Triều Tiên Kim Jong-un đặt ra.

" Quyết định là ở ngài ấy. Kim đã cam kết, và chúng tôi rất hy vọng rằng trong những tháng và tuần tới chúng tôi có thể đạt được tiến bộ đáng kể hướng tới đích này, song song chóng vánh đưa người dân Triều Tiên tới ngày mai tươi sáng hơn ", Pompeo phát biểu.

Cố vấn an ninh Nhà Trắng John Bolton hôm 7/8 cũng trả lời Fox News rằng " Triều Tiên chưa thực hiện các bước mà chúng tôi cảm thấy cấp thiết cho việc phi hạt nhân hóa " .

Trong hội nghị thượng đỉnh Mỹ - Triều hồi tháng 6 tại Singapore, Trump và Kim đã ký thỏa thuận chung, cam kết "phi hạt nhân hóa hoàn thi bang a2 toàn" bán đảo Triều Tiên. Tuy nhiên, Bình Nhưỡng tới nay chưa cho thấy động thái đáng kể nào bộc lộ kiên tâm thực hành mục tiêu, thậm chí có dấu hiệu vẫn đang theo đuổi việc sản xuất khí giới. Dù vậy, Tổng thống Trump vẫn ca tụng hành động trao trả hài cốt lính Mỹ của nước này và thể hiện sự tin tức vào thỏa thuận.

Ánh Ngọc


          Số phận những con nợ còi cọc của Trung Quốc: Càng giãy càng lún sâu vào bẫy      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Mạng lưới "con nợ" của Trung Quốc tại thanh bình Dương

Hơn một thập kỷ trước, các cuộc biểu tình tại thủ đô Nuku’alofa của Tonga đã phá hủy hồ hết nền kinh tế trung ương và cơ quan đầu não của quốc gia nhỏ bé tại thái hoà Dương này.

Giữa đống đổ nát và tàn dư của các phong trào biểu tình, chính quyền Tonga đã đề ra một kế hoạch tái xây dựng thị thành, bao gồm xây dựng một bến tàu mới và khôi phục lại cung điện tôn thất - quơ các dự án này đều sử dụng nguồn 'tài trợ' của người chủ nợ mới - Trung Quốc .

Khoản nợ 65 triệu USD ban sơ giờ đây đã tăng lên gần gấp đôi vì lãi suất và vì chính phủ Tonga quyết định vay một khoản lớn nữa để xây dựng hệ thống đường xá. bây giờ Tonga đang nợ Trung Quốc tổng cộng 115 triệu USD - tương đương với gần 1/3 tổng sản phẩm quốc nội (GDP) hàng năm của nước này.

lịch trình chi trả tiền lãi theo thời hạn sắp bắt đầu vào tháng 9 tới đang khiến các quan chức Tonga khôn xiết lo ngại, bởi khoản nợ đang đối mặt với nguy cơ tăng lên gấp đôi.

Tình trạng bấp bênh hiện nay của Tonga là một tỉ dụ tiêu biểu cho việc các nền kinh tế trong khu vực thăng bình Dương đang phải hứng chịu hậu quả kinh khủng đến từ các khoản nợ khổng lồ của Trung Quốc.

Những khoản nợ này có thể khiến khu vực rơi vào tình trạng khủng hoảng tài chính trầm trọng, đồng thời cũng sẽ giúp Trung Quốc dễ bề gây sức ép ngoại giao hơn với các 'con nợ' của mình.

Một minh chứng rất cụ thể là Bắc Kinh đã có được đòn bẩy mạnh mẽ để giành giật ảnh hưởng tại châu Phi, và lôi kéo những đồng minh cũ của Đài Loan về phe mình.

Trước đây Đài Loan từng thiết lập mối quan hệ ngoại giao với nhiều quốc gia trong khu vực, tuy nhiên cho đến nay, hầu hết các đồng minh châu Phi đều đã dứt tình với đảo này vì những lợi. kinh tế trước mắt mà Trung Quốc mang lại.

Theo Reuters, các dữ liệu phân tách sổ sách tài chính của 11 quốc đảo tại khu vực Nam yên bình Dương cho thấy các khoản vay từ Trung Quốc đã tăng vọt từ mức gần 0 lên đến hơn 1,3 tỉ USD trong 1 thập kỷ qua.

Các dữ liệu này cũng cho thấy giờ Trung Quốc là chủ nợ lớn nhất trong khu vực, mặc dù nếu xét về quy mô các chương trình tương trợ thì Australia mới là nhà tương trợ tài chính lớn nhất tại Nam thái hoà Dương.

