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          BR Espirito Santo Integrated Sustainable Water Management Project      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
  • REGINA CURITIBA DA SILVA;
  • 2018/02/23 12:47:00
  • Procurement Plan
  • STEP7317
  • 1
  • 1
  • Brazil; 
  • Latin America & Caribbean; 
  • 2018/02/23 12:47:00
  • Disclosed
  • Brazil/LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN- P130682- BR Espirito Santo Integrated Sustainable Water Management Project - Procurement Plan
  • sustainable water management; retroactive financing; consultancy assignment; advance procurement; project effectiveness; procurement arrangement; procurement manual; ...  See More + rocurement method; sewage system  See Less -

  • English
  • BR-Espirito Santo Integrated Sustainable Water Management Project -- P130682;
  •   
  • Public Administration - Water, Sanitation and Waste Management ;  Water Supply ;  Pub admin-wss/fld ;  Forestry ;  Sanitation; 
  • Disaster Risk Management;  Integrated Water Management;  Watershed Management;  Sanitation;  Water Supply; 
  • Water Latin America&Caribbean(1) ;  Water Supply and Sanitation (LCSWS)
  • Water Latin America&Caribbean(1) (GWA04)
  • Specific Investment Loan
  • IBRD/IDA

          (USA-CA-San Diego) Finance Administrative Assistant - Volkswagen of Kearny Mesa      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Volkswagen of Kearny Mesa is part of the fast growing Group 1 Automotive, a leader in automotive retail. We are looking to add a qualified FINANCE ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANT to our team. Group 1 is a Fortune 500 company that owns and operates automotive dealerships and collision centers in the United States, United Kingdom and Brazil. We offer our associates a team environment, great benefits and ongoing training and support. If you are in alignment with our values of integrity, transparency, professionalism and teamwork - now might be the time for you to accelerate your career as part of the best company in automotive retail. Apply today or refer a qualified friend. In addition to competitive pay, we offer our associates the following benefits: + Health, Dental, Vision, Life, and Disability insurance + 401(k) plan with company match + Paid Time-Off + Employee Stock Purchase Plan + Employee Vehicle Purchase Program + Professional work environment, with job training and advancement opportunities + Collect, organize and scan all deal paperwork from the finance department managers. + Ensures all the proper registration paperwork is included in the deal and provided to the title clerk timely. + Verify all trade-in information is included and accurate. + Handle paperwork for all wholesale and dealer trade deals. + Ensure all the proper forms are in each and every deal and are 100% accurate. + Oversee and organize customer files. + Employee may be required to perform other job duties as assigned. + Maintain confidential customer and company information. + Demonstrates behaviors consistent with the Company’s Values in all interactions coworkers, vendors. + Prior administrative/secretarial experience as F&I Assistant required! + Proficient at operating a personal computer including Microsoft Office: E-mail, Excel and Word. + Excellent phone etiquette. + Ability to work independently and be self-motivated. + Great attitude with high-energy personality. + Excellent customer service skills. + Professional appearance and work ethic. + Strong attention to detail a must! + Ability to work well in a process-driven environment. + High School Diploma or equivalent. *All applicants must pass pre-employment testing to include: background checks, MVR, and drug testing in order to qualify for employment* Group 1 Automotive is an Equal Employment Opportunity employer. ID: 2018-6894 External Company Name: Group 1 Automotive, Inc. External Company URL: http://www.group1auto.com Street: 8040 Balboa Avenue
          (USA-TX-Houston) Automotive Technicians General Motors - Group 1 Automotive, Houston TX      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
