Next Page: 10000

          The Uninhabitable Earth      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The Uninhabitable Earth
Famine, economic collapse, a sun that cooks us: What climate change could wreak — sooner than you think.

By David Wallace-Wells

In the jungles of Costa Rica, where humidity routinely tops 90 percent, simply moving around outside when it’s over 105 degrees Fahrenheit would be lethal. And the effect would be fast: Within a few hours, a human body would be cooked to death from both inside and out. Fossils by Heartless Machine
July 9, 2017

I. ‘Doomsday’
Peering beyond scientific reticence.

It is, I promise, worse than you think. If your anxiety about global warming is dominated by fears of sea-level rise, you are barely scratching the surface of what terrors are possible, even within the lifetime of a teenager today. And yet the swelling seas — and the cities they will drown — have so dominated the picture of global warming, and so overwhelmed our capacity for climate panic, that they have occluded our perception of other threats, many much closer at hand. Rising oceans are bad, in fact very bad; but fleeing the coastline will not be enough.

Indeed, absent a significant adjustment to how billions of humans conduct their lives, parts of the Earth will likely become close to uninhabitable, and other parts horrifically inhospitable, as soon as the end of this century.

Even when we train our eyes on climate change, we are unable to comprehend its scope. This past winter, a string of days 60 and 70 degrees warmer than normal baked the North Pole, melting the permafrost that encased Norway’s Svalbard seed vault — a global food bank nicknamed “Doomsday,” designed to ensure that our agriculture survives any catastrophe, and which appeared to have been flooded by climate change less than ten years after being built.

The Doomsday vault is fine, for now: The structure has been secured and the seeds are safe. But treating the episode as a parable of impending flooding missed the more important news. Until recently, permafrost was not a major concern of climate scientists, because, as the name suggests, it was soil that stayed permanently frozen. But Arctic permafrost contains 1.8 trillion tons of carbon, more than twice as much as is currently suspended in the Earth’s atmosphere. When it thaws and is released, that carbon may evaporate as methane, which is 34 times as powerful a greenhouse-gas warming blanket as carbon dioxide when judged on the timescale of a century; when judged on the timescale of two decades, it is 86 times as powerful. In other words, we have, trapped in Arctic permafrost, twice as much carbon as is currently wrecking the atmosphere of the planet, all of it scheduled to be released at a date that keeps getting moved up, partially in the form of a gas that multiplies its warming power 86 times over.

Maybe you know that already — there are alarming stories in the news every day, like those, last month, that seemed to suggest satellite data showed the globe warming since 1998 more than twice as fast as scientists had thought (in fact, the underlying story was considerably less alarming than the headlines). Or the news from Antarctica this past May, when a crack in an ice shelf grew 11 miles in six days, then kept going; the break now has just three miles to go — by the time you read this, it may already have met the open water, where it will drop into the sea one of the biggest icebergs ever, a process known poetically as “calving.”

Watch: How Climate Change Is Creating More Powerful Hurricanes

But no matter how well-informed you are, you are surely not alarmed enough. Over the past decades, our culture has gone apocalyptic with zombie movies and Mad Max dystopias, perhaps the collective result of displaced climate anxiety, and yet when it comes to contemplating real-world warming dangers, we suffer from an incredible failure of imagination. The reasons for that are many: the timid language of scientific probabilities, which the climatologist James Hansen once called “scientific reticence” in a paper chastising scientists for editing their own observations so conscientiously that they failed to communicate how dire the threat really was; the fact that the country is dominated by a group of technocrats who believe any problem can be solved and an opposing culture that doesn’t even see warming as a problem worth addressing; the way that climate denialism has made scientists even more cautious in offering speculative warnings; the simple speed of change and, also, its slowness, such that we are only seeing effects now of warming from decades past; our uncertainty about uncertainty, which the climate writer Naomi Oreskes in particular has suggested stops us from preparing as though anything worse than a median outcome were even possible; the way we assume climate change will hit hardest elsewhere, not everywhere; the smallness (two degrees) and largeness (1.8 trillion tons) and abstractness (400 parts per million) of the numbers; the discomfort of considering a problem that is very difficult, if not impossible, to solve; the altogether incomprehensible scale of that problem, which amounts to the prospect of our own annihilation; simple fear. But aversion arising from fear is a form of denial, too.

In between scientific reticence and science fiction is science itself. This article is the result of dozens of interviews and exchanges with climatologists and researchers in related fields and reflects hundreds of scientific papers on the subject of climate change. What follows is not a series of predictions of what will happen — that will be determined in large part by the much-less-certain science of human response. Instead, it is a portrait of our best understanding of where the planet is heading absent aggressive action. It is unlikely that all of these warming scenarios will be fully realized, largely because the devastation along the way will shake our complacency. But those scenarios, and not the present climate, are the baseline. In fact, they are our schedule.

The present tense of climate change — the destruction we’ve already baked into our future — is horrifying enough. Most people talk as if Miami and Bangladesh still have a chance of surviving; most of the scientists I spoke with assume we’ll lose them within the century, even if we stop burning fossil fuel in the next decade. Two degrees of warming used to be considered the threshold of catastrophe: tens of millions of climate refugees unleashed upon an unprepared world. Now two degrees is our goal, per the Paris climate accords, and experts give us only slim odds of hitting it. The U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issues serial reports, often called the “gold standard” of climate research; the most recent one projects us to hit four degrees of warming by the beginning of the next century, should we stay the present course. But that’s just a median projection. The upper end of the probability curve runs as high as eight degrees — and the authors still haven’t figured out how to deal with that permafrost melt. The IPCC reports also don’t fully account for the albedo effect (less ice means less reflected and more absorbed sunlight, hence more warming); more cloud cover (which traps heat); or the dieback of forests and other flora (which extract carbon from the atmosphere). Each of these promises to accelerate warming, and the history of the planet shows that temperature can shift as much as five degrees Celsius within thirteen years. The last time the planet was even four degrees warmer, Peter Brannen points out in The Ends of the World, his new history of the planet’s major extinction events, the oceans were hundreds of feet higher.*

The Earth has experienced five mass extinctions before the one we are living through now, each so complete a slate-wiping of the evolutionary record it functioned as a resetting of the planetary clock, and many climate scientists will tell you they are the best analog for the ecological future we are diving headlong into. Unless you are a teenager, you probably read in your high-school textbooks that these extinctions were the result of asteroids. In fact, all but the one that killed the dinosaurs were caused by climate change produced by greenhouse gas. The most notorious was 252 million years ago; it began when carbon warmed the planet by five degrees, accelerated when that warming triggered the release of methane in the Arctic, and ended with 97 percent of all life on Earth dead. We are currently adding carbon to the atmosphere at a considerably faster rate; by most estimates, at least ten times faster. The rate is accelerating. This is what Stephen Hawking had in mind when he said, this spring, that the species needs to colonize other planets in the next century to survive, and what drove Elon Musk, last month, to unveil his plans to build a Mars habitat in 40 to 100 years. These are nonspecialists, of course, and probably as inclined to irrational panic as you or I. But the many sober-minded scientists I interviewed over the past several months — the most credentialed and tenured in the field, few of them inclined to alarmism and many advisers to the IPCC who nevertheless criticize its conservatism — have quietly reached an apocalyptic conclusion, too: No plausible program of emissions reductions alone can prevent climate disaster.

Over the past few decades, the term “Anthropocene” has climbed out of academic discourse and into the popular imagination — a name given to the geologic era we live in now, and a way to signal that it is a new era, defined on the wall chart of deep history by human intervention. One problem with the term is that it implies a conquest of nature (and even echoes the biblical “dominion”). And however sanguine you might be about the proposition that we have already ravaged the natural world, which we surely have, it is another thing entirely to consider the possibility that we have only provoked it, engineering first in ignorance and then in denial a climate system that will now go to war with us for many centuries, perhaps until it destroys us. That is what Wallace Smith Broecker, the avuncular oceanographer who coined the term “global warming,” means when he calls the planet an “angry beast.” You could also go with “war machine.” Each day we arm it more.

II. Heat Death
The bahraining of New York.

In the sugar­cane region of El Salvador, as much as one-fifth of the population has chronic kidney disease, the presumed result of dehydration from working the fields they were able to comfortably harvest as recently as two decades ago. Photo: Heartless Machine
Humans, like all mammals, are heat engines; surviving means having to continually cool off, like panting dogs. For that, the temperature needs to be low enough for the air to act as a kind of refrigerant, drawing heat off the skin so the engine can keep pumping. At seven degrees of warming, that would become impossible for large portions of the planet’s equatorial band, and especially the tropics, where humidity adds to the problem; in the jungles of Costa Rica, for instance, where humidity routinely tops 90 percent, simply moving around outside when it’s over 105 degrees Fahrenheit would be lethal. And the effect would be fast: Within a few hours, a human body would be cooked to death from both inside and out.

Climate-change skeptics point out that the planet has warmed and cooled many times before, but the climate window that has allowed for human life is very narrow, even by the standards of planetary history. At 11 or 12 degrees of warming, more than half the world’s population, as distributed today, would die of direct heat. Things almost certainly won’t get that hot this century, though models of unabated emissions do bring us that far eventually. This century, and especially in the tropics, the pain points will pinch much more quickly even than an increase of seven degrees. The key factor is something called wet-bulb temperature, which is a term of measurement as home-laboratory-kit as it sounds: the heat registered on a thermometer wrapped in a damp sock as it’s swung around in the air (since the moisture evaporates from a sock more quickly in dry air, this single number reflects both heat and humidity). At present, most regions reach a wet-bulb maximum of 26 or 27 degrees Celsius; the true red line for habitability is 35 degrees. What is called heat stress comes much sooner.

Related Stories
Michael Oppenheimer: Only 10 Percent Chance We Meet Paris Targets
Actually, we’re about there already. Since 1980, the planet has experienced a 50-fold increase in the number of places experiencing dangerous or extreme heat; a bigger increase is to come. The five warmest summers in Europe since 1500 have all occurred since 2002, and soon, the IPCC warns, simply being outdoors that time of year will be unhealthy for much of the globe. Even if we meet the Paris goals of two degrees warming, cities like Karachi and Kolkata will become close to uninhabitable, annually encountering deadly heat waves like those that crippled them in 2015. At four degrees, the deadly European heat wave of 2003, which killed as many as 2,000 people a day, will be a normal summer. At six, according to an assessment focused only on effects within the U.S. from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, summer labor of any kind would become impossible in the lower Mississippi Valley, and everybody in the country east of the Rockies would be under more heat stress than anyone, anywhere, in the world today. As Joseph Romm has put it in his authoritative primer Climate Change: What Everyone Needs to Know, heat stress in New York City would exceed that of present-day Bahrain, one of the planet’s hottest spots, and the temperature in Bahrain “would induce hyperthermia in even sleeping humans.” The high-end IPCC estimate, remember, is two degrees warmer still. By the end of the century, the World Bank has estimated, the coolest months in tropical South America, Africa, and the Pacific are likely to be warmer than the warmest months at the end of the 20th century. Air-conditioning can help but will ultimately only add to the carbon problem; plus, the climate-controlled malls of the Arab emirates aside, it is not remotely plausible to wholesale air-condition all the hottest parts of the world, many of them also the poorest. And indeed, the crisis will be most dramatic across the Middle East and Persian Gulf, where in 2015 the heat index registered temperatures as high as 163 degrees Fahrenheit. As soon as several decades from now, the hajj will become physically impossible for the 2 million Muslims who make the pilgrimage each year.

It is not just the hajj, and it is not just Mecca; heat is already killing us. In the sugarcane region of El Salvador, as much as one-fifth of the population has chronic kidney disease, including over a quarter of the men, the presumed result of dehydration from working the fields they were able to comfortably harvest as recently as two decades ago. With dialysis, which is expensive, those with kidney failure can expect to live five years; without it, life expectancy is in the weeks. Of course, heat stress promises to pummel us in places other than our kidneys, too. As I type that sentence, in the California desert in mid-June, it is 121 degrees outside my door. It is not a record high.

III. The End of Food
Praying for cornfields in the tundra.

Climates differ and plants vary, but the basic rule for staple cereal crops grown at optimal temperature is that for every degree of warming, yields decline by 10 percent. Some estimates run as high as 15 or even 17 percent. Which means that if the planet is five degrees warmer at the end of the century, we may have as many as 50 percent more people to feed and 50 percent less grain to give them. And proteins are worse: It takes 16 calories of grain to produce just a single calorie of hamburger meat, butchered from a cow that spent its life polluting the climate with methane farts.

Pollyannaish plant physiologists will point out that the cereal-crop math applies only to those regions already at peak growing temperature, and they are right — theoretically, a warmer climate will make it easier to grow corn in Greenland. But as the pathbreaking work by Rosamond Naylor and David Battisti has shown, the tropics are already too hot to efficiently grow grain, and those places where grain is produced today are already at optimal growing temperature — which means even a small warming will push them down the slope of declining productivity. And you can’t easily move croplands north a few hundred miles, because yields in places like remote Canada and Russia are limited by the quality of soil there; it takes many centuries for the planet to produce optimally fertile dirt.

Drought might be an even bigger problem than heat, with some of the world’s most arable land turning quickly to desert. Precipitation is notoriously hard to model, yet predictions for later this century are basically unanimous: unprecedented droughts nearly everywhere food is today produced. By 2080, without dramatic reductions in emissions, southern Europe will be in permanent extreme drought, much worse than the American dust bowl ever was. The same will be true in Iraq and Syria and much of the rest of the Middle East; some of the most densely populated parts of Australia, Africa, and South America; and the breadbasket regions of China. None of these places, which today supply much of the world’s food, will be reliable sources of any. As for the original dust bowl: The droughts in the American plains and Southwest would not just be worse than in the 1930s, a 2015 NASA study predicted, but worse than any droughts in a thousand years — and that includes those that struck between 1100 and 1300, which “dried up all the rivers East of the Sierra Nevada mountains” and may have been responsible for the death of the Anasazi civilization.

Remember, we do not live in a world without hunger as it is. Far from it: Most estimates put the number of undernourished at 800 million globally. In case you haven’t heard, this spring has already brought an unprecedented quadruple famine to Africa and the Middle East; the U.N. has warned that separate starvation events in Somalia, South Sudan, Nigeria, and Yemen could kill 20 million this year alone.

IV. Climate Plagues
What happens when the bubonic ice melts?

Rock, in the right spot, is a record of planetary history, eras as long as millions of years flattened by the forces of geological time into strata with amplitudes of just inches, or just an inch, or even less. Ice works that way, too, as a climate ledger, but it is also frozen history, some of which can be reanimated when unfrozen. There are now, trapped in Arctic ice, diseases that have not circulated in the air for millions of years — in some cases, since before humans were around to encounter them. Which means our immune systems would have no idea how to fight back when those prehistoric plagues emerge from the ice.

The Arctic also stores terrifying bugs from more recent times. In Alaska, already, researchers have discovered remnants of the 1918 flu that infected as many as 500 million and killed as many as 100 million — about 5 percent of the world’s population and almost six times as many as had died in the world war for which the pandemic served as a kind of gruesome capstone. As the BBC reported in May, scientists suspect smallpox and the bubonic plague are trapped in Siberian ice, too — an abridged history of devastating human sickness, left out like egg salad in the Arctic sun.

Experts caution that many of these organisms won’t actually survive the thaw and point to the fastidious lab conditions under which they have already reanimated several of them — the 32,000-year-old “extremophile” bacteria revived in 2005, an 8 million-year-old bug brought back to life in 2007, the 3.5 million–year–old one a Russian scientist self-injected just out of curiosity — to suggest that those are necessary conditions for the return of such ancient plagues. But already last year, a boy was killed and 20 others infected by anthrax released when retreating permafrost exposed the frozen carcass of a reindeer killed by the bacteria at least 75 years earlier; 2,000 present-day reindeer were infected, too, carrying and spreading the disease beyond the tundra.

What concerns epidemiologists more than ancient diseases are existing scourges relocated, rewired, or even re-evolved by warming. The first effect is geographical. Before the early-modern period, when adventuring sailboats accelerated the mixing of peoples and their bugs, human provinciality was a guard against pandemic. Today, even with globalization and the enormous intermingling of human populations, our ecosystems are mostly stable, and this functions as another limit, but global warming will scramble those ecosystems and help disease trespass those limits as surely as Cortés did. You don’t worry much about dengue or malaria if you are living in Maine or France. But as the tropics creep northward and mosquitoes migrate with them, you will. You didn’t much worry about Zika a couple of years ago, either.

As it happens, Zika may also be a good model of the second worrying effect — disease mutation. One reason you hadn’t heard about Zika until recently is that it had been trapped in Uganda; another is that it did not, until recently, appear to cause birth defects. Scientists still don’t entirely understand what happened, or what they missed. But there are things we do know for sure about how climate affects some diseases: Malaria, for instance, thrives in hotter regions not just because the mosquitoes that carry it do, too, but because for every degree increase in temperature, the parasite reproduces ten times faster. Which is one reason that the World Bank estimates that by 2050, 5.2 billion people will be reckoning with it.

V. Unbreathable Air
A rolling death smog that suffocates millions.

By the end of the century, the coolest months in tropical South America, Africa, and the Pacific are likely to be warmer than the warmest months at the end of the 20th century. Photo: Heartless Machine
Our lungs need oxygen, but that is only a fraction of what we breathe. The fraction of carbon dioxide is growing: It just crossed 400 parts per million, and high-end estimates extrapolating from current trends suggest it will hit 1,000 ppm by 2100. At that concentration, compared to the air we breathe now, human cognitive ability declines by 21 percent.