Các khoản vay từ Trung Quốc chiếm hơn 60% tổng số dư nợ nước ngoài của Tonga, gần 50% dư nợ của Vanuatu. Nếu quy các khoản nợ này ra đơn vị USD, thì Papua New Guinea hiện là con nợ lớn nhất của Trung Quốc trong khu vực, với số dư nợ gần 590 triệu USD, tương đương khoảng 25% tổng số dư nợ nước ngoài của nước này.

Ông Michel Kerf, Giám đốc cáng đáng khu vực thái hoà Dương của Ngân hàng Thế giới (WB), đáp phóng viên Reuters: "Xét đến những nhược điểm như việc có rất ít nguồn thu từ bên ngoài của các nền kinh tế này, có thể thấy họ đang đối mặt với nguy cơ rất cao bị lâm vào khủng hoảng nợ".

"Khoản nợ của họ sắp vượt quá cái được cho là giới hạn vay vững bền", ông Kerf nhận định.

Số phận những con nợ còi cọc của Trung Quốc: Càng giãy càng lún sâu vào bẫy - Ảnh 2.

Nhiều nhà nước tại thanh bình Dương đã trở thành 'con nợ' của Trung Quốc. Ảnh: Reuters.

Kết cục định sẵn của ván bài chính trị

Trung Quốc đã bắt đầu cho các quốc gia tại yên bình Dương vay nợ kể từ năm 2006, khi nền kinh tế của nước này bắt đầu khởi sắc. Việc cho vay không chỉ giúp Bắc Kinh tăng cường các mối quan hệ với nước ngoài, mà còn đem lại nhiều dịp cho các doanh nghiệp quốc gia tham dự vào các dự án xây dựng cơ sở hạ tầng.

Các doanh nghiệp Trung Quốc đã dự xây dựng nhiều dự án hạ tầng khắp yên bình Dương, như bến tàu tại thị thành Luganville của Vanuatu do Shanghai Construction Group thực hiện, hay màng lưới cấp nước tại Quần đảo Cook của Rarotonga do công ty xây dựng nhà nước Civil Engineering Construction Co. thực hiện.

Tuy nhiên, trái với những nhận định của giới chuyên gia, bà Hoa Xuân Oánh, phát ngôn viên Bộ Ngoại giao Trung Quốc, khẳng định không có bất kì bằng chứng nào cho thấy Trung Quốc là nguyên cớ gây ra các khoản nợ không vững bền trong khu vực yên bình Dương.

"Thể theo nguyện vọng của các quốc gia [hiện đang vay nợ Trung Quốc], chúng tôi đã vô cùng hỗ trợ về mặt tài chính cho họ. Các quốc gia [Thái Bình Dương] đều hoan nghênh [sự giúp đỡ của Trung Quốc], bởi họ đã nhận được viện trợ khi cần thiết để phát triển từng lớp và kinh tế", bà Hoa Xuân Oánh trả lời phóng viên Reuters.

Bà này cũng cho biết mối quan hệ của Trung Quốc và Tonga "rất tốt".

Các chuyên gia nhận định việc Sri Lanka buộc phải cho Trung Quốc thuê cảng chiến lược Hambantota vì khoản nợ quá lớn, và Colombo gần đây cũng đang phải chật vật xoay trở với khủng hoảng nợ càng ngày càng trầm trọng cho thấy 'ông lớn' của châu Á hoàn toàn nhận thức được quyền lực và giá trị chiến lược của các khoản vay khổng lồ của mình tại Thái Bình Dương.

Thỏa thuận giữa Trung Quốc và Sri Lanka đã dấy lên nhiều lo ngại từ phía Mỹ, Ấn Độ và Nhật Bản rằng Bắc Kinh có thể sẽ biến cảng này thành một cứ quân sự tại Ấn Độ Dương. Chính phủ Sri Lanka và Đại sứ quán Trung Quốc tại Colombo đều đã chưng những lo ngại này.

Ông Sam Parker, một nhà nghiên cứu về chính sách ngoại giao và tài chính của Trung Quốc tại nước ngoài cho biết cảng Hambantota là hồi chuông cảnh tỉnh đối với các nhà nước khác tại thái hoà Dương.

"Có thể ban sơ Trung Quốc không hề cố tình lùa các nhà nước này vào bẫy nợ", ông Parker nói. "Nhưng với những gì Bắc Kinh đã đạt được như hiện giờ, chúng tôi cho rằng họ sẵn sàng tiếp kiến triển khai kịch bản này. Họ đã bắt đầu trở nên hung hăng hơn rất nhiều trong vấn đề địa kinh tế".

quả thật, Chiến lược quốc phòng mới của Mỹ đã cảnh báo Trung Quốc đang dùng phương pháp kinh tế kiểu "săn mồi" nhằm đạt được các đích chiến lược và lập lại trật tự mới tại Ấn Độ Dương - thái hoà Dương để phục vụ lợi ích riêng.

ngoại giả, chiến lược quốc phòng của New Zealand vừa được ban bố tháng trước cũng đặc biệt nhấn mạnh tình trạng chia rẽ càng ngày càng gia tăng tại khu vực thăng bình Dương sau khi Trung Quốc xuất hiện.

New Zealand cũng cáo buộc Trung Quốc đang muốn xây dựng một căn cứ quân sự tại Vanuatu sau khi cho nước này vay vốn xây dựng một bến tàu đủ lớn cho các tàu chiến cập cảng. Cả Trung Quốc và Vanuatu đều bác bỏ các cáo buộc trên.

Tuy vậy, đứng trước một Bắc Kinh đang ngày một gia tăng ảnh hưởng trong khu vực, Ngoại trưởng Mỹ Mike Pompeo vẫn cho rằng các quốc gia Nam thái hoà Dương sẽ chọn Mỹ làm đồng minh thay vì Trung Quốc.

"Tôi tin rằng các quốc gia Nam thái hoà Dương, cũng như nhiều quốc gia khác trên thế giới, đều hiểu tầm quan trọng của việc trở nên đồng minh với Mỹ - nhà nước luôn ủng hộ các giá trị dân chủ trong vòng nhiều thập kỷ qua", ông Pompeo phát biểu trong cuộc gặp với Ngoại trưởng Australia Julie Bishop.

Số phận những con nợ còi cọc của Trung Quốc: Càng giãy càng lún sâu vào bẫy - Ảnh 4.

Sri Lanka đã buộc phải cho Trung Quốc thuê cảng chiến lược Hambantota do không trả được khoản nợ quá lớn.

Vấn đề Đài Loan

Nếu xét về quy mô toàn cầu, thì các khoản nợ tại khu vực này khá nhỏ, hơn nữa các quốc đảo yên bình Dương cũng không hẳn có ý nghĩa quan trọng về mặt chiến lược. Tuy nhiên khu vực này vẫn cuộn sự quan tâm của Trung Quốc.

Washington và các đồng minh luôn nỗ lực răn đe và ngăn chặn Bắc Kinh xây dựng các cứ quân sự tại khu vực từng có ý nghĩa mấu chốt trong các trận chiến Thái Bình Dương trong Thế chiến II.

Mỗi nhà nước Thái Bình Dương đại diện cho một phiếu bầu trong các diễn đàn quốc tế như liên hiệp Quốc, và các nhà nước này cũng kiểm soát thi bang lai moto a2 một lãnh hải giàu tài nguyên lớn trên thế giới.

Hơn nữa, 1/3 các quốc gia trên thế giới có mối quan hệ ngoại giao chính thức với Đài Loan nằm trong khu vực Nam thanh bình Dương. Trong bối cảnh mối quan hệ giữa Đài Bắc và Đại Lục đang có nhiều xung đột bao tay như hiện nay, thì ảnh hưởng của Trung Quốc tại yên bình Dương là một lợi thế.

Cả Đài Loan và Trung Quốc đều dùng những "món quà" như các gói hỗ trợ và các khoản vay để "giữ chân" những đồng minh của mình.

tuy thế, vào tháng 2 vừa qua, Văn phòng Ngoại giao Đài Loan cho biết Trung Quốc đã ép Papua New Guinea đổi tên văn phòng đại diện của Đài Bắc tại nước này và bỏ các biển số xe ngoại giao khỏi các dụng cụ của các quan chức đại diện của Đài Loan.

"Những động thái gần đây cho thấy Trung Quốc và Đài Loan lại tiếp cạnh tranh bít tất tay tại các quốc đảo thanh bình Dương", một bẩm hồi tháng 6 vừa qua của Ủy ban An ninh và Kinh tế Mỹ-Trung cho biết.

Các điều kiện và điều khoản

Những quan điểm chỉ trích xung quanh các khoản vay của Trung Quốc tại thái hoà Dương hầu hết đều tập hợp vào các dự án và các điều khoản kèm theo khoản vay.

Quần đảo Cook đã vay vốn của Trung Quốc để xây dựng một số công trình công cộng như tòa án, sở cảnh sát, và sân vận động. Thế nhưng theo ông Mark Short, cựu Bộ trưởng Tư pháp của Quần đảo Cook, các cơ sở này đều không đạt chuẩn chất lượng, và đã bắt đầu xuống cấp.

Ông Short cho biết sân vận động do các nhân công nước ngoài xây dựng đã bị rỉ sét và xuống cấp nghiêm trọng sau khi được đưa vào dùng chưa đến 10 năm. Đối với tòa án, giới chức địa phương đã phải chỉ đạo dựng một buồng giam trợ thời ở bên ngoài bởi các buồng giam phía dưới mặt đất quá ngột ngạt và chỉ đủ dưỡng khí cho khoảng 2 giờ.

