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          Pulitzer Prize-Winning Humorist Dave Barry to Headline Kent State Tuscarawas 50th Anniversary Celebration      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Humorist, columnist and author Dave Barry is headlining the Kent State University at Tuscarawas 50th Anniversary on University Drive Celebration on Mon., Sept. 10, in the Performing Arts Center at 7 p.m., with theater doors opening at 6:30 p.m. The presentation is free and open to the public. Tickets are required and will be available Fri., Aug. 10, at the Performing Arts Center. This is a return performance to the campus for Barry, as he also spoke as part of the Voices of Distinction Series in 2012.

 

A writer who has built a career out of finding the humor in nearly everything, Barry shares his witty observations of everyday life – from technology to the lowly toothpick to his own aging. Barry was a humor columnist for the Miami Herald for over 25 years. His syndicated column appeared in more than 500 newspapers in the United States and abroad.

 

In 1988, Barry won the Pulitzer Prize for Commentary, and The New York Times has pronounced Barry as “the funniest man in America.”  Barry has also written more than 30 books. Among his best-selling books are Big Trouble, Lunatics, Tricky Business, and most recently, Insane City. Two of his books, Dave Barry Turns 40 and Dave Barry’s Greatest Hits, were used as the basis for the CBS television sitcom “Dave’s World,” in which Harry Anderson played the role of Barry.

 

Barry also plays lead guitar in a literary rock band called the Rock Bottom Remainders, whose other members include Stephen King, Amy Tan, Ridley Pearson and Mitch Albom. The band was originally formed to perform at a 1992 American Booksellers Association convention.

A Haverford College graduate with a Bachelor of Arts in English, Barry began his journalism career as a reporter for The Daily Local News, in West Chester, Pa. Born and raised in Armonk, NY, Barry and his family now live in Miami, Fla.

Along with Barry’s appearance, several special events are scheduled for the week of Sept. 10 – 16 to commemorate the 50th Anniversary Celebration, including a presentation by historian Todd Hartline, a Kent State Tuscarawas instructor, on the history of the Tuscarawas campus, Mon., Sept. 10, at noon in the Founders Hall auditorium. An Alumni Reunion of Kent State Tuscarawas alumni, former athletic team members and campus retirees will be held Wed., Sept. 12, at 7 p.m. in the Founders Hall lobby. On Fri., Sept. 14, Bob and Melody Liberatore will perform Love Letters on the Performing Arts Center stage at 7 p.m., with open seating. The week will culminate with a Community Open House and tours of all campus buildings on Sun., Sept. 16, from 1 – 3 p.m. These special events are free and open to the public – no tickets are required.

Celebration events will extend to October, as the Tuscarawas Philharmonic season opens with a unique program designed to honor Kent State Tuscarawas, founded 50 years ago when the music of the Beatles was all the rage. A Tribute to the Beatles with the Tuscarawas Philharmonic will be held at the Performing Arts Center on Sat., Oct. 13, at 7:30 p.m., with the Classical Mystery Tour, one of the foremost tribute bands to recreate music from Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band, Magical Mystery Tour and other great Beatles music. Tickets for this event are available by calling 330.308.6400 or visiting www.TuscPhil.org.

“We look forward to celebrating the 50th Anniversary of Kent State Tuscarawas on University Drive with our alumni, current students and the community,” said Brad Bielski, Dean and Chief Administrative Officer of Kent State Tuscarawas. “This is a huge milestone for the campus and the community. With about 200 students, Founders Hall first opened its doors in 1968. Since then, the campus has successfully grown over the years, with an enrollment today of nearly 2,200 students and the additions of the Science and Advanced Technology Center, the Performing Arts Center and the Tolloty Center.”

The campus continues to grow, with the Gateway Entrance Project now under construction and future projects in the planning stages.

“The community’s input and support of the past and future endeavors of Kent State Tuscarawas are invaluable assets,” said Bielski.

 

Tickets for Dave Barry are required and will be available, free of charge, Fri., Aug. 10, at the Performing Arts Center.

 

Celebration events are subject to change. For additional information, contact Chad Conrad, Kent State Tuscarawas Director of Advancement, at 330.308.7445 or cconra1@kent.edu.

 

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          Great Miami Dental Associates Inc introduces Teeth Whitening Dentist Services      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Great Miami Dental Associates under the direction of Steven A. Lang DDS discusses Zoom professional tooth whitening as a fast, effective and safe way to whiten teeth.
          Preview: New Kids on the Block      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Greensboro Grasshoppers21-20 Second Half, 55-55 - Miami Marlinsvs. West Virginia Power19-24 Second Half, 56-53 - Pittsburgh PiratesWed... - SAL Greensboro Grasshoppers
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          French Bulldog puppies Miami $1.650 (Oodle) $1,650      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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          Midtown Miami’s 3 Newest Health & Fitness Openings      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

These three fitness and wellness-oriented openings in Midtown Miami will ensure that your body and mind are looking and feeling your best.

The post Midtown Miami’s 3 Newest Health & Fitness Openings appeared first on Haute Living.


          NCL 4Nt Cuba Cruise in September from $518 for 2      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Norwegian Cruise Line via ShermansTravel offers a Norwegian Cruise Line 4-Night Cuba Cruise for Two with prices starting from $518. (It's the first offer on the landing page.) That's the lowest price we could find by $100. Additional fees and taxes may apply. This roundtrip cruise aboard the Norwegian Sky departs on September 3 from Miami, FL. Book this travel deal by August 31.
          8/8/2018: POST SPORTS: CANADA TO LEARN QUALIFYING ROAD FOR WORLD CUP SEPT.      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Canada will learn its qualifying road for the 2019 Women’s World Cup at the Sept. 4 draw in Miami for the 2018 CONCACAF Women’s Championship. The eight-country regional qualifying tournament, set for Oct. 4-17 in Cary, N.C., and Edinburg and Frisco,...
          8/8/2018: BASEBALL: All in for the out      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Cardinals center fielder Harrison Bader makes a diving catch of a ball hit by the Marlins’ Martin Prado during the eighth inning Tuesday night in Miami. St. Louis went on to win the game, 3-2.
          BIG reveals Miami Produce Center raised on stilts above former warehouses      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Miami Produce Center by BIG

Architecture firm BIG has released plans to build a major complex in an industrial neighbourhood of Miami, combining housing, offices, a school and urban farming. Read more


          The Uninhabitable Earth      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   


The Uninhabitable Earth
Famine, economic collapse, a sun that cooks us: What climate change could wreak — sooner than you think.

By David Wallace-Wells

In the jungles of Costa Rica, where humidity routinely tops 90 percent, simply moving around outside when it’s over 105 degrees Fahrenheit would be lethal. And the effect would be fast: Within a few hours, a human body would be cooked to death from both inside and out. Fossils by Heartless Machine
July 9, 2017

I. ‘Doomsday’
Peering beyond scientific reticence.

It is, I promise, worse than you think. If your anxiety about global warming is dominated by fears of sea-level rise, you are barely scratching the surface of what terrors are possible, even within the lifetime of a teenager today. And yet the swelling seas — and the cities they will drown — have so dominated the picture of global warming, and so overwhelmed our capacity for climate panic, that they have occluded our perception of other threats, many much closer at hand. Rising oceans are bad, in fact very bad; but fleeing the coastline will not be enough.

Indeed, absent a significant adjustment to how billions of humans conduct their lives, parts of the Earth will likely become close to uninhabitable, and other parts horrifically inhospitable, as soon as the end of this century.

Even when we train our eyes on climate change, we are unable to comprehend its scope. This past winter, a string of days 60 and 70 degrees warmer than normal baked the North Pole, melting the permafrost that encased Norway’s Svalbard seed vault — a global food bank nicknamed “Doomsday,” designed to ensure that our agriculture survives any catastrophe, and which appeared to have been flooded by climate change less than ten years after being built.

The Doomsday vault is fine, for now: The structure has been secured and the seeds are safe. But treating the episode as a parable of impending flooding missed the more important news. Until recently, permafrost was not a major concern of climate scientists, because, as the name suggests, it was soil that stayed permanently frozen. But Arctic permafrost contains 1.8 trillion tons of carbon, more than twice as much as is currently suspended in the Earth’s atmosphere. When it thaws and is released, that carbon may evaporate as methane, which is 34 times as powerful a greenhouse-gas warming blanket as carbon dioxide when judged on the timescale of a century; when judged on the timescale of two decades, it is 86 times as powerful. In other words, we have, trapped in Arctic permafrost, twice as much carbon as is currently wrecking the atmosphere of the planet, all of it scheduled to be released at a date that keeps getting moved up, partially in the form of a gas that multiplies its warming power 86 times over.

Maybe you know that already — there are alarming stories in the news every day, like those, last month, that seemed to suggest satellite data showed the globe warming since 1998 more than twice as fast as scientists had thought (in fact, the underlying story was considerably less alarming than the headlines). Or the news from Antarctica this past May, when a crack in an ice shelf grew 11 miles in six days, then kept going; the break now has just three miles to go — by the time you read this, it may already have met the open water, where it will drop into the sea one of the biggest icebergs ever, a process known poetically as “calving.”


Watch: How Climate Change Is Creating More Powerful Hurricanes

But no matter how well-informed you are, you are surely not alarmed enough. Over the past decades, our culture has gone apocalyptic with zombie movies and Mad Max dystopias, perhaps the collective result of displaced climate anxiety, and yet when it comes to contemplating real-world warming dangers, we suffer from an incredible failure of imagination. The reasons for that are many: the timid language of scientific probabilities, which the climatologist James Hansen once called “scientific reticence” in a paper chastising scientists for editing their own observations so conscientiously that they failed to communicate how dire the threat really was; the fact that the country is dominated by a group of technocrats who believe any problem can be solved and an opposing culture that doesn’t even see warming as a problem worth addressing; the way that climate denialism has made scientists even more cautious in offering speculative warnings; the simple speed of change and, also, its slowness, such that we are only seeing effects now of warming from decades past; our uncertainty about uncertainty, which the climate writer Naomi Oreskes in particular has suggested stops us from preparing as though anything worse than a median outcome were even possible; the way we assume climate change will hit hardest elsewhere, not everywhere; the smallness (two degrees) and largeness (1.8 trillion tons) and abstractness (400 parts per million) of the numbers; the discomfort of considering a problem that is very difficult, if not impossible, to solve; the altogether incomprehensible scale of that problem, which amounts to the prospect of our own annihilation; simple fear. But aversion arising from fear is a form of denial, too.

In between scientific reticence and science fiction is science itself. This article is the result of dozens of interviews and exchanges with climatologists and researchers in related fields and reflects hundreds of scientific papers on the subject of climate change. What follows is not a series of predictions of what will happen — that will be determined in large part by the much-less-certain science of human response. Instead, it is a portrait of our best understanding of where the planet is heading absent aggressive action. It is unlikely that all of these warming scenarios will be fully realized, largely because the devastation along the way will shake our complacency. But those scenarios, and not the present climate, are the baseline. In fact, they are our schedule.

The present tense of climate change — the destruction we’ve already baked into our future — is horrifying enough. Most people talk as if Miami and Bangladesh still have a chance of surviving; most of the scientists I spoke with assume we’ll lose them within the century, even if we stop burning fossil fuel in the next decade. Two degrees of warming used to be considered the threshold of catastrophe: tens of millions of climate refugees unleashed upon an unprepared world. Now two degrees is our goal, per the Paris climate accords, and experts give us only slim odds of hitting it. The U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issues serial reports, often called the “gold standard” of climate research; the most recent one projects us to hit four degrees of warming by the beginning of the next century, should we stay the present course. But that’s just a median projection. The upper end of the probability curve runs as high as eight degrees — and the authors still haven’t figured out how to deal with that permafrost melt. The IPCC reports also don’t fully account for the albedo effect (less ice means less reflected and more absorbed sunlight, hence more warming); more cloud cover (which traps heat); or the dieback of forests and other flora (which extract carbon from the atmosphere). Each of these promises to accelerate warming, and the history of the planet shows that temperature can shift as much as five degrees Celsius within thirteen years. The last time the planet was even four degrees warmer, Peter Brannen points out in The Ends of the World, his new history of the planet’s major extinction events, the oceans were hundreds of feet higher.*

The Earth has experienced five mass extinctions before the one we are living through now, each so complete a slate-wiping of the evolutionary record it functioned as a resetting of the planetary clock, and many climate scientists will tell you they are the best analog for the ecological future we are diving headlong into. Unless you are a teenager, you probably read in your high-school textbooks that these extinctions were the result of asteroids. In fact, all but the one that killed the dinosaurs were caused by climate change produced by greenhouse gas. The most notorious was 252 million years ago; it began when carbon warmed the planet by five degrees, accelerated when that warming triggered the release of methane in the Arctic, and ended with 97 percent of all life on Earth dead. We are currently adding carbon to the atmosphere at a considerably faster rate; by most estimates, at least ten times faster. The rate is accelerating. This is what Stephen Hawking had in mind when he said, this spring, that the species needs to colonize other planets in the next century to survive, and what drove Elon Musk, last month, to unveil his plans to build a Mars habitat in 40 to 100 years. These are nonspecialists, of course, and probably as inclined to irrational panic as you or I. But the many sober-minded scientists I interviewed over the past several months — the most credentialed and tenured in the field, few of them inclined to alarmism and many advisers to the IPCC who nevertheless criticize its conservatism — have quietly reached an apocalyptic conclusion, too: No plausible program of emissions reductions alone can prevent climate disaster.

Over the past few decades, the term “Anthropocene” has climbed out of academic discourse and into the popular imagination — a name given to the geologic era we live in now, and a way to signal that it is a new era, defined on the wall chart of deep history by human intervention. One problem with the term is that it implies a conquest of nature (and even echoes the biblical “dominion”). And however sanguine you might be about the proposition that we have already ravaged the natural world, which we surely have, it is another thing entirely to consider the possibility that we have only provoked it, engineering first in ignorance and then in denial a climate system that will now go to war with us for many centuries, perhaps until it destroys us. That is what Wallace Smith Broecker, the avuncular oceanographer who coined the term “global warming,” means when he calls the planet an “angry beast.” You could also go with “war machine.” Each day we arm it more.

II. Heat Death
The bahraining of New York.

In the sugar­cane region of El Salvador, as much as one-fifth of the population has chronic kidney disease, the presumed result of dehydration from working the fields they were able to comfortably harvest as recently as two decades ago. Photo: Heartless Machine
Humans, like all mammals, are heat engines; surviving means having to continually cool off, like panting dogs. For that, the temperature needs to be low enough for the air to act as a kind of refrigerant, drawing heat off the skin so the engine can keep pumping. At seven degrees of warming, that would become impossible for large portions of the planet’s equatorial band, and especially the tropics, where humidity adds to the problem; in the jungles of Costa Rica, for instance, where humidity routinely tops 90 percent, simply moving around outside when it’s over 105 degrees Fahrenheit would be lethal. And the effect would be fast: Within a few hours, a human body would be cooked to death from both inside and out.

Climate-change skeptics point out that the planet has warmed and cooled many times before, but the climate window that has allowed for human life is very narrow, even by the standards of planetary history. At 11 or 12 degrees of warming, more than half the world’s population, as distributed today, would die of direct heat. Things almost certainly won’t get that hot this century, though models of unabated emissions do bring us that far eventually. This century, and especially in the tropics, the pain points will pinch much more quickly even than an increase of seven degrees. The key factor is something called wet-bulb temperature, which is a term of measurement as home-laboratory-kit as it sounds: the heat registered on a thermometer wrapped in a damp sock as it’s swung around in the air (since the moisture evaporates from a sock more quickly in dry air, this single number reflects both heat and humidity). At present, most regions reach a wet-bulb maximum of 26 or 27 degrees Celsius; the true red line for habitability is 35 degrees. What is called heat stress comes much sooner.

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Actually, we’re about there already. Since 1980, the planet has experienced a 50-fold increase in the number of places experiencing dangerous or extreme heat; a bigger increase is to come. The five warmest summers in Europe since 1500 have all occurred since 2002, and soon, the IPCC warns, simply being outdoors that time of year will be unhealthy for much of the globe. Even if we meet the Paris goals of two degrees warming, cities like Karachi and Kolkata will become close to uninhabitable, annually encountering deadly heat waves like those that crippled them in 2015. At four degrees, the deadly European heat wave of 2003, which killed as many as 2,000 people a day, will be a normal summer. At six, according to an assessment focused only on effects within the U.S. from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, summer labor of any kind would become impossible in the lower Mississippi Valley, and everybody in the country east of the Rockies would be under more heat stress than anyone, anywhere, in the world today. As Joseph Romm has put it in his authoritative primer Climate Change: What Everyone Needs to Know, heat stress in New York City would exceed that of present-day Bahrain, one of the planet’s hottest spots, and the temperature in Bahrain “would induce hyperthermia in even sleeping humans.” The high-end IPCC estimate, remember, is two degrees warmer still. By the end of the century, the World Bank has estimated, the coolest months in tropical South America, Africa, and the Pacific are likely to be warmer than the warmest months at the end of the 20th century. Air-conditioning can help but will ultimately only add to the carbon problem; plus, the climate-controlled malls of the Arab emirates aside, it is not remotely plausible to wholesale air-condition all the hottest parts of the world, many of them also the poorest. And indeed, the crisis will be most dramatic across the Middle East and Persian Gulf, where in 2015 the heat index registered temperatures as high as 163 degrees Fahrenheit. As soon as several decades from now, the hajj will become physically impossible for the 2 million Muslims who make the pilgrimage each year.

It is not just the hajj, and it is not just Mecca; heat is already killing us. In the sugarcane region of El Salvador, as much as one-fifth of the population has chronic kidney disease, including over a quarter of the men, the presumed result of dehydration from working the fields they were able to comfortably harvest as recently as two decades ago. With dialysis, which is expensive, those with kidney failure can expect to live five years; without it, life expectancy is in the weeks. Of course, heat stress promises to pummel us in places other than our kidneys, too. As I type that sentence, in the California desert in mid-June, it is 121 degrees outside my door. It is not a record high.

III. The End of Food
Praying for cornfields in the tundra.

Climates differ and plants vary, but the basic rule for staple cereal crops grown at optimal temperature is that for every degree of warming, yields decline by 10 percent. Some estimates run as high as 15 or even 17 percent. Which means that if the planet is five degrees warmer at the end of the century, we may have as many as 50 percent more people to feed and 50 percent less grain to give them. And proteins are worse: It takes 16 calories of grain to produce just a single calorie of hamburger meat, butchered from a cow that spent its life polluting the climate with methane farts.

Pollyannaish plant physiologists will point out that the cereal-crop math applies only to those regions already at peak growing temperature, and they are right — theoretically, a warmer climate will make it easier to grow corn in Greenland. But as the pathbreaking work by Rosamond Naylor and David Battisti has shown, the tropics are already too hot to efficiently grow grain, and those places where grain is produced today are already at optimal growing temperature — which means even a small warming will push them down the slope of declining productivity. And you can’t easily move croplands north a few hundred miles, because yields in places like remote Canada and Russia are limited by the quality of soil there; it takes many centuries for the planet to produce optimally fertile dirt.

Drought might be an even bigger problem than heat, with some of the world’s most arable land turning quickly to desert. Precipitation is notoriously hard to model, yet predictions for later this century are basically unanimous: unprecedented droughts nearly everywhere food is today produced. By 2080, without dramatic reductions in emissions, southern Europe will be in permanent extreme drought, much worse than the American dust bowl ever was. The same will be true in Iraq and Syria and much of the rest of the Middle East; some of the most densely populated parts of Australia, Africa, and South America; and the breadbasket regions of China. None of these places, which today supply much of the world’s food, will be reliable sources of any. As for the original dust bowl: The droughts in the American plains and Southwest would not just be worse than in the 1930s, a 2015 NASA study predicted, but worse than any droughts in a thousand years — and that includes those that struck between 1100 and 1300, which “dried up all the rivers East of the Sierra Nevada mountains” and may have been responsible for the death of the Anasazi civilization.

Remember, we do not live in a world without hunger as it is. Far from it: Most estimates put the number of undernourished at 800 million globally. In case you haven’t heard, this spring has already brought an unprecedented quadruple famine to Africa and the Middle East; the U.N. has warned that separate starvation events in Somalia, South Sudan, Nigeria, and Yemen could kill 20 million this year alone.

IV. Climate Plagues
What happens when the bubonic ice melts?

Rock, in the right spot, is a record of planetary history, eras as long as millions of years flattened by the forces of geological time into strata with amplitudes of just inches, or just an inch, or even less. Ice works that way, too, as a climate ledger, but it is also frozen history, some of which can be reanimated when unfrozen. There are now, trapped in Arctic ice, diseases that have not circulated in the air for millions of years — in some cases, since before humans were around to encounter them. Which means our immune systems would have no idea how to fight back when those prehistoric plagues emerge from the ice.

The Arctic also stores terrifying bugs from more recent times. In Alaska, already, researchers have discovered remnants of the 1918 flu that infected as many as 500 million and killed as many as 100 million — about 5 percent of the world’s population and almost six times as many as had died in the world war for which the pandemic served as a kind of gruesome capstone. As the BBC reported in May, scientists suspect smallpox and the bubonic plague are trapped in Siberian ice, too — an abridged history of devastating human sickness, left out like egg salad in the Arctic sun.

Experts caution that many of these organisms won’t actually survive the thaw and point to the fastidious lab conditions under which they have already reanimated several of them — the 32,000-year-old “extremophile” bacteria revived in 2005, an 8 million-year-old bug brought back to life in 2007, the 3.5 million–year–old one a Russian scientist self-injected just out of curiosity — to suggest that those are necessary conditions for the return of such ancient plagues. But already last year, a boy was killed and 20 others infected by anthrax released when retreating permafrost exposed the frozen carcass of a reindeer killed by the bacteria at least 75 years earlier; 2,000 present-day reindeer were infected, too, carrying and spreading the disease beyond the tundra.

What concerns epidemiologists more than ancient diseases are existing scourges relocated, rewired, or even re-evolved by warming. The first effect is geographical. Before the early-modern period, when adventuring sailboats accelerated the mixing of peoples and their bugs, human provinciality was a guard against pandemic. Today, even with globalization and the enormous intermingling of human populations, our ecosystems are mostly stable, and this functions as another limit, but global warming will scramble those ecosystems and help disease trespass those limits as surely as Cortés did. You don’t worry much about dengue or malaria if you are living in Maine or France. But as the tropics creep northward and mosquitoes migrate with them, you will. You didn’t much worry about Zika a couple of years ago, either.

As it happens, Zika may also be a good model of the second worrying effect — disease mutation. One reason you hadn’t heard about Zika until recently is that it had been trapped in Uganda; another is that it did not, until recently, appear to cause birth defects. Scientists still don’t entirely understand what happened, or what they missed. But there are things we do know for sure about how climate affects some diseases: Malaria, for instance, thrives in hotter regions not just because the mosquitoes that carry it do, too, but because for every degree increase in temperature, the parasite reproduces ten times faster. Which is one reason that the World Bank estimates that by 2050, 5.2 billion people will be reckoning with it.

V. Unbreathable Air
A rolling death smog that suffocates millions.


By the end of the century, the coolest months in tropical South America, Africa, and the Pacific are likely to be warmer than the warmest months at the end of the 20th century. Photo: Heartless Machine
Our lungs need oxygen, but that is only a fraction of what we breathe. The fraction of carbon dioxide is growing: It just crossed 400 parts per million, and high-end estimates extrapolating from current trends suggest it will hit 1,000 ppm by 2100. At that concentration, compared to the air we breathe now, human cognitive ability declines by 21 percent.

Other stuff in the hotter air is even scarier, with small increases in pollution capable of shortening life spans by ten years. The warmer the planet gets, the more ozone forms, and by mid-century, Americans will likely suffer a 70 percent increase in unhealthy ozone smog, the National Center for Atmospheric Research has projected. By 2090, as many as 2 billion people globally will be breathing air above the WHO “safe” level; one paper last month showed that, among other effects, a pregnant mother’s exposure to ozone raises the child’s risk of autism (as much as tenfold, combined with other environmental factors). Which does make you think again about the autism epidemic in West Hollywood.

Already, more than 10,000 people die each day from the small particles emitted from fossil-fuel burning; each year, 339,000 people die from wildfire smoke, in part because climate change has extended forest-fire season (in the U.S., it’s increased by 78 days since 1970). By 2050, according to the U.S. Forest Service, wildfires will be twice as destructive as they are today; in some places, the area burned could grow fivefold. What worries people even more is the effect that would have on emissions, especially when the fires ravage forests arising out of peat. Peatland fires in Indonesia in 1997, for instance, added to the global CO2 release by up to 40 percent, and more burning only means more warming only means more burning. There is also the terrifying possibility that rain forests like the Amazon, which in 2010 suffered its second “hundred-year drought” in the space of five years, could dry out enough to become vulnerable to these kinds of devastating, rolling forest fires — which would not only expel enormous amounts of carbon into the atmosphere but also shrink the size of the forest. That is especially bad because the Amazon alone provides 20 percent of our oxygen.

Then there are the more familiar forms of pollution. In 2013, melting Arctic ice remodeled Asian weather patterns, depriving industrial China of the natural ventilation systems it had come to depend on, which blanketed much of the country’s north in an unbreathable smog. Literally unbreathable. A metric called the Air Quality Index categorizes the risks and tops out at the 301-to-500 range, warning of “serious aggravation of heart or lung disease and premature mortality in persons with cardiopulmonary disease and the elderly” and, for all others, “serious risk of respiratory effects”; at that level, “everyone should avoid all outdoor exertion.” The Chinese “airpocalypse” of 2013 peaked at what would have been an Air Quality Index of over 800. That year, smog was responsible for a third of all deaths in the country.

VI. Perpetual War
The violence baked into heat.

Climatologists are very careful when talking about Syria. They want you to know that while climate change did produce a drought that contributed to civil war, it is not exactly fair to saythat the conflict is the result of warming; next door, for instance, Lebanon suffered the same crop failures. But researchers like Marshall Burke and Solomon Hsiang have managed to quantify some of the non-obvious relationships between temperature and violence: For every half-degree of warming, they say, societies will see between a 10 and 20 percent increase in the likelihood of armed conflict. In climate science, nothing is simple, but the arithmetic is harrowing: A planet five degrees warmer would have at least half again as many wars as we do today. Overall, social conflict could more than double this century.

This is one reason that, as nearly every climate scientist I spoke to pointed out, the U.S. military is obsessed with climate change: The drowning of all American Navy bases by sea-level rise is trouble enough, but being the world’s policeman is quite a bit harder when the crime rate doubles. Of course, it’s not just Syria where climate has contributed to conflict. Some speculate that the elevated level of strife across the Middle East over the past generation reflects the pressures of global warming — a hypothesis all the more cruel considering that warming began accelerating when the industrialized world extracted and then burned the region’s oil.

What accounts for the relationship between climate and conflict? Some of it comes down to agriculture and economics; a lot has to do with forced migration, already at a record high, with at least 65 million displaced people wandering the planet right now. But there is also the simple fact of individual irritability. Heat increases municipal crime rates, and swearing on social media, and the likelihood that a major-league pitcher, coming to the mound after his teammate has been hit by a pitch, will hit an opposing batter in retaliation. And the arrival of air-conditioning in the developed world, in the middle of the past century, did little to solve the problem of the summer crime wave.

VII. Permanent Economic Collapse
Dismal capitalism in a half-poorer world.

The murmuring mantra of global neoliberalism, which prevailed between the end of the Cold War and the onset of the Great Recession, is that economic growth would save us from anything and everything.
But in the aftermath of the 2008 crash, a growing number of historians studying what they call “fossil capitalism” have begun to suggest that the entire history of swift economic growth, which began somewhat suddenly in the 18th century, is not the result of innovation or trade or the dynamics of global capitalism but simply our discovery of fossil fuels and all their raw power — a onetime injection of new “value” into a system that had previously been characterized by global subsistence living. Before fossil fuels, nobody lived better than their parents or grandparents or ancestors from 500 years before, except in the immediate aftermath of a great plague like the Black Death, which allowed the lucky survivors to gobble up the resources liberated by mass graves. After we’ve burned all the fossil fuels, these scholars suggest, perhaps we will return to a “steady state” global economy. Of course, that onetime injection has a devastating long-term cost: climate change.

The most exciting research on the economics of warming has also come from Hsiang and his colleagues, who are not historians of fossil capitalism but who offer some very bleak analysis of their own: Every degree Celsius of warming costs, on average, 1.2 percent of GDP (an enormous number, considering we count growth in the low single digits as “strong”). This is the sterling work in the field, and their median projection is for a 23 percent loss in per capita earning globally by the end of this century (resulting from changes in agriculture, crime, storms, energy, mortality, and labor).
Tracing the shape of the probability curve is even scarier: There is a 12 percent chance that climate change will reduce global output by more than 50 percent by 2100, they say, and a 51 percent chance that it lowers per capita GDP by 20 percent or more by then, unless emissions decline. By comparison, the Great Recession lowered global GDP by about 6 percent, in a onetime shock; Hsiang and his colleagues estimate a one-in-eight chance of an ongoing and irreversible effect by the end of the century that is eight times worse.

The scale of that economic devastation is hard to comprehend, but you can start by imagining what the world would look like today with an economy half as big, which would produce only half as much value, generating only half as much to offer the workers of the world. It makes the grounding of flights out of heat-stricken Phoenix last month seem like pathetically small economic potatoes. And, among other things, it makes the idea of postponing government action on reducing emissions and relying solely on growth and technology to solve the problem an absurd business calculation.
Every round-trip ticket on flights from New York to London, keep in mind, costs the Arctic three more square meters of ice.

VIII. Poisoned Oceans
Sulfide burps off the skeleton coast.

That the sea will become a killer is a given. Barring a radical reduction of emissions, we will see at least four feet of sea-level rise and possibly ten by the end of the century. A third of the world’s major cities are on the coast, not to mention its power plants, ports, navy bases, farmlands, fisheries, river deltas, marshlands, and rice-paddy empires, and even those above ten feet will flood much more easily, and much more regularly, if the water gets that high. At least 600 million people live within ten meters of sea level today.

But the drowning of those homelands is just the start. At present, more than a third of the world’s carbon is sucked up by the oceans — thank God, or else we’d have that much more warming already. But the result is what’s called “ocean acidification,” which, on its own, may add a half a degree to warming this century. It is also already burning through the planet’s water basins — you may remember these as the place where life arose in the first place. You have probably heard of “coral bleaching” — that is, coral dying — which is very bad news, because reefs support as much as a quarter of all marine life and supply food for half a billion people. Ocean acidification will fry fish populations directly, too, though scientists aren’t yet sure how to predict the effects on the stuff we haul out of the ocean to eat; they do know that in acid waters, oysters and mussels will struggle to grow their shells, and that when the pH of human blood drops as much as the oceans’ pH has over the past generation, it induces seizures, comas, and sudden death.

That isn’t all that ocean acidification can do. Carbon absorption can initiate a feedback loop in which underoxygenated waters breed different kinds of microbes that turn the water still more “anoxic,” first in deep ocean “dead zones,” then gradually up toward the surface. There, the small fish die out, unable to breathe, which means oxygen-eating bacteria thrive, and the feedback loop doubles back. This process, in which dead zones grow like cancers, choking off marine life and wiping out fisheries, is already quite advanced in parts of the Gulf of Mexico and just off Namibia, where hydrogen sulfide is bubbling out of the sea along a thousand-mile stretch of land known as the “Skeleton Coast.” The name originally referred to the detritus of the whaling industry, but today it’s more apt than ever. Hydrogen sulfide is so toxic that evolution has trained us to recognize the tiniest, safest traces of it, which is why our noses are so exquisitely skilled at registering flatulence. Hydrogen sulfide is also the thing that finally did us in that time 97 percent of all life on Earth died, once all the feedback loops had been triggered and the circulating jet streams of a warmed ocean ground to a halt — it’s the planet’s preferred gas for a natural holocaust. Gradually, the ocean’s dead zones spread, killing off marine species that had dominated the oceans for hundreds of millions of years, and the gas the inert waters gave off into the atmosphere poisoned everything on land. Plants, too. It was millions of years before the oceans recovered.

IX. The Great Filter
Our present eeriness cannot last.

So why can’t we see it? In his recent book-length essay The Great Derangement, the Indian novelist Amitav Ghosh wonders why global warming and natural disaster haven’t become major subjects of contemporary fiction — why we don’t seem able to imagine climate catastrophe, and why we haven’t yet had a spate of novels in the genre he basically imagines into half-existence and names “the environmental uncanny.” “Consider, for example, the stories that congeal around questions like, ‘Where were you when the Berlin Wall fell?’ or ‘Where were you on 9/11?’ ” he writes. “Will it ever be possible to ask, in the same vein, ‘Where were you at 400 ppm?’ or ‘Where were you when the Larsen B ice shelf broke up?’ ” His answer: Probably not, because the dilemmas and dramas of climate change are simply incompatible with the kinds of stories we tell ourselves about ourselves, especially in novels, which tend to emphasize the journey of an individual conscience rather than the poisonous miasma of social fate.

Surely this blindness will not last — the world we are about to inhabit will not permit it. In a six-degree-warmer world, the Earth’s ecosystem will boil with so many natural disasters that we will just start calling them “weather”: a constant swarm of out-of-control typhoons and tornadoes and floods and droughts, the planet assaulted regularly with climate events that not so long ago destroyed whole civilizations. The strongest hurricanes will come more often, and we’ll have to invent new categories with which to describe them; tornadoes will grow longer and wider and strike much more frequently, and hail rocks will quadruple in size. Humans used to watch the weather to prophesy the future; going forward, we will see in its wrath the vengeance of the past. Early naturalists talked often about “deep time” — the perception they had, contemplating the grandeur of this valley or that rock basin, of the profound slowness of nature. What lies in store for us is more like what the Victorian anthropologists identified as “dreamtime,” or “everywhen”: the semi-mythical experience, described by Aboriginal Australians, of encountering, in the present moment, an out-of-time past, when ancestors, heroes, and demigods crowded an epic stage. You can find it already watching footage of an iceberg collapsing into the sea — a feeling of history happening all at once.

It is. Many people perceive climate change as a sort of moral and economic debt, accumulated since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution and now come due after several centuries — a helpful perspective, in a way, since it is the carbon-burning processes that began in 18th-century England that lit the fuse of everything that followed. But more than half of the carbon humanity has exhaled into the atmosphere in its entire history has been emitted in just the past three decades; since the end of World War II, the figure is 85 percent. Which means that, in the length of a single generation, global warming has brought us to the brink of planetary catastrophe, and that the story of the industrial world’s kamikaze mission is also the story of a single lifetime. My father’s, for instance: born in 1938, among his first memories the news of Pearl Harbor and the mythic Air Force of the propaganda films that followed, films that doubled as advertisements for imperial-American industrial might; and among his last memories the coverage of the desperate signing of the Paris climate accords on cable news, ten weeks before he died of lung cancer last July. Or my mother’s: born in 1945, to German Jews fleeing the smokestacks through which their relatives were incinerated, now enjoying her 72nd year in an American commodity paradise, a paradise supported by the supply chains of an industrialized developing world. She has been smoking for 57 of those years, unfiltered.

Or the scientists’. Some of the men who first identified a changing climate (and given the generation, those who became famous were men) are still alive; a few are even still working. Wally Broecker is 84 years old and drives to work at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory across the Hudson every day from the Upper West Side. Like most of those who first raised the alarm, he believes that no amount of emissions reduction alone can meaningfully help avoid disaster. Instead, he puts his faith in carbon capture — untested technology to extract carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which Broecker estimates will cost at least several trillion dollars — and various forms of “geoengineering,” the catchall name for a variety of moon-shot technologies far-fetched enough that many climate scientists prefer to regard them as dreams, or nightmares, from science fiction. He is especially focused on what’s called the aerosol approach — dispersing so much sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere that when it converts to sulfuric acid, it will cloud a fifth of the horizon and reflect back 2 percent of the sun’s rays, buying the planet at least a little wiggle room, heat-wise. “Of course, that would make our sunsets very red, would bleach the sky, would make more acid rain,” he says. “But you have to look at the magnitude of the problem. You got to watch that you don’t say the giant problem shouldn’t be solved because the solution causes some smaller problems.” He won’t be around to see that, he told me. “But in your lifetime …”

Jim Hansen is another member of this godfather generation. Born in 1941, he became a climatologist at the University of Iowa, developed the groundbreaking “Zero Model” for projecting climate change, and later became the head of climate research at NASA, only to leave under pressure when, while still a federal employee, he filed a lawsuit against the federal government charging inaction on warming (along the way he got arrested a few times for protesting, too). The lawsuit, which is brought by a collective called Our Children’s Trust and is often described as “kids versus climate change,” is built on an appeal to the equal-protection clause, namely, that in failing to take action on warming, the government is violating it by imposing massive costs on future generations; it is scheduled to be heard this winter in Oregon district court. Hansen has recently given up on solving the climate problem with a carbon tax alone, which had been his preferred approach, and has set about calculating the total cost of the additional measure of extracting carbon from the atmosphere.

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Hansen began his career studying Venus, which was once a very Earth-like planet with plenty of life-supporting water before runaway climate change rapidly transformed it into an arid and uninhabitable sphere enveloped in an unbreathable gas; he switched to studying our planet by 30, wondering why he should be squinting across the solar system to explore rapid environmental change when he could see it all around him on the planet he was standing on. “When we wrote our first paper on this, in 1981,” he told me, “I remember saying to one of my co-authors, ‘This is going to be very interesting. Sometime during our careers, we’re going to see these things beginning to happen.’ ”

Several of the scientists I spoke with proposed global warming as the solution to Fermi’s famous paradox, which asks, If the universe is so big, then why haven’t we encountered any other intelligent life in it? The answer, they suggested, is that the natural life span of a civilization may be only several thousand years, and the life span of an industrial civilization perhaps only several hundred. In a universe that is many billions of years old, with star systems separated as much by time as by space, civilizations might emerge and develop and burn themselves up simply too fast to ever find one another. Peter Ward, a charismatic paleontologist among those responsible for discovering that the planet’s mass extinctions were caused by greenhouse gas, calls this the “Great Filter”: “Civilizations rise, but there’s an environmental filter that causes them to die off again and disappear fairly quickly,” he told me. “If you look at planet Earth, the filtering we’ve had in the past has been in these mass extinctions.” The mass extinction we are now living through has only just begun; so much more dying is coming.

And yet, improbably, Ward is an optimist. So are Broecker and Hansen and many of the other scientists I spoke to. We have not developed much of a religion of meaning around climate change that might comfort us, or give us purpose, in the face of possible annihilation. But climate scientists have a strange kind of faith: We will find a way to forestall radical warming, they say, because we must.

It is not easy to know how much to be reassured by that bleak certainty, and how much to wonder whether it is another form of delusion; for global warming to work as parable, of course, someone needs to survive to tell the story. The scientists know that to even meet the Paris goals, by 2050, carbon emissions from energy and industry, which are still rising, will have to fall by half each decade; emissions from land use (deforestation, cow farts, etc.) will have to zero out; and we will need to have invented technologies to extract, annually, twice as much carbon from the atmosphere as the entire planet’s plants now do. Nevertheless, by and large, the scientists have an enormous confidence in the ingenuity of humans — a confidence perhaps bolstered by their appreciation for climate change, which is, after all, a human invention, too. They point to the Apollo project, the hole in the ozone we patched in the 1980s, the passing of the fear of mutually assured destruction. Now we’ve found a way to engineer our own doomsday, and surely we will find a way to engineer our way out of it, one way or another. The planet is not used to being provoked like this, and climate systems designed to give feedback over centuries or millennia prevent us — even those who may be watching closely — from fully imagining the damage done already to the planet. But when we do truly see the world we’ve made, they say, we will also find a way to make it livable. For them, the alternative is simply unimaginable.

*This article appears in the July 10, 2017, issue of New York Magazine.

*This article has been updated to provide context for the recent news reports about revisions to a satellite data set, to more accurately reflect the rate of warming during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, to clarify a reference to Peter Brannen’s The Ends of the World, and to make clear that James Hansen still supports a carbon-tax based approach to emissions.


          Offer - Kuhn Flowers - Best Florist in Jacksonville, Florida - Miami      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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          Miami Fusion: Beef Empanadas      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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          Greater Downtown Miami may have 5 years of excess luxury condo inventory: report      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
In Greater Downtown Miami, it’s a true buyer’s market. The area is facing a glut of luxury condo inventory, with about five years of excess supply, according to a new report from Condo Vultures Realty. Nearly 560 luxury units asking at least $1 million are on the market. During the first half of 2018, about eight high-end units sold each month in Greater Downtown Miami. That means that there are about 70 months of inventory. ... [more]
          Lee & Associates expands into Miami      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Lee & Associates just opened an office in Miami, marking the commercial real estate firm’s first move into South Florida. The California-based company will enter a competitive brokerage landscape as a number of national competitors, such as CBRE and JLL, and local agencies have a strong foothold in the Miami area. Lee & Associates, which has offices in Naples-Fort Myers and Orlando, is looking to expand to Fort Lauderdale and Tampa in the future, CEO ... [more]
          Boyd Watterson buys immigration processing center in Royal Palm Beach      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Boyd Watterson just paid $19 million an office building in Royal Palm Beach that’s leased to the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services. South Florida Federal Partners West Palm Beach, led by Darius Gaskins of Austin, sold the 38,500-square-foot building at 9300 Belvedere Road to the Cleveland-based investment management firm. The U.S. government uses the building, which sits on a 4.7-acre site, as the West Palm Beach field office for USCIS to process green card and ... [more]
          Starwood expands outside real estate with GE energy finance acquisition      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Starwood Property Trust plans to buy a GE energy-finance business for $2.56 billion, part of the firm’s plan to diversify outside its massive real estate holdings that include hotels, resorts and apartments. The Miami-based real estate investment trust is an affiliate of Starwood Capital. The latest purchase includes a portfolio of $400 million in unfunded loan commitments and 51 senior loans secured by energy infrastructure assets, according to a press release. Barry Sternlicht, chairman and ... [more]
          Big Data Consultant - Data Delivery - Miami, FL      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
5,698 Deloitte Big Data Consultant - Data Delivery in Miami Florida Big Data Consultant Data Delivery As a Big Data Consultant, you will focus on managing the information supply chain from acquisition to ingestion, storage and the provisioning of data to points of impact by modernizing and enabling new capabilities. Information ..
          Comment on MDX’s Divergent Diamond Interchange – easier done than said by Robert      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hey Bill, Next time you write a Press Release about DDI, try to remember that its NOT Great BRITISH, but Britain. Also, half the drivers cant stay in their own lanes, so expecting them to stay in the DDI to follow it is like asking water not to be wet - impossible. I was a police officer in Miami Dade long enough to know that the opening of this DDI is an example in OVERTIME for law enforcement as they write traffic accident reports and tickets for the muppets that are driving through there. It looks good, but not for the population in S. FLA
          Comment on In Miami-Dade: You really can’t get there from here! by Jerry Johnson      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
My God - Ernie Sochin actually makes sense (for once)- we need some semblance of elevated rail with easy effortless vehicular access, free parking, safe stations, walkovers/flyovers, etc. The $2,800,000,000.00 collected since 2002 from the half cent sales tax has gone where? Well we did get a Metrorail extension to the COUNTY owned airport but that's it. Ernie's right - expanded busses will only result in even more extended waits for east/west cross street traffic and left turns on north & southbound US-1. The bottom line is vehicles need to be effortlessly able to get to the stations in less time than it takes to cut thru residential neighborhoods and that quite simply will not happen by extending north & southbound traffic signals. In addition to completing the arterial grid (avenues that end with "7") as the County pointy heads suggest, the only solution is some sort of elevated rail system with highway beneath but that is a generation or longer away. Bless your heart Ernie - there's hope.
          Comment on Mayor Stoddard’s wisdom and ethics questioned, this time by a higher authority by Jerry      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Village of Palmetto Bay seems to be following in South Miami's footsteps. At the July 23, 2018 Council's Zoning Meeting one Council Member left the dais and confronted several residents. Two police officers were called in and instead of restraining the seemingly out of control Council member, they grabbed a couple of the residents by their arms and removed them from the Council Chambers. Also the Mayor refused to permit a resident to answer accusations the seemingly out of control Council member was making against him. Bet there was no ethics or grievance filed against the seemingly out of control Council member. Continuing saga in the little city that wants to become a clone of Downtown Dadeland by adding 5,661 apartment units and 1,500,000 square feet commercial in a one square mile area (but without any semblance of viable mass transit and a bottlenecked arterial grid).....
          Comment on Brick and Mortar Retail Project Fuels Miami’s Next Hot Neighborhood by David      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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          Topgolf to Open Second Miami-Area Location on Friday      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
DORAL, FLA. — Golf entertainment concept Topgolf will open its second Miami-area location on Friday, Aug. 10. The three-level, 65,000-square-foot venue is located at 11850 N.W. 22nd St. in Doral, roughly 15 miles northwest of Miami. Topgolf features food and beverage options, big screen TVs, private event spaces and music in climate-controlled hitting bays. The […]
          Cómo fueron los inicios de "La Madame" en el proxenetismo y su paso por una cárcel en Estados Unidos      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Liliana Campos, de 42 años, quien se encuentra en prisión preventiva, tenía una red de trata que se extendía hasta Miami, Panamá, Bahamas y México
          Canada Ramp Agent - Envoy Air - Montréal, QC      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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Envoy is headquartered in within the Dallas metropolitan area in Irving, TX with large operations in Dallas/Fort Worth, Chicago, Miami, New York, and Los...
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          National League      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
East Division W L Pct GB Philadelphia 64 49 .566 — Atlanta 61 49 .555 1½ Washington 58 55 .513 6 New York 46 65 .414 17 Miami 47 68 .409 18 Central Division W L Pct GB Chicago 66 47 .584 — Milwaukee 65 51 .560 2½ St. Louis 59 55 .518 7½ Pittsburgh 58 56 .509 8½ Cincinnati 50 64 .439 16½ West Division W L Pct GB Los Angeles 63 51 .553 — Arizona 63 52 .548 ½ Colorado 60 53 .531 2½ San Francisco 57 58 .496 6½ San Diego 45 70 .391 18½
          Settlement May Come For Black Teen Framed By Miami-Area Cops For Burglary      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
No justice, no peace.
          Miami Dolphins make it official; moving training facility      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The Miami Dolphins have officially announced that their training facility days in Davie, are all but over as they move to Miami Gardens. Earlier the Miami Dolphins met with local media to announce their move to the stadium location in what is going to be a state of the art training and executive complex that […]

Miami Dolphins make it official; moving training facility - Phin Phanatic - Phin Phanatic - A Miami Dolphins Fan Site - News, Blogs, Opinion and more.


          Must-have Miami Dolphins items for the 2018-19 season      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The NFL season is almost here. So before you know it, the Miami Dolphins will be taking the field for a game that matters. Now is the time to gear up. With the NFL season just a few weeks away, there’s no better time for Miami Dolphins fans to gear up for 2018-19. Use the […]

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          Adam Gase refuses to take a stand on the National Anthem      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The NFL has yet to find a way to avoid National Anthem controversy but Miami Dolphins head coach Adam Gase surely has. The National Anthem protests have been a huge thorn for the NFL and the Miami Dolphins and Adam Gase have had to deal with the fallout. A month ago the Dolphins were once […]

Adam Gase refuses to take a stand on the National Anthem - Phin Phanatic - Phin Phanatic - A Miami Dolphins Fan Site - News, Blogs, Opinion and more.


          French Bulldog puppies Miami $1.650 (Oodle) $1,650      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
We have beautiful French bulldog puppies available

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          He's the type of neighbor we don't want      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
There's a story in the Herald about Andrew Rasken, a guy who purchased two wood-framed houses in Village West. He planned on demolishing the houses to build a large house on the property. They are located at 3295 and 3297 Charles Avenue, not too far from the Coconut Grove Playhouse. The sign out front should say, "Beware of Owner."

In the meantime, the small wooden houses on Charles Avenue were declared historic structures by the City and untouchable. Before he purchased the Charles Avenue houses Andrew had his eye on another Charles, he tried to demolish Charlie Cinnamon's cottage, but was turned down by the city and that area is now in the process of becoming "Charlie's Woods." He has a thing about destroying things named Charles and Charlie.

The irony now is that Andrew Rasken was placed on the HEP Board, the Historic and Environmental Preservation Board by none other than Commissioner Joe Carollo, who claims no knowledge of Andrew's hate for anything historic. Commissioner Ken Russell's pet project these days is to try to protect the wooden houses in the Grove. Coincidentally, Commissioner Carollo is not a friend of Commissioner Russell. 

It should be said that the wooden house issue is controversial and many homeowners don't want that for their homes 

Andrew Rasken allegedly destroyed his old wooden homes in Village West, so that they could be declared unsafe structures - he admitted that while cleaning the yard, somehow the properties got destroyed in sections, where big holes appeared in the wooden structures and allegedly he had load bearing boards removed so that the structures would collapse in on themselves. 

Putting Andrew on the HEP Board is sort of like putting the fox in the hen house. The bottom line is that someone who seeks to destroy history in Coconut Grove is now part of the Historic Environmental Preservation Board. His deliberate and hateful actions regarding the wooden houses should disqualify him from being on any preservation board.

Only in Miami.

The Herald has the whole story here.
           Man sought in Key Largo animal-related case      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Monroe County Sheriff’s Office is asking for the public’s help in locating a man regarding the illegal dumping of a dog carcass.

The Sheriff’s Office was notified of a dead dog found on Hispaniola Road in Tavernier on July 22.

Detectives wish to speak to Davon Jamar Thompson, 28, about the case. He is 5-foot-8, about 160 pounds, with tattoos of cross and crown on his face.

Thompson was last seen in an older model, green, Chevrolet truck. Thompson has previously lived in Miami-Dade County, Alabama and Georgia.

Anyone with information about this crime should contact the Sheriff's Office at 305-853-7482. Callers who wish to remain anonymous can call Crime Stoppers at 1-866-471-8477. Tipsters can remain anonymous and if a tip leads to an arrest in the case, the caller may be eligible for a cash reward. Tips may also be submitted online at www.floridakeyscrimestoppers.comor via a text message using the smartphone app called P3 Phone. Tips can also be submitted via social media such as Facebook, Instagram or Twitter using the @CrimeStoppers305 hashtag.



          The Breeders at The Fillmore Miami Beach at Jackie Gleason Theater in Miami Beach Oct 19, 2018 – presale code      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

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          Reactie op “CO2 maakt de aarde groener”. Klinkt goed, maar is dat ook zo? door Arduenn      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
@46 [quote]Zouden ze het nu (een paar honderd miljoen jaar later) opeens moeilijk krijgen van een hogere CO2-concentratie?[/quote] [quote]Ik denk dat soorten met een levensduur van enkele jaren of decennia (zoals de koolmezen) zich prima zullen aanpassen aan de stijgende of dalende temperatuur.[/quote] Dat is het punt niet. Dit is het punt van die hele AGW: Impact of regional climate change on human health: https://www.nature.com/articles/nature04188 Emerging migration flows in a changing climate in dryland Africa: https://www.nature.com/articles/nclimate1447 Migration induced by sea-level rise could reshape the US population landscape: https://www.nature.com/articles/nclimate3271 Trump’s defense chief cites climate change as national security challenge: http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/03/trump-s-defense-chief-cites-climate-change-national-security-challenge Got War? Blame the Weather: http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2011/10/got-war-blame-weather Miami Beach to begin new $100 million flood prevention project in face of sea level rise https://www.miamiherald.com/news/local/community/miami-dade/miami-beach/article129284119.html En dat is nog minder dan het tipje van de smeltende ijsberg. AGW begint de mensheid bakken vol geld, mensenlevens en andere ellende te kosten.
          Comment on Mr Fixit’s Top Tips: No Greek tragedy for Celtic by gamestat254      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
After winning their early play Under 10 in Pirates 4-3 win over Rockies Pro bettors are eyeing yet another matchup coming up in 30 min time. Behind 39% of bets accounting for 51% of dollars Miami Marlins have dropped from opening 2.22 to current 1.98 while Cardinals have gone up from 1.70 to 1.95 indicating sharp money is buying on Miami. Sharp Angle Miami -1.98
          Transit Death Spiral Continues      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Transit ridership has been dropping for four years and increased subsidies won’t fix the problem. Data released by the Federal Transit Administration yesterday show that nationwide ridership was 3.1 percent less in June 2018 than it had been in June 2017. Ridership fell for all major modes of transit, including commuter rail (-2.6%), heavy rail (-2.5%), light rail (-3.3%), and buses (-3.8%). 

June 2018 had one fewer work day than June 2017, which may account for part of the ridership decline. But ridership in the first six months of 2018 was 3.0 percent less than the same months of 2017, and again ridership declined for all major modes of transit.

As in previous months, I’ve posted an enhanced spreadsheet that has all of the raw monthly data from the FTA spreadsheet but includes annual totals from 2002 through 2018 in columns GZ through HP, modal totals in rows 2125 through 2131, transit agency totals in rows 2140 through 3139, and urban area totals for the nation’s 200 largest urban areas in rows 3141 through 3340. The same enhancements are included on the “VRM” or vehicle-revenue miles worksheet.

June 30 is the end of the fiscal year for many if not most transit agencies, so now we can compare transit’s 2018 fiscal year performance against 2017 (see columns HU to HW in the spreadsheet). Nationwide ridership in FY 2018 declined 2.7 percent from 2017 and of course it fell for hundreds of transit agencies.

Of the nation’s 50 largest urban areas, June ridership grew in eleven, January through June ridership grew in ten, and fiscal year ridership grew in just six. Seattle is one of the six, having grown by 1.4 percent, the others being Pittsburgh (0.2%), Providence (1.1%), Nashville (3.5%), Hartford (3.3%), and Raleigh (6.1%). Except Seattle, these urban areas have seen declines in other recent years so this increase is not a great victory and probably won’t be sustained for long in the future. 

As I’ve noted elsewhere, Seattle has enjoyed steady growth in transit ridership not because it built light rail but because it has increased downtown jobs from 216,000 in 2010 to 292,000 in 2017. Downtown jobs are the key to transit ridership because most transit agencies run hub-and-spoke systems focused on central city downtowns. But replicating Seattle’s downtown growth is impossible in most regions, as all but six American cities have far fewer downtown jobs; nor would most people agree to accept the costs Seattle is paying in terms of subsidies to new employers, traffic congestion, and high housing prices resulting from land-use restrictions that prevent jobs and housing from moving to the suburbs.

Fiscal year ridership declines in many urban areas were larger than the increases in the few regions where ridership grew. The worst were Charlotte (-15.1%), Cleveland (-11.7%), Miami (-10.3%), St. Louis (-8.2%), Memphis (-7.7%), Jacksonville (-7.0%), Baltimore (-6.6%), Richmond (-6.6%), Philadelphia (-6.5%), Cincinnati (-6.2%), Virginia Beach (-6.1%), Dallas-Ft. Worth (-5.9%), Phoenix (-5.6%), and Boston (-5.2%). This is in addition to significant declines in all of these urban areas between 2014 and 2017.

Officials at the Charlotte Area Transit System must be proud that the light-rail expansion they opened in March led to a 65 percent increase in June light-rail ridership over June 2017. Yet this was a hollow victory as the agency lost 36,000 more bus riders than it gained in rail riders.

Transit agencies get about a third of their operating funds from fare revenues, and the decline in ridership has forced many to reduce service. The vehicle-revenue miles page shows that nationwide transit service declined by 5.1 percent in June 2018 vs. 2017. While some people blame the ridership declines on the service reductions, at least one study says it is the other way around: service has declined because riders abandoned transit, forcing agencies to cut back on spending.

Transit ridership has declined in many urban areas despite increasing service. Among many others, Phoenix increased 2018 service by 11.0 percent yet lost 5.6 percent of its riders; San Jose increased service by 3.1 percent but lost 4.2 percent of its riders; Indianapolis increased service by 4.3 percent yet lost 3.9 percent of its riders; Austin increased service by 6.5 percent yet lost 1.1 percent of its riders.

It appears that ride hailing is the principal factor in ridership declines. A recent study estimates that ride hailing grew by 710 million trips in 2017. If just 36 percent of those trips were people who would otherwise would have taken transit, then ride hailing is responsible for all of the decline in 2017. Declining ridership leads to service reductions, which results in more ridership declines, producing a death spiral of revenue shortfalls followed by service reductions followed by more revenue shortfalls.

Some cities are supplementing transit revenues by taxing ride-hailing companies, which I’ve noted elsewhere is a little like taxing word processors to protect the typewriter industry or pocket calculators to protect the slide rule industry. At least one city is looking at taxing marijuana to subsidize transit.

It doesn’t really matter. The decline in transit ridership is beyond the control of transit agencies, and increasing subsidies to what is already the nation’s most-heavily-subsidized form of transportation won’t make much difference. The only question is when will appropriators realize that it is pointless to continue subsidizing a dying industry and start winding down those subsidies.


          The Connor Group gains $14M on sale of out-of-state apartments      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Connor Group, a national real estate investment firm based in Miamisburg, has made a sale of a Georgia apartment complex for over $40 million. The group sold its Parkside at Town Center, a 234-unit luxury apartment complex in Marietta, Georgia, for $41.3 million. This marks the company's 128th property sold in 25 years of business. The Parkside at Town Center was bought by The Connor Group in 2014 for $27.2 million. Investors in The Connor Group recorded a 161 percent return on investment in…

          #7 Una investigación relaciona el uso de algunos tintes para el pelo y un aumento en el riesgo de cáncer de mama      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

La santa madre de Dios con la foto de la miniatura... Que subidon

» autor: CIS_Miami


          Henry Ahn liderará la distribución de contenidos de Univision      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
El ejecutivo, que estará basado en Miami, viene de cumplir un rol similar en Scripps Networks, y fue designado como President of Content Distribution and Partnerships por el nuevo CEO de la compañía, Vincent Sadusky.
          Chalet unifamiliar venta Mont-roig del Camp, Miami Platja      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
218000
Chalet unifamiliar con superficie total 125 m², útil 81 m², solar 416 m², 2 habitaciones dobles, 1 baño completo, cocina, carpintería exterior aluminio, tipo de suelo gres, lavadero, jardín propio, calle asfaltada, orientación sur, estado...
2 habitaciones 1 baño 125 m² 1.744 EUR/m² cocina orientación sur jardín terraza
Wed, 08 Aug 2018 08:31:37 -0400
          Judge Remands Air Ambulance Company's Rate Of Payment Suit, Finds No Preemption      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
MIAMI - A fixed-wing air ambulance company's lawsuit claiming that insurers underpaid it for its services provided to their beneficiaries should be remanded, a federal judge in Florida ruled July 6, holding that the plaintiff's claims were not preempted by the Employee Retirement Income Security Act and could not have been brought under Section 502(a) of the act (REVA Inc. v. Healthkeepers Inc., et al., No. 17-24158-CIV-MORENO, S.D. Fla., 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 112757).
          Kelly Macdonald quietly dazzles in Turtletaub, Mann and Moverman's remake, PUZZLE      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

I was blown away by the Argentine film, Puzzle, written and directed by first-timer by Natalia Smirnoff, when it was first released in the USA back in 2011, and though it never crossed my mind that the film needed remaking in English, now that PUZZLE is here -- directed by Marc Turtletaub with a screenplay by Polly Mann and Oren Moverman -- I must admit that the new version is almost as good -- hell, maybe every bit as good -- as the original.

Mr. Turtletaub, shown at left, is best known as a producer with some major winners under his belt, but he has done quite a fine job in this -- his second full-length directorial stint -- of bringing to life a small-scale tale of a subdued and somewhat cowed housewife named Agnes who discovers that she has a penchant for solving jigsaw puzzles at a very fast pace.

Turtletaub and his writers are helped no end by their leading performer, perhaps the most under-sung top-notch actress working today: Kelly Macdonald (shown below), who is simply so perfect in this role that her every moment resonates, each one bringing us closer to fully understanding this unusual woman, even as she begins to better understand herself and her (so far) unrequited needs.

Agnes is mother/wife to two nearly-grown kids and a kindly-if-old-fashioned husband (the terrifically real and moving David Denman below) who genuinely loves his wife but hasn't a clue to what's going on inside her. One of the great strengths of the movie (as was true of the original version) is that, though its main concern lies with the wife and her growth/change, it is able to view the husband (and to some extent the children) with the kind of care and empathy that has you rooting for them all.

It has been a few years since I've seen the original film, but as I recall the character of our heroine's puzzle partner was a stronger, more complete one in the original. Here, as played as well as the script permits by Irrfan Khan (below, left), that character is reduced somewhat. This matters less than you might expect, however, because the film is so much more focused on Agnes and her family.

Ms Macdonald charts Agnes' inner journey so well and with such specificity that we're with her entirely -- even when, on occasion, she's unfair to those around her. Growth and change come at a price and not always so easily, and the film honors this idea, as well.

Suburban life for a woman who has known only family, friends and church is made unusually clear here; breaking free into new ideas and activities has seldom seemed as invigorating, too. And if you imagine that Puzzle is going to come down to the usual choice by a woman between one man or another, the movie is too genuinely feminist and too concerned with real growth and change to make things that simple.

This is one of the best films of the year -- as was the original in its own year -- and it deserves as wide a viewership as possible. And Ms Macdonald, giving the best performance I've seen all year, deserves an Oscar -- or at very least a nomination.

From Sony Pictures Classics and running 103 minutes, Puzzle, after hitting major cities over the past few weeks, opens here in South Florida this Friday, August 10. In the Miami area, it will play the AMC Aventura 24; in Boca Raton at the Living Room Theaters, Cinemark Palace 20 and the Regal Shadowood 16; at the Cinemark 14 in Boynton Beach; the Cinemark Paradise 24 in Davie; at the Silverspot Cinema, Coconut Creek; at the Movies of Delray; and in Fort Lauderdale at the Classic Gateway 4. Wherever you live across the country, to find a theater near you, click here (then click on GET TICKETS on the right side of your screen).

          Moria Casán mandó al frente a Jorge Rial y reveló una novia en Miami      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
El periodista estuvo en su programa pero como invitado, y habló de sus proyectos laborales. La diva sacó a la luz un incómodo recuerdo. Mirá las fotos.
          Los tribunales de Miami no aceptaron el pedido de Claudia Villafañe       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
La ex mujer del astro de fútbol quería trasladar la causa a la Argentina.
          HD Porn Bikini Blonde’s Amateur Anal – Marsha May      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Check it out as big tit blonde babe Marsha May strips down in the Miami surf, teasing her man and letting him oil up her tight booty. Once they’re back at the hotel, that amateur anal queen took his fat dick deep in her wet pussy and tight asshole!
          Sergio Lopez on Miami Live 2018 - Voting      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Tower Tour and Sign Ups

An email has been sent out to those who registered for Miami Live in regards to the Tower Tour. If you are one of those people, please check your email. 

Sign-ups for the event will be posted by Dan (EC) next week. Keep an eye out for that. 

We are now in the final stretch, if you are interested in attending in person, please register here: http://www.zmaartcc.net/wp/eve.....18#contact

Any questions about the physical event, please email: sergio.lopez@zmaartcc.net

Any questions about the virtual event, please email: ec@zmaartcc.net


          Illegal Alien Alleged Serial Killer Caught in Miami, Florida      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

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          [Ilya Somin] Yet Another Federal Court Rejects Claims that Exposing Taxis to Competition from Uber and Lyft is a Taking      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

This is the latest in a series of federal court decision rejecting such arguments. The right to operate a taxi business does not create a "property" right in suppressing competition.

Over the last decade, traditional taxi cab company profits have taken a hit because of competition from ride-sharing services, such as Uber and Lyft. Some cab companies have tried to fight back by filing cases arguing that local governments that allow Uber and Lyft to compete with taxis have somehow violated the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment, which requires the government to pay "just compensation" when it takes "private property." On Monday, the US Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit issued the latest in a long line of federal court decisions rejecting such claims. Nick Sibilla of the Institute for Justice has an excellent summary of the ruling and its significance, in Forbes:

In a resounding win for innovation and economic liberty, the 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals unanimously ruled on Monday that taxi owners in Miami-Dade County have "no right to block competition" from ride-hailing firms like Lyft and Uber. By rejecting the notion that incumbent businesses are "entitled to…a competition-free marketplace," the 11th Circuit's decision should set an important precedent not just for the gig economy, but for reformers looking to crack open $400,000 on the secondary market....

But when Uber and Lyft entered the scene, they dramatically expanded the supply of available rides....

The rise of ride-hailing was facilitated by a drastic change in the regulatory environment. At first, county code enforcement officers conducted several undercover sting operations, ticketing drivers and even impounding their cars. But in 2016, Miami-Dade County approved an ordinance that legalized ride-hailing....

Facing greater competition, the value for a taxi medallion has since plunged by 90%, and now fetches $35,000 at auction. With a once lucrative business model now imploding, three taxi companies, Checker Cab, B&S Taxi and Miadeco, took the county to court and demanded a bailout. Echoing legal arguments that failed in Boston, Chicago, Georgia, and Philadelphia, the medallion owners argued that by legalizing Uber and Lyft, Miami-Dade County had "significantly devalued" their medallions....

In their view, deregulation was an unconstitutional "taking" that violated their Fifth Amendment rights.....

Writing for the majority, Judge Stanley Marcus meticulously dismissed their claim. Although the owners have an "intangible property interest" in their medallions, "the medallions conveyed only a property interest in providing taxicab services in Miami-Dade County—not in barring competitors," Judge Marcus explained. "Even the most cursory examination of the code reveals that the county did not give the medallion holders the right to enjoin competition," he added, while "the code furnished no basis for the medallion holders' assertion that they were entitled to, or could reasonably rely on a competition-free marketplace."

An earlier ruling on the same issue by Judge Richard Posner of the US Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit (which Judge Marcus cited in his opinion), provides a particularly good summary of why exposing businesses to competition does not qualify as a taking:

[T]he City [of Chicago] is not confiscating any taxi medallions; it is merely exposing the taxicab companies to new competition —competition from Uber and the other TNPs [Transportation Network Providers].

"Property" does not include a right to be free from competition. A license to operate a coffee shop doesn't authorize the licensee to enjoin a tea shop from opening. When property consists of a license to operate in a market in a particular way, it does not carry with it a right to be free from competition in that market... Indeed when new technologies, or new business methods, appear, a common result is the decline or even disappearance of the old. Were the old deemed to have a constitutional right to preclude the entry of the new into the markets of the old, economic progress might grind to a halt. Instead of taxis we might have horse and buggies; instead of the telephone, the telegraph; instead of computers, slide rules.....

Taxi medallions authorize the owners to own and operate taxis, not to exclude competing transportation services. The plaintiffs in this case cannot exclude competition from buses or trains or bicycles or liveries or chartered sightseeing vehicles or jitney buses or walking; indeed they cannot exclude competition from taxicab newcomers, for the City has reserved the right... to issue additional taxi medallions. Why then should the plaintiffs be allowed to exclude competition from Uber?

Judge Marcus and other judges who have ruled on such cases appropriately relied on the fact that city medallion laws did not include any guarantees against competition. As a legal matter, they only give holders the right to operate a taxi business themselves, not the right to suppress competitors. In my view, however, there would be no violation of the Takings Clause even if the medallion laws did include a legal right to block competition, which was then repealed by later legislation. I explained why in this post discussing an earlier taxi/takings case:

[E]ven if the laws conferring medallions did explicitly guarantee the holders protection against competition, that still would not be enough for courts to require compensation under the Takings Clause. The Clause does not require government to compensate businesses for any and all policies that reduce their profits. Compensation is only necessary if the government takes "private property." A state-created legal right to exclude competitors from a market is not private property. It goes beyond giving the holder control over his or her own property, and instead allows them to restrict the use of others' property (in this case, cars). Such a right is not private property as that concept is usually understood in Anglo-American law, and certainly would not have been considered such by the framers and ratifiers of the Fifth Amendment.

One could point to the example of intellectual property as a property right protected by the Takings Clause, despite the fact that it is in large part a legal right to constrain competition. But, as my George Mason University colleague Adam Mossoff argues in an important article, the Founders may have considered patent and copyright to be "natural" property rights, not merely government-created monopolies. If Mossoff is right, intellectual property is readily distinguishable from government-created cartels in conventional markets, including taxi medallion systems. If not, perhaps courts should rethink the status of intellectual property under the Takings Clause (though Congress would, of course, remain free to provide compensation to aggrieved intellectual property owners by statute).

In addition to rejecting the taxi companies' takings claim, Judge Marcus' opinion also ruled against their contention that deregulation of ride-sharing services violated the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment because ride-sharing firms ended up less heavily regulated than traditional taxis. He does an excellent job of refuting this very weak argument. Similar arguments have also been rejected by other courts that have ruled on this issue.


          Comment on Miami orders audit of Melreese Golf Course as it seeks retail-office-soccer complex by Dan Draper      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Joe Carroll in bed with developers. What a surprise! So let’s shut down all the libraries which lose money and serve a relatively few people. Do we need another shopping center? Is the future of Miami to have no green space? Why a no-bid contract? Can you say “banana republic”?
          Comment on Miami International Airport baggage handling improvements top $230 million by DC Copeland      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
That's insane. Think how far that money could have gone to extending Metrorail or building Baylink.
          Comment on Miami-Dade Mayor zaps bid for mini-parks in parking spaces by Sebra Leaves      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Why would anyone want to sit out in the hot sun on the streets in Florida? I should think an air-conditioned cafe or restaurant would be more popular than a hot seat in the sun.
          Topics Of Discussion Heading Into Dolphins Preseason Opener      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Miami Dolphins kick off preseason football Thursday night.
          LAUNCHMIAMI.COM      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Auction Type: Bid, Auction End Time: 08/13/2018 09:00 AM (PDT), Price: $69, Number of Bids: 0, Domain Age: 0, Description: , Traffic: 0, Valuation: $0, IsAdult: false
          MIAMIROVER.COM      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Auction Type: Bid, Auction End Time: 08/14/2018 11:00 AM (PDT), Price: $69, Number of Bids: 0, Domain Age: 0, Description: , Traffic: 0, Valuation: $0, IsAdult: false
          Lee & Associates Opening Miami Office, Adding Third Location in Florida      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
ROTOLANTE Lee & Associates will open an office in Miami, after tapping veteran Miami broker Matt Rotolante, SIOR, CCIM, to lead the new office as founding principal. Located at 7925 NW 12th St. in Doral, FL, the new office will provide the broker-owned commercial real estate services firm its third location in
          Augmented Reality headset Magic Leap now available for $2,295      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Augmented Reality headset Magic Leap now available for $2,295

Perhaps the most hyped Virtual, and by Virtual I mean Augmented, Reality headset, Magic Leap, ever has been released to the public. However, the Microsoft HoloLens -like AR headset is by no means everybody's entertainment device, for few reasons.

Magic Leap can be now ordered in six cities in the United States: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco and Seattle. But even if you live in one of these places, the price might put you off. See, the price for what seems to still be a fairly exclusive product, is $2,295, not including VAT.

If you still want to shell out the cash, you might want to know what you are spending your money on. The hotly anticipated AR device comes in a three pieces with the headset itself being one of them obviously. You also get one touchpad controller as well as the computing part of the operation called the Lightpack.

Included in the Lightpack is Nvidia's Parker mobile CPU, a GPU based on Pascal architecture, eight gigabytes of RAM and 128 GB flash storage. According to the company the battery can run the device for up to 3 hours at a time, which should be more than enough to tire your eyes.

Connectivity-wise Magic Leap supports Wi-Fi, Bluetooth 4.2 and USB-C.

According to some early reviews, including at The Verge, the experience wasn't as polished as expected, although certainly impressive. The technology didn't provide a meaningless upgrade to what could be considered previous gen devices like the HoloLens.


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          How Dwayne 'The Rock' Johnson Became a Hollywood Sensation      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
How Dwayne 'The Rock' Johnson Became a Hollywood Sensation
Alberto E. Rodriguez / Getty

We ask a lot of Dwayne Johnson. And he always comes through. Johnson has yet to encounter an obstacle he couldn’t overcome. He’s outlasted earthquakes (San Andreas), genetically modified rage animals (Rampage), scheming, murderous drivers (the Fast & Furious series), even mouthy comics (Central Intelligence and Jumanji). His screen heroics have made him one of the most bankable Hollywood stars in history—as close to a sure bet as you’ll find in today’s fragmented film industry. Over his career, Johnson’s movies have returned more than $8.9 billion in box office earnings worldwide.

In his newest adventure epic, Skyscraper, Johnson plays a former FBI agent and wounded amputee who must rescue his family from the tallest building in the world, which also happens to be set ablaze. We like his chances.

MAN OF THE CENTURY

From the first time he raised a taunting eyebrow from the squared circle of the WWE, Johnson has captivated a growing global audience of fans who can’t get enough of his physicality, wit, and outsize charisma. Producer, actor, wrestler, best-selling author, philanthropist—Johnson fills so many roles, you have to wonder if there’s more than one of him.

Despite his enormous success in the entertainment realm, Johnson never strays far from his athletic roots. He’s no green-screen concoction when it comes to strength and athleticism. Johnson looks the part because he works at it.

[RELATED1]

A former college football player at Miami, he still trains like an elite athlete. He lifts heavy. Stays lean year-round. Doesn’t skip leg day. A true Muscle & Fitness guy. In fact, he was named Man of the Century by this magazine in 2015.

Perhaps it’s his dedication to hard training that makes the Mr. Olympia contest so intriguing to Johnson. Unlike some who look down on bodybuilding, he’s an enthusiastic fan of the sport. His appearance at last year’s Mr. Olympia in Las Vegas was one of the weekend’s highlights, but Johnson made certain to keep the spotlight on the athletes competing.

Like Arnold Schwarzenegger before him, Johnson leveraged a distinct persona in a nonmainstream sport (or at least one not covered on ESPN) and became box office gold. Like Arnold, Johnson has expressed an interest in serving in political office, hinting at a desire to run for president.

It should be no surprise that Johnson would be intrigued by public service. He already generously gives back, using his social media platforms (e.g., 113 million followers on Instagram) to support numerous charitable causes, including The Rock Foundation, which is dedicated to the welfare of children.

Flaming skyscrapers are one thing, but can anyone fix our broken political system? Don’t count him out. Johnson is one of the few unifying forces left in a divided nation. After recent events, a Dwayne Johnson candidacy doesn’t seem so implausible.

Yes, it just may be time for the United States of The Rock. Because sometimes all you need is a big guy with a big heart.

[RELATED2]

No

          SEC charges Palm Beach developer and EB-5 regional center with fraud      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Securities and Exchange Commission has charged a Palm Beach developer, EB-5 regional center and its managing director of defrauding foreign investors in a failed Palm Beach hotel-condo development. The federal regulatory body alleges that Palm House developer Robert Matthews as well as the director of the South Atlantic Regional Center, Joseph Walsh, defrauded investors participating in the federal visa program known as EB-5, the Palm Beach Daily News first reported. The visa program allows ... [more]
          Jeff Greene attacks Gwen Graham’s ties to American Dream mega-mall      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The $4 billion American Dream Mall mega-mall project is now being used in the contentious fight to win the Democratic primary for Florida’s governor race. Billionaire real estate developer and Democratic gubernatorial candidate Jeff Greene released a campaign ad over the weekend, questioning U.S. Rep. Gwen Graham’s ties to the northwest Miami-Dade project and her family’s role and their neighboring development. Graham, Greene, former Miami Beach Mayor Philip Levine, Tallahassee Mayor Andrew Gillum and Winter ... [more]
          Dj Alex Miami - Love to Be Vol 2      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Улыбаемся и пляшем!))
          Kimberley Garner Nude Tit Slip And Collage Collection      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

British reality TV star Kimberley Garner slips out her nude tit in the photo above. Unfortunately Kimberley popping out her boobies is not the end of her blasphemously brazen displays, and to prove it we have compiled the collection of collages below to fully illustrate the extent of her wanton sluttery. First up we have […]

          AFC East Notes: Dolphins, Jets, Patriots      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Dolphins Dolphins WR Albert Wilson says he expects to line up all over the field in his first year in Miami. “Coach Gase showed me the game plan and all the things he could do with me, and there was no question,” Wilson said, via Barry Jackson of the Miami Herald. “Here, I get the opportunity to do […]

The post AFC East Notes: Dolphins, Jets, Patriots appeared first on NFLTradeRumors.co.


          Qu'est-ce que "Q", la nouvelle théorie du complot qui prend de l'ampleur ?      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Tout a commencé en octobre 2017, presqu'un an après l'élection de Donald Trump à la tête des Etats-Unis. Sur le forum controversé 4chan, un dénommé "Q" ou "QAnon" a avancé la théorie selon laquelle les Obama, les Clinton, les Rotschild, plusieurs stars d'Hollywood et d'autres personnes influentes feraient partie d'un réseau criminel qui dirigerait secrètement le pays. "Q" serait un membre haut placé du gouvernement qui tient à informer les citoyens de ce qui se trame au sommet de l'état. 

Heureusement, "Q" connait le sauveur de l'Amérique, et il s'appelle... Donald Trump. Et le plan du président américain serait d'ailleurs déjà à l'oeuvre. Pour "QAnon" et ses adeptes, le milliardaire aurait, par exemple, fait exprès de se rapprocher des Russes pendant la campagne présidentielle. L'enquête qui le vise depuis serait en fait un moyen de se rapprocher en toute discrétion du procureur afin, qu'ensemble, ils fassent tomber l'organisation criminelle qui menace le pays.

Les messages cachés de Trump 

Les sympathisants de "QAnon" voient, dans l'attitude et les discours de Donald Trump, des preuves que leur théorie est juste. Par exemple, le président aurait fait référence à son plan pour sauver l'Amérique lorsqu'il a dit aux journalistes, en octobre dernier, de se méfier du "calme avant la tempête". Lors d'un discours prononcé début août, il aurait dit s'être rendu "17 fois" à Washington avant d'être élu et a fait référence aux "17 démocrates" qui enquêtent dans l'affaire des liens avec la Russie. Or, q est la... 17e lettre de l'alphabet.

Les partisans de "Q" commencent à se multiplier. "QAnon reste un mouvement marginal" regroupant "un très faible nombre de personnes", relativise Joseph Uscinski, professeur à l'Université de Miami, dans le Guardian. Mais les autorités, elles, commencent à s'inquiéter. "Cela me semble être un phénomène vraiment dangereux, surtout quand on voit que certains le lient au président et ses meetings", estime de son côté l'ancien agent du FBI Clint Watts. 


          delAmorUNdomingo      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
el amor acaba. el amor agota. y sobre todo, sin saber qué es, el amor lo es todo. para sostenerme en pie, me digo que el amor es el estado de sacrificio y culpabilidad constante en que vivo hace más de diez años. cuando me suelte, seré inservible. y me río. no lo elegí... este estado del amor en vano. como el de antes, en vano, tampoco se elige... te golpea. y me tocó. es domingo y se me presenta un escape. de este amor tristetraste. después de diez días, domingo de brillo azul. busco escape para unas horas solo mías. escape del amor. sin distinción.

desde que llegué, a mi pedacito de... exilio? ...diáspora? ... perenne circo? a este lamentable lugar al que no pertenezco, su destino subacuático, su presente pantanoso...  su pasado en mi vida descontinuada, los fragmentos al viento... ah, uno tras otro, imbrogli. traumas familiares. tensiones de amores trucos. politiquerías. cómo es posible, este presente histérico y surreal... Y para no variar, mi madre triste. quesequieremorir. para no estorbar. porqueloextraña. porque sabe que el cuerpo, la memoria le fallan. la miro, en su butaca, dormida, el amor, yo sudando a chorros desde afuera. ah elputocalor pero prefiero estar afuera. a su tristeza no le basta mi sacrificio. de amor. desteñido. y me avisan que las tuberías rotas. los sprinklers jodiendo. quejas. armar el futuro para qué. si el mar no es azul. es solo el color del cielo, me digo. el amor no es lo que ves, sino lo que quieras ver. bah, que tengo que hacer mandados. en camino, tres broncas en la calle. palabrotas. gestos groseros. ahelputocalor. gente pobre y fea en las esquinas esperando el bus. ya no recojo a nadie en este lugar. los detesto. a todos. se me acabó el amor. pobre gente. que no se merece mi empatía de mierda. porque nadie me recogió a mí. nadie, bajo la lluvia, aquel día, caminando sin ver. casi perdida de la rabia del dolor. ah, egoísmo, del que necesito más. y más, para lidiar. busco el mar. ah, ricos apestando a dinero robado. en el barrio de moda huyuyos y reinventados artistas quejándose. en conversaciones flácidas, flotantes. que no los exhiben sobrando tanto museo hueco. goteando salitre los muros de las galerías. se creen merecer el museum archival treatment, indeed, para sobrevivir entre paredes que llorarán algas con sus petrificados rostros, cristarte en tercera dimensión. el miamimareo ya me asfixia. en el parqueo bajo techo me quedo. escuchar el silencio. cierro los ojos. me pienso. me anhelo. mi inexistente yo. el que vierto aquí. solo aquí, lejos de mí y en todas partes. el runrún del aire acondicionado. ese cosquilleo de motel. frío motelito. cuerpo cálido. motelito de playa. ricura del singar y resquemor de playa en la piel. hirviente languidez del caer la tarde. besar bocas frías que me desconocen. y ni puedo ir. a la playa. a deshoras mi piel de blanca mierda haciéndose la víctima. llagas y llegas. me pesa ir sola. tanta distancia del mar. física y mentalmente. y con quién voy a singar. la ansiedad. ah, si acaso con las sirenas tuertas que me contemplan de lejos, sobre el asfalto candente, yo en mi chapotear urgente hacia ellas. porque siempre hay que tener playas mentales. o te ahogas.     SIGUE

ah domingo azul. que me ha caído ayuda en paracaídas para sacudirle el triste a mi madre. y me quedo sola. de nuevo el silencio transfusión de sangre fresca. me desnudo y ando tetas sueltas en el frescor de la casa. tirada en el sofá de cuero. playas mentales. besos de sal. sueños cortos y leves, despiadados. l'infame por todas partes. en la tarde decido ir al cine. echan una vieja de Almodóvar en un cine que no conozco. el CG Art Cinema. pequeño pero big-box burgués igual. ah aquellos cines de arte y ensayo de CG que parecían improvisados tugurios. de asientos incómodos. como aquellos bares gay sin letreros. profundos. de antaño. clandestinos. escondidos en callecitas oscuras de noche. propicias para besos y toqueteos furtivos. el alcazar cinematheque. el grove cinema. y el otro... ¿cómo se llamaba el otro, minúsculo art film house, que quedaba, creo, en laguna st, por la cuarenta y el 7-Eleven? bah, ni por milagro lo recuerdo. este nuevo cine está bien, pienso mientras de lejos se ven las dichosas sombrillas colgantes y el gentío debajo de ellas. con este putocalor. en serio, la idiotez tropical paragüera. es la novedad de aldea. está bien el cine pero le falta la cojera clandestina de aquellos otros, pienso. el olor a ac deficiente, las alfombras de segunda, los baños apretados. le falta... juventud. eso.

and it dawns on me que el público es, en su mayoría, muy viejo. viejas, muchas viejas tembas como yo o más. viejas de bien. viudas, tal vez divorciadas. cubivenes a granel, con espolvoreos de todo lo demás. algún hombre solitario, viudos, sin duda. los perennes maricones, pocas lesbias. y me resisto, pero es que lo peor es visible... Almodóvar ya no es l’enfanterrible de la movida, aquella que se estancó, como todo lo que se mueve. como yo, que fui tan móvil y ya ni corro. el desliz de ser masaboba restante del olvido. qué angst, lindura, me digo, pero es que una poderosa tristeza me invade, yo tratando de escapar de ella. de la tristeza caigo en los abrazos rotos, del 2008, la película. sobre un gran amor. cuando el amor era deseo y pasión. sexo. así, que empieza. algunas escenas me suenan. estoy segura que la vi, pero si te vi ya no me acuerdo. el olvido es una enfermad, como el amor. muy propia de CG, del polen de los flamboyanes, del pretender mediterráneo. el rostro de una Penélope joven, pero nunca tan joven y suculenta como en JamónJamón y el magnífico  “cómeme las tetas”. antes del continuo cómeme la polla. aun así, magistral Almodóvar, la estridente belleza de su obra chillona, rebelde, líquida espesa. su obra al amor, a la mujer. al amor de mujer. al salir de la sala, huyo al baño. cola de tembas y viejas. señoronas. serias, perfumadas, mirándome sospechosas. sí, quiero decirles, ya sé que no pertenezco. no soy parte de "esto", de nada. y huyo.

mientras camino al carro, bajo el putocalor regresa mi enorme tristeza. empiezo a llorar o a sudar, quién sabe. me siento en la sombra en la plaza del museo. ah, otro museo, de los tantos. una joven con auriculares escribe en una libreta, conmigo en la sombra. le sonrío. me encanta ver gente escribiendo sobre papel. la caligrafía, un arte perdido. como el amor. la niña me hace un gesto y se da vuelta. no, nadie me recoge en este lugar. y los veo pasar. mi gente. busco a quien desear, de lejos. una mirada furtiva. porque me han dicho mis astropoetas que, for this week: "...if heavenly a thing is what you seek well then you will be in luck. you should know there are ones watching. you should know the songs you sing are being heard". y mi canto es desafinado, a ciegas, como en la película... a tanteos. pero esta gente, mía sin serlo, no los soporto ni ellos a mí. pero ... qué voy a ser sin ti. sin este lugar cuando se lo lleve el mar. estaré muerta y nadie sabrá que existí. eso está bien, supongo. la historia es un estorbo. miren cómo la mentira rige nuestras vidas. mentiras rojas, sangrantes; negras mentiras del absurdo; blancas mentiras transparentes y más dañinas. yo tan lejos de este lugar, capital de... y sin embargo, todos mis fragmentos perdidos por sus rincones... en l'infame boca de este lugar.


          Non solo calcio per Griezmann: partita a basket con il fratello      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
A Miami per le vacanze, il neocampione del mondo Antoine Griezmann mette da parte per un po' il pallone da calcio, ma non lo sport. Insieme a suo fratello Theo, si cimenta in una disciplina più statunitense: il basket. Sarà bravo anche a fare canestro?
          #orlando - ariannarealestate      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Sunset view luxury Home for more inquiries contact us #realtor #lifestyle #renovated #sell #buy #orlando #miami #florida #realestate #luxury #invest #whyorlando #ariannarealestate #orem #brokers #burez #latinoamerican #colombia
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#luxurycars #luxury #hot #rr #bugatti #bentley #lifestyle #s #crazy #fashion #corona #design #orlando #miami #explore #fast #rollsroyce #sea #fun
          Jadwal Manchester United Diubah, Mourinho Kembali Marah?      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Liputan6.com, Manchester - Manchester United harus menyesuaikan jadwal Liga Inggris 2018/2019 karena kepentingan televisi. Operator kompetisi mengumumkan lima laga The Red Devils untuk periode Oktober-November mengalami perubahan.

Pertandingan Manchester United yang dimaksud adalah saat menghadapi Newcastle United (6 Oktober), Chelsea (20 Oktober), Everton (27 Oktober), Bournemouth (3 November), dan Manchester City (11 November).

Duel versus Newcastle dan Manchester City semula digelar jam 15.00 waktu setempat (21.00 WIB). Kini laga itu bergulir pukul 23.30 WIB. Sementara partai kontra Chelsea, Everton, dan Bournemouth dimajukan menjadi 18.30 WIB.

Manchester United sebelumnya mengalami tujuh perubahan jadwal pada periode Agustus-September. Salah satu yang berpengaruh adalah laga pembuka versus Leicester City.

Pertandingan tersebut dimajukan sehari menjadi Jumat (10/8/2018) atau Sabtu (11/8/2018) pukul 02.00 WIB. Pergantian ini membuat pelatih Manchester United Jose Mourinho kesal karena persiapan anak asuhnya berkurang.

"Leicester punya waktu lebih banyak ketimbang kami," kata Mourinho, dilansir Guardian.

Faktor Popularitas

Pelatih Manchester United, Jose Mourinho, memberikan arahan kepada Scott McTominay saat melawan Real Madrid pada laga ICC 2018 di Miami Gardens, Rabu (1/8/2018). Manchester United menang 2-1 atas Real Madrid. (AP/Jim Rassol)#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000

Manchester United merupakan salah satu tim yang jadwalnya paling banyak berubah. Popularitas dan banyaknya pendukung The Red Devils membuat pemegang hak siar kompetisi menyusun waktu tersendiri bagi mereka.

Hal tersebut terbukti dari data musim lalu. Manchester United merupakan salah satu tim dengan jumlah laga yang paling banyak disiarkan langsung, mengungguli sang juara Manchester City.

Jumlah Laga

Berikut jumlah laga tim besar Liga Inggris yang disiarkan langsung musim lalu:

Manchester United: 28

Arsenal: 28

Tottenham: 27

Liverpool: 26

Manchester City: 25

Chelsea: 24

 

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Miami-Dade County Commissioner Jose “Pepe” Díaz will be joined by Hialeah Gardens Mayor Yioset De La Cruz and council members to help break ground on...
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          Dolphins Open Preseason Action Against Bucs      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The Baltimore Ravens and Chicago Bears kicked off the NFL preseason with the Hall of Fame Game, but the real action begins this Thursday. Thursday will feature 12 football games, including an in-state matchup between the Tampa Bay Buccaneers and Miami Dolphins. This will be the 17th time since the 2000-2001 season that the two …

The post Dolphins Open Preseason Action Against Bucs appeared first on ESPN 98.1 FM - 850 AM WRUF.


          'Burn, kill, destroy': Parkland school shooter video released - USA TODAY      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

USA TODAY

'Burn, kill, destroy': Parkland school shooter video released
USA TODAY
NAPLES, Fla. — Florida prosecutors released the video confession Wednesday of a teenager suspected of killing 17 people at a Parkland high school, revealing the chilling words of a troubled former student who said he heard voices in his head that told ...
Video released of Parkland school shooter describing 'demon' that drove him to killMiami Herald

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          Patriots training camp: Tom Brady sees more work Wednesday      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

FOXBORO — The Patriots were in full pads for Wednesday's practice, an uncharacteristic move on the day before a game.

And Tom Brady saw more work than he has in recent sessions, leading the huddle in the 11-on-11 drills at the beginning of the practice.

The skies opened midway through the afternoon, and rookie quarterback Danny Etling had to deal with torrential downpours over the final half-hour or so.

Let's recap the Patriots' 11th practice of the summer...

ATTENDANCE

Absent: RB Sony Michel (fifth straight missed practice), OT Marcus Cannon (fifth straight missed practice), LB Harvey Langi (second straight missed practice), OL Brian Schwenke (first missed practice)

Limited: WR Matthew Slater, S Nate Ebner, CB Jonathan Jones, CB Cyrus Jones, DE Trey Flowers, RB Rex Burkhead (left for lower field midway through practice), WR Kenny Britt, OL Jason King

NOTES

**With DE Trey Flowers on the lower field for conditioning/rehab, second-year DE Derek Rivers took reps opposite Deatrich Wise.

**As most of the team engaged in 11-on-11s, CB Cyrus Jones fielded punts on the adjacent field. CB Jonathan Jones and S Nate Ebner practiced their punt coverage as Jones caught the ball.

With Julian Edelman suspended four games and Danny Amendola in Miami, the punt returner position appears to be up for grabs. Jones, who was a dynamic returner at the University of Alabama, should be in the mix. He'll need to have a solid preseason to secure the job. Jones struggled with his judgment and ball security as a rookie.

**During kickoff/kick return work, DEs Adrian Clayborn, Deatrich Wise, and Derek Rivers worked on pass-rush technique.

**RB Jeremy Hill was sent to run a lap after a botched hand-off with QB Brian Hoyer.

**WR Eric Decker had a drop on a deep crossing pattern. The ball was thrown by Brady.

**RB Mike Gillislee also committed a drop on a short route over the middle.

**WR Braxton Berrios dropped a pass from QB Danny Etling late in practice. He had a legitimate excuse, though. It was raining sideways.

HIGHLIGHTS

**WR Phillip Dorsett beat CB Eric Rowe deep down the left sideline to haul in a pass from Brady in 11-on-11s.

**DE Deatrich Wise batted down a Brady pass at the line of scrimmage in 11-on-11s.

**Brady connected with TE Rob Gronkowski twice during red zone 11-on-11s.

**QB Danny Etling took the reps late in practice. He hit WR Braxton Berrios for a touchdown on a perfectly-placed ball deep toward the right sideline. CB J.C. Jackson was in coverage.

Etling also found WR Cordarrelle Patterson for a touchdown on a slant route.

S Damarius Travis intercepted Etling on a poorly thrown ball in the end zone.

**P Corey Bojorquez blasted one punt from his own territory, sending returner Riley McCarron back-pedaling to his own goal line to field it.

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          Dolphins | Ryan Tannehill likely for Thursday      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Miami Dolphins QB Ryan Tannehill ...
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Miami Dolphins DE Andre Branch ...
          #fame - followyourheartbrand      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
#Repost @fyh_prince with @get_repost ・・・ W H E R E W E G O & W H A T W E D O A D V E R T I S E S W H A T W E A R E❗️ OUR MOTIVATION COLLECTION TEES ARE COMING SOON!! #Fyh #Fyhprince #Celebrity #Celebritydesigner #Designer #Brand #Philly #Branding #Clothes #Fame #Support #Followyourheart #clothingbrand #clothing #Newyork #Atlanta #Delaware #Miami #Florida #Cali #LA #jersey #Phillysupportphilly #Business #Businesses #Blackownbusiness #Invest #investors 📸: @jumpshot.joe
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Recuerda junto a tu abuelita los mejores momentos de tu infancia. Si estás en #USA y tu abuela está en #Colombia #Venezuela #Chile #Perú #Ecuador o en cualquier otro país, aún podrás mantenerte en contacto con ella, gracias al servicio de Llamadas Internacionales, el cual podrás adquirir en tu teléfono fijo o celular. 📱☎📞❤ #Multiphone #Abuelita #Nieta #Abuelos #MiMadre #ColombianosEnMiami #VenezolanosEnMiami #ChilenosEnMiami #EcuatorianosEnMiami #LargaDistanciaInternacional #LlamadasInternacionales #Comunicate #LlamaYa #TelefoniaCelular #TelefoniaFija
          #ecuador - patricialvaradooficial      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Para los que alquilan, la zona del downtown de Miami’ es la mejor. Los que piensan comprar vivienda y no tienen mucho dinero, deben tomar en cuenta zonas como Homestead, Miami Shores y Kendall. Y los inversionistas deben prestar atención al Design District. Miami Beach sigue siendo popular, pero hay que cuidarse de los precios inflados. Y el tráfico se ha convertido en uno de los factores clave a la hora de que la gente decide dónde quiere vivir. Estas son algunas de las conclusiones del Estudio de Bienes Raíces en Miami del 2018, la cuarta encuesta anual del sector realizada por la firma encuestadora Bendixen & Amandi International y el Miami Herald. Lee el artículo completo ingresando en el siguiente enlace. https://goo.gl/bcvX8c Si nos sigues desde Instagram, te invitamos a hacerte fan de nuestra página en Facebook Patricia Alvarado para accesar al link. PATRICIA ALVARADO "Determinación, Disciplina y Pasión" +1 305-773-4091 . . #PatriciAlvarado #BienesRaices #Inmobiliaria #AgenteInmobiliario #Inversión #Inmuebles #Colombia #Argentina #Brasil #Mexico #Bolivia #Chile #Ecuador #Peru #Uruguay #Paraguay #Canada #Venezuela #Miami #PropiedadesdeLujo #Southbeach #Bogotá #Cali #Medellin #SantaCruzdelaSierra #NewYork #longisland #newjersey
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Point Blank Period!
          #religion - 6lacksethrogen      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Stop Trying To Be God #music #fanart #rap #hiphop #soundcloud #applemusic #spotify #travisscott #astroworld #sickomode #drake #losangeles #hollywood #california #miami #florida #nyc #newyork #rochester #nojumper #ropegang #art #creative #painting #life #positive #religion
          Miami Man To Spend Time In Prison For Strangling Puppy      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
A crowd of animal activists celebrated Wednesday what they call a victory in a case of animal cruelty.
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American Airlines is doing premium economy right. Pros: More than just a larger seat with extra legroom, American Airlines delivers a solid soft product with improved catering, a decent amenity kit and decent headphones to complement the larger IFE screen. Cons: There was a lack of space when the seat in front was reclined, a lack of seat padding and poor communication during a delay.
          Mumford And Sons Hits Troy With Economic Benefits And Mustaches      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Miami County is preparing for a major tour stop by UK folk stars Mumford and Sons this weekend. The city of Troy, population 25,000, is anticipating an influx of 40,000 people and at least $12 million in new revenues for the region. By Wednesday, downtown Troy was already overrun with semi trucks, workers, and, believe it or not, mustaches. Inside Hittle’s Jewelry, owner Jenny Nimer showed off her display of mustachioed jewelry, complete with what she called “bling.” "We're just getting ready for all the hoopla downtown," she said. The city is expecting 10,000 campers across town and on the levees. The mustache is the informal tour logo, and bling is just the beginning. Troy was also sporting mustache bread, sculptures and stencils. Local organizers from Troy Main Street and the Miami County Chamber of Commerce said the event is bringing far more attention and money than Troy’s yearly Strawberry Festival. And they said Mumford and Sons’ producers worked closely with them to contract
          Panel insta a mega centro comercial de Miami a retrasarse por preocupaciones de tráfico      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
El American Dream Miami, un gigantesco proyecto de $ 4 mil millones para un complejo comercial y de entretenimiento en el no incorporado condado de Miami-Dade, sufrió un revés el miércoles después de que un panel del sur de Florida recomendara retrasar el proyecto en medio de preocupaciones por el aumento del tráfico. El Consejo […]
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Miami police detectives are seeking the public's help in identifying a man caught on video breaking into homes.
          As Yy (Put) (YY) Valuation Declined, Holder DE Shaw & Company Decreased Its Stake by $4.56 Million; Maple Capital ... - The Cardinal Weekly (press release)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Miami Herald

As Yy (Put) (YY) Valuation Declined, Holder DE Shaw & Company Decreased Its Stake by $4.56 Million; Maple Capital ...
The Cardinal Weekly (press release)
D-E Shaw & Company Inc decreased its stake in Yy Inc (Put) (YY) by 79.63% based on its latest 2018Q1 regulatory filing with the SEC. D-E Shaw & Company Inc sold 43,400 shares as the company's stock declined 22.12% with the market. The hedge fund ...
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          #film - ashleysworldtheseries      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hey friends!! ❤ "Ashley's World The Series" is currently in pre-production for season 2 and we are absolutely delighted to give you MORE!! More drama, more humor, the characters will be bigger, the episodes will be bolder!!🔥💣💥😎 - - Catch up on season 1 now streaming on YouTube and www.ashleysworldtheseries.com 😁 #webseries #indieseries #producers #directors #actors #actorslife #blackactresses #acting #blackactors #blackparents #parenthood #ashleysworldtheseries #NYC #newyorkcity #lgbtfamily #filmfestivals #singlemothers #singlemoms #artists #film #filmfestival #follow #miami #losangeles #youtube #streaming #drama #comedy #california #redtabletalk
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First Black Terminator!! 🤷🏽‍♂️. Might as well be one when there’s no other option besides “hands up”...”UPS AND DOWNS MUSIC VISUAL OUT NOW! Link in Bio!! • • • • #black #lives #blacklivesmatter #alllivesmatter #unity #diversity #terminator #work #life #people #motivation #inspiration #music #film #art #style #hiphop #rnb #losangeles #nyc #atlanta #miami #summer #fx #awareness #time #power
          Office Product Manager - Xerox Corporation - Miami, FL      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Xerox Corporation (NYSE:. Excellent working knowledge of Xerox technology and products and SW solutions. We do this for small and mid-size businesses, large...
From Xerox Corporation - Fri, 13 Jul 2018 21:48:39 GMT - View all Miami, FL jobs
          Miami Dolphins and N.O.B.L.E give back to community      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Miami Dolphins and N.O.B.L.E team up to give backpacks and school supplies to local kids.
          194位:あんさんぶるスターズ 生ブロマイドコレクション5 14個入りBOX[エンスカイ]《10月予約》      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
あんさんぶるスターズ 生ブロマイドコレクション5 14個入りBOX[エンスカイ]《10月予約》
あみあみ 楽天市場店

6,040円

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          Coral Reef Cemetery Off Miami Beach Now Home To 1,500 People      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Many people choose to scatter a loved one's ashes at sea. But now there's a way to bring those ashes to the bottom of the sea, so that they'll live on in a new form of life.
          Experts Share Tips For Coping With Back To School Anxiety      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Ah, the inevitable sign that summer break is coming to an end: back-to-school advertisements. As beneficial as they are for a parent's wallet, they may be triggering anxiety in their children as they prepare to return to school. "For children, as it pertains to school, it's normal to feel scared about something that is coming new," said Miami-based psychologist Lina Acosta Sandaal, founder of Stop Parenting Alone , an organization dedicated to sharing information about child development with parents. Children of all ages experience school-related anxiety and fear, said Jill Ehrenreich-May, director of the Child and Adolescent Mood and Anxiety Treatment Program at University of Miami. "In younger children, we see more fears regarding separation. As they age, they worry about more realistic fears like getting along with others and whether or not they will be bullied and if they will be able to do all of the work they are required to do and testing," said Ehrenreich-May. While adults know
          Stantec Completes Wix.com Offices in Miami      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Contract magazine wrote about the new Wix Miami office and how the space’s interior design encapsulates the company’s employee culture and community.

The post Stantec Completes Wix.com Offices in Miami appeared first on Wix Stories | Reviews by Wix Users.


           Derek Jeter says Marlins are headed in right direction       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Derek Jeter says the Miami Marlins are headed in the right direction even though they're last in the NL East
          Per le curiosità della domenica, scopriamo il misterioso castello di corallo di Miami      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Poco fuori da Miami (Florida), esattamente a Homestead, è possibile ammirare un curioso parco al di fuori dal tempo, dove la protagonista è la pietra calcarea o corallo. Il Coral Castle è stato costruito dallo scultore Edward Leedskalnin, tra il 1923 e il 1951, anno della sua morte... A questo punto resta da chiedersi: perché mai una storia del genere merita di essere raccontata su queste pagine? Forse il nesso sta proprio nell’amore quasi cavalleresco che dona ad Edward, un bizzarro cavaliere contemporaneo forte ed orgoglioso, la forza e la determinazione per costruire, solo, con le proprie mani, un intero borgo per la sua amata...

FONTE  »  viaggi castello miami curiosità
Per le curiosità della domenica, scopriamo il misterioso castello di corallo di Miami
          Derek Jeter says Marlins are headed in right direction      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Derek Jeter says the Miami Marlins are headed in the right direction even though they're last in the NL East

The post Derek Jeter says Marlins are headed in right direction appeared first on FederalNewsRadio.com.


          These Are The Places In America Where All Your Salary Goes To Rent      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Submitted by Priceonomics

A career in “business” is broad enough that it can mean just about anything. Hundreds, if not thousands of jobs, can be classified as “business” related work ranging from being an accountant to a chief medical officer.

We analyzed data from Priceonomics customer Business Student.com, a company that has created an index of 127 “business” careers, where they track the average salaries and how they vary by location. While these jobs are by no means comprehensive of all jobs in business, they comprise a representative index of business careers and their salaries, that we call the “Business Jobs Index.”

So what are the highest and lowest paying jobs in our index? Which cities have highest paying business jobs and where you’ll still have money leftover after paying rent if you live there?

Across our business index, the highest paying job paid $187,000 on average in the United States (Medical Director). The lowest paying business job we track is Security Supervisor, which pays $31,000 per year. The average business job we track pays $75,000 per year.

Across the country, the highest paying business jobs are in Washington, DC, California, New York, and Massachusetts. The states with the lowest paying business jobs are Montana, Idaho, and North Dakota. We also analyzed 215 of the largest job markets in America to find the cities that have the highest business salaries; all five of the top cities with the highest paying business jobs are located in Silicon Valley, with Palo Alto, CA having the highest paying jobs of all.

Lastly, we found there were a number of cities like San Francisco, Miami and Los Angeles that have high paying business jobs, but most of your income will go to paying rent.

***

Before diving into the data, a brief note on the methodology of our Business Jobs Index. The index is comprised of 127 popular business jobs.

For each of these jobs, we track the average salary on Indeed.com by location.

In our index, the highest paying jobs are senior positions in the medical industry or “C-suite” position like Chief Marketing Officer. The vast majority of the business jobs in our index pay less than a $100,000 salary however.

Popular jobs like Social Media Manager, Accountant, and HR Coordinator all pay less than $50,000 per year.

Which states pay the most in our Business Jobs Index? The following chart shows the average salary of business jobs by state, ranked from highest to lowest:

Washington DC, California, New York, and Massachusetts are the four highest paying places for business jobs, where the typical position pays around $90,000 per year.  The lowest paying states for business jobs are mostly in the MidWest.

Next, how much do business salaries vary by city? We analyze the average business salary on the 215 largest job markets we track. The chart below shows the cities with the highest and lowest salaries:

Almost unbelievable, the top nine highest paying cities for business jobs are all in the San Francisco Bay Area.

The high cost of living and number technology employers have catapulted business salaries in the Bay to over $100,000 per year and nearly twice as much as cities on the “lowest” business salaries list.

However, places that pay a lot of money also tend to be very expensive. We were curious, after you have to pay your rent, how much of your salary is left for anything else?

Below, we show the average salary by city, the average monthly rent for a two bedroom apartment according to Rent Jungle, and how much money is left over on an annual basis. For it, we looked at the top 65 largest markets on our site (excluding Athens, GA where there was no rent data available).  Keep in mind this is a preliminary analysis that doesn’t include taxes, child care, partner-earnings, or other factors that can influence cost of living.

The cities where you have the most money leftover after rent are a mix of ones with high salaries (Palo Alto, San Jose, Sunnyvale) and ones with decently high salaries but low rents (Detroit, Chicago, Las Vegas). Considering that some of the states these cities are in have relatively high state income taxes (California) and others have zero state income tax (Texas, Nevada), further analysis should include taxes and other expenses.

And which cities do you have the least money leftover after rent? Below are the top ten:

The places where most of your paycheck goes to rent is actually cities with high salaries but very high rent. Only College Station and Orlando have relatively low rent and make the list because of low salaries. Most of the other cities are places like San Francisco with high salaries but exorbitant rent ($4,509 for an average two bedroom apartment rental).

***

Conclusion

There is a huge variety of business jobs out there with an equal variance in salaries. Not all jobs pay a lot, but some do, especially in California, New York, Massachusetts and Washington, DC.

However, cities that pay a lot in salaries also typically have very high cost of living. The city with the highest business salaries is Palo Alto, but it’s also a place with some of the highest property prices in the country. Additionally, some places like San Francisco and Los Angeles do have high salaries, but you don’t take home very much money after your rent.

Curious how much money you’ll have leftover from your paycheck after you pay rent? Here’s the list of all the cities we analyzed:


          Мусульманский антисемитизм в Германии. Не верю!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

https://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/article216291200.html

Заголовок статьи: Мусульмане нападают, оскорбляют и угрожают смерьтю евреям в немецких школах.

У кого не спросить как не у Didja...

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          Miami (Ohio), Liberty schedule 2023, 2025 football series      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The Miami (Ohio) RedHawks and the Liberty Flames have scheduled a home-and-home football series for 2023 and 2025, FBSchedules.com has learned.

The post Miami (Ohio), Liberty schedule 2023, 2025 football series appeared first on FBSchedules.com.


          Se apagó “La voz de oro” de Venezuela, Carlos Almenar Otero dijo adiós      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Falleció en Miami, el cantante y compositor venezolano Carlos Almenar Otero. Tenía 92 años de edad y hasta ahora, no se han dado causas de su muerte aunque el año pasado sufrió de neumonía según información de su esposa, Gioconda de Almenar. La noticia fue divulgada a través de diferentes personalidades de los Estados Unidos,...
           Periodista de Miami Bayly sabía del plan para atentar contra Maduro       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

El periodista peruano Jaime Bayly, conductor en Miami del programa de televisión "Bayly", confesó que hubo una reunión en Estados Unidos para planificar el atentado contra el presidente venezolano Nicolás Maduro, ocurrido el 4 de agosto. La reunión se hizo días antes del atentado fallido y el periodista asistió. “Mis fuentes me invitaron y fui, y me dijeron el ‘sábado vamos a matar a Maduro’. Yo le dije ‘hágale’”, así lo confesó Bayly el lunes 6 de agosto durante su programa. https://videos.telesurtv.net/video/734222/periodista-de-miami-bayly-sabia-del-plan-para-atentar-contra-maduro/

Duración: 00:56
Categoría: Noticias y Blogs


          VA - Festival Summer 2018 [Deluxe Version] (2018) MP3      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Категория: Музыка / Music MP3
Размер: 569.51 MB
Траффик: Раздают (отдают): 33, Скачивают (качают): 19
Добавлен: 2018-08-08 12:56:09
Описание: Информация о музыке
Исполнитель: VA
Название альбома: Festival Summer 2018 [Deluxe Version]
Год выпуска: 2018
Жанр: House, Progressive, FutureHouse, TechHouse, Dubstep

Список композиций:

Файлы
Время звучания: 04:00:26
Формат: MP3
Качество: 320 Кбит/с
           Carpenter hits 31st homer to help Cardinals beat Marlins 7-1       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Matt Carpenter hit a tiebreaking homer for the second consecutive night, and the St. Louis Cardinals won their fourth series in a row by beating Miami 7-1
          Carpenter hits 31st homer to help Cardinals beat Marlins 7-1      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

MIAMI (AP) — Matt Carpenter hit a tiebreaking homer for the second consecutive night, and the St.

Read more on NewsOK.com


          MLB Notebook: Derek Jeter says Marlins are headed in right direction       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The Miami Marlins were 21 games under .500 and playing before another small crowd as Derek Jeter spoke in the fifth inning Wednesday night, so he didn't sugarcoat the state of the franchise 10 months into his tenure as CEO.

"We have a ways to go," Jeter said.

Read more on NewsOK.com


          Derek Jeter says Marlins are headed in right direction      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

MIAMI (AP) — The Miami Marlins were 21 games under .500 and playing before another small crowd as Derek Jeter spoke in the fifth inning Wednesday night, so he didn't sugarcoat the state of the franchise 10 months into his tenure as CEO.

"We have a ways to go," Jeter said.

Read more on NewsOK.com


          CubeSmart - Online Storage Auction - MIAMI FL - Wednesday August 8th, 2018 - Storage Treasures      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Storage Auction - MIAMI FL - Wednesday August 8th, 2018 - Storage Treasures | CubeSmart in MIAMI FL 33190 is conducting an online storage auction The auction ends on August 8th Bid online at http picca io BycU20GNThis self storage auction is hosted by StorageTreasures com the Industry rsquo s LARGEST and MOST TRUSTED Storage Auctions Website The buyer is responsible for removing all of the unit contents within 72 hours of the auction end time Search for other self storage lien auctions in your area on https www storagetreasures com Happy Bidding
          Florida SEO | SEO Services Florida | Miami SEO | RNR Consulting Inc      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
RNR Consulting Inc provides best services for Florida SEO. We assure you to extensive organic reach to your targeted audience for maximum results.
          Most expensive home sale in Tampa Bay may become biggest foreclosure      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
CLEARWATER — The priciest house for sale in the Tampa Bay area could soon become its biggest foreclosure.A Miami company has filed a lis pendens on a Clearwater mansion that was once part of the storied Century Oaks estate and is now on the market for nearly $19 million. Built in 1915 on a huge lot
          County record      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Sheriff’s log WEDNESDAY -7:43 a.m.: assault. Deputies and Anna and Botkins Police investigated an alleged assault. -4:44 a.m.: tree down. Deputies were dispatched to Miami River Road at River Road in Orange Township on the report a log was in the roadway. TUESDAY -7:15 p.m.: investigate complaint. Deputies investigated a scam complaint at 6809 State […]

The post County record appeared first on Sidney Daily News.


          Comment on Report: Jets open to trading Teddy Bridgewater by biggs13      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Say Hello to Miami Teddy. Make this happen.
          The “New” Cuban Constitution: More of the Same      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Almost exactly a year ago, Jaime Suchlicki was forced to “retire” from his post as director of the University of Miami’s Center for Cuban and Cuban American Studies. Although the president of The University of Miami, Julio Frenk,  denied that this “retirement” was an essential part of his plan  to make the  Institute for Cuban ... Read moreThe “New” Cuban Constitution: More of the Same
          Nastya Ovechkina holds up Coke can reminding us Alex Ovechkin is the MVP      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The husband and wife team of Alex Ovechkin and Nastya Ovechkina continue to deliver on social media. Wednesday, while the couple was poolside in Miami, Nastya held up a Coke Zero can to her husband’s […]

The post Nastya Ovechkina holds up Coke can reminding us Alex Ovechkin is the MVP appeared first on Russian Machine Never Breaks.