Other stuff in the hotter air is even scarier, with small increases in pollution capable of shortening life spans by ten years. The warmer the planet gets, the more ozone forms, and by mid-century, Americans will likely suffer a 70 percent increase in unhealthy ozone smog, the National Center for Atmospheric Research has projected. By 2090, as many as 2 billion people globally will be breathing air above the WHO “safe” level; one paper last month showed that, among other effects, a pregnant mother’s exposure to ozone raises the child’s risk of autism (as much as tenfold, combined with other environmental factors). Which does make you think again about the autism epidemic in West Hollywood.

Already, more than 10,000 people die each day from the small particles emitted from fossil-fuel burning; each year, 339,000 people die from wildfire smoke, in part because climate change has extended forest-fire season (in the U.S., it’s increased by 78 days since 1970). By 2050, according to the U.S. Forest Service, wildfires will be twice as destructive as they are today; in some places, the area burned could grow fivefold. What worries people even more is the effect that would have on emissions, especially when the fires ravage forests arising out of peat. Peatland fires in Indonesia in 1997, for instance, added to the global CO2 release by up to 40 percent, and more burning only means more warming only means more burning. There is also the terrifying possibility that rain forests like the Amazon, which in 2010 suffered its second “hundred-year drought” in the space of five years, could dry out enough to become vulnerable to these kinds of devastating, rolling forest fires — which would not only expel enormous amounts of carbon into the atmosphere but also shrink the size of the forest. That is especially bad because the Amazon alone provides 20 percent of our oxygen.

Then there are the more familiar forms of pollution. In 2013, melting Arctic ice remodeled Asian weather patterns, depriving industrial China of the natural ventilation systems it had come to depend on, which blanketed much of the country’s north in an unbreathable smog. Literally unbreathable. A metric called the Air Quality Index categorizes the risks and tops out at the 301-to-500 range, warning of “serious aggravation of heart or lung disease and premature mortality in persons with cardiopulmonary disease and the elderly” and, for all others, “serious risk of respiratory effects”; at that level, “everyone should avoid all outdoor exertion.” The Chinese “airpocalypse” of 2013 peaked at what would have been an Air Quality Index of over 800. That year, smog was responsible for a third of all deaths in the country.

VI. Perpetual War
The violence baked into heat.

Climatologists are very careful when talking about Syria. They want you to know that while climate change did produce a drought that contributed to civil war, it is not exactly fair to saythat the conflict is the result of warming; next door, for instance, Lebanon suffered the same crop failures. But researchers like Marshall Burke and Solomon Hsiang have managed to quantify some of the non-obvious relationships between temperature and violence: For every half-degree of warming, they say, societies will see between a 10 and 20 percent increase in the likelihood of armed conflict. In climate science, nothing is simple, but the arithmetic is harrowing: A planet five degrees warmer would have at least half again as many wars as we do today. Overall, social conflict could more than double this century.

This is one reason that, as nearly every climate scientist I spoke to pointed out, the U.S. military is obsessed with climate change: The drowning of all American Navy bases by sea-level rise is trouble enough, but being the world’s policeman is quite a bit harder when the crime rate doubles. Of course, it’s not just Syria where climate has contributed to conflict. Some speculate that the elevated level of strife across the Middle East over the past generation reflects the pressures of global warming — a hypothesis all the more cruel considering that warming began accelerating when the industrialized world extracted and then burned the region’s oil.

What accounts for the relationship between climate and conflict? Some of it comes down to agriculture and economics; a lot has to do with forced migration, already at a record high, with at least 65 million displaced people wandering the planet right now. But there is also the simple fact of individual irritability. Heat increases municipal crime rates, and swearing on social media, and the likelihood that a major-league pitcher, coming to the mound after his teammate has been hit by a pitch, will hit an opposing batter in retaliation. And the arrival of air-conditioning in the developed world, in the middle of the past century, did little to solve the problem of the summer crime wave.

VII. Permanent Economic Collapse
Dismal capitalism in a half-poorer world.

The murmuring mantra of global neoliberalism, which prevailed between the end of the Cold War and the onset of the Great Recession, is that economic growth would save us from anything and everything.
But in the aftermath of the 2008 crash, a growing number of historians studying what they call “fossil capitalism” have begun to suggest that the entire history of swift economic growth, which began somewhat suddenly in the 18th century, is not the result of innovation or trade or the dynamics of global capitalism but simply our discovery of fossil fuels and all their raw power — a onetime injection of new “value” into a system that had previously been characterized by global subsistence living. Before fossil fuels, nobody lived better than their parents or grandparents or ancestors from 500 years before, except in the immediate aftermath of a great plague like the Black Death, which allowed the lucky survivors to gobble up the resources liberated by mass graves. After we’ve burned all the fossil fuels, these scholars suggest, perhaps we will return to a “steady state” global economy. Of course, that onetime injection has a devastating long-term cost: climate change.

The most exciting research on the economics of warming has also come from Hsiang and his colleagues, who are not historians of fossil capitalism but who offer some very bleak analysis of their own: Every degree Celsius of warming costs, on average, 1.2 percent of GDP (an enormous number, considering we count growth in the low single digits as “strong”). This is the sterling work in the field, and their median projection is for a 23 percent loss in per capita earning globally by the end of this century (resulting from changes in agriculture, crime, storms, energy, mortality, and labor).
Tracing the shape of the probability curve is even scarier: There is a 12 percent chance that climate change will reduce global output by more than 50 percent by 2100, they say, and a 51 percent chance that it lowers per capita GDP by 20 percent or more by then, unless emissions decline. By comparison, the Great Recession lowered global GDP by about 6 percent, in a onetime shock; Hsiang and his colleagues estimate a one-in-eight chance of an ongoing and irreversible effect by the end of the century that is eight times worse.

The scale of that economic devastation is hard to comprehend, but you can start by imagining what the world would look like today with an economy half as big, which would produce only half as much value, generating only half as much to offer the workers of the world. It makes the grounding of flights out of heat-stricken Phoenix last month seem like pathetically small economic potatoes. And, among other things, it makes the idea of postponing government action on reducing emissions and relying solely on growth and technology to solve the problem an absurd business calculation.
Every round-trip ticket on flights from New York to London, keep in mind, costs the Arctic three more square meters of ice.

VIII. Poisoned Oceans
Sulfide burps off the skeleton coast.

That the sea will become a killer is a given. Barring a radical reduction of emissions, we will see at least four feet of sea-level rise and possibly ten by the end of the century. A third of the world’s major cities are on the coast, not to mention its power plants, ports, navy bases, farmlands, fisheries, river deltas, marshlands, and rice-paddy empires, and even those above ten feet will flood much more easily, and much more regularly, if the water gets that high. At least 600 million people live within ten meters of sea level today.

But the drowning of those homelands is just the start. At present, more than a third of the world’s carbon is sucked up by the oceans — thank God, or else we’d have that much more warming already. But the result is what’s called “ocean acidification,” which, on its own, may add a half a degree to warming this century. It is also already burning through the planet’s water basins — you may remember these as the place where life arose in the first place. You have probably heard of “coral bleaching” — that is, coral dying — which is very bad news, because reefs support as much as a quarter of all marine life and supply food for half a billion people. Ocean acidification will fry fish populations directly, too, though scientists aren’t yet sure how to predict the effects on the stuff we haul out of the ocean to eat; they do know that in acid waters, oysters and mussels will struggle to grow their shells, and that when the pH of human blood drops as much as the oceans’ pH has over the past generation, it induces seizures, comas, and sudden death.

That isn’t all that ocean acidification can do. Carbon absorption can initiate a feedback loop in which underoxygenated waters breed different kinds of microbes that turn the water still more “anoxic,” first in deep ocean “dead zones,” then gradually up toward the surface. There, the small fish die out, unable to breathe, which means oxygen-eating bacteria thrive, and the feedback loop doubles back. This process, in which dead zones grow like cancers, choking off marine life and wiping out fisheries, is already quite advanced in parts of the Gulf of Mexico and just off Namibia, where hydrogen sulfide is bubbling out of the sea along a thousand-mile stretch of land known as the “Skeleton Coast.” The name originally referred to the detritus of the whaling industry, but today it’s more apt than ever. Hydrogen sulfide is so toxic that evolution has trained us to recognize the tiniest, safest traces of it, which is why our noses are so exquisitely skilled at registering flatulence. Hydrogen sulfide is also the thing that finally did us in that time 97 percent of all life on Earth died, once all the feedback loops had been triggered and the circulating jet streams of a warmed ocean ground to a halt — it’s the planet’s preferred gas for a natural holocaust. Gradually, the ocean’s dead zones spread, killing off marine species that had dominated the oceans for hundreds of millions of years, and the gas the inert waters gave off into the atmosphere poisoned everything on land. Plants, too. It was millions of years before the oceans recovered.

IX. The Great Filter
Our present eeriness cannot last.

So why can’t we see it? In his recent book-length essay The Great Derangement, the Indian novelist Amitav Ghosh wonders why global warming and natural disaster haven’t become major subjects of contemporary fiction — why we don’t seem able to imagine climate catastrophe, and why we haven’t yet had a spate of novels in the genre he basically imagines into half-existence and names “the environmental uncanny.” “Consider, for example, the stories that congeal around questions like, ‘Where were you when the Berlin Wall fell?’ or ‘Where were you on 9/11?’ ” he writes. “Will it ever be possible to ask, in the same vein, ‘Where were you at 400 ppm?’ or ‘Where were you when the Larsen B ice shelf broke up?’ ” His answer: Probably not, because the dilemmas and dramas of climate change are simply incompatible with the kinds of stories we tell ourselves about ourselves, especially in novels, which tend to emphasize the journey of an individual conscience rather than the poisonous miasma of social fate.