Phó Thủ tướng Mark Brown của Quần đảo Cook dìm đã có một số vấn đề trong việc chọn lọc các nguyên nguyên liệu và tay nghề của công nhân trong các dự án xây dựng cơ sở hạ tầng này.

"Phía Trung Quốc đã nhận bổn phận về những lỗi và yêu cầu sẽ tiến hành tu tạo lại cả 3 công trình. Họ đã yêu cầu trợ giúp vào đúng thời điểm chúng tôi cần xây dựng các công trình hạ tầng, và chúng tôi đã nắm lấy cơ hội đó".

Số phận những con nợ còi cọc của Trung Quốc: Càng giãy càng lún sâu vào bẫy - Ảnh 6.

Sở cảnh sát này là một trong những công trình do Trung Quốc cấp vốn và xây dựng tại Quần đảo Cook. Hiện cơ sở này đã bị xuống cấp trầm trọng. Ảnh: RNZI.

hồ hết sự tương trợ về tài chính của Trung Quốc đều theo hình thức "cho vay ưu đãi", trong khi các quốc gia khác như Australia, New Zealand hay Mỹ lại tương trợ theo hình thức "trao quà", và việc vay vốn thường do các tổ chức đa phương như WB hay Ngân hàng Phát triển Châu Á (ADB) phụ trách.

Gần đây, Australia và New Zealand đều tăng cường rót vốn đầu tư vào khu vực này. Tuy nhiên, theo ông William Longwah, cựu đặc sứ tại Sydney của Vanuatu, việc giao tiếp với Trung Quốc có vẻ dễ dàng nhiều hơn so với Australia.

"Australia thường mất rất nhiều thời kì để hoàn thành các thủ tục hành chính và chuyển giao các khoản tương trợ tài chính", ông Longwah nói.

hiện thời chính phủ các quốc đảo thái hoà Dương đang đối mặt với sức ép nợ chất chồng.

Trong khi đó, không hề có dấu hiệu nào cho thấy Trung Quốc sẽ xóa nợ cho các nước này. Năm 2013, Bắc Kinh đã từ khước đề nghị này của Tonga và chỉ cho phép hoãn việc trả vốn gốc trong vòng 5 năm.

Theo kế hoạch, Tonga sẽ phải trả lại 5,7 triệu USD vốn gốc cho Trung Quốc trong năm 2018-2019, gần gấp đôi khoản tiền nước này phải trả nợ hàng năm, và chiếm khoảng 4% tổng ngân sách 135 triệu USD của Tonga.

Những khó khăn về tài chính đã khiến chính phủ Tonga phải xin rút khỏi vai trò nước chủ nhà tổ chức Thế vận hội thăng bình Dương 2019. dĩ nhiên Tonga đã phải chịu trách nhiệm pháp lý và hứng chịu rất nhiều chỉ trích từ ban tổ chức sự kiện thể thao này.

Ông Lopeti Senituli, cố vấn chính trị và truyền thông của Thủ Tướng Tonga ‘Akilisi Pōhiva cho biết nước này vẫn đang tiến hành thương thuyết với Bắc Kinh về vấn đề xóa nợ, nhưng song song vẫn chuẩn bị ý thức trả nợ: "hẳn nhiên [các khoản nợ này] sẽ khiến nước nào cũng phải đối mặt với khủng hoảng tài chính lớn. Chúng tôi chỉ có thể nắm khôn cùng mà thôi".

Ông Senituli cũng thừa nhận nhiều quốc đảo thanh bình Dương đang phải đối mặt với áp lực tài chính rất lớn từ phía Bắc Kinh, nhưng đây không chỉ là vấn đề riêng của khu vực này, mà là vấn đề chung của bất cứ nước nào có mối quan hệ về kinh tế với Bắc Kinh.

Trung Quốc đang gây áp lực "rất lớn" trên toàn cầu, bất kể đó là nền kinh tế lớn hay nhỏ, bất kể thiết chế chính trị đó có vị thế ra sao trên thế giới, ông Senituli kết luận.


          Exclusive Press : Copc Inc. Partners With Quest Learning In Malaysia To Offer Customer Experience Management Training      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

SINGAPORE & KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia, Aug 9 (Bernama) -- COPC Inc., a global consulting firm that helps companies improve operations to transform the customer experience, is pleased to announce a partnership with Quest Learning in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to provide call centre and customer experience management training that qualifies for the Human Resources Development Fund (HRDF) subsidy. The first two COPC Inc. classes offered in partnership with Quest are COPC® Customer Journey Mapping Certification on 25-27 September 2018, and COPC® Best Practices for Customer Experience (CX) Operations on 29 October – 2 November 2018. Additional dates for these two classes will be available in 2019. Companies that participate in the Malaysian government’s HRDF program can take these classes and receive a subsidy on class fees under the HRDF guidelines.

“We have been working with clients in the Malaysian market for the past few years and this is the next step to helping companies improve both operational performance and the customer experience. Quest Learning has an excellent reputation within the Malaysian business community and we look forward to partnering with them to offer our call centre and customer experience training programs,” said Ian Aitchison, CEO Asia Pacific region, COPC Inc.


          Exclusive Press : Arrington Xrp Capital, Alphabit And Dekrypt Capital Join The List Of Initial Investors In The Universal Protocol Platform      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

SINGAPORE, Aug 9 (Bernama) -- Universal Protocol Platform, an alliance of industry leading blockchain and digital asset companies introducing a new structure of Proxy Tokens to promote interoperability, has announced a new round of all-star digital asset management funds supporting the project, including Dekrypt Capital, Alphabit, and Arrington XRP Capital. The latest round of supporters join FBG Capital, previously announced as the lead investor in the project.

“The group of companies and investors coming together to make this project a reality is impressive and shows the potential of this technology to solve the issue of cross-chain transactions,” said Howard Wu, Managing Partner of Dekrypt Capital. “Dekrypt is excited to be apart of this initiative and to help bring a highly-scalable solution to blockchain interoperability to market.”


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Ask Singaporeans about their plans for National Day today and they may tell you they intend to head to the beach or that it’s just another day off work to relax. Three years ago, when the Southeast Asian republic turned 50, things were different. Large celebrations to mark the occasion were ... Reported by S.China Morning Post 3 hours ago.
          Singtel profit remains under pressure      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Singapore operator Singtel reported another year-on-year drop in quarterly profit, due to a sharp decline ...

The post Singtel profit remains under pressure appeared first on Mobile World Live.


          Review: A flawed but vital milestone, ‘Crazy Rich Asians’ pays exuberant tribute to Singapore's 1%      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Before it whisks you off on the sunniest, most extravagant Singaporean holiday imaginable, “Crazy Rich Asians” begins on a curiously dark and stormy night.

When Eleanor Young (a mesmerizing Michelle Yeoh) arrives dripping wet at an exclusive London hotel, the snob at the front desk declines her...


          New: Delta Laminates (Lifestyle)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Delta Laminates 1.0


Device: iOS iPhone
Category: Lifestyle
Price: Free, Version: 1.0 (iTunes)

Description:

DELTA is indisputable leader in the decorative laminates industry. Delta Laminates was incorporated in the year 2000. The company pioneers in developing innovative and customer oriented products. It prides itself in its quality services.

Additionally, Delta has a prominent presence across the world. It is present in countries like UAE, Singapore, Malaysia, China, and Europe. Delta Laminates products have grown significantly in popularity because they are reasonably durable, hygienic and relatively easy to maintain.

The plant of the company is located at Santej, Gujarat. The Production and Quality team consists of 250 employees with 20+ years of experience in high pressure laminated sheet manufacturing.

Initially we started one press producing 3000 sheets/day. Now we have grown to 7 presses with 20,000 sheets/day. The company is equipped with thermic fluid boilers, top of the line handling systems and precision handling impregnators.

Delta Laminates


          Review: A flawed but vital milestone, ‘Crazy Rich Asians’ pays exuberant tribute to Singapore's 1%      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Before it whisks you off on the sunniest, most extravagant Singaporean holiday imaginable, “Crazy Rich Asians” begins on a curiously dark and stormy night.

When Eleanor Young (a mesmerizing Michelle Yeoh) arrives dripping wet at an exclusive London hotel, the snob at the front desk declines her...


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          Review: A flawed but vital milestone, ‘Crazy Rich Asians’ pays exuberant tribute to Singapore's 1%      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Before it whisks you off on the sunniest, most extravagant Singaporean holiday imaginable, “Crazy Rich Asians” begins on a curiously dark and stormy night.

When Eleanor Young (a mesmerizing Michelle Yeoh) arrives dripping wet at an exclusive London hotel, the snob at the front desk declines her...


          Review: A flawed but vital milestone, ‘Crazy Rich Asians’ pays exuberant tribute to Singapore's 1%      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Before it whisks you off on the sunniest, most extravagant Singaporean holiday imaginable, “Crazy Rich Asians” begins on a curiously dark and stormy night.

When Eleanor Young (a mesmerizing Michelle Yeoh) arrives dripping wet at an exclusive London hotel, the snob at the front desk declines her...


          Review: A flawed but vital milestone, ‘Crazy Rich Asians’ pays exuberant tribute to Singapore's 1%      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Before it whisks you off on the sunniest, most extravagant Singaporean holiday imaginable, “Crazy Rich Asians” begins on a curiously dark and stormy night.

When Eleanor Young (a mesmerizing Michelle Yeoh) arrives dripping wet at an exclusive London hotel, the snob at the front desk declines her...


          Crazy Rich Asians Is a Shiny, Affluence-Porn Rom-Com With a Big Immigrant Heart      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

There's a joke that I'm going to spoil from Crazy Rich Asians, but it is neither the best nor only joke in Crazy Rich Asians, so I hope you don't mind. Shortly after Rachel (Constance Wu) arrives in Singapore to meet her boyfriend Nick's outrageously wealthy family, she makes a ... More »
          Cá rồng huyết long đắt ngang "siêu" xe có gì đặc biệt?      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Cá rồng huyết long được coi là cá cảnh đắt đỏ nhất thế giới. Nó được coi là mang lại may mắn, thịnh vượng cho người chủ sở hữu.

Cá rồng, "ông hoàng" trong các loài cá, có tên khoa học là Scleropages formosus, một loài rất hiếm gặp. Cá rồng sống trong môi trường nước ngọt, là loài cá có kích thước lớn, chiều dài cơ thể có thể tới 90cm và trọng lượng hơn 7kg khi trưởng thành.

Cá rồng có nhiều loại dựa vào màu sắc của cá nhưng cá rồng huyết long màu đỏ là loài đứng đầu dòng cá rồng về cả màu sắc cũng như giá trị.

Thức ăn chủ yếu là côn trùng, cá nhỏ và cả ếch nhái.

Huyết long gồm có 2 dòng chính là cá Huyết rồng màu đỏ ớt (Chilli red) và cá Huyết rồng màu đỏ máu (Blood red). Chúng phân bố nhiều ở thượng lưu sông Kapuas và vùng hồ Sentarum, tỉnh Tây Kalimantan, đảo Borneo, Indonesia.

Thức ăn chủ yếu là côn trùng, cá nhỏ và cả ếch nhái. Trứng của cá rồng thường to và mỗi lứa đẻ ít. Trứng được ấp trong miệng cá bố cho tới khi nở.

Đặc điểm khác biệt của loại cá này là sự thay đổi màu sắc từ khi cá còn nhỏ đến khi trưởng thành. Toàn bộ thân cá có màu đỏ sáng, lớp vảy trên toàn thân đều, óng ánh đẹp mắt.

Sở dĩ cá rồng có giá cao là bởi hình dáng sang trọng, quý phái, bộ vẩy óng đẹp.

Sở dĩ cá rồng có giá cao là bởi hình dáng sang trọng, quý phái, bộ vẩy óng đẹp, sáng bóng như những đồng xu, gợn sóng như những con rồng, khác biệt với các loại cá khác.

Vì sự quý hiếm và giá trị của nó nên mỗi khi cá rồng xuất hiện trong các cuộc thi, trước công chúng đều được bảo vệ đặc biệt. Chuyên gia Emily Voigt nghiên cứu về cá rồng cho hay trong lần may mắn cô được tham dự Cuộc thi Cá rồng quốc tế Aquarama tại Singapore năm 2009 cô thấy khoảng 10 con cá rồng huyết long quý hiếm được những người bảo vệ có vũ trang canh giữa trong chiếc xe cảnh sát. Giá cao nhất lúc đó cô biết được là 300.000 USD (gần 7 tỉ đồng).

Trước đây, cựu Tổng thống Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhono đã từng trả 20.000 USD để sở hữu một chú cá rồng huyết long ở Jakarta.

Trong tự nhiên cá rồng huyết long là loài cá đang đứng trước nguy cơ tuyệt chủng. Sẽ là bất hợp pháp nếu nhập khẩu loài cá này vào Mỹ. Ở Đông Nam Á, có các trang trại cá rồng, nơi chúng được nuôi chăm sóc sinh sản, thường được bảo vệ vô cùng nghiêm ngặt, tường bê tông cao chắc chắn, có chó bảo vệ canh giữ và dây thép gai.

Cá rồng hầu hết được bán khi được khoảng 6 tháng tuổi.

Kenny Yap, người mệnh danh là vị vua cá cảnh, sở hữu trang trại nuôi cá cảnh lớn nhất châu Á chia sẻ rằng: "Đánh cắp một con cá không dễ dàng như đánh cắp một món đồ trang sức".

Yap chia sẻ trên tờ New York post rằng, cá rồng hầu hết được bán khi được khoảng 6 tháng tuổi, khi mà chiều dài của chúng bằng cái bút chì với giá từ 1.000 đến 2.000 USD tùy loại.

Yap nói: "Mọi người muốn nuôi chúng từ nhỏ để dễ nuôi dưỡng. Chúng sống được đến vài chục tuổi nhưng chưa xác định chính xác là bao lâu".
          Review: A flawed but vital milestone, ‘Crazy Rich Asians’ pays exuberant tribute to Singapore's 1%      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Before it whisks you off on the sunniest, most extravagant Singaporean holiday imaginable, “Crazy Rich Asians” begins on a curiously dark and stormy night.

When Eleanor Young (a mesmerizing Michelle Yeoh) arrives dripping wet at an exclusive London hotel, the snob at the front desk declines her...


          Machinist - Singapore Technologies Aerospace Ltd - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Preferably 1-2 years of working experience in aviation repair involving CNC &amp; conventional machining (milling / turning / grinding)....
From Singapore Technologies Electronics - Wed, 08 Aug 2018 12:27:12 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          CNC Machinist - ST Kinetics Integrated Engineering Pte Ltd (KIE) - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Operate and handling of CNC machines - 3/4/5-Axis and Turning. Managing tools &amp; fixture setup....
From Singapore Technologies Electronics - Thu, 02 Aug 2018 06:27:13 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          Manufacturing Specialist (2 year contract) - ST Kinetics Integrated Engineering Pte Ltd (KIE) - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hands-on experience proficiency in operation of CNC Machines (eg; Perform assigned 5S for responsible machine and/or production floor 5S and running daily...
From Singapore Technologies Electronics - Thu, 02 Aug 2018 06:27:13 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          Machinist - ST Aerospace Engines Pte Ltd - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Able to perform set up and operate on both CNC and conventional milling / turning / grinding machine. Preferably more than 3 years of working experience in...
From Singapore Technologies Electronics - Mon, 09 Jul 2018 06:27:03 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          CNC Machinist _ Ref: KIE/KAMC/SCH - ST Kinetics Integrated Engineering Pte Ltd (KIE) - Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Operate and handle of CNC machines - 3/4/5-Axis and Turning. Perform in tools &amp; fixture setup....
From Singapore Technologies Electronics - Thu, 05 Jul 2018 06:26:45 GMT - View all Ang Mo Kio jobs
          Machinist - Singapore Technologies Aerospace Ltd - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Preferably 1-2 years of working experience in aviation repair involving CNC &amp; conventional machining (milling / turning / grinding)....
From Singapore Technologies Engineering Ltd - Wed, 08 Aug 2018 13:12:36 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Machining Specialist - TechnipFMC - Singapore      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Reviews the CNC program if necessary and identifies possible errors. The key role of the Machining Specialist is to The key role of the Machining Specialist is...
From TechnipFMC - Wed, 08 Aug 2018 08:48:33 GMT - View all Singapore jobs
          Review: A flawed but vital milestone, ‘Crazy Rich Asians’ pays exuberant tribute to Singapore's 1%      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Before it whisks you off on the sunniest, most extravagant Singaporean holiday imaginable, “Crazy Rich Asians” begins on a curiously dark and stormy night.

When Eleanor Young (a mesmerizing Michelle Yeoh) arrives dripping wet at an exclusive London hotel, the snob at the front desk declines her...


          The Famous Zhou 粥出名 : a porridge stall in Ang Mo Kio      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
This porridge stall is set up by Chew Chor Meng (周初明) and Dennis Chew (周崇庆), this is their new venture after setting up 3 outlets of 888 Mookata at Hougang, Bishan and Bukit Batok, serving Thai-style barbecue steamboat in the coffee shop. This stall is named "The Famous Zhou" and the "Zhou" here is 周, their surname, it also means 粥 in Chinese. It is 粥出名 in Chinese, sounded like 周初明 and it also means the famous porridge. The Taiwanese chef Huang Ching Biao is behind the recipes of their porridges. It is their friend, an ex-engineer that is doing the cooking together with a Malaysian cook at the stall. There are 8 different types of porridge on their menu starting from $3.50 to $12.80, adding an egg is $0.50 and $0.80 cents for extra you tiao (fried dough fritters). 


I was there at about 12.30 pm on a Sunday and I did not see a queue at that time. Chew Chor Meng was there though, sitting at a table near the stall. I wanted the Happy Belly Chok, a fish porridge at $5 but was told they rn out of fish. I decided to go with A Smart Scholar Chok at $4, a mixed pork porridge, added an egg and you tiao. I was given a buzzer after paying, it buzzed in about 8 minutes. When I stood up and walking towards the stall, the friendly auntie was holding the bowl of porridge and looking around for me. I handed her the buzzer to her when she passed that bowl of porridge to me. The light of their signboard went off at this time, indicating they have already sold out. I must be really lucky to order the last few bowls of the porridge.


The texture of this Cantonese style porridge was rather smooth but a little too runny. It consists of pork slices and liver but there is no intestine in it. Those slices of liver were a bit too thin and it ended up overcooked thus a little tough. And, some you tiao was crispy and the other was soggy. 


They will need more time to work at improving its standard. 



THE FAMOUS ZHOU  粥出名
Block 421 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 10 Tian Tian Lai Food Place SINGAPORE 560421
Operating Hours: 8.00 am to 4.00 pm (Closed on Tuesdays) 

          Singaporeans on National Day: 57% say ministers should be paid much less      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
At a public dialogue with South East District residents last Thursday (2 August), Emeritus Senior Minister (ESM) Goh Chok Tong told the residents that if the ministerial pays are cut, Singapore will end up recruiting "very, very mediocre people" as officeholders. "I am Read More
          We have come so far as a nation but as a people, we are still expected to behave like sheep      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Each time we celebrate National Day on August 9, we are reminded of how far we have come as a nation. Indeed, Singapore is a metropolis with towering skyscrapers, a global financial hub and a vital and vibrant centre for commerce. As a Read More
          Vietnam's fast-growing eCommerce market      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Vietnam is one of the most attractive eCommerce markets in the region for investors. With an explosive 33% compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) over the past two years, Vietnam ranks high among the fastest-growing eCommerce markets in the region.

Frost & Sullivan forecast that the eCommerce market in Vietnam will reach a value of $3.7 billion by 2030. The year 2017 alone was a flourishing year for Vietnam’s eCommerce market with millions of dollars in investment capital poured in from foreign investors.

To explore the investment landscape in Vietnam, iPrice has collaborated with Cento Ventures to analyze the pattern of eCommerce investment in Vietnam. The report revealed the following findings about Vietnam’s eCommerce scene:

The big 6 behind Vietnam’s eCommerce funding

graph1

The largest investors in Vietnam’s eCommerce market include tech giants, venture capital firms and investment companies such as Alibaba, Tencent, Temasek Holdings, Dragon Capital, CyberAgent Ventures and IDG Ventures Vietnam. 

Alibaba, Tencent, and Temasek started investing in Vietnam’s eCommerce market only in recent years, while both Dragon Capital and IDG Ventures Vietnam have been seeding investments since the early beginnings.

JD.com, owned by Tencent, the largest Internet company in China, recently completed its large-scale investment in Tiki.vn and became the largest shareholder of Tiki in January 2018. Although the exact figures were not disclosed by both parties, local media estimated it to be $44 million.

Besides Tiki.vn, Tencent also expanded its stake in Vietnam's largest digital content company and the only billion-dollar startup in Vietnam - VNG. The amount of investment is confidential, but according to a credible news source, Tencent is now VNG's largest foreign shareholder.

In addition, Singapore-based Sea Limited (Garena) has entered the Vietnamese market via Shopee, the mobile-first marketplace platform. The largest shareholder of Sea Limited, which operates Shopee, is also Tencent.

Lazada is backed by two giants – Alibaba, the Chinese multinational eCommerce and technology conglomerate, and Temasek Holdings, the global investment company owned by the government of Singapore.

In November 2014, Lazada made a funding announcement worth $249 million from Temasek Holdings. In June 2017, China's Alibaba invested $1 billion in Lazada and increased its total stake to 83%.

Prior to investing in Lazada, Temasek also invested in FPT Corporation, an internet corporation which owns Sendo and FPT Shop. As of July 2018, Sendo has become one of the most popular eCommerce sites in Vietnam in terms of web traffic, according to SimilarWeb.

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          Mid-level Ruby Developer - Cendyn - Whistler, BC      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
With offices in Boca Raton, Atlanta, Boston, San Diego, Toronto, Whistler, North Yorkshire, Munich, Tokyo and Singapore, Cendyn proudly serves more than 30,000...
From Cendyn - Thu, 02 Aug 2018 20:30:28 GMT - View all Whistler, BC jobs
          Singapore trials iris recognition at border checkpoints      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Singapore is trialing iris recognition technology to confirm the identity of travelers at some border crossings to improve public safety,...
          User Research and UX Designer, South America - Yara Digital Farming - Digital Lab Singapore - São Paulo      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Digital Farming is a newly established global unit, created in Yara Crop Nutrition. There are more than 500 million smallholder farms globally with at least 2...
De Yara Digital Farming - Digital Lab Singapore - Tue, 07 Aug 2018 16:08:58 GMT - Visualizar todas as empregos: São Paulo
          CAIT to move court over CCI's approval for Flipkart-Walmart deal      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Seller body All India Online Vendors Association said the “current anti-competitive practices and violation of FDI policy as detailed in the judgement can be a problem for Indian companies held by Flipkart Singapore.”
          P2083790      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

P2083790

Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

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THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

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Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hans