          (video) Jaime Bayly, a Maduro: Me complace que un dictador repugnante me amenace      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

ND / 8 ago 2018.- El periodista peruano, residente en Miami, Jaime Bayly, manifestó en su programa la satisfacción que siente al saber que el presidente Nicolás Maduro lo “amenazó” públicamente en cadena nacional, toda vez que Bayly confesara -también públicamente- que sabía sobre los planes del presunto atentado contra el Jefe de Estado.  “Me […]

La entrada (video) Jaime Bayly, a Maduro: Me complace que un dictador repugnante me amenace se publicó primero en Noticiero Digital.


          Miami Hurricanes starting linebacker Michael Pinckney in boot, limping      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Junior linebacker Michael Pinckney was seen on Wednesday evening limping and wearing a walking boot that extended to just below his left knee. A source said the injury is minor … Click to Continue »
          Carpenter hits 31st homer to help Cardinals beat Marlins 7-1      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Matt Carpenter hit a tiebreaking homer for the second consecutive night, and the St. Louis Cardinals won their fourth series in a row Wednesday by beating Miami 7-1. Carpenter put … Click to Continue »
          150% Casino bonus + 50 free spins bonus at Miami Club Casino      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Bonus code: CASHNSPINS Casino name: Miami Club Casino 150% Deposit Match Bonus + 50 free spins on Dolphin Reef Slot Deposit $25 40X Playthrough amount Valid for all players. Expired: Aug 31, 2018 Play Miami Club Casino
          Conoce a las mamás de los hijos de Alejandro Sanz      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Conocido por las exitosas canciones "Amiga mía" o "Corazón partío", el cantante Alejandro Sanz ha resaltado en el ámbito musical desde que debutó en 1988. Sin embargo, de su vida privada poco se sabe, sólo que sus hijos son su adoración absoluta. Aquí te vamos a contar quiénes son mamás de los hijos del famoso intérprete.

Jaydy Michel: La ahora pareja del futbolista mexicano Rafael Márquez fue la primera esposa del cantante. Se casaron en diciembre de 1998 en una ceremonia oficiada por un monje hindú y disfrutaron su luna de miel en París, Francia. Cuatro años después nació la primogénita de ambos: Manuela, quien tuvo la oportunidad de convivir con sus dos padres unidos hasta el 2005, cuando anunciaron su separación. Una de las versiones más sonadas de su divorcio fue que Sanz tuvo un hijo extramarital con Valeria Rivera.

Valeria Rivera: El mediático romance entre ambos comenzó cuando Sanz aún estaba casado con Jaydy. Al parecer, se conocieron en Miami, donde Valeria, originaria de Puerto Rico, se desempeñaba como diseñadora de moda. Producto de su relación nació Alexander. En una entrevista que concedió en el 2009 - mismo año en que contrajo matrimonio con un fotógrafo llamado Juan Carlos-, reveló que su relación con el cantante duró siete años y "tuvo lugar al mismo tiempo que estaba con Jaydy Michel".

Raquel Perera: Se conocieron en el 2007 cuando el representante del cantante los presentó para realizar un trabajo en conjunto. En 2011 recibieron a su primer hijo juntos: Dylan. Dos años más tarde, decidieron casarse por sorpresa en una ceremonia destinada al bautizo de su hijo. En julio del 2014 un nuevo miembro llegó para sumar felicidad a la pareja, la pequeña Alma. Raquel, de 43 años, es una española que estudió psicología pero también tiene estudios en marketing y comunicación. Actualmente vive un feliz y estable matrimonio con el cantautor de 49 años.
          Miami Police Department That Fatally Ran Over Graffiti Artist Debuts Sweet New Graffiti Car      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
In 2014, Miami Police officers chased a 21-year-old graffiti artist named Demz who was tagging a wall in Wynwood during Art Basel. During the pursuit, the cops ran the artist over, killing him. The officer who ran over Demz, who just happened to be the son of a Miami-Dade prosecutor,...
          Transit Alliance Director: 'Miami Can Be A City That Has Excellent Public Transit'      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Bus riders in Miami-Dade County are waiting longer for their buses to arrive than in years past. Depending on the route, waiting times range from 15-45 minutes. In some instances, buses aren't arriving at all.
          Miami-Dade Transit Gets $40M Worth Of New Buses      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Miami-Dade Transit announced Monday the addition of 43 60-foot, diesel-electric buses to its existing metrobus fleet. Transit director Alice Bravo says the initial purchase of this fleet is close to $40 million, which means each bus costs over $900,000. This addition comes on the heels of a Miami Herald investigation into mass transit in the county, published last week. It featured passengers’ complaints about bus schedules and overcrowding. “Nothing’s more frustrating than you’re waiting for the bus and the bus comes and it’s full. So providing these higher-capacity buses on those routes helps us make sure we can give everybody a ride to their destination,” Bravo says. More than half of the newly acquired buses have been servicing the South Miami-Dade Busway, which has high passenger volume, since Sept. 18. There are other routes MDT is working on that also have a high amount of passengers, including Route 393 Biscayne Max, Route 27 and Route 297 27th Ave Orange Max. “We’re modifying
          The Florida Blogup: Building Bridges, Everglades Art And DOMA Reactions       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Everglades-Inspired Art If you just can’t get enough of Florida wildlife, or if you want to celebrate increased funding for Everglades clean-up, you might want to check out this event. Hosted at a home on Matheson Avenue, the Summer Salon on Sunday, June 30, will feature Ana Mendez, Gustavo Matamoros and works of art from the Artists in Residence in Everglades (AIRIE) collection. Blogger Thomas Hollingsworth has details and photos on Art Lurker . A Smarter Bridge Ever wanted to understand the engineering and science behind bridge construction? Well, maybe not. But now that South Florida's 836/826 interchange features highways stacked on highways (with more to come,) you might just be interested. Graduate students and professors at Florida International University are using specially designed technology to measure shrinkage and strain on concrete. Matthew Toro has FIU’s video of how this monitoring is done at Transit Miami . World Social Media Day Miami The free event at the Adrienne
          Blog Roundup: Coconut Grove Waterfront And Meat Market Dinners      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
A weekly look at noteworthy South Florida blogs and posts: Plans For New Coconut Grove Waterfront Are In Grove Bay Investment Group has submitted a proposal for what may become "The Harbour" in historic Coconut Grove. The city manager, city commission and Miami voters still have to approve plans for the area, which include a tree park, retail space and a monument or exhibit of South Florida aviation history. Michelle Niemeyer, waterfront liasion for the Coconut Grove Village Council, posted all of the plans and proposals in a DropBox for the public . Blogger Tom Falco has more details on the plans at the Coconut Grove Grapevine . Opa-Locka: Mirage City Exhibit To Open At HistoryMiami Museum From June 28 to September 8, visitors can see the original architectural models and drawings that created the eccentric architecture of today. Blogger Matthew Toro at Transit Miami has more on the new exhibit . Correlating Crime, Income In Homestead A blogger at Homestead is Home was inspired by a
          Blog Roundup: Politics, Politics, and Classical Music Politics      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Blog Roundup is a weekly look at noteworthy South Florida blogs and posts: Rubio's Immigration Reform Amendment Flops Sen. Marco Rubio's amendment to the immigration reform bill, which mandates English proficiency for those seeking citizenship, is getting attacked from all sides, even his conservative base. Javier Manjarro at The Shark Tank has more. Commissioners Seek To Replace Nighttime Storefront Shutters With Impact-Resistant Glass City commissioners addressed the pressing issue of shutters in Miami and Coconut Grove. Yes, the issue of nighttime storefront shutters has finally been addressed. The goal is to replace the unattractive shutters with impact-resistant glass windows, which some say will make sidewalks better-lit and safer. Blogger Tom Falco has details at the Coconut Grove Grapevine . Plans For The All Aboard Rail Project Linking South, Central Florida Previewed Tired of dealing with road rage, traffic and just basically driving any vehicle in Miami at any time of
          South Florida’s Blog Roundup: Beer Lessons, Foreign Movies And Local Artists      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
This roundup of local blogs shows that South Florida’s art scene isn’t just Art Basel. Locals get the chance to learn about craft beer while politics make a small appearance -- without scandal. First Riverside Market Beer Academy Begins June 25 With the burgeoning popularity of craft beer, Fort Lauderdale's Riverside Market owner Julian Siegel created a six-week course that teaches everything from Craft Beer 101 to Home Brewing. At the end of the six weeks, participants receive an official certificate from the academy. A blogger at The Chowfather has details on the course. Pedestrian Overpasses Have A Blogger Worried A proposed pedestrian overpass has blogger Matthew Toro at Transit Miami worried about the future of pedestrian safety. He sees such infrastructure as a “submission to the automobile” and plans on discussing the proposed overpass in Coral Gables in a future post. Something in the Air Opens Across South Florida Film fans, make room in your schedules: The French film is now
          Latest Job Postings: AP World History Teacher | Hillel Community School      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
North Miami Beach, Florida, Along with at least 3-5 years of classroom teaching experience in social studies and a minimum of a bachelor's degree in a related field, qualified applicants must have Advanced Placement or college l
          Мусульманский антисемитизм в Германии. Не верю!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

https://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/article216291200.html

Заголовок статьи: Мусульмане нападают, оскорбляют и угрожают смерьтю евреям в немецких школах.

У кого не спросить как не у Didja...

Написал quietPlace на tempelhof.d3.ru / комментировать

Источник: Приколы - xxLive.RU


          Bubba's Brews docks at Lake Hamilton      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Beyond Bonnerdale.

If we were to announce to some visiting out-of-towners that we'd be taking them to dinner at "Bubba's Brews of Bonnerdale," we imagine they'd picture a dimly lit dive, walls lined with autographed publicity posters of NASCAR drivers and John Michael Montgomery's "I Swear" on the satellite radio. Or at least someplace more akin to the original Bubba's location — a log cabin affair in a field in the middle of nowhere, with Razorback flags hanging from the wooden rafters. What started in Hot Spring County didn't stay in Hot Spring County, though, and the Bonnerdale mothership soon grew alter egos: a lakeside spot in Maynardville, Tenn.; the stately taproom branch in an old bank building on Hot Springs' Bathhouse Row; and now, a dockside Bubba's Brews on Lake Hamilton.

The new location is in Garland County (14.4 miles up U.S. Highway 70 from the Bonnerdale brewery), but when we strolled onto the patio, what we saw looked more like the set of an episode of "Miami Vice." You have to make a sharp turn downward off Airport Road at the bridge to get there; the parking lot is in tiers, staggered against the rocky lake banks. (Construction took a looong time, and is an engineering feat in itself.) Bubba's logo glows in neon, two B's with the round bits of each letter facing each other. Their mascot, a cigar-chomping shark — Bubba, is that you? — looks like Jabberjaws' gangster uncle. A fine mist tempered the 92-degree temps when we visited, spraying down upon a spacious, bifurcated patio — which we soon discovered was one of three floors — with smokers thankfully segregated and dogs thankfully welcome.

Barges and boats drifted in and out as the sun set, and uplit banana trees dotted the landscape. Tan women in off-the-shoulder peasant blouses and tiny shorts sauntered by. A string of Christmas lights framed the shoreline and condos opposite this particular finger of the lake, and wind from the fans blew our hair around constantly, but lightly, like we were in a music video. Angular tarps appeared poised to make the sun tolerable whatever the time of day, but it was a beautiful Arkansas summer evening. Bubba's already had us in the palm of its hand.

Our waiter appeared in a muscle tee and a backwards white visor, addressing one of us as "boss." Suddenly we wished we'd donned some crimped hair and two-tone eyeshadow, or at least pushed-up jacket sleeves.

As befits a sports pub, scores scrolled across a ticker on the wood-paneled wall, Wall Street-style. A Cotton Bowl Classic 2012 poster hung on the wall. In a far-off room, a giant neon sign glowed for something called "The Bubba-Tron." We always consider a restaurant's bathrooms the window into its soul, and Bubba's are immaculately clean. Whimsical, functional, full-circle and zen, the men's urinals are made out of old beer kegs.

Balancing the calm serenity of the lake was a huge table of people having a spirited event and being served gargantuan electric blue cocktails, along with Bubba's Brew Nacho Do-Si-Do ($16), served in a party-sized bowl meant to serve 2 to 4 diners, with a crater in the middle for dip.

We'd chosen Bubba's on a whim, and it was still fairly full on a balmy Wednesday night half an hour before sunset. But we found out the countdown was on, as the kitchen closes an hour before Bubba's actual advertised closing time. So we quickly started with the Stuffed Shrimp ($9.95): butterflied, breaded and fried shrimp stuffed with jalapenos, Monterey jack cheese and cream cheese. We found the (almost suspiciously uniform) flattened shrimp more heavily reliant on cream cheese notes than the intriguing jalapeno twist, but these quibbles were quickly forgiven and forgotten; after all, it was still fried shrimp stuffed with cheese.

Our desired Kung Pow sliders ("a clean and spicy Asian twist on chicken salad," $9) had sold out two hours earlier. So we switched gears to the "Dirty Harry" ($12), a sandwich our server called "a beast." He was right. It's a towering stack of ham AND bacon AND beautifully charred sausage links cut lengthwise with Thousand Island dressing, spring greens, sauerkraut dotted with red pepper, all teetering on a toasted rye tightrope. Harry had almost too much going on, but the messiness of the sandwich worked in its favor; we collared escaping individual morsels that would have been otherwise lost in the chorus of meats. (We didn't miss the waters we'd ordered until right about Dirty Harry o' clock.) Most of Bubba's sandwiches are served with chips and salsa; adding fries costs an extra dollar. We sprang for the onion rings ($2 surcharge), and they were crispy but scant, leaving us fry-curious.

On the other side of the table, we ordered "The Miss Rodriguez" ($11) from the salad portion of the menu. It was fresh, concave leaves of butter lettuce in a ring and a generous pile of sweet pulled pork in the center, garnished with cilantro lime cream, wontons (billed as "tortilla strips"), red cabbage and red onion.

But the brews are ostensibly what makes Bubba's, and the Arkansas Times Craft Beer Festival is, in fact, how we first came across the brand in 2016. The Sandbar Pilsner (4.9 ABV) was light-bodied and unobjectionable — exactly what we wanted on a summer night. The 4.0 ABV Bubba's SupaLight was also supremely (OK, OK, we'll call it "supa") delicate and weather-appropriate, but more flavorful than the pilsner. Either would be a great lakeside companion, and they complemented the heavy bar food well.

Bubba's Brews gets a lot of the details right — down to the check that arrives in a cute metal box so as not to blow away. And while the dockside setting may be posh, even gorgeous at sunset, Bubba's Brews Sports Pub & Grill is bar food to the max — heck, it's right in the name. But it's inventive and done right, and we're happy to report that the list of eateries you can get to by boat in Hot Springs — Sam's Pizza Pub & Restaurant, Fisherman's Wharf and Cajun Boilers among them — is now a little longer. .

Bubba's Brews Sports Pub & Grill
1252 Airport Road
Hot Springs
501-547-3186

bubbabrewsbrewingco.com

Quick bite

Visit on Wednesday for karaoke night; Vanilla Ice's "Ice Ice Baby" and Paula Abdul's "Opposites Attract" rang down the winding stairs from the patio to the roadside third floor when we visited. Should the booze and brews threaten takeover, consult the "House Rules" section of the Bubba's menu to make sure you're not breaking etiquette.

Hours

11 a.m. to 10 p.m. Sunday and Monday (closed Tuesday), 11 a.m. to 10 p.m. Wed.-Thu., 11 a.m.-midnight Fri.-Sat.

Other info

Handcrafted beer is on tap, with seasonal rotating brews like the Southern Eclipse black lager and an Irish red called Mog's Ol' Red Ale, as well as margaritas, mules, several oversized "Mason Jar Drinks" and a selection of wines.
          Carpenter hits 31st homer to help Cardinals beat Marlins 7-1      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Aug. 8, 2018 9:59 PM EDT Carpenter hits 31st homer to help Cardinals beat Marlins 7-1 By STEVEN WINE AP Sports Writer AP-BBN–Cardinals-Marlins <!– –> Wilfredo Lee, ASSOCIATED PRESS MIAMI (AP) — Matt Carpenter hit a tiebreaking homer for the second consecutive night, a...
          Derek Jeter says Marlins are headed in right direction      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Aug. 8, 2018 9:18 PM EDT MIAMI (AP) — The Miami Marlins were 21 games under .500 and playing before another small crowd as Derek Jeter spoke in the fifth inning Wednesday night, so he didn’t sugarcoat the state of the franchise 10 months into his tenure as CEO. “We have a ways to g...
          Frost Museum FIU Artists Deconstruct and Reorder      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
  Twelve Miami Artists Kick-Off 10th Anniversary Celebration  Using The Past As A Tool: An Interview With Frost Art Museum FIU Chief Curator, Amy Galpin “Deconstruction: A Reordering of Life, Politics and Art” opened at the Frost Art Museum FIU, Miami, as a 10th Anniversary kick-off celebration on Sat., July 14 with an opening celebration with the […]
          How to be the Best Friend Possible to a Friend Going Through a Breakup      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

We’ve all been there – the tissues, the endless rom-coms, tons of ice cream and, of course, stashing their phone when needed. Breakups are hard, but having someone by your side makes all the difference.

As stated in the Best Friend Contract, section five subsection A, "in case of break up, loads of alcohol, Disney movies and ice cream are necessary." You’ll need a breakup survival emergency kit with the above-mentioned supplies as well as additional provisions. Those may include unflattering selfies of the ex, and daily reminders that he or she ain’t shit.

Forget about the SO

Think of your BFF’s ex as Voldemort—he or she shall not be named. Mentioning their name may bring back memories or feelings for your BFF. Pretending they don’t exist (or died in the battle of Hogwarts) is much more comforting than thinking about what their ex is up to now.

 “Don’t bring up her ex-SO and don’t let her fall into the trap of drunk-texting her ex,” Rachna Shah, a freshman at Dartmouth University, says. “Send her a bouquet of roses, take her out for dinner or to the mall, go to the club—just do something fun to remind her that she doesn’t need a SO to be happy!”

Whether your BFF is fighting with her SO or they’ve broken up, friend dates are super necessary during any rough patches in relationships. Some girl time will give her a chance to say things she wouldn’t say to her SO or ex. Now, don’t try to shut your friend up if she mentions her ex either. Validating her feelings and listening to what she has to say is always important.

Delete the old Instagram pictures

Okay, it's official – your BFF is DONE with her ex. She’s certain they’re never getting back together and it’s time for phase two: deleting the evidence from social media. This step is a MUST if your BFF really wants them out of their life. It might be easier for your BFF if you’re the one to go through and delete all the pictures of them together – that way she won’t be reminded of the good times. Just don’t offer to do it without your BFF asking first; imposing your own inclinations isn’t what she needs right now.

“It all depends on personal preference,” Jessica Morley, a student at University of South Wales, says. “If it was a really emotional time, then maybe it's best to just block instead of being reminded of that person, but, if you could be strong and be the better person, I would not block them because it looks like you care and one day it will get easier, and you will see [their] name and not think twice.”

Dr. Betsy Guerra, a licensed psychotherapist in Miami, has helped clients from all backgrounds and types of psychological concerns, and she mainly deals with psychodynamic behaviors and cognitive-behavioral techniques. She says, “Those memories are part of your life, and even when deleted from a phone they remain in your heart. Healing comes from within. However, if you find yourself obsessing over pictures, [their] social media, or looking at your phone to see if [they've] written or called – then it may be appropriate to put boundaries on yourself by either deleting pictures or blocking him to ease your anxiety. On the other hand, keeping those pictures helps some women work on their willpower by training themselves to not look at them if it’s hurtful. It can also help revive memories of why you are broken up and reassure you of the decision.”

Every breakup is different, and even if it’s a mutual split, every person can react differently. It’s imperative to know how your friend wants to deal with her feelings so you can be there for her in the best way possible. Maybe she doesn’t want to delete the old pictures, and that’s okay! Instead, you can be there by helping her avoid slipping back into a potentially toxic relationship.

Dust off the old dating profile

Phase three: help her set up a dating profile. You’ll need to have a random photoshoot for your BFF so she can post the pics on Tinder, OkCupid, Bumble, etc. Instead of a bland profile description, your job as a BFF is to remind them how great they are and how they should present themselves on these sites—"I’m a boss ass Virgo with great tits and aspirations." That is, of course, if your friend is actually ready to open her profile.

Dr. Guerra, however, suggests being cautious of opening a dating profile while trying to heal. “If you're ready to start dating, open the dating profile. If you're doing it to heal, beware!" she says. "All too often I see people live by the saying ‘un clavo saca a otro,’ When translated, it means ‘one nail can remove another nail,’ this refers to when you start dating someone to forget your ex, or fall in love with a new person to get over the old one. While this may feel good and end up being a blessing, it is quite possible that starting a new relationship without grieving the last one will only postpone pain and growth. We all have something to learn from breakups," she says. “Open the dating profile when you've reflected on all those questions (about the previous relationship) and are ready to choose right and engage in healthy relational interactions. Don't open it to ‘heal’. You heal by grieving and honoring the pain that losing a loved one entails.”

Even if your friend isn’t quite ready for the dating scene, creating the profile and swiping through potential matches can help her feel better. She can start to see some of the other fish in the sea instead of only swiping through old relationship pictures.  

Related: 7 Questions to Ask Yourself Before You Date Someone New

The three L’s – listen, listen, LISTEN

Nothing is worse than using your own experiences as a comparison to help someone else feel better. No, the one time your cat died does not compare to my great-grandma passing away. The same thing goes with breakups. A break-up from a two-month relationship is going to be totally different than one from a long-term relationship.

Lola George, a junior from the University of North Texas, says, “Understand when your friend needs support versus advice. Sometimes they just want a listening ear and comfort or positivity, and sometimes they truly need advice for moving on or coping,” she says. “It's important to be empathetic and understand the proper time to comfort versus advice. Giving advice when they need comfort seems insensitive or like you're trying to ‘fix’ things, while only giving comfort when your friend needs advice will leave them complacent and slows down the process of recovering.”

Lola has a good point—sometimes your friend doesn’t need you to try to fix things. Instead, all she needs is a good ear and a shoulder to cry on. Giving advice can come across as something negative, almost as if you’re telling them, "You messed up, here’s how you can fix it."

Dr. Guerra also emphasizes the difference between advice and support. “When you give advice, you should be open to the other person deciding whether or not she wants to take it in and implement it. Support, however, is unconditional,” she says. “You are there for the person whether she agrees with your perspective or not. Your support is shaped by the recipient's needs, not your very own.”

Chances are, your friend already knows her ex is garbage. Repeatedly telling her will probably make her feel worse. Letting her vent about all the bad things her ex put her through will give her a self-realization that she deserves better. In these cases, silence is golden.

Related: 5 Things You Should Feel Comfortable Telling Your Best Friend

No matter what, you should always be there for your BFF. Whether you’re ready with a plate of cookies to emotionally binge eat or with a bottle of her favorite wine, just being there for her in her time of need is the best thing you can do. Most importantly, be patient and try your best to get her mind off it.


          Training Coordinator      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
FL-Miami, The Training Coordinator manages all of the logistical and administrative work needed to ensure instructor-led and online training programs run successfully and is responsible for overseeing the online training program. This includes the assessment, plan, implementation, facilitation, tracking and day-to-day operations. The Training Coordinator will also monitor the effectiveness of training. ESSE
          History Of The Miami Film Industry      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Miami was a dreamed paradise, where the most important films of the year were once shot. This magical paradise hosted Sean Connery as James Bond in Goldfinger and Thunderball, and where Al Pacino made famous the personification of Tony Montana in Scarface. In Miami, Ace Ventura also partnered with the Miami Dolphin’s legendary quarterback, Dan…
           Drone Footage Shows Zaha Hadid's One Thousand Museum Tower Nearing Completion       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

New drone footage and photographs have been released of the One Thousand Museum, designed by Zaha Hadid Architects, as work progresses in Miami, Florida. Having topped out in February 2018, the 62-story residential tower is due for completion later in the year.


          Dump truck fire shuts down northbound Turnpike for hours      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The northbound lanes of the Florida Turnpike were shut down for several hours after a dump truck rolled over and caught fire. Miami-Dade Fire Rescue...
          Celebs, community attend ‘Warriors of Liberty City’ premiere at Perez Art Museum in Miami      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
A docu-series on the youth football team in Liberty City is set to premiere on national television this fall. The series follows the Liberty City...
          Police give all-clear in suspicious package at Miracle Marketplace in Miami      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Police have given the all-clear after a suspicious package was found inside a parking garage in Miami. City of Miami Police and the bomb squad...
          Miami doctor forbidden to perform Brazilian butt lifts due to malpractice      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
A South Florida doctor is now forbidden from performing Brazilian butt lifts. Officials said Dr. Arnaldo Valls can no longer do Brazilian butt lifts after...
          Miami Beach man sentenced for beating Yorkie to death      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
A Miami Beach man has been sentenced in the beating of a small dog in a supermarket parking lot. Sigman Hernandez pleaded guilty to beating...
          El clásico es LeBron      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Uno de los abonados a las fechas especiales de la NBA es LeBron James. La figura de los Lakers llevará cinco temporadas en fila disputando el juego del día de Martin Luther King (21 de enero, uno de los más tradicionales) y 12 en la velada de navidad. Pero, ¿cómo le va al Rey de este negocio?

Justamente el MLK Day es la conmemoración en la que mejor se muestra LBJ: tiene una media de 31.6 puntos, 6.1 rebotes y 8.1 asistencias. Además, en dicha ocasión solamente perdió uno de los nueve encuentros que disputó y fue el último, ante San Antonio.

Luego aparece la festividad navideña como la segunda más favorable a LeBron, ya que tiene números de 26.8 tantos, 7.2 tableros y 6.8 pases gol. Pese a que el descenso de sus estadísticas individuales no afectó demasiado a la estructura tanto de Cleveland como de Miami, las dos franquicias en las que jugó a lo largo de su carrera, su marca en navidad asciende a ocho éxitos y cuatro caídas, disputando los últimos once de ese historial de manera consecutiva.

Hilando más fino, James no se lleva tan bien con la noche inaugural de su equipo: el Rey solamente ganó siete de los quince encuentros que jugó, aunque arrastra dos victorias consecutivas, ante Boston (2017) y New York (2016) respectivamente. Su promedio se mantiene dentro de los parámetros anteriores: 25.4 puntos, 7.5 rebotes y 6.4 asistencias.

Igualmente, el balance general es bueno para LeBron, que lleva una marca de 23-13 sumando las tres instancia anteriormente mencionadas. La media de esos 26 juegos no es para nada mediocre: 27.4 tantos (57% en dobles, 32.3% en triples y 70% en libres), 7 tableros, 7 asistencias, 1.6 robos y 0.9 tapones en 39.3 minutos en cancha.


          Welcome Dayton Eyes Expansion As Immigration Rates Rise      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
In this post-election season, WYSO is examining how some of the policies proposed by President-elect Donald Trump on the campaign trail may affect the Miami Valley. Today, we look at how some of these Trump administration proposals could impact the city of Dayton’s recent efforts to welcome new immigrants. Welcome Dayton’s goals have at times stood in contrast to some of the anti-immigrant sentiments that became a hallmark of the Trump campaign. Trump has made controversial statements about suspending immigration from countries ‘compromised’ by terrorism, among other proposals. The Welcome Dayton program was launched in 2011, and collaborates with local non-profit organizations and social service groups to make certain resources, such as English classes, more accessible to the city’s newcomers. “Appreciating that they’re here,making them feel like they’re welcome, that they belong," Dr. Theo Majka, a professor at the University of Dayton and member of the Welcome Dayton committee, says
          Dayton World Soccer Games Return      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Soccer fever swept around the globe in June during the World Cup playoffs. At the time, many local businesses saw a positive economic impact as fans gathered in restaurants and bars to watch the tournament. On Friday and Saturday, world soccer is back—at least in the Miami Valley—as players from Dayton’s immigrant communities take to the field. City of Dayton Youth Services Director Joe Parlette says the games were born out of the Welcome Dayton initiative. “[Welcome Dayton] really was just a public statement saying that Dayton is going to be, and be conscious and deliberate about being, an immigrant and refugee friendly city,” Parlette said. Twenty-eight teams, including nine adult teams, have signed on to compete this year, and Parlette expects an increase in spectators. “So, its really fun for us to come together as a community," he said. "Celebrate our differences doing the same thing that most of the world enjoys, which is soccer.” Dayton’s immigrant population is about 4 percent
          What's Great in Dayton: June 21 - 27, 2013      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Dave Isay is the founder of StoryCorps and the recipient of numerous broadcasting honors, including six Peabody Awards and a MacArthur "Genius" Fellowship. Isay's presentation on the power of listening and the history of StoryCorps begins at 8pm in the Schuster Center's Mathile Theatre on Friday, June 21. Join in the lobby following the presentation for dessert and a book signing. The Miami Valley Council for Native Americans 25th Annual Keeping The Tradition Pow Wow, Saturday, June 22, 11:00a.m. - 8:30 p.m. and Sunday, June 23, 11:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. The serene setting at SunWatch transforms with the beat of drums and the sounds and rhythm of American Indian music. For American Indians, Pow Wow is a special time to reflect upon a rich heritage and come into the Pow Wow circle with honor and respect for one another and the drum. All Aboard for the 8th Annual Rail Festival June 22 & 23, at Carillon Park. Join Dayton History and the Carillon Park Rail and Steam Society for the 8th
          Book Review: Hotel Scarface Chronicles the Stories of Miami’s Cocaine Kingpins      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
hotel scarface

Are you a true crime junkie who loves to read captivating stories about the alluring, seductive, dope game that has the unrequited power to propel one’s life into a mode of money-hustling, ‘get rich by any means’ phenomenon? The real-life dope game often parallels into a dangerous underworld of shrewd and colorful players; it is […]

The post Book Review: Hotel Scarface Chronicles the Stories of Miami’s Cocaine Kingpins appeared first on NewsBlaze News.


          Host/Hostess/Reservationist Supervisor - KYU - Miami, FL      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
FULL TIME/PART TIME HOST/HOSTESS/RESERVATIONIST KYU Restaurant in Wynwood is looking for a fun, professional, responsible, intelligent and energetic *host...
From Indeed - Thu, 26 Jul 2018 16:04:09 GMT - View all Miami, FL jobs
          La Mar Restaurant Manager - Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group - Miami, FL      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Experience with OpenTable, Time Saver, Infogenesis, and MS Office products is preferable. Employment type Full time....
From Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group - Wed, 01 Aug 2018 23:02:54 GMT - View all Miami, FL jobs
          La Mar Host(ess) - Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group - Miami, FL      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Knowledge with OpenTable is preferred, a flexible schedule AM and PM required. Employment type Full time....
From Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group - Thu, 26 Jul 2018 17:02:53 GMT - View all Miami, FL jobs
          Restaurant Manager - North Italia - Miami, FL      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Understand POS systems and OpenTable (or other digital/online reservation systems). RESTAURANT MANAGER OPPORTUNITY....
From Fox Restaurant Concepts - Wed, 20 Jun 2018 17:56:26 GMT - View all Miami, FL jobs
          Hostess (Concierge) - Planta - Miami, FL      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
*Our love for hospitality extends further than our dedication to creating amazing guest experiences; it’s in our duty to train our team of hospitality...
From Indeed - Wed, 08 Aug 2018 18:55:30 GMT - View all Miami, FL jobs
          Cindy Prado, una espectacular modelo cubana      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Por mucho tiempo, Cuba se ha considerado como un país que tiene una gran cantidad de mujeres hermosas; para fortuna de muchos, esta situación no ha disminuido con el paso del tiempo, siendo la modelo Cindy Prado una de las máximas exponentes de esta situación. La modelo que actualmente radica en Miami se ha dado […]

La entrada Cindy Prado, una espectacular modelo cubana aparece primero en Futbol Sapiens.


          8/8/2018: POST SPORTS: CANADA TO LEARN QUALIFYING ROAD FOR WORLD CUP SEPT.      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Canada will learn its qualifying road for the 2019 Women’s World Cup at the Sept. 4 draw in Miami for the 2018 CONCACAF Women’s Championship. The eight-country regional qualifying tournament, set for Oct. 4-17 in Cary, N.C., and Edinburg and Frisco,...
          Carpenter hits 31st homer to help Cardinals beat Marlins 7-1      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Matt Carpenter hit a tiebreaking homer for the second consecutive night, and the St. Louis Cardinals won their fourth series in a row by beating Miami 7-1         Read More At Article Source | Article Attribution

The post Carpenter hits 31st homer to help Cardinals beat Marlins 7-1 appeared first on RocketNews | Top News Stories From Around the Globe.


          Compliance      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
FL-Miami, The Compliance Specialist ensures contract fulfillment of insurance requirements, credentialing of sub-contractor vehicles and drivers. The Compliance Specialist is the primary contact for assigned Operations Centers in the support and completion of contractual credentialing obligations. Key Responsibilities include, but are not limited to: * Ensures compliance with applicable federal and/or state
          Carpenter hits 31st homer to help Cardinals beat Marlins      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
MIAMI (AP) — Matt Carpenter hit a tiebreaking homer for the second consecutive night, and the St. Louis Cardinals won their fourth series in a row Wednesday by beating Miami 7-1. Carpenter put St. Louis ahead with a home run leading off the sixth inning, his NL-leading 31st. His eighth-inning homer Tuesday helped St. Louis […]
          Miami - Atlanta      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Baseball. MLB
           Michael Irvin Jr.: Out four months with knee injury       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Michael Irvin Jr.: Irvin was diagnosed Wednesday with an MCL injury in hsi right knee and will require surgery this week to address the injury, Susan Miller Degnan of the Miami Herald reports. He's expected to require four months to recover from the procedure. Visit RotoWire.com for more analysis on this update.
          Epic Hotel       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
UN NUEVO RESTAURATE CON PISCINA Y TERRAZA SOBRE EL RIO DE MIAMI

Pantallazo http://www.epichotel.com/
EPIC Pop-Up, un nuevo y sensacional restaurante ubicado en el piso 16 del Kimpton Epic Hotel esta ahora abierto y tendrá lugar todos los jueves, viernes y sábados durante septiembre (solo con reserva). El sensacional restaurante con capacidad para 45 personas presenta tapas Mediterráneas como menú resaltando los alimentos básicos de España, Italia y Grecia elaborado por el Chef ejecutivo Alex Olivier. Un gran menú de complementará el menú de cena de EPIC Pop-Up. El Bartender líder Benny Hernandez creará ponches compartibles, servidos en únicos y creativos vasos. Todos los tragos presentarán increíbles ingredientes y vínculos con el energético clima de los veranos de Miami. Para más información, visitá www.EpicHotel.com.

          Celebrity Cruises      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
CELEBRITY CRUISES ESTÁ INVIRTIENDO U$S 500 MILLONES PARA TRANSFORMAR CADA NAVE DE SU FLOTA

https://www.celebritycruises.com/int
Celebrity Cruises, con base en Miami, ha anunciado que invertirá más de U$S500 millones en un masivo plan de renovación que tocará la flota entera de la línea en un lapso de cuatro años. Empezando en el 2019, Celebrity comenzará las renovaciones en lo que llamarán “Celebrity Revolution”, una reforma de las 12 naves de la línea que es tendencia y que esta creando una gran expectativa alrededor de su nuevo barco, apodado “Edge”, el primero de los cuales debutará en noviembre. 

La iniciativa es inmensa, incluyendo más de 500 arquitectos, diseñadores e ingenieros. Con órdenes para nuevas naves acumulándose en el astillero, las líneas han cambiado a renovaciones para preservar la consistencia a lo largo de la flota. Cada nave tendrá un deck para retirarse a tomar sol, equipado con tumbonas de plush, y The Retreat Lounge, un área que permanecerá abierta las 24/7 para tragos, bocadillos light y entretenimiento en vivo. The Retreat Lounge tendrá lugar en Michael’s Club, que alguna vez fue un bar de cerveza artesanal en Celebrity y más recientemente un salón privado para miembros únicamente.Para más información visita, www.celebritycruises.com

           The Confidante Miami Beach by Hyatt      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
THE CONFIDANTE MIAMI BEACH SUMA LA COLABORACIÓN DE EXQUISITO CHOCOLATES PARA FOMENTAR LAS EXPERIENCIAS LOCALES DISPONIBLES PARA VISITANTES 

Pantallazo
https://theconfidantemiamibeach.hyatt.com/en/hotel/home.html
The Confidante Miami Beach anunció la colaboración especial con Exquisito Chocolates, un negocio de chocolates artesanales producidos localmente en Miami, que se suma a la colección de experiencias que ofrece el hotel. Desde una colección de arte rotativa, meet and greets con los artistas, actividades focalizadas en el bienestar con SOBEKICK Boxing y Yoga en el renombrado estudio greenmonkey®, hasta un menú maridado con tragos especiales en Cielito Artisan Pops y un futuro Carro Confidante ambulante con ofertas locales, la nueva asociación ofrece a los visitantes una prueba de todo lo que Miami tiene para ofrecer. 

Comenzando en julio, los huéspedes alojándose en The Confidante pueden disfrutar de la selección de cuatro Exquisito Chocolates, incluyendo una trufa exclusiva del hotel conocida como The Confidante Truffle, como una amenity agregada y como un obsequio de bienvenida al llegar a la recepción (U$S 18 por caja con 6 unidades).Cada trufa de Exquisito Chocolate está hecha a mano con granos de cacao de origen ético de América Latina y del Caribe y con ingredientes locales para crear un dulce único que muestre los colores propios de The Confidante.

Recientemente, Exquisito Chocolates recibió tres premios de la Academia del Chocolate en Londres, incluyendo altos reconocimientos por su trufa de café con leche.

          Greater Miami Convention & Visitors Bureau      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
MIAMI TENDRÁ EL PARQUE TEMÁTICO INTERIOR MÁS GRANDE, QUE ABRIRÁ A PRINCIPIOS DEL 2019 

Pantallazo https://dezerlandpark.com/
Dezerland Park está pensado para ser el parque de entretenimiento interior más grande de Miami, gracias a la visión del billonario desarrollador del mercado inmobiliario, Michael Dezer, el parque temático de más de 250.000 pies cuadrados presentará un área de juego de realidad virtual con más de 40 atracciones visuales. Los visitantes pueden recorrer la exposición de U$S50 millones de la parafernalia de James Bond llamada 007 Bond Museum. 

Los adictos a la acción pueden competir en un parque de puentes colgantes y sogas, escalar en rocas, disparar en el paintballs y saltar de un enorme trampolín. Además, el parque incluirá canopy, kartings, autos chocadores y más. El parque tendrá clases de baile y de karate, espacios para fiestas privadas, y gimnasios de entrenamiento de nivel olímpico. Dezerland Park será un lugar de recreación no solo para niños y familias, sino también para grupos de trabajo que quieran salir de lo convencional para fortalecer el equipo.

Para más información visitá www.DezerlandPark.com.

           Marlins pitcher Trevor Richards discusses executing consistently in the strike zone       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Miami Marlins pitcher Trevor Richards tips his hat to Matt Carpenter after 31st homer. Moving forward he looks to emphasize a focus on executing pitches in the zone, and making every pitch count.
          Blog Post: DLA Piper Adds Duane Morris Litigator In Miami      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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          Chalet unifamiliar venta Mont-roig del Camp, Miami Platja      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
218000
Chalet unifamiliar con superficie total 125 m², útil 81 m², solar 416 m², 2 habitaciones dobles, 1 baño completo, cocina, carpintería exterior aluminio, tipo de suelo gres, lavadero, jardín propio, calle asfaltada, orientación sur, estado...
2 habitaciones 1 baño 125 m² 1.744 EUR/m² cocina orientación sur jardín terraza
Wed, 08 Aug 2018 14:31:37 +0200
          Wynwood, entre los sitios ‘más cool hipster’ en EEUU      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

TripAdvisor incluyó al vecindario Wynwood, en su lista de los “14 vecindarios más Cool Hipster” de Estados Unidos. Wynwood ha evolucionado a través de los años para convertirse en un vibrante distrito de las artes con murales funky, grafiti, galerías de arte, cafés de moda y cervecerías artesanales. Los habitantes de Miami han sabido que Wynwood es el centro inconformista[Leer Mas......]

The post Wynwood, entre los sitios ‘más cool hipster’ en EEUU appeared first on surflorida.com.


          Re: No Passport Required: Share Your Story      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Enjoying the Miami episode, but here's a question: show talks about organics, the earth, plants, etc. Why do we see food and drink being served in one polystyrene container after another? Can't people use recyclable paper or cardboard, if they have to use disposable containers?


          Google Maps and Yelp      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Looking for someone to help put a business at the top of Google Maps and Yelp for Miami dade area USA. Please send details include the word ++++++ Google ++++ to be considered (Budget: $10 - $30 USD, Jobs: Google Adwords, Internet Marketing, SEO)
          Research Director, Inc.: Exclusive July PPM Analysis For Detroit, Miami, Seattle, Phoenix, Minneapolis      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Moving boldly forward into the past, The Ratings Experts from RESEARCH DIRECTOR, INC., in lock step with the math marvels from XTRENDS, bring you our third installment of how JULY turned. The … more

          Kylie Jenner is dripping in gold in this new sexy video. And we’re not talking jewelry.      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

She’s got the glow. And we’re not talking about the fact that Kylie Jenner is  a new mom. The reality star is quite literally a golden girl in her boyfriend’s new video for “Stop Trying to Be God,” which dropped Monday. The track is off Travis Scott’s latest album, Astroworld. From what we can make … Continue reading "Kylie Jenner is dripping in gold in this new sexy video. And we’re not talking jewelry."

The post Kylie Jenner is dripping in gold in this new sexy video. And we’re not talking jewelry. appeared first on Miami.com.


          Ariana Grande is wearing a bandage on her hand. What happened to her?      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Is she OK? On Tuesday, Ariana Grande was seen sporting a bandage on her left hand on social media. So what happened? UsWeekly reports it was James Corden’s fault. Sort of. She teased that a mishap went down during taping of an upcoming Carpool Karaoke with the British TV host on the “Late, Late Show.” … Continue reading "Ariana Grande is wearing a bandage on her hand. What happened to her?"

The post Ariana Grande is wearing a bandage on her hand. What happened to her? appeared first on Miami.com.


          Selma Blair was just in the ‘hood’ — and there was no meltdown that we could see      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

She had a little bit of a rough patch, but Selma Blair seems to be doing great these days. The actress was recently seen somewhere in the Miami area, living it up seemingly on vacation with her 7-year-old son, reports RadarOnline. Blair, in a bikini, looked skinny but fit. On Instagram, she posted a picture … Continue reading "Selma Blair was just in the ‘hood’ — and there was no meltdown that we could see"

The post Selma Blair was just in the ‘hood’ — and there was no meltdown that we could see appeared first on Miami.com.


          ‘It’s a shame:’ Fat Joe responds to Eric Benet’s anti-rap comments      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Fat Joe is not going to take Eric Benet’s recent rant lying down. The hip hopper is a little hot and bothered about a meme Benet posted the other day. “Rap Artists if all you rap about is: Killing black people, Degrading Black women, Abusing drugs, Materialization, Living a Low Life – You are not … Continue reading "‘It’s a shame:’ Fat Joe responds to Eric Benet’s anti-rap comments"

The post ‘It’s a shame:’ Fat Joe responds to Eric Benet’s anti-rap comments appeared first on Miami.com.


          We compared the burger that “bleeds” with a standard veggie burger. Here’s our take      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The future for eco-friendly fast food is here. That’s BurgerFi’s pitch with a pair of vegetarian burgers. The Florida-born restaurant chain (the name stands for “burgerfication of the nation”) started with two locations, in Lauderdale-by-the-Sea and Delray Beach before going national. They were the first national chain to introduce the plant-based Beyond Burger, made with … Continue reading "We compared the burger that “bleeds” with a standard veggie burger. Here’s our take"

The post We compared the burger that “bleeds” with a standard veggie burger. Here’s our take appeared first on Miami.com.


          Trevor Noah is taping ‘The Daily Show’ in Miami Beach. There’s a catch.      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Trevor Noah, what a welcome visitor. The South African comedian will bring his “Daily Show” to Miami Beach right before midterm elections. The Comedy Central star will be doing a week’s worth of shows, from Oct. 29-Nov. 1, taping from The Fillmore. Why here? Why now? We're bringing the show to Miami, Florida to cover … Continue reading "Trevor Noah is taping ‘The Daily Show’ in Miami Beach. There’s a catch."

The post Trevor Noah is taping ‘The Daily Show’ in Miami Beach. There’s a catch. appeared first on Miami.com.


          A sommelier and gourmet doughnuts? Here’s what’s new in food at Dolphins games this year      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

How to instantly add class to any Miami Dolphins game: just add wine. Or so the team hopes. A new pop-up wine bar and wine store, along with an open-air beer garden, are among the new food and drink options at Hard Rock Stadium this season. The stadium also will add a pair of sweet … Continue reading "A sommelier and gourmet doughnuts? Here’s what’s new in food at Dolphins games this year"

The post A sommelier and gourmet doughnuts? Here’s what’s new in food at Dolphins games this year appeared first on Miami.com.


          This South Florida mall food court was named best in the state      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Suck it, Orlando. Forget about it, Jacksonville. And Tampa, you never had a  shot. The best mall food court belongs to South Florida. At least according to The Daily Meal. The website chose the best food court in every state, and Aventura Mall was the pick for Florida. This wouldn’t have happened years ago, before … Continue reading "This South Florida mall food court was named best in the state"

The post This South Florida mall food court was named best in the state appeared first on Miami.com.


          Daddy Yankee’s ‘Dura’ just surpassed 1 billion views on YouTube. Have you done the Challenge yet?      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Congratulations, Daddy Yankee! The reggaeton star is doing the happy dance now after not only reaching but surpassing 1 billion plays on YouTube for his peppy track “Dura” in less than a year. Daddy’s appreciative. He thanked all his “elastic” supporters for doing the moves on Instagram: #Dura music video has surpassed 1 billion views … Continue reading "Daddy Yankee’s ‘Dura’ just surpassed 1 billion views on YouTube. Have you done the Challenge yet?"

The post Daddy Yankee’s ‘Dura’ just surpassed 1 billion views on YouTube. Have you done the Challenge yet? appeared first on Miami.com.


          Iggy Azalea had a wardrobe malfunction on a Miami street. It involved a bikini.      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Gotta love our warm weather. Iggy Azalea sure does. During a trip to Miami, the singer took the chance to do as many locals and tourists do: walk around with very little clothing on. Azalea was photographed Monday casually strolling along  a street in Miami Beach in a string bikini and a wrap paired with sneakers. … Continue reading "Iggy Azalea had a wardrobe malfunction on a Miami street. It involved a bikini."

The post Iggy Azalea had a wardrobe malfunction on a Miami street. It involved a bikini. appeared first on Miami.com.


          Bilingual Retail Assistant Store Manager - Hayward - Sprint by California Wireless Solutions - Hayward, CA      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Numerous contest where you can win cash and prizes including trips to Las Vegas, Miami, Disneyland and even Cancun Mexico!... $45,000 a year
From Sprint by California Wireless Solutions - Wed, 01 Aug 2018 17:43:00 GMT - View all Hayward, CA jobs
          Retail Sales Representative - Milpitas - Sprint by California Wireless Solutions - Milpitas, CA      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Numerous contest where you can win cash and prizes including trips to Las Vegas, Miami, Disneyland and even Cancun Mexico!... $12 - $15 an hour
From Sprint by California Wireless Solutions - Wed, 01 Aug 2018 17:41:45 GMT - View all Milpitas, CA jobs
          Retail Sales Associate - Hayward - Sprint by California Wireless Solutions - Hayward, CA      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Numerous contest where you can win cash and prizes including trips to Las Vegas, Miami, Disneyland and even Cancun Mexico!... $12 - $15 an hour
From Sprint by California Wireless Solutions - Wed, 01 Aug 2018 17:41:45 GMT - View all Hayward, CA jobs
          English/Spanish Bilingual Retail Sales Representative - Blossom Hill - Sprint by California Wireless Solutions - San Jose, CA      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Numerous contest where you can win cash and prizes including trips to Las Vegas, Miami, Disneyland and even Cancun Mexico!... $12 - $15 an hour
From Sprint by California Wireless Solutions - Wed, 01 Aug 2018 17:41:08 GMT - View all San Jose, CA jobs
          English/Spanish Bilingual Retail Sales Representative - Mountain View - Sprint by California Wireless Solutions - Mountain View, CA      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Numerous contest where you can win cash and prizes including trips to Las Vegas, Miami, Disneyland and even Cancun Mexico!... $12 - $15 an hour
From Sprint by California Wireless Solutions - Wed, 01 Aug 2018 17:41:07 GMT - View all Mountain View, CA jobs
          Retail Sales Representative - Eastridge Loop - Sprint by California Wireless Solutions - San Jose, CA      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Numerous contest where you can win cash and prizes including trips to Las Vegas, Miami, Disneyland and even Cancun Mexico!... $12 - $15 an hour
From Sprint by California Wireless Solutions - Wed, 01 Aug 2018 17:41:45 GMT - View all San Jose, CA jobs
          English/Spanish Bilingual Retail Sales Associate - Milpitas - Sprint by California Wireless Solutions - Milpitas, CA      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Numerous contest where you can win cash and prizes including trips to Las Vegas, Miami, Disneyland and even Cancun Mexico!... $12 - $15 an hour
From Sprint by California Wireless Solutions - Sat, 23 Jun 2018 07:18:02 GMT - View all Milpitas, CA jobs
          Derek Jeter gives state-of-the-Marlins address during game      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
MIAMI — The Marlins were 21 games under .500 and playing before another small crowd as Derek Jeter spoke during the fifth inning of his team’s 7-1 loss to the Cardinals Wednesday night, so he didn’t sugarcoat the state of the franchise 10 months into his tenure as CEO. “We have a ways to go,”...
          Iggy Azalea Reveals She Is Dating Houston Texans Player DeAndre Hopkins      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Iggy Azalea has a new man in her life! The 28-year-old "Fancy" rapper revealed she's dating Houston Texan wide receiver DeAndre Hopkins, 26. When asked if she prefers the Miami Dolphins or the Houston Texans during an interview with Y 100 Miami on Tuesday, Azalea said "Houston Texans." The interviewer then joked, "Do you know why I'm asking you this?" and Azalea, who laughed before answering, responded by saying "Yes." "DeAndre Hopkins, are we dating - or what's the situation?" "Yeah, we're in a relationship," Azalea answered, confirming their romance. . . .
          Director of Nursing - Critical Care      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
KA Recruiting - Florida - (Only QUALIFIED Healthcare Professionals accepted) Critical Care-Director of Nursing - Full-time Director of Critical Care... needed at a hospital in beautiful Miami, Florida! Position: Registered Nurse (RN) Director Critical Care Job Description: Reporting to the CNO, the Nursing...
          Nortavel sugere Fim-de-Ano nos EUA      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Nova Iorque, Boston, Miami e Miami e Cruzeiro às Bahamas são as ofertas apresentadas.

O post Nortavel sugere Fim-de-Ano nos EUA aparece primeiro no Publituris.


          Heat Notes: Richardson, Newman, Okafor, Babbitt      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Heat had calls from teams wanting to trade for Josh Richardson this summer, but Miami isn’t looking to move him, according to Manny Navarro and Barry Jackson of The Miami Herald. The organization wants Richardson to take a larger role on offense, with team president Pat Riley telling him that he should be able […]
          Vanessa Hudgens, Selena Gomez and Ruby Rose as Batwoman…      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Selma Blair Bikini Pics in Miami Vanessa Hudgens Posing in a Bikini! Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Model Georgia Gibbss Madison Beer’s Serious Cameltoe and Panty Line Carla Gugino Boobie Throwback for Kimmel Sophie Turner Braless,...
           Elevate Ambassador - Miami Heat      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
pls RT ECNIDRSS @entcareersnet Description of the Position: Serves as a member of the Culture & Engagement team and acts as a liaison ... more


          Tri County Steamers Offers Professional Carpet Cleaning Fort Lauderdale, and Miami, FL      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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           Marlins manager Don Mattingly recaps tonight’s loss after Cardinals edge Marlins 7-1       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Miami Marlins manager Don Mattingly talks about the Marlins' mindset approaching game day, executing at bat, and looking to regroup against the Mets.
           Marlins overpowered by Cardinals 7-1 after Matt Carpenter hits 31st homer       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Miami Marlins edged by St.Louis Cardinals 7-1 after another standout performance from 3B Matt Carpenter who rocked a 2 run home run.
          Iggy Azalea shows off her bikini body aboard a party boat in Miami      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Iggy Azalea is channeling her inner party girl as she enjoys a trip to one of her favourite destinations, Miami Beach. The 28-year-old rapper flaunted her bikini body as she enjoyed her vacation with friends.
          El ex NBA Okaro White jugará en el Maccabi de Tel Aviv      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Okaro White, ex integrante de Miami Heat, habría sellado un acuerdo para jugar la próxima temporada en las filas del Maccabi de Tel Aviv, informa Eurohoops.net. El pívot formado en Florida State estaba a la espera de una nueva llamada de la NBA; no obstante, habría aceptado enrolarse en las filas del conjunto israelí donde ... Leer más
 
Source: nbamaniacs

La entrada El ex NBA Okaro White jugará en el Maccabi de Tel Aviv se publicó primero en nbamaniacs.


          Wastewater Commissioning Officer      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Gannett Fleming Inc - Miami, FL - and Saftey Manager (Wastewater) for our Miami, FL office. Responsibilities: Oversee multiple contractors involved in the new build... Experience in wastewater and wastewater collection and transmission infrastructure, gravity sewer systems, force mains up to 54” diameter...
          Carpenter Hits 31st Homer, Cardinals Beat Marlins       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Matt Carpenter hit a tiebreaking homer for the second consecutive night, and the St. Louis Cardinals won their fourth series in a row Wednesday by beating Miami 7-1.

Carpenter put St. Louis ahead with a home run leading off the sixth inning, his NL-leading 31st. His eighth-inning homer Tuesday helped St. Louis beat Miami 3-2, and he has homered in five of the past six games.

John Gant (4-4) pitched six innings and allowed one run, which scored in part because of a defensive lapse. He and three relievers combined to retire 21 batters in a row.

The Cardinals' Yadier Molina hit his 15th homer in the first and doubled home two runs in the ninth. Marcell Ozuna doubled home a run in the sixth and went 6 for 11 in the series against his former team.

Trevor Richards (3-7) allowed three runs in 5 2/3 innings for the last-place Marlins, who have lost eight of their past nine games.

The Cardinals improved to 13-9 under interim manager Mike Shildt.

St. Louis missed a chance to turn a double play in the second inning, and that led to a run that came home on Miguel Rojas' single. The Marlins totaled three hits.

STILL STRUGGLING

Marlins reliever Kyle Barraclough, who lost his closer's job this week, gave up a two-run double to Paul DeJong in the eighth. DeJong also made a leaping catch at shortstop to rob Magneuris Sierra of a hit.

TRAINER'S ROOM

Cardinals: Pinch runner Harrison Bader was shaken up on a headfirst slide in the eighth inning, but stayed in the game and scored.

Marlins: Rookie CF Lewis Brinson (right hip) is expected to begin taking live batting practice next week, and the Marlins hope he can return for another 100 at-bats or so before the end of the season, manager Don Mattingly said.

UP NEXT

Cardinals: Following a day off, the Cardinals open a three-game series at Kansas City, with LHP Austin Gomber (1-0, 4.10 ERA) scheduled to pitch Friday.

Marlins: Miami opens a three-game series at home Friday against the Mets, with RHP Jose Urena (3-11, 4.66) scheduled to start the series opener.


          DeGrom Gets Run Support, Mets Blank Reds 8-0      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Jacob deGrom has had precious little margin for error even while having the best ERA in the majors. Finally, on Wednesday, he got the run support he needed.

DeGrom struck out 10 over six innings, received rare significant run support and earned his first win in nearly two months as the New York Mets blanked the Cincinnati Reds 8-0.

"Almost every game he's pitched in, one pitch can cost him the game," Mets manager Mickey Callaway said. "So I feel like all of those are stressful innings.

"Jacob is so relaxed, he might not feel the stress of those, but I would have to think every time a runner gets in scoring position or every time a home run hitter gets up that he steps on the gas a tad more to make sure he doesn't even give up one run."

Brandon Nimmo tied a team record with three doubles and drove in three runs as the Mets won for the 22nd time in their last 66 games.

DeGrom (6-7) ended a seven-start winless streak, allowing four hits in a 100-pitch outing and lowering his ERA from 1.85 to 1.77. He won for the first time since June 18 at Colorado, where the Mets scored 12 runs.

It was his sixth double-digit strikeout game of the season and 27th of his career. His first nine strikeouts were on change-ups and fastballs, and deGrom used his curveball to fan Scooter Gennett to end the sixth.

"When I go out there, I don't want anybody to score," deGrom said. "I don't like giving up runs whether it's 8-0 or 0-0, and that's how I approach this year, go out there and keep guys from getting around the bases."

DeGrom allowed one earned or fewer for the 13th time this season, tying him with Justin Verlander, Blake Snell and Chris Sale for the major league lead. He held an opponent under three runs for the 20th straight time.

"He's definitely one of the best in the game," Gennett said. "His numbers show it."

He was 0-5 with a 2.47 ERA during the winless skid, with the Mets giving deGrom a combined eight runs in those games.

They scored plenty on Wednesday for deGrom, who helped himself with an RBI walk in the fourth. It was the second straight outing he drove in a run.

Austin Jackson drove in two runs with a double in the second and a single in the fifth as the Mets built a 5-0 lead. Nimmo hit an RBI double in the fifth and scored on a sacrifice fly by Amed Rosario in the fourth.

Nimmo also added a two-run double in the eighth and Jackson capped the scoring with a single.

Rosario's sacrifice fly came after deGrom drove in his third run of the season and 15th of his career. With runners at second and third, the Reds intentionally walked Devin Mesoraco, but starter Robert Stephenson (0-1) threw four straight pitches out of the strike zone.

"I wanted to throw just whatever I could throw for a strike, and that at-bat, I wasn't able to throw any for a strike," Stephenson said.

Stephenson made his season debut for the Reds after going 6-0 in his last seven starts for Triple-A Louisville. The former first-round pick allowed three runs on three hits in four innings.

The Reds wound up moving left fielder Phillip Ervin to the mound to finish the eighth.

Seth Lugo, Jerry Blevins, and Robert Gsellman each pitched a scoreless inning for the Mets.

METS MILESTONES

Nimmo's three doubles marked the 29th time in team history it happened and the first since Yoenis Cespedes on Aug. 3, 2015, at Miami. ... 3B Jose Bautista scored his 1,000th run in the fourth inning, becoming the 10th active player to reach the milestone.

GOOD HITTING PITCHER

When the Reds wanted to bat for Stephenson, they didn't turn to their bench. Instead, they went to their pitching staff, sending out Michael Lorenzen. Lorenzen hit a 324-foot fly ball to left right field, lowering his average from .267 to .250. It was the fourth time he pinch hit and stayed in the game.

TRAINER'S ROOM

Reds: 1B Joey Votto (right knee) missed his second straight game and sat out for the third time in four games. Votto was hit by a pitch by Washington RHP Ryan Madson and missed his 10th game since the start of the 2015 season. Manager Jim Riggleman said Votto is feeling better and that the slugger will play Friday. . OF Preston Tucker (toe) did not play for the second straight game. He was hit on the right foot by RHP Noah Syndergaard's slider on Monday. Riggleman said Tucker's foot is still sore and he will consult with trainers and undergo tests during Thursday's off day.

Mets: C Devin Mesoraco was hit in the groin while attempting to catch a deGrom pitch in the first inning but stayed in the game.

UP NEXT

Reds: After a day off, RHP Anthony DeScalfani (6-5, 4.98 ERA) will start the opener of a three-game series against Arizona on Friday.

Mets: RHP Zack Wheeler (6-6, 3.89 ERA) starts the opener of a three-game series at Miami on Friday. Wheeler is 4-0 with a 2.17 ERA in his last seven starts.


          As he watches the Manafort criminal case unfold, Trump is reportedly worried Don Jr. could be on trial one day - Business Insider      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Business Insider

As he watches the Manafort criminal case unfold, Trump is reportedly worried Don Jr. could be on trial one day
Business Insider
President Donald Trump fretting about his eldest son's entanglement in the Russia investigation. And Don Jr.'s role in the special counsel's probe continues to throw off headlines. But the 40-year-old son is hardly ducking his head. Trump Jr. has ...
Judge Andrew Napolitano: Should Trump voluntarily talk to Mueller?Fox News
Giuliani says GOP could benefit if Trump's negotiations with Mueller drag onCNN
Trump's Legal Team Responds to Mueller Interview RequestU.S. News & World Report
Sacramento Bee -Miami Herald -CNN
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          FEMA Awards Flood Mitigation Assistance Grant to the Town of Miami Lakes      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

ATLANTA – The Federal Emergency Management Agency has approved more than $1.4 million for the state of Florida to fund flood control measures to reduce or eliminate the risk of repetitive flood damage in the West Lakes community of Miami-Dade County.

 

English

          Remembering Mets History: (2015) Mets Complete Seven Game Win Streak Take 2 1/2 Game Lead In NL East      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Friday August 7th 2015: After the New York Mets completed their sweep of the Washing Nationals & took over first place on August 2nd, the team stayed hot.

As mentioned before, the arrival of Yoenis Cespedes who became the hottest hitter on the planet helped. As did the arrivals of Micahel Conforto, Steven Matz, Kelly Johnson, Juan Uribe, Tyler Clippard & Addison Reed through out August.

On Friday August 3rd the Mets went to South Florida for a three game sweep of the Miami Marlins. It began with a 12-1 romp the first night, as Bartolo Colon allowed just one run in eight innings of work striking out five to best his record to 10-10. Big Sexy even got a hit on the night.

In the 1st inning, young Michael Conforto blasted his first career HR, a three run shot off Tom Koehler putting the Mets ahead. It was an exciting moment for Conforto, it was just his seventh career game & who two weeks ago was in the minor leagues.  


In the 5th inning Yoenis Cespedes doubled in Curtis Granderson & Daniel Murphy making it 5-0. Wolmer Flores doubled as well bringing in Cespedes & Flores scored when Kelly Johnson grounded out. It was 7-0 Mets. Cespedes added another RBI double in the 6th & he would eventually score on a wild pitch. Granderson added an RBI single to cap off the scoring. Yoenis Cespedes went 3-5 with three doubles & four runs driven in.


The next night, Tuesday August 4th: Jon Niese led the Mets to a 5-1 win. For Niese it was win number six on the year to go 6-9. Tyler Clippard & Jeruys Familia closed it out. In the 6th with New York down 1-0, Wilmer Flores doubled & scored on Ruben Tejada's base hit.

In the 8th the Mets took the game with four runs on five hits. Lucas Duda & Travis d'Arnaud singled. Pinch hitter Eric Campbell delivered an RBI base hit to put the Mets ahead 2-1. Juan Lagares then tripled to bring in two more runs & The GrandyMan doubled to bring in Lagares & make it 5-1. The Mets had now won five straight.


Wednesday August 5th: Tonight Matt Harvey went up against David Phelps. The drama around Harveys innings on the season continued but he was getting some bad press for the first time in his career.

The Mets ate up Phelps scoring seven runs on him with eight hits in just 4.1 innings. In the 3rd, Granderson & Murphy got aboard. Yoenis Cespedes continued his hot hitting (actually he was just getting started) singled to bring in Granderson. Lucas Duda followed with a double bringing in Murph & Cespedes. Michael Conforto closed out the inning with a sac fly RBI.

In the Mets 5th Juan Uribe blasted a three run HR, his second as a New York Met. Overall it was Uribe's 10th HR of the season. Lucas Duda added an RBI sac fly to make it 8-0.

Matt Harvey had a great night himself on the mound, he would pitch seven innings of two hit shut out baseball striking out six walking no one. Harvey got to 10-7 on the year, as his ERA got down to 2.76, one of the leagues best behind Jacob deGrom.

Although the Mets had an 8-0 lead, the bullpen made it a close ball game. After Bobby Parnell faced two batters, walking one Eric O'Flaherty came in & was beat up for four runs. Hansel Robles allowed another two runs to make it a close 8-6 game. Familia came on to save his 29th game of the year.

The Mets had now won six straight & were up in first place by two games. It was up the state of Florida to the Gulf side to play The Tampa Rays.

Friday August 7th 2015: Terry Collins Mets now 59-50 faced off against Kevin Cash's Rays (54-56). Jacob deGrom went up against Jake Odorizzi. Each team was to have five pitchers come into the game, with the decision being left to the bullpens.

deGrom gave up a solo HR to veteran Grady Sizemore but then Mets veteran Juan Uribe answered with his second HR in as many games to tie it. In the Rays 7th, future Met James Loney hit a HR off deGrom to put the Rays ahead 2-1.

In the Mets 8th, Daniel Murphy hit his 8th HR of the year to once again tie up the game. In the bottom of the inning Evan Longoria hit his 14th HR of the year, a solo shot off Tyler Clippard putting the Rays up again.

But in the 9th, the Mets faced Brad Boxberger & things started out wild. Lucas Duda reached on Boxbergers error & advanced on a wild pitch. Michael Conforto then doubled to tie it up. Travis d'Arnaud singled & Wilmer Flores singled as well to bring in Conforto in what was to be the Mets game winning run.

Familia saved with his 30th save of the season. The Mets were on a roll, a seven game win streak put them at 2 1/2 games up in first place. They would never loose their lead in the NL East taking the division & getting to the World Series.
          Burgers Brew and Que S04E06 Sweet and Savory WEBRip x264-CAFFEiNE      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Season 04, Episode 06 — “Sweet and Savory” Michael Symon starts in Boston with triple-processed pork belly that’s cured, brined and smoked to meaty perfection. In Seattle, tender braised lamb shoulder amps up a traditional breakfast hash, while in Miami, they’re using fresh, local cinnamon rolls as buns for an insanely sweet and savory burger. Links: HOMEPAGE – TVGUIDE […]
          Iggy Azalea Twerks Up A Storm While Wearing Nothing But A Skimpy Bikini — Sexy Video.      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Twerk like nobody's viewing! Or then again, for this situation, similar to everybody's viewing! Iggy Azalea was knocking and granulating while at the same time celebrating on a yacht with companions and the video is WILD! 

Iggy Azalea, 28, is formally the twerking ruler! The rapper let loose on a yacht with companions on August 6, where she reported their wild night. Iggy presented various recordings on her Instagram stories, some of which flaunted her bootylicious twerking aptitudes and we can't turn away! She looked dazzling in a diverse creature print two-piece that flaunted her thin figure. Watch the epic twerk show and look at snaps from her provocative night out! 

Iggy's been trusting on yachts all consistently, as she was simply captured celebrating on a pamper vessel with her reputed beau, and long-lasting companion Tyga, 28. The rappers, who as of late worked together on the hit track, "Kream," were spotted boarding an extravagance yacht in Miami on August 5. Iggy looked delightful in bend embracing maroon dress, which exhibited her cleavage. In the interim, T-Raww wore a white tee and brilliant neon green shorts.





          A rapper, Iggy Azalea has been spotted again with her supposed love intrigue, Tyga.       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

On Sunday, the combine was envisioned celebrating together with companions on board a yacht claimed by eatery business person David Grutman in Miami Beach, Florida.

For the gathering, Iggy exhibited her cleavage in a figure-embracing burgundy dress which additionally paraded her well-known bends, while Tyga brandished a white shirt and loose neon green shorts and embellished with a large emblem on a chain.

The combine energised dating gossipy tidbits before in the year after they went to Rihanna's Fenty party in coordinating white outfits with the 'Ayo' rapper envisioned with his arm around the 'Extravagant' hitmaker.

See full photographs beneath.





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Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

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photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 200