Surely this blindness will not last — the world we are about to inhabit will not permit it. In a six-degree-warmer world, the Earth’s ecosystem will boil with so many natural disasters that we will just start calling them “weather”: a constant swarm of out-of-control typhoons and tornadoes and floods and droughts, the planet assaulted regularly with climate events that not so long ago destroyed whole civilizations. The strongest hurricanes will come more often, and we’ll have to invent new categories with which to describe them; tornadoes will grow longer and wider and strike much more frequently, and hail rocks will quadruple in size. Humans used to watch the weather to prophesy the future; going forward, we will see in its wrath the vengeance of the past. Early naturalists talked often about “deep time” — the perception they had, contemplating the grandeur of this valley or that rock basin, of the profound slowness of nature. What lies in store for us is more like what the Victorian anthropologists identified as “dreamtime,” or “everywhen”: the semi-mythical experience, described by Aboriginal Australians, of encountering, in the present moment, an out-of-time past, when ancestors, heroes, and demigods crowded an epic stage. You can find it already watching footage of an iceberg collapsing into the sea — a feeling of history happening all at once.

It is. Many people perceive climate change as a sort of moral and economic debt, accumulated since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and now come due after several centuries — a helpful perspective, in a way, since it is the carbon-burning processes that began in 18th-century England that lit the fuse of everything that followed. But more than half of the carbon humanity has exhaled into the atmosphere in its entire history has been emitted in just the past three decades; since the end of World War II, the figure is 85 percent. Which means that, in the length of a single generation, global warming has brought us to the brink of planetary catastrophe, and that the story of the industrial world’s kamikaze mission is also the story of a single lifetime. My father’s, for instance: born in 1938, among his first memories the news of Pearl Harbor and the mythic Air Force of the propaganda films that followed, films that doubled as advertisements for imperial-American industrial might; and among his last memories the coverage of the desperate signing of the Paris climate accords on cable news, ten weeks before he died of lung cancer last July. Or my mother’s: born in 1945, to German Jews fleeing the smokestacks through which their relatives were incinerated, now enjoying her 72nd year in an American commodity paradise, a paradise supported by the supply chains of an industrialized developing world. She has been smoking for 57 of those years, unfiltered.

Or the scientists’. Some of the men who first identified a changing climate (and given the generation, those who became famous were men) are still alive; a few are even still working. Wally Broecker is 84 years old and drives to work at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory across the Hudson every day from the Upper West Side. Like most of those who first raised the alarm, he believes that no amount of emissions reduction alone can meaningfully help avoid disaster. Instead, he puts his faith in carbon capture — untested technology to extract carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which Broecker estimates will cost at least several trillion dollars — and various forms of “geoengineering,” the catchall name for a variety of moon-shot technologies far-fetched enough that many climate scientists prefer to regard them as dreams, or nightmares, from science fiction. He is especially focused on what’s called the aerosol approach — dispersing so much sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere that when it converts to sulfuric acid, it will cloud a fifth of the horizon and reflect back 2 percent of the sun’s rays, buying the planet at least a little wiggle room, heat-wise. “Of course, that would make our sunsets very red, would bleach the sky, would make more acid rain,” he says. “But you have to look at the magnitude of the problem. You got to watch that you don’t say the giant problem shouldn’t be solved because the solution causes some smaller problems.” He won’t be around to see that, he told me. “But in your lifetime …”

Jim Hansen is another member of this godfather generation. Born in 1941, he became a climatologist at the University of Iowa, developed the groundbreaking “Zero Model” for projecting climate change, and later became the head of climate research at NASA, only to leave under pressure when, while still a federal employee, he filed a lawsuit against the federal government charging inaction on warming (along the way he got arrested a few times for protesting, too). The lawsuit, which is brought by a collective called Our Children’s Trust and is often described as “kids versus climate change,” is built on an appeal to the equal-protection clause, namely, that in failing to take action on warming, the government is violating it by imposing massive costs on future generations; it is scheduled to be heard this winter in Oregon district court. Hansen has recently given up on solving the climate problem with a carbon tax alone, which had been his preferred approach, and has set about calculating the total cost of the additional measure of extracting carbon from the atmosphere.

Related Stories
Climate Scientist James Hansen: ‘The Planet Could Become Ungovernable’
The 10-Book ‘Uninhabitable Earth’ Reading List
Hansen began his career studying Venus, which was once a very Earth-like planet with plenty of life-supporting water before runaway climate change rapidly transformed it into an arid and uninhabitable sphere enveloped in an unbreathable gas; he switched to studying our planet by 30, wondering why he should be squinting across the solar system to explore rapid environmental change when he could see it all around him on the planet he was standing on. “When we wrote our first paper on this, in 1981,” he told me, “I remember saying to one of my co-authors, ‘This is going to be very interesting. Sometime during our careers, we’re going to see these things beginning to happen.’ ”

Several of the scientists I spoke with proposed global warming as the solution to Fermi’s famous paradox, which asks, If the universe is so big, then why haven’t we encountered any other intelligent life in it? The answer, they suggested, is that the natural life span of a civilization may be only several thousand years, and the life span of an industrial civilization perhaps only several hundred. In a universe that is many billions of years old, with star systems separated as much by time as by space, civilizations might emerge and develop and burn themselves up simply too fast to ever find one another. Peter Ward, a charismatic paleontologist among those responsible for discovering that the planet’s mass extinctions were caused by greenhouse gas, calls this the “Great Filter”: “Civilizations rise, but there’s an environmental filter that causes them to die off again and disappear fairly quickly,” he told me. “If you look at planet Earth, the filtering we’ve had in the past has been in these mass extinctions.” The mass extinction we are now living through has only just begun; so much more dying is coming.

And yet, improbably, Ward is an optimist. So are Broecker and Hansen and many of the other scientists I spoke to. We have not developed much of a religion of meaning around climate change that might comfort us, or give us purpose, in the face of possible annihilation. But climate scientists have a strange kind of faith: We will find a way to forestall radical warming, they say, because we must.

It is not easy to know how much to be reassured by that bleak certainty, and how much to wonder whether it is another form of delusion; for global warming to work as parable, of course, someone needs to survive to tell the story. The scientists know that to even meet the Paris goals, by 2050, carbon emissions from energy and industry, which are still rising, will have to fall by half each decade; emissions from land use (deforestation, cow farts, etc.) will have to zero out; and we will need to have invented technologies to extract, annually, twice as much carbon from the atmosphere as the entire planet’s plants now do. Nevertheless, by and large, the scientists have an enormous confidence in the ingenuity of humans — a confidence perhaps bolstered by their appreciation for climate change, which is, after all, a human invention, too. They point to the Apollo project, the hole in the ozone we patched in the 1980s, the passing of the fear of mutually assured destruction. Now we’ve found a way to engineer our own doomsday, and surely we will find a way to engineer our way out of it, one way or another. The planet is not used to being provoked like this, and climate systems designed to give feedback over centuries or millennia prevent us — even those who may be watching closely — from fully imagining the damage done already to the planet. But when we do truly see the world we’ve made, they say, we will also find a way to make it livable. For them, the alternative is simply unimaginable.

*This article appears in the July 10, 2017, issue of New York Magazine.

*This article has been updated to provide context for the recent news reports about revisions to a satellite data set, to more accurately reflect the rate of warming during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, to clarify a reference to Peter Brannen’s The Ends of the World, and to make clear that James Hansen still supports a carbon-tax based approach to emissions.

          Makembo advises Sven to use experienced players      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
326 ViewsZambia Sports Fans Association (ZASPOFA) patron Peter Makembo says national team coach Sven Vandenbroeck should consider using experienced players for next month’s crucial 2019 Cameroon Africa Cup qualifier against Namibia because he does not have enough time to start rebuilding a new team. Makembo, who watched the Chipolopolo’s training session at Barca Academy in […]
          Kommentar zu Propagandameldungen vom 08. August 2018 von Gesine Hammerling      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Ich zitiere mal aus der GAR 2787: "2787 (XXVI). Importance of the universal realization of the right of peoples to self-determination and of the speedy granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples for the effective guarantee and observance of human rights" ("Bedeutung der universellen Verwirklichung des Rechts der Völker auf Selbstbestimmung und der raschen Gewährung von Unabhängigkeit an Kolonialstaaten und Völker für die wirksame Gewährleistung und Einhaltung der Menschenrechte") <blockquote> <blockquote> Unter Bekräftigung der unveräußerlichen Rechte aller Völker, insbesondere Simbabwes, Namibias, Angolas, Mosambiks und Guinea-Bissaus und des palästinensischen Volkes, auf Freiheit, Gleichheit und Selbstbestimmung sowie der Legitimität ihrer Kämpfe zur Wiederherstellung dieser Rechte,, </blockquote> </blockquote> [...] <blockquote> <blockquote> Bekräftigt die Rechtmäßigkeit des Kampfes der Völker um Selbstbestimmung und Befreiung von kolonialer und fremder Herrschaft und Unterwerfung, insbesondere im südlichen Afrika und insbesondere der Völker Simbabwes, Namibias, Angolas, Mosambiks und Guineas (Bissau) sowie des palästinensischen Volkes, mit allen verfügbaren Mitteln im Einklang mit der Charta der Vereinten Nationen; </blockquote> </blockquote> Quelle: Ein Okkupant hat nach dem Völkerrecht die Verpflichtung, in Friedensverhandlungen nach gutem Glauben einzutreten. Er hat das Recht, die herrschenden Gesetze des besetzten Landes mit polizeilichen Methoden umzusetzen. Er hat kein Recht, eine Gewaltherrschaft mit militärischen Mitteln zu verteidigen. Kurzum: Die Palästinenser dürfen tun, was sie tun, wenn sie sich an das Kriegsrecht halten. Die Israelis haben das Recht abzuziehen.
          Namibia:Tour De Windhoek Slated for September      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
[Namibia Economist] The cycling Tour de Windhoek which will have 5 stages spread over three days from 21 to 23 September in Windhoek.
          Malachite Peridot and Sterling Silver pendant pmalg2726 by LunarSkiesJewelry      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

79.00 USD

Malachite, Peridot and Sterling Silver pendant, 32.88mm x27mm. Hand-crafted silver and gemstone pendant set in 925 Sterling silver. This is one of a kind (ooak) art. I personally hand cut the malachite gemstone, then hand forged the sterling silver metalwork to take advantage of its beauty, including a Peridot gemstone as an accent.

Large quantities of malachite had been mined in the Urals, Russia, but is not being mined there at present. It is found worldwide including in the Democratic Republic of Congo; Gabon; Zambia; Tsumeb, Namibia; Mexico; Broken Hill, New South Wales; Lyon, France; Timna Valley, Israel; and the Southwestern United States, most notably in Arizona

Occurs as a secondary mineral in copper deposits. Usually forms concentric bands of light green to a rich dark green. An opaque stone with lovely pigment.

          Digital Evangelism Discussed as GAiN Conference Opens in Korea      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
GAiN, the annual meeting of the Global Adventist Internet Network, began today in Seoul, South Korea. About 250 people from 39 countries who work in media, communications and technology are attending presentations on the top floor of the massive Kintex Convention Center.

“It’s never been easier to speak up. It’s never been harder to be heard.” —Sam Neves

GAiN conference, the annual meeting of the Global Adventist Internet Network, began today in Seoul, South Korea. About 250 people from 39 countries who work in media, communications, and technology are attending presentations by members of the General Conference communications department as well as outside professionals on the top floor of the massive Kintex Convention Center in Goyang.

Attendees arrived Sunday and Monday from all over the world (many from time zones eight, 10, and 12 hours behind Seoul), were picked up from Seoul’s Incheon Airport, and bused to two hotels. Travelling the eight-lane highways through a sea of modern high-rise apartment buildings and across long white bridges felt like driving in a sci-fi video game, with the onboard navigation system talking incessantly all the way. Early this morning, we boarded buses again to take us to the convention center in Goyang. 

The long line snaked out the door on the convention center’s top floor, as attendees all had to register upon arrival. We were all given a GAiN t-shirt and a logoed set of chopsticks. There was no printed program for the day. So we all had to listen to hear what came next!

The program today was about internet evangelism, defined as: "How to find people, establish relationships, and take them to baptism," according to Williams Costa, Jr., director of the General Conference communications department.

The big keywords of the day included “branding,” “funnel marketing,” “call to action,” “digital marketing,” and “search engine optimization.” Presentations were broad and abstract, rather than prescriptive and practical.

Speakers were mostly members of the GC’s communications department — which also organized the conference — and others inside the GC building.

View of the Kintex Center from the window outside the GAiN conference room

Kurt Kennedy: igniting your brand promise

The only exception to the insiders was Kurt Kennedy, founder and CEO of Kennedy Global, described as a “leading internal-external brand alignment agency.” Kennedy, a graduate of Walla Walla University, has worked with Nike, Starbucks, Adobe, Unilever, and other big brands.

Kennedy’s talk opened the conference, and focused on “igniting your brand promise.” Since Kennedy is a business strategist, his PowerPoint mentioned “companies,” “clients," and “business results,” but he urged listeners to translate the business jargon into terms that suited their own purposes.

Kennedy discussed the difference between context and content. Brands provide the context — like a shortcut for customers, so that they can more easily make their way through all of the clutter and pay attention to the content you want them to receive. The power of a brand helps give a company its value.

Sam Neves: delivering the promise of the Adventist brand

Following Kennedy’s presentation, Sam Neves, the GC communication department’s associate director for internet and social media, talked about how important it is for our church to deliver on our brand promise. Will you buy a third Samsung phone if the first two disappoint you? No, you will choose a new brand. Likewise, people who are disappointed by our church simply leave. And it’s not easy to have a promise that all of us deliver on.

That is one reason that, the landing page for the Adventist church, is being updated (again). When the new site is launched in the next few months, visitors will see the Adventist church promising to help them understand the Bible as a way to freedom, healing, and hope. The Adventist brand doesn’t promise freedom, healing and hope — it simply promises help in understanding the Bible, Neves said. Then it is Jesus who brings the freedom, healing, and hope. In this way, people can’t say the Adventist brand promise failed them.

Brent Hardinge: Adventist identity update

Later in the afternoon, web manager for the GC communications department and conference organizer Brent Hardinge, gave a longer presentation about the Adventist identity project update. He showed us different versions of the Adventist logo and church signs and email signatures. He showed us the latest version of the Adventist Living Pattern System, a collected set of Adventist brand designs available for churches and church entities around the world to use. (Hardinge showed us the last version at the GAiN conference last year.) He showed us the design principles in the latest website redesign, and how much more flexible and variable it is. He talked about about how the church is working to ensure there are more Call to Action buttons and places for any site visitors to take the next step, whether it is signing up for a Bible study, or asking for help finding a local church.

David Sharpe: search engine optimization

David Sharpe from the Center for Online Evangelism offered two presentations: one about search engine optimization and the next about copywriting.

The Center for Online Evangelism provides resources for churches and church organizations to more successfully market themselves online. Search engine optimization is of course an important part of making yourself visible online, and Sharpe gave a broad overview of its history on Google and its possible future. 

Sharpe introduced us to “Pastor Google,” who he described as the most popular pastor in the entire world, who is believed by most people before anyone else, and who freely uses non-Adventist sources to describe Adventist doctrine. He said that we need to do all we can to take control of our own story.

He said the most current Google algorithms look for topics (rather than keywords), and rich, in-depth pages that provide lots of content. Voice search continues to evolve, more traffic is being cannibalized by search engine results pages (answers are found right on the search page, so users don’t even have to click into a website) and mobile responsiveness is ever more important. 

Sharpe didn’t get into very specific detailed advice about what web managers should do — his was a fairly broad brush strokes approach.

Today's presenters at GAiN

Adventist media promise closer collaboration (and what about better gender representation?)

After Sharpe’s first presentation, four Adventist media professionals took to the platform, representing Adventist World Radio, ADRA, GC Publishing and the Adventist Review. Each spoke for a minute or two about how they are going to be working more closely together, sending listeners and readers to each other’s platforms for more content and greater engagement.

This marked the only time during the day’s presentations when two women spoke to the group, and both were very brief. All of the rest of the speakers today were men. Communications director for Adventist World Radio Shelley Nolan Freesland and associate director for communications at ADRA Ashley Eisele were, in fact, part of only a small minority of women attending the GAiN conference. In my approximate counting of attendees this morning, it seemed only about 15% were women, and anecdotally, I heard that many of those are wives attending with their husband participants. 

David Sharpe: the importance of persuasive copywriting

Sharpe’s second presentation introduced attendees to the concept of copywriting, which he defined as leading people from content they see to pressing a button and taking an action. He said that copywriting is not an art, but a science. Just follow the proven process to get measurable results.

In Sharpe’s opinion, the Adventist church is pretty good at journalism (factually informing the reader), but less good at persuasion, or copywriting. He believes copywriting will improve the effectiveness of any outreach project. He said that measuring results will teach you how to lead people to action. He says that is the only way to find out how people will react. As an example, Sharpe told us: “I have seen a headline with a misspelled word get better results than a correctly spelled headline.” [Is this really the moral he wants to give?]

Sharpe talked about the power of telling the story, and following a hero’s journey. He said that nearly every story, every book or movie, follows the same formula: hero has a problem, meets a guy with a plan, hero follows the plan and experiences a transformation that helps the hero to avoid failure.

Sharpe listed the building blocks of copywriting:

  • unique selling position
  • promise that will change and transform
  • headline to get attention
  • lead to pull the reader in
  • value proposition
  • proof (i.e. testimonials)

Four Digital Projects

Later in the afternoon, four people talked about specific digital projects. 

Roberto Roberti, a Brazilian police officer who became an Adventist in 2010, talked about his work responding to thousands of commenters on the South American Division’s Facebook page. He shared some of the specific cries for help through Facebook from people battling depression, the death of loves ones, suicidal thoughts, and more. He said more than 200 people have been baptised as a result of the Facebook ministry in South America, and right now 3,159 people are studying the Bible after initial contact was made with the church through Facebook.

Neville Neveling from Namibia next spoke about using WhatsApp and other social media platforms to reach people. He said that after the floods in Japan that began in June, 14,000 Japanese people asked to receive Bible studies on their cellphones. He talked about how digital church can include many of the things we are used to in our traditional church culture. Neveling said that even in a place where evangelism doesn’t seem to work, digital evangelism can make significant inroads. 

Kyle Allen, vice president of Adventist World Radio, said that AWR has not been very responsive to the thousands of people who call and write after hearing one of its programs. He proposes that centers for digital evangelism be established so that any comments from people can be responded to within minutes in multiple languages. A broadcast (or podcast, etc.) leads to engagement, which leads to prayer and Bible study, which leads to a local church, which leads to baptism. Allen asserted that connecting the dots is important, and he urged anyone who wants to start a center for digital evangelism in their area to talk to him about it.

Italo Osario of the General Conference then introduced Vividfaith, a virtual community that matches up volunteers with opportunities around the world. While the new site was announced last October 2017, and is live now, it will not be finished and officially launched for another few months. The site is open for anyone who wants to do ministry with the Adventist church. 

In contradiction to Sam Neves’ assertion that all of our media should be very upfront in saying it is Adventist, Vividfaith doesn’t include any details about its creators. Osario says that is deliberate, as the site is not exclusively for Adventists.

Today’s GAiN program ended just before 5pm, and conference-goers were invited to a buffet dinner in one of the large halls downstairs, followed by the Opening Ceremony for the 2018 Northern Asia-Pacific Division International Mission Congress. More on that tomorrow!

Alita Byrd is attending GAiN and reporting for Spectrum from the conference in Seoul, South Korea. Photo credits: Alita Byrd.

We invite you to join our community through conversation by commenting below. We ask that you engage in courteous and respectful discourse. You can view our full commenting policy by clicking here.

Inline Images: 

          Infrastructure development, youth high on Sadc Summit agenda      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The 38th sadc Summit of Heads of State and Government to be held in Windhoek, Namibia on 17-18 August will review progress towards regional integration and socio-economic development.
          Evolution Travel, chiuso aprile con un +54%      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Dati importanti per Evolution Travel. Incremento nel settore viaggi di lusso su misura - Il mese di aprile fa ben sperare per il proseguo dell'anno in casa Evolution Travel. Sempre forti le città di Spagna, la primavera manda segnali positivi anche per quanto riguarda i tour e safari in Namibia, vacanze in Egitto, Maldive e Seychelles e classici sia on-the-road che non negli Stati Uniti. Il raddoppio del fatturato si riferisce sia a pratiche precedentemente saldate e chiuse in....

FONTE  » Evolution Travel, chiuso aprile con un +54% su Viaggi
Evolution Travel, chiuso aprile con un +54%
          Minnie Dlamini pummels pregnancy gossipy tidbits with sexy desert pics shoot: Pictures      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Television character Minnie Dlamini held onto her bends as she took to the desert in Namibia for a provocative photo shoot.

Spreading the message of body energy, Minnie urged fans to love themselves, while in the meantime swatting down those troublesome pregnancy bits of gossip.

“No matter your size, shape (or pregnancy rumours) love your body, celebrate it! (sic),” she captioned a picture of herself in a red dress.

Minnie joins a series of big names who have been vocal about their weight pick up and handling issues, for example, body-disgracing. The considerable rundown incorporates Beyoncé, who transparently discusses her "little mom pocket" in the September issue of Vogue.

The moderator likewise shared snaps of herself in a streaming white dress with gold detail. 

Pause… let me settle my hair" 📸 : @jordanmilton1 #DesertRose 🌹 

          Rock art in Namibia      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Apparently Namibia has some epic ancient rock art. I would welcome any advice on where to find the best examples in the country? Ideally, sites which have not been too commercialised, and we enjoy hiking! I am considering doing a sort of rock art pilgrimage around Namibia... if it is viable.
          Namibia:U.S. Volunteer Doctors in Windhoek      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
[Namibian] Twelve volunteer health practitioners from the United States are in Namibia to provide free healthcare to needy patients with orthopaedic conditions. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

MedWorm Message: Have you tried our new medical search engine? More powerful than before. Log on with your social media account. 100% free.

          Namibias DDR-Kinder: Sie sollten die Elite werden – Rückkehr in ein fremdes Land      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Für die Kinder aus Namibia war es eine Riesenchance. Eine sozialistische Ausbildung in der DDR. Damit sollten sie zur Elite eines freien Namibias werden. An die Kinder dachte dabei wohl keiner. Die Weltgeschichte hatte sowieso ganz andere Pläne für sie.

          Visas obtainable at border      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hi there,

My fiancee and I (we are Australian and Swedish) are going on a 2 month tour through eastern and southern Africa. We will be visiting the following countries:

Kenya (2 times, via flight from copenhagen and then back from Uganda)
Uganda (2 times, from Kenya and then back from Rwanda)
South Africa

We have heard that you don't need to get visas for all of them before hand (apart from Rwanda for my Fiancee), and we would very much like some advice on which need visas before entry:

Kenya - We both need multiple entry as we enter country twice? Can we get at border?
Uganda - Same as Kenya, can we get at border?
Rwanda - I do not require Visa but my partner has to get it beforehand?
Tanzania - We both need Visas, can we get at border?
Malawi - We both do not need visas
Zambia - We both need visas, can we get at border?
Botswana - We both do not need visas
Namibia - We both do not need visas
South Africa - We both do not need visas.

I would be very glad to receive any enlightenment on this!

Thank you
          coaching soccer in Namibia,Botswana,Ghana and Malawi      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
i would like to coach soccer in Namibia,Botswana,Ghana,Malawi,i need a emails,from that country soccer league,can any one help me plaese list of soccer clubs,
          Young entrepreneur utilises social media space – kick-starts own clothing brand, ‘Namswagg’      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
A young entrepreneur has taken advantage of the every growing social media realm and started his own brand, dubbed, ‘Namswagg’. Salomo Festus started the brand through his Instagram account which featured quality pictures of people that looked good and represented Namibians from various backgrounds. It is through his interaction on social media that the idea […]
          Historia hoy: Empieza la construcción de Miraflores, arrestan a Gandhi y se genera la crisis de la Corbeta Caldas: Día de los pueblos indígenas y de la Solidaridad con la Lucha de la Mujer en Sudáfrica y Namibia      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Recordamos eventos históricos del 9 de agosto gracias al aporte del Acervo Histórico del Zulia. 9 de agosto: Día Internacional de los Pueblos Indígenas. El  Día Internacional de los pueblos indígenas  fue establecido por la Asamblea General de la Naciones Unidas el 23 de diciembre de 1994, según Resolución 49/214. Esta celebración tiene su origen en […]
          B2Gold reports positive Q2, H1 operational, financial performance       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
TSX-listed B2Gold Corporation on Wednesday reported strong operational and financial results for the second quarter and first half of 2018. The company achieved record gold production of 240 093 oz for the second quarter, a 98% year-on-year increase, and 7% above budget, owing to consistently strong performances at the Fekola mine, in Mali; the Masbate mine, in the Philippines; and the Otjikoto mine, in Namibia.
          ‘Heritage’, un proyecto de Adam Koizol para documentar las últimas tribus indígenas del planeta      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Mursi From Ethiopia 5

Encontrar a los últimos miembros de las tribus de Asia, África y América del Sur, cuya cultura está desapareciendo, y documentar los distintos fenotipos, tatuajes, escarificaciones, ropa, joyas, armas, adornos y demás que identifican a cada una de ellas es el propósito principal del proyecto ‘Heritage’ impulsado por el fotógrafo polaco Adam Koizol.

Hamer From Ethiopia 6 Tribu Hamer de Etiopía

La historia de cómo este joven artista (27 años) comenzó con este trabajo es curiosa: A los doce años empezó a hacer fotos para retratar insectos tropicales y a los 16, cuando ya tenía una gran colección de insectos, se marchó a Borneo con un amigo. Ese fue el comienzo de una serie de expediciones entomológicas a Asia, África y América en busca de nuevas especies de insectos desde 2008 a 2014.

Atayal From Tawian Tribu Atayal de Taiwan

Un año antes, en 2013, conoció la historia de la prácticamente extinta tribu Iban de Borneo, peculiar por sus tatuajes tribales en los hombros y por traerse como trofeo la cabeza de los enemigos tras luchar contra las tribus contrarias (por lo cual se les apodaba los headhunters, “cazadores de cabezas”). Al comprar unas máscaras tribales, oyó hablar de que aún existían algunos miembros muy mayores de la tribu con sus tatuajes originales y se decidió a buscarlos.

Iban From Malaysia 2 Tatuajes de la tribu Iban de Malasia

Cuando al fin encontró a tres de ellos (entre los 70 y los 90 años) y pudo fotografiarles y ver sus tatuajes, quedó fascinado. Y ya de vuelta a casa le dio por pensar que la mayoría de las tribus del mundo viviría una situación similar, con personas ya muy mayores que son los últimos que aún conservan los tatuajes y escarificaciones que identifican una tribu determinada cultura, cuya cultura se convertirá en historia después de su muerte.

Chin From Burma Tribu Chin de Myanmar

De este modo, Adam decidió dejar los insectos y comenzó a documentar los miembros de las últimas tribus y su cultura, centrándose especialmente en reflejar todos los rasgos diferenciadores que identifican a cada una de las tribus. Actualmente, el fotógrafo ha visitado 18 tribus de Asia y África aunque tiene una larga lista de 50 a las que espera poder conocer en los próximos años y con cuyo material espera realizar una película. Sin duda un gran trabajo que sólo podemos aplaudir y agradecer desde aquí.

Hamer From Ethiopia Tribu Hamer de Etiopía
Chin From Burma 4 Tribu Chin de Myanmar
Mursi From Ethiopia 7 Tribu Mursi de Etiopía
Apatani From India Tribu Apatani de India
San From Namibia Tribu San de Namibia
Himba From Namibia 5 Tribu Himba de Etiopía
Kalinga Fro Philippines 2 Tribu Kalinga de Filipinas
Karo From Ethiopia Tribu Karo de Etiopía
Konyak From India 7 Tribu Konyak de India
Menatwai From Indonesia 5 Tribu Menatwai de Indonesia
Mucawana From Angola Tribu Mucawana de Angola
Iban From Malaysia Tribu Iban de Malasia

Adam Koziol | Página web | Instagram

En Xataka Foto | 'Mujeres en el laberinto', el drama de las mujeres en el Congo por Concha Casajus y Paco Negre

Fotografías de Adam Koziol reproducidas con permiso del autor para este artículo

También te recomendamos

'Albino', de Ana Palacios: Libro y exposición que denuncia la situación de los albinos en África

‘Niños esclavos. La puerta de atrás’, un libro de la fotoperiodista Ana Palacios sobre el drama del tráfico de menores en África

Las matemáticas seguirán siendo la base del futuro, ¿estamos preparados?

La noticia ‘Heritage’, un proyecto de Adam Koizol para documentar las últimas tribus indígenas del planeta fue publicada originalmente en Xataka Foto por Óscar Condés .

          Namibia:Windhoek Faces Water Crisis - Again      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
[Namibian] THE City of Windhoek once again announced a water crisis and is restricting hair saloons, car washes and construction sites from using too much water.
          Namibia:Overflowing Manholes Stink Up Life At Keetmans      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
[Namibian] RESIDENTS of the TransNamib location in Keetmanshoop's Tseiblaagte residential area claim the local council's failure to fix overflowing manholes is forcing them to live in unhygienic conditions.
          Namibia:Groundwater Management Workshop Held in Windhoek      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
[Namibian] A WORKSHOP aimed at discussing groundwater management in northern Namibia, the geological evolution of northern Namibia, and the Ohangwena groundwater system and its implications on water supply, took place in Windhoek yesterday.
          Namibias DDR-Kinder: Die Verlierer des Mauerfalls      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Für die Kinder aus Namibia war es eine Riesenchance. Eine sozialistische Ausbildung in Ostdeutschland. Damit sollten sie zur Elite eines freien Namibias werden. Doch die Weltgeschichte machte ihnen einen Strich durch die Rechnung.
          Southern Africa:Zimbabwe Not On SADC Summit Agenda      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
[Namibian] INTERNATIONAL relations permanent secretary, ambassador Selma Ashipala-Musavyi, yesterday said the Zimbabwe elections and their aftermath would not be discussed at the start of the 38th ordinary SADC summit of heads of state and government.
          PostgreSQL 10.5, 9.6.10, 9.5.14, 9.4.19, 9.3.24, and 11 Beta 3 Released!       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The PostgreSQL Global Development Group has released an update to all supported versions of our database system, including 10.5, 9.6.10, 9.5.14, 9.4.19, 9.3.24. This release fixes two security issues as well as bugs reported over the last three months.

If you have untrusted users accessing your system and you are either running PostgreSQL 9.5 or a newer version OR have installed the dblink or postgres_fdw extensions, you must apply this update as soon as possible. All other users can upgrade at the next convenient downtime.

Please note that PostgreSQL changed its versioning scheme with the release of version 10.0, so updating to version 10.5 from any 10.x release is considered a minor update.

The PostgreSQL Global Development Group also announces that the third beta release of PostgreSQL 11 is now available for download. This release contains previews of all features that will be available in the final release of PostgreSQL 11 (though some details of the release could change before then) as well as bug fixes that were reported during the second beta.

Security Issues

Two security vulnerabilities have been closed by this release:

CVE-2018-10915: Certain host connection parameters defeat client-side security defenses

libpq, the client connection API for PostgreSQL that is also used by other connection libraries, had an internal issue where it did not reset all of its connection state variables when attempting to reconnect. In particular, the state variable that determined whether or not a password is needed for a connection would not be reset, which could allow users of features requiring libpq, such as the dblink or postgres_fdw extensions, to login to servers they should not be able to access.

You can check if your database has either extension installed by running the following from your PostgreSQL shell:

\dx dblink|postgres_fdw

Users are advised to upgrade their libpq installations as soon as possible.

The PostgreSQL Global Development Group thanks Andrew Krasichkov for reporting this problem.

CVE-2018-10925: Memory disclosure and missing authorization in INSERT ... ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE

An attacker able to issue CREATE TABLE can read arbitrary bytes of server memory using an upsert (INSERT ... ON CONFLICT DO UPDATE) query. By default, any user can exploit that. A user that has specific INSERT privileges and an UPDATE privilege on at least one column in a given table can also update other columns using a view and an upsert query.

Bug Fixes and Improvements

This update also fixes over 40 bugs reported in the last several months. Some of these issues affect only version 10, but many affect all supported versions.

These fixes include:

  • Several fixes related to VACUUM, including an issue that could lead to data corruption in certain system catalog tables
  • Several fixes for replaying write-ahead logs, including a case where a just-promoted standby server would not restart if it crashed before its first post-recovery checkpoint
  • Several performance improvements for replaying write-ahead logs
  • Several fixes for logical replication and logical decoding, including ensuring logical WAL senders are reporting the streaming state correctly
  • Allow replication slots to be dropped in single-user mode
  • Fix to have variance and similar aggregate functions return accurate results when executed using parallel query
  • Fix SQL-standard FETCH FIRST syntax to allow parameters ($n), as the standard expects
  • Fix to ensure that a process doing a parallel index scan will respond to signals, such as one to abort a query
  • Fix EXPLAIN's accounting for resource usage, particularly buffer accesses, in parallel workers
  • Several fixes for the query planner including improving the cost estimates for hash-joins and choosing to use indexes for mergejoins on composite type columns
  • Fix performance regression related to POSIX semaphores for multi-CPU systems running Linux or FreeBSD
  • Fix for GIN indexes that could lead to an assertion failure after a pg_upgrade from a version before PostgreSQL 9.4
  • Fix for SHOW ALL to display superuser configuration settings to roles that are allowed to read all settings
  • Fix issue where COPY FROM .. WITH HEADER would drop a line after every 4,294,967,296 lines processed
  • Several fixes for XML support, including using the document node as the context for XPath queries as defined in the SQL standard, which affects the xpath and xpath_exists functions, as well as XMLTABLE
  • Fix libpq for certain cases where hostaddr is used
  • Several ecpg fixes for Windows
  • Fix password prompting in Windows client programs so that echo is properly disabled
  • Several pg_dump fixes, including correctly outputting REPLICA IDENTITY properties for constraint indexes
  • Make pg_upgrade check that the old server was shut down cleanly

This update also contains tzdata release 2018e, with updates for North Korea. The 2018e also reintroduces the negative-DST changes that were originally introduced in 2018a, which affects historical and present timestamps for Ireland (1971-), as well as historical timestamps for Namibia (1994-2017) and the former Czechoslovakia (1946-1947). If your application is storing timestamps with those timezones in the affected date ranges, we ask that you please test to ensure your applications behave as expected.

PostgreSQL 11 Beta 3 Fixes and Improvements

PostgreSQL 11 Beta 3 contains applicable bug fixes from the cumulative release as well as over 20 fixes of its own. For a full list of fixes for PostgreSQL 11 Beta 3, please visit the open items page.

EOL Warning for PostgreSQL 9.3

PostgreSQL 9.3 will become end-of-life after the next planned release in November. We urge users to start planning an upgrade to a later version of PostgreSQL as soon as possible. See our Versioning Policy for more information


All PostgreSQL update releases are cumulative. As with other minor releases, users are not required to dump and reload their database or use pg_upgrade in order to apply this update release; you may simply shutdown PostgreSQL and update its binaries.

Users who have skipped one or more update releases may need to run additional, post-update steps; please see the release notes for earlier versions for details.

Upgrading to PostgreSQL 11 Beta 3

To upgrade to PostgreSQL 11 Beta 3 from Beta 1 or 2, or a earlier version of PostgreSQL, you will to use a strategy similar to upgrading between major versions of PostgreSQL (e.g. pg_upgrade or pg_dump / pg_restore). For more information, please visit the documentation section on upgrading.

PostgreSQL 11 Beta Schedule and Testing

This is the third beta release of version 11. The PostgreSQL Project will release additional betas as required for testing, followed by one or more release candidates, until the final release in late 2018. For further information please see the Beta Testing page.

The stability of each PostgreSQL release greatly depends on you, the community, to test the upcoming version with your workloads and testing tools in order to find bugs and regressions before the release of PostgreSQL 11. We greatly appreciate all of the testing performed to date as we get closer to the final release. Your feedback and testing will help determine the final tweaks on the new features, so please continue to test. The quality of user testing helps determine when we can make a final release.

A list of open items is publicly available in the PostgreSQL wiki. You can report bugs using this form on the PostgreSQL website:


          Namibia:Aochamub Ousting Linked to Tenders      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
[Namibian] THE removal of Albertus Aochamub as acting chief executive of the Namibia Airports Company is linked to tenders, including the N$145 million renovation of the Hosea Kutako International Airport.
          Namibia:Shoprite Surrenders to People      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
[Namibian] SHOPRITE will drop disciplinary charges against its 93 workers following the withdrawal of its N$4,5 million damages lawsuit last week.
          Public consultative meeting on implications of regulating postal services conducted      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Communications Regulatory Authority of Namibia (CRAN) hosted a public consultative meeting on prescribing license categories and licensing procedures for postal service licensees earlier this week. The consultative meeting provided a platform for stakeholders to understand the implications of regulating postal services in Namibia. CRAN was established under the Namibian Communications Act (No. 8 of […]
          Communications regulator, IUM eye establishment of a regular internship programme for students      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Communications Regulatory Authority of Namibia (CRAN) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the International University of Management earlier this week. The MoU is focused on the cooperation and possibilities to explore the establishment of a regular internship programme for suitable IUM students in any faculty, provided that the regulator has a department relevant […]
          Ngatjizeko and Shimhanda off to Japan for Master’s in agribusiness management and in space engineering      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Two graduates from the Namibia University of Science and Technology, Nora Ngatjizeko and Senior Shimhanda, will leave for Japan at the end of August after they received full scholarships under the African Business Education Initiative of the Government of Japan. The two students will read Masters degrees in their respective fields. At a ceremony earlier […]
           Proyectos Namibia | QGM       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Next Page: 10000

Site Map 2018_01_14
Site Map 2018_01_15
Site Map 2018_01_16
Site Map 2018_01_17
Site Map 2018_01_18
Site Map 2018_01_19
Site Map 2018_01_20
Site Map 2018_01_21
Site Map 2018_01_22
Site Map 2018_01_23
Site Map 2018_01_24
Site Map 2018_01_25
Site Map 2018_01_26
Site Map 2018_01_27
Site Map 2018_01_28
Site Map 2018_01_29
Site Map 2018_01_30
Site Map 2018_01_31
Site Map 2018_02_01
Site Map 2018_02_02
Site Map 2018_02_03
Site Map 2018_02_04
Site Map 2018_02_05
Site Map 2018_02_06
Site Map 2018_02_07
Site Map 2018_02_08
Site Map 2018_02_09
Site Map 2018_02_10
Site Map 2018_02_11
Site Map 2018_02_12
Site Map 2018_02_13
Site Map 2018_02_14
Site Map 2018_02_15
Site Map 2018_02_15
Site Map 2018_02_16
Site Map 2018_02_17
Site Map 2018_02_18
Site Map 2018_02_19
Site Map 2018_02_20
Site Map 2018_02_21
Site Map 2018_02_22
Site Map 2018_02_23
Site Map 2018_02_24
Site Map 2018_02_25
Site Map 2018_02_26
Site Map 2018_02_27
Site Map 2018_02_28
Site Map 2018_03_01
Site Map 2018_03_02
Site Map 2018_03_03
Site Map 2018_03_04
Site Map 2018_03_05
Site Map 2018_03_06
Site Map 2018_03_07
Site Map 2018_03_08
Site Map 2018_03_09
Site Map 2018_03_10
Site Map 2018_03_11
Site Map 2018_03_12
Site Map 2018_03_13
Site Map 2018_03_14
Site Map 2018_03_15
Site Map 2018_03_16
Site Map 2018_03_17
Site Map 2018_03_18
Site Map 2018_03_19
Site Map 2018_03_20
Site Map 2018_03_21
Site Map 2018_03_22
Site Map 2018_03_23
Site Map 2018_03_24
Site Map 2018_03_25
Site Map 2018_03_26
Site Map 2018_03_27
Site Map 2018_03_28
Site Map 2018_03_29
Site Map 2018_03_30
Site Map 2018_03_31
Site Map 2018_04_01
Site Map 2018_04_02
Site Map 2018_04_03
Site Map 2018_04_04
Site Map 2018_04_05
Site Map 2018_04_06
Site Map 2018_04_07
Site Map 2018_04_08
Site Map 2018_04_09
Site Map 2018_04_10
Site Map 2018_04_11
Site Map 2018_04_12
Site Map 2018_04_13
Site Map 2018_04_14
Site Map 2018_04_15
Site Map 2018_04_16
Site Map 2018_04_17
Site Map 2018_04_18
Site Map 2018_04_19
Site Map 2018_04_20
Site Map 2018_04_21
Site Map 2018_04_22
Site Map 2018_04_23
Site Map 2018_04_24
Site Map 2018_04_25
Site Map 2018_04_26
Site Map 2018_04_27
Site Map 2018_04_28
Site Map 2018_04_29
Site Map 2018_04_30
Site Map 2018_05_01
Site Map 2018_05_02
Site Map 2018_05_03
Site Map 2018_05_04
Site Map 2018_05_05
Site Map 2018_05_06
Site Map 2018_05_07
Site Map 2018_05_08
Site Map 2018_05_09
Site Map 2018_05_15
Site Map 2018_05_16
Site Map 2018_05_17
Site Map 2018_05_18
Site Map 2018_05_19
Site Map 2018_05_20
Site Map 2018_05_21
Site Map 2018_05_22
Site Map 2018_05_23
Site Map 2018_05_24
Site Map 2018_05_25
Site Map 2018_05_26
Site Map 2018_05_27
Site Map 2018_05_28
Site Map 2018_05_29
Site Map 2018_05_30
Site Map 2018_05_31
Site Map 2018_06_01
Site Map 2018_06_02
Site Map 2018_06_03
Site Map 2018_06_04
Site Map 2018_06_05
Site Map 2018_06_06
Site Map 2018_06_07
Site Map 2018_06_08
Site Map 2018_06_09
Site Map 2018_06_10
Site Map 2018_06_11
Site Map 2018_06_12
Site Map 2018_06_13
Site Map 2018_06_14
Site Map 2018_06_15
Site Map 2018_06_16
Site Map 2018_06_17
Site Map 2018_06_18
Site Map 2018_06_19
Site Map 2018_06_20
Site Map 2018_06_21
Site Map 2018_06_22
Site Map 2018_06_23
Site Map 2018_06_24
Site Map 2018_06_25
Site Map 2018_06_26
Site Map 2018_06_27
Site Map 2018_06_28
Site Map 2018_06_29
Site Map 2018_06_30
Site Map 2018_07_01
Site Map 2018_07_02
Site Map 2018_07_03
Site Map 2018_07_04
Site Map 2018_07_05
Site Map 2018_07_06
Site Map 2018_07_07
Site Map 2018_07_08
Site Map 2018_07_09
Site Map 2018_07_10
Site Map 2018_07_11
Site Map 2018_07_12
Site Map 2018_07_13
Site Map 2018_07_14
Site Map 2018_07_15
Site Map 2018_07_16
Site Map 2018_07_17
Site Map 2018_07_18
Site Map 2018_07_19
Site Map 2018_07_20
Site Map 2018_07_21
Site Map 2018_07_22
Site Map 2018_07_23
Site Map 2018_07_24
Site Map 2018_07_25
Site Map 2018_07_26
Site Map 2018_07_27
Site Map 2018_07_28
Site Map 2018_07_29
Site Map 2018_07_30
Site Map 2018_07_31
Site Map 2018_08_01
Site Map 2018_08_02
Site Map 2018_08_03
Site Map 2018_08_04
Site Map 2018_08_05
Site Map 2018_08_06
Site Map 2018_08_07
Site Map 2018_08_08
Site Map 2018_08_09