************ We will offer up to a ************ $10,000.00 SIGN ON BONUS ********** for the Right Candidate! *********** We are looking to add quality General Motors Automotive Service Technicians to our team. Group 1 Automotive, is a leader in automotive retail, parts and to needing to fulfill our growing service business. Chevrolet | Buick | GMC | Cadillac In addition to competitive pay, we offer … + A Great Work Environment + Aggressive Compensation Plan + Up to $10,000 Sign On Bonus based on Experience + Continuous Job Training and Career Advancement Opportunities + Health, Dental, Vision, Life and Disability Insurance + 401(k) with company match + Paid Time-off + Employee stock purchase plan + Employee vehicle purchase program + Performance / longevity bonuses You need … + Three or more years of previous experience as an automotive technical or trade school degree. + High school diploma or equivalent. + Valid driver license in the state that you will work and a good driving record. + National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) certification(s) or certification(s) in different specialized areas such as: brakes, electrical/electronic systems or engine performance preferred. + Excellent customer service skills. + Professional appearance and work ethic. Group 1 is a Fortune 500 company that owns and operates automotive dealerships and collision centers in the United States, United Kingdom and Brazil. We offer our associates a team environment, great benefits and ongoing training and support. If you are in alignment with our values of integrity, transparency, professionalism and teamwork - now might be the time for you to accelerate your career as part of the best company in automotive retail. Apply today or refer a qualified friend. *All applicants must pass pre-employment testing to include: background checks, MVR, and drug testing in order to qualify for employment* Group 1 Automotive is an Equal Employment Opportunity employer #LI-MB1 ID: 2018-6899 External Company Name: Group 1 Automotive, Inc. External Company URL: http://www.group1auto.com Street: 800 Gessner Suite 500
          (USA-KS-Merriam) Automotive Service Advisor (4-Day Work Week) - Shawnee Mission KIA      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
4-DAY WORK WEEK | SALARY & BONUS OPPORTUNITIES Shawnee Mission KIA is part of the fast growing Group 1 Automotive, a leader in automotive retail sales and service. We are growing and looking for Quality Automotive Service Advisors to work with our Quality Dealership representing a Quality Product! Our Service Advisor should be passionate about customer service and enjoy interacting with people throughout the working day. We offer... + A True Four Day Workweek + Salary Based Pay Plan, Plus Bonuses + A Great Working Environment + A Structured, Self-Paced Career Path Leading to Management Opportunities + Service Advisor University – Paid for by Group 1 Automotive + Pinnacle Awards Program + Health, Dental & Vision Insurance + Life & Disability Insurance + 401(k) with Company Match + Paid Time off + Employee Vehicle Purchase Program + Employee Stock Purchase Plan You need… + Positive & Friendly Attitude + Interpersonal Communication Skills + Basic Computer Skills + Strong Desire to Provide an Exceptional Client Experience + Ability to Achieve Targeted Goals + High School Diploma or Equivalent + Must have a Valid Driver’s License Group 1 is a Fortune 500 company that owns and operates automotive dealerships and collision centers in the United States, United Kingdom and Brazil. We offer our associates a team environment, great benefits and ongoing training and support. If you are in alignment with our values of integrity, transparency, professionalism and teamwork - now might be the time for you to accelerate your career as part of the best company in automotive retail. Apply today or refer a qualified friend! *All applicants must pass pre-employment testing to include: background checks, MVR, and drug testing in order to qualify for employment* Group 1 Automotive is an Equal Employment Opportunity employer #LI-LI1 ID: 2018-6900 External Company Name: Group 1 Automotive, Inc. External Company URL: http://www.group1auto.com Street: 7810 Shawnee Mission Parkway
          (USA-NJ-Egg Harbor Township) Automotive Sales Professional - BMW of Atlantic City      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
BMW of Atlantic City is part of the fast growing Group 1 Automotive, a leader in automotive retail. We are growing and looking for Exceptional People to work with a Quality Dealership representing a Premier Product! We offer... + Up to a $5000 Sign on Bonus for Experience in Sales!! + Five Day Work week + Training pay provided during orientation period + A Great Working Environment + Comprehensive Training & Advancement Opportunities + Pinnacle Awards Program + Medical, Dental & Vision Insurance + Life & Disability Insurance + 401(k) with Company Match + Employee Vehicle Purchase Program + Employee Stock Purchase Plan You need… + Professional Appearance + Positive & Friendly Attitude + Interpersonal Communication Skills + Basic Computer Skills + High School Diploma or Equivalent + Must have a Valid Driver’s License Group 1 is a Fortune 500 company that owns and operates automotive dealerships and collision centers in the United States, United Kingdom and Brazil. We offer our associates a team environment, great benefits and ongoing training and support. If you are in alignment with our values of integrity, transparency, professionalism and teamwork - now might be the time for you to accelerate your career as part of the best company in automotive retail. Apply today or refer a qualified friend! *All applicants must pass pre-employment testing to include: background checks, MVR, and drug testing in order to qualify for employment* Group 1 Automotive is an Equal Employment Opportunity employer ID: 2018-6892 External Company Name: Group 1 Automotive, Inc. External Company URL: http://www.group1auto.com Street: 6037 Black Horse Pike
          (USA-NJ-Egg Harbor Township) **Up to $5000 Sign on Bonus** Automotive Sales Professional - BMW of Atlantic City      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
BMW of Atlantic City is part of the fast growing Group 1 Automotive, a leader in automotive retail. We are growing and looking for Exceptional People to work with a Quality Dealership representing a Premier Product! We offer... + Up to a $5000 Sign on Bonus for Experience in Sales!!** + Five Day Work week + Training pay provided during orientation period + A Great Working Environment + Comprehensive Training & Advancement Opportunities + Pinnacle Awards Program + Medical, Dental & Vision Insurance + Life & Disability Insurance + 401(k) with Company Match + Employee Vehicle Purchase Program + Employee Stock Purchase Plan You need… + Professional Appearance + Positive & Friendly Attitude + Interpersonal Communication Skills + Basic Computer Skills + High School Diploma or Equivalent + Must have a Valid Driver’s License Group 1 is a Fortune 500 company that owns and operates automotive dealerships and collision centers in the United States, United Kingdom and Brazil. We offer our associates a team environment, great benefits and ongoing training and support. If you are in alignment with our values of integrity, transparency, professionalism and teamwork - now might be the time for you to accelerate your career as part of the best company in automotive retail. Apply today or refer a qualified friend! *All applicants must pass pre-employment testing to include: background checks, MVR, and drug testing in order to qualify for employment* **Terms and Limits apply** Group 1 Automotive is an Equal Employment Opportunity employer ID: 2018-6893 External Company Name: Group 1 Automotive, Inc. External Company URL: http://www.group1auto.com Street: 6037 Black Horse Pike
          Truth Behind Video Of A Million Ants Building Bridge To Attack Wasps Nest      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
A million ants demonstrated an incredibly effective form of teamwork as they built a bridge out of their bodies to attack a wasps nest.  Incredible footage taken in Brazil shows hundreds of thousands of ants clambering over one another to build a living bridge. The video was captured by electrical engineer, and seemingly part-time ant ...
          Business Development Manager      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
NY-Manhattan, Business development role selling luxury travel goods on a b2b scale. Newly developed role with the company. Client Details Global company started by an Italian designer now expanding and growing their U.S. business. Leading provider of luxury travel goods with 15+ offices operating out of U.S., Canada, Philippines, Italy, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, and more. Description Establish, cultivate and mainta
          Business Development Manager      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
NY-Manhattan, Business development role selling luxury travel goods on a b2b scale. Newly developed role with the company. Client Details Global company started by an Italian designer now expanding and growing their U.S. business. Leading provider of luxury travel goods with 15+ offices operating out of U.S., Canada, Philippines, Italy, Brazil, Saudi Arabia, and more. Description Establish, cultivate and mainta
          Key Gene for Sugarcane Growth Has Been Identified      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
A team led by Professor Marcelo Menossi at the University of Campinas's Biology Institute (IB-UNICAMP) in Brazil has found that the key to overcoming a major constraint on sugarcane yield could lie in ... - Source: www.isaaa.org
          Avon appoints new General Manager to accelerate Brazil's growth      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

José Vicente Marino proven direct selling executive LONDON, Aug. 8, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Avon Products, Inc. (NYSE: AVP), a global leader in direct selling of beauty products, today announced that José Vicente Marino has been appointed as Executive Vice President and General Manager,...



          Hardware Technician - Modular Mining Systems, Inc. - Belo Horizonte, MG      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Brazil Regional Head Office is based in Belo Horizonte. Modular Mining Systems Inc....
De Modular Mining Systems, Inc. - Wed, 13 Jun 2018 20:09:36 GMT - Visualizar todas as empregos: Belo Horizonte, MG
          Little Boys - Peça Bis 1960 (BRAZIL NYOMÁS!!!!) - Jelenlegi ára: 247 Ft      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Borító: G-
Lemez: VG
MPL AUTOMATA ÁRA MEGVÁLTOZOTT!!!!! !!!!! !!!!! !!!!! !!!!! !!!!! !!!!
Sajnos a utobbi időben megszaporodtak a nehézségeim átadás tekintetében így újra kicsit módosítanom kellett az átvételt illetően!
- Vinyl lemezt kizárólag akkor postázok, ha minimum 4000Ft-ért vásárol valaki! Nagyon régi vásárloknál rugalmasabb vagyok, de mindenki másnál ez mostantól szigorúan él!
- Licit törléssel nem foglalkozom, bármi is legyen a kifogás! Ha valaki licitál gondolja végig mennyit nyom rá és valóban szüksége van-e a termékre. Ha eladás után valaki ezek után mégsem kéri az árút azt tiltom és negatív értékeléssel díjazom!
- Ha valaki nem ismeri a nemzetközi besorolást arról nem én tehetek! Nézzen utána mi mit jelent, mert reklamációt nem fogok elfogadni azért, hogy egy P, F stb. besorolású lemez karcos vagy lejátszhatatlan!!!!
- Az licitáljon csak bármire is akinek van pénze, és vásárolni is szándékozik!
- 5000Ft alatti vásárlás esetén a vásárló kérem egy héten belül vegye fel velem a kapcsolatot (mailben gyorsabb és nyoma is marad), az átadás meg két héten belül történjen meg. Ha ez  nem történik meg semmleges értékeléssel lezártnak ítélem az aukciót és újrahírdetem a terméket!
- Több temék licitálása esetén természetesen bevárom amíg lejár a többi termék is, de itt azért kérném, hogy az első megnyert tétel után maximum 1 hónappal (hiába van még több termékért versenybe a vásárló) rendezzük az addig megnyert / megvásárolt tételeket adásvételét. Ennek oka! 3-4 hónapig nem kivánok bevárni mindenféle aukciót! Tudom ez így több találkozással járhat vagy több postaköltséggel én mégis ragaszkodnék hozzá.
- Ha valakinek nincs ideje találkozni (pl 2 hónapot nem szándékozom várni egy 150Ft-os tétel átadására) választhatja a posta** lehetőségét is!  
Személyes átadásról ezeket kell tudni!
- A megadott kerülteben történik az átvétel! Akik gyakran vásárolnak tőlem, ott előfordulhat eltérés e véget, de egyszeri pár százas tételnél nem kívánok rugalmas lenni ilyen téren a továbbiakban.
- Az időpontokat én adom meg nem a vásárló!  
- A munkabeosztásom olyan amilyen, általában a délelötti órákban érek rá, így ezt is vegye figyelembe mindenki vásárlásnál.  
** Postázni csak a Magyar postán keresztül áll módomban. Ezen belül MPL csomagként (postán maradó lehet), illetve az MPL csomagautómata közül lehet választani. Mindkettőnél a sima postai árak a mérvadóak, vaterán rendelhető különböző MPL kedvezmények nem játszanak! Semilyen futáros megoldás nem játszik! Különböző egyébb opciók, hiába olcsóbb nem érdekel!  Tisztában vagyok vele, hogy vannak más lehetőségek, de én ezt a két opciót tudom felajánlani és egyedi kérésre se áll módomban változtatni ezen. A kiírt árak tájékoztató jellegűek, ha emel a posta én is nyilván az emelt áron postázom el csak a terméket! Ha valaki leütés után ezeket nem tartja tiszteletben és alkudozni kezd az árakról, sajnos mostantól negatív minősítésel díjazom.  

Little Boys - Peça Bis 1960 (BRAZIL NYOMÁS!!!!)
Jelenlegi ára: 247 Ft
Az aukció vége: 2018-08-09 00:20
          #jump - zoomer.suit      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
"Quem me dera ao menos uma vez, explicar o que ninguém consegue entender." Legião Urbana. Photo by: Marco Torelli @marcotorellifotografia #zoomersuit #zoomersuits #jumpsuits #busodesaltos #suits #macacões #Brasil #Brazil #Resende #riodejaneiro #skydive #skydiving #paraquedismo #paracaidismo #clouds #saltodeparaquedas #jump #blueskies #freefall
          PES 2013 Estadio Diogão (Brazil) Stadium      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

CREDITS:  D5ouglas

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          Viral Video Of Man Beating Wife Sparks Outrage In Brazil      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Tatiane Spitzner is seen falling to her death just minutes after her husband, Luís Felipe Manvailer, is caught on camera beating her.
          Silva played key role in persuading 25-year-old to join Everton, player set for medical      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Silva played key role in persuading 25-year-old to join Everton, player set for medical - originally posted on Sportslens.com

According to reports from Sky Sports, Everton are close to signing Bernard from Shakhtar Donetsk before Thursday’s transfer deadline day. The Brazil international is set for a medical ahead of the deadline day. He has landed in Manchester airport on Wednesday for a medical before completing the move, subject to a work permit being granted. Welcome to ⁦@Everton⁩ Bernard! pic.twitter.com/oNpUsTrY0F — Alan Myers (@ALANMYERSMEDIA) August 8, 2018 @SkySportsNews Exclusive footage of Bernard arriving for his @Everton medical! Coming up shortly pic.twitter.com/Z2b2aPQDMw — Alan Myers (@ALANMYERSMEDIA) August 8, 2018 Everton have pulled off a major coup here as they will sign the 25-year-old

From Sportslens.com - Football News | Football Blog


          Linux on Azure App Service Environment now generally available      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Interested in deploying your Linux or containerized web app in an Azure Virtual Network? The Azure App Service team is excited to announce the general availability of Linux on Azure App Service Environment (ASE), which combines the features from App Service on Linux and App Service Environment. As announced at the time of the public preview release, Linux customers will be able to take advantage of deploying Linux and containerized apps in an App Service Environment, which is ideal for deploying applications into a VNet for secure network access or apps running at a high scale. 

What can I do with Linux on ASE?

With Linux on ASE, you can deploy your Linux web applications into an Azure virtual network (VNet) by bringing your own custom container, or just bring your code by using one of our built-in images.

  • If you want to bring your own custom Docker container, you can bring your image from DockerHub, Azure Container Registry, or your own private registry.
  • If you want to use one of our built-in images, we support many popular stacks, such as Node, PHP, Java, .NET Core, and more to come.

Windows, Linux, and containerized web applications can be deployed into the same ASE, sharing the same VNet. Remember that even though Windows and Linux web apps can be in the same App Service Environment, Windows and Linux web apps must be in separate App Service plans. With Linux on ASE, you will be using the Isolated SKU with Dv2 VMs and additional scaling capabilities (up to 100 total App Service plan instances, between Windows and Linux, in one ASE).

To decide which kind of ASE is the best for your use case, you should think about what kind of IP you want to use to expose the apps hosted in your ASE. Will it be public or private? Depending on whether or not you want an Internet accessible endpoint, there are two different kinds of ASEs that you can create:

  • An external ASE with an Internet accessible endpoint.
  • An internal ASE with a private IP address in the VNet with an internal load balancer (ILB).

Our documentation page provide steps to get started, and more context about how to configure networking for your ASE.

Pricing changes from preview

Effective July 30, 2018, Linux and containerized apps deployed in an App Service Environment have returned to regular App Service on Linux and App Service Environment pricing. The 50 percent discount on the Linux App Service Plan from the public preview has been removed for general availability and is no longer being offered.

New regions/countries added

Since public preview, we have now expanded Linux on ASE to all App Service on Linux’s 20+ regions/countries:

  • Australia East
  • Australia Southeast
  • Brazil South
  • Canada Central
  • Canada East
  • Central India
  • Central US
  • East Asia
  • East US
  • East US 2
  • Japan East
  • Japan West
  • Korea Central
  • Korea South
  • North Central US
  • North Europe
  • South Central US
  • South India
  • Southeast Asia
  • UK South
  • UK West
  • West Central US
  • West Europe
  • West India
  • West US
  • West US 2

How to get started

You can create a Linux Web App into a new ASE by simply creating a new Web App and selecting Linux as the OS (built-in image), selecting Docker (custom container), or creating a new Web App for Containers (custom container).

If you need more detailed instructions, get started with creating your first Linux/containerized Web App into an ASE by following these instructions.

We’d love to hear what you think! Please leave your feedback on Linux on ASE using the Wed Apps forum.

Getting started

Check out this blog post for answers to commonly asked questions about Linux on App Service Environment general availability!


          Russia resumes wheat supplies to Brazil — watchdog      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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          Azul Reports July Traffic      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

SÃO PAULO, Aug. 8, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Azul S.A., "Azul", (B3: AZUL4, NYSE: AZUL), the largest airline in Brazil by number of cities served, announces today its preliminary traffic results for July 2018. Consolidated passenger traffic (RPKs) increased 22.6% compared to July 2017 on a...


          Argentina- Brazil- Uruguay      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hello fellow travellers! I am currently in Uruguay! But I would like to visit Argentina and Brazil since I am so close. Is it true that one must apply for a tourist visa in Brazil? A y recommendations on wine tours in Argentina? I would like to do Buenos Aires and the wine region. Any recommendations for these three countries will help me.... I will be in Uruguay well into September so any time coming up will be good. Thanks! Hummingbird ... [Posted by hummingbird500 - Aug 08, 15:19]
          Miss Playboy tv Latina 2004      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Release Year: 2004
Cast: Celina Rucci - Miss Argentina Mirella Santos - Miss Brazil Gaby Schon Gerbaud - Miss Chile Viviana Castrillón - Miss Colombia Deborah David - Miss Guatemala Janelle Priego - Miss Mexico Juliana Delfino - Miss Paraguay Claudia Gestro - Miss Peru Keyla Ramos
Genres: documentary , Erotic
Video language: English

Documentary erotic film. Actually, there is nothing to describe. In Latin America, the Playboy tv channel was chosen by Miss.

Format: avi
Duration: 1:18:10
Video: 528x400, DivX 5, 1110kbps
Audio: 93kbps





File size: 701.2 MB






          Usability research participant - Tester Work - São Paulo, SP      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
We hope to gain a better understanding of how the job finding journey looks like in Brazil, what are the features the job-seekers value the most, how they look...
De Tester Work - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 13:43:53 GMT - Visualizar todas as empregos: São Paulo, SP
          Offer - noyg malabanan siphoning pozo negro services 2118962/09303152543 - BRAZIL      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
NOY MALABANAN SIPHONING POZO NEGRO AND PLUMBING SERVICES TALK N TEXT :0930-3152-543 GLOBE :0955-7906-713 Contact Person: Nonoy SIPHONING SERVICES OFFERED Siphoning of Septic Tank {per truck load} . Remove Garbage. Inside the Septic Vault Declogging / Clearup Clogged Pipelines . Drain Install Outlet / Inlet Pipes. Locate Open Septic Vault Clean thoroughly the septic vault or septic tank. Installation / Construction of new septic vault. Cleaning and remove garbage inside the septic vault. Cleaning of cistern tank or water tank. Water waste Draining for flooded areas,Swimming pool. Locate,open and repair septic vault. Preventive maintenance for fast food chains,canteen.hotel and all kind of establisment Siphoning of septic slugde from septic vault. Grease tank cleaning for STP’ EMERGENCY SERVICES AVAILABLE WE ARE OPEN 24/7 METROMANILA,ILOILO,CAVITE,LAGUNA,BATANGAS,RIZAL,BULACAN,BATAAN,PANGASINAN,PAMPANGA,ZAMBALES,TARLAC,BACOLOD,LA UNION,NUEVA ECIJA,BACOLOD,NEGRO OCC.
          Branch Manager - Aditya Birla Group - Shiliguri, West Bengal      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Group operates in 36 countries Australia Austria Bangladesh Brazil Canada China Egypt France Germany Hungary India Indonesia Italy Ivory Coast Japan Korea...
From Aditya Birla Group - Tue, 07 Aug 2018 13:19:03 GMT - View all Shiliguri, West Bengal jobs
          Richarlison: ‘Marco Silva is a great coach ... he will win things at Everton’      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Brazilian forward is relaxed about his £40m fee, eager to work with his former Watford manager again, and targeting a national team call-up

As the first signing of the Marco Silva/Marcel Brands era, and the second most expensive in Everton’s history, there is acute pressure on Richarlison to not only justify a £40m transfer fee but also show lessons have been learned from last year’s costly mistakes at Goodison Park. It is a pressure that washes over the 21-year-old Brazilian.

“I am relaxed about the transfer fee, I think Watford did a good piece of business,” Richarlison says. “They got the price they wanted and I thank God I’m at Everton. I am aiming high. I want to achieve a lot here, make history here and make a name for myself at Everton. I am a calm person and I know my responsibilities. I will show it on the field.”

Continue reading...
          Cities Are Taxing Ride-Hailing Services Like Uber and Lyft. Is This a Good Thing?      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Cities Are Taxing Ride-Hailing Services Like Uber and Lyft. Is This a Good Thing?

With ride-hailing services like Uber and Lyft continuing to gain popularity and drawing attention for their impact on congestion and other urban ills, cities from Washington to São Paulo are moving to the seemingly inevitable next step: special taxes.

This is unsurprising. Recent research shows that ride-hailing services are contributing to dropping public transport rates and increased private vehicle travel on already-clogged streets.

However, new taxes and fees shouldn't just raise revenue. They can do more than that: they can make cities more livable and transport more sustainable. If ride-hailing is taxed, the mechanism and revenue should be used in carefully targeted ways that improve urban mobility overall.

Taxes on Ride-Hailing Enter the Scene

More than a handful of governments have enacted or are considering fees or taxes, that range from flat-rate fees per ride to taxing as a percent of the ride to systems that target certain types and locations of trips.

These take a variety of forms. For example, Mexico City charges 1.5 percent of ride fare; Washington, D.C., recently raised its tax from 1 to 6 percent of ride fare. Massachusetts levies a 20-cent tax on every trip. Porto Alegre has a monthly fee per licensed vehicle.

A full inventory of city measures to gain revenue from ride-hailing services is provided in a spreadsheet compiled by WRI Ross Center for Sustainable Cities.

Improving Mobility for the City

While new taxes bring in new revenue, these monies aren't necessarily making it easier to get around. For example, in Rhode Island a 7 percent tax on ride-hailing sends revenue directly to the state's general fund. In Philadelphia, a 1.4 percent tax sends money mostly to schools and the remaining third to the city's parking authority. These taxes are also not high enough to change travel behavior in a meaningful way, since transport can sometimes be less sensitive to higher prices.

A tax or charge on ride-hailing—and private traffic as a whole—should improve cities' transport systems overall, as stated in the Shared Mobility Principles for Livable Cities: "Every vehicle and mode should pay their fair share for road use, congestion, pollution, and use of curb space. The fair share shall take the operating, maintenance and social costs into account."

While ride-hailing trends are still changing, and will continue to change as technologies evolve, here are considerations for any city to contemplate in levying taxes that not only raise money but improve mobility for residents too:

1. Encourage more sustainable trips for all users. Any discussion should begin with a consideration of allvehicle traffic. People driving their own private cars continue to dominate traffic, and cause congestion, in most cities.

Places like London, Singapore and Stockholm are known for their congestion charges, but no city has yet comprehensively factored in ride-hailing.

Efforts to charge all road users are bubbling up, however. New York City flirted with a proposal to implement a congestion charging zone coupled with ride-hailing fees, but the State of New York balked and implemented only the ride-hailing fees, leaving anyone driving their own personal car into Manhattan's central business district untouched.

If cities are going ahead with taxes only on ride-hailing, they should encourage sustainable and shared travel over single-occupant rides. This means taxing ride-hailing as a percent of the fare or indexing to distance travelled, rather than a flat fee that would be the same regardless of the ride fare or distance. Most cities are already going this route.

Moreover, shared rides can be taxed at a lower rate than solo rides, or rather, solo rides could be taxed more to incentivize pooled rides. A current proposal in Washington, D.C., aims to reduce the planned tax to 1 percent for pooled rides.

<p>São Paulo has some interesting wrinkles to its ridesharing tax. Flickr/Arnaud Matar</p>

São Paulo has some interesting wrinkles to its ridesharing tax. Flickr/Arnaud Matar

2. Promote equity and access. Taxes should encourage service to transit-poor areas of the city and connectivity to transit generally. Most especially, they shouldn't hinder new mobility services where they may provide low-cost rides to residents in low-income areas or areas poorly serviced by public transport.

São Paulo, the first city to regulate ride-hailing in Brazil, applies its tax according not only to vehicle miles traveled but also equity factors such as whether a driver is a woman and whether the vehicle is accessible to the handicapped. Shared, electric/hybrid, off-peak and weekend trips are all further discounted. A next consideration of cities may be how to incentivize integration with public transit or access to poorly service areas.

3. Invest revenue in multiple modes. Revenue from ride-hailing taxes, like many existing gas taxes or subway fares, should go toward improving mobility systems. It's also important to support other modes of transport beyond the large public transit systems most commonly assumed to suffer from ride-hailing (like metro rail and buses). Improving road safety or adding bicycle lanes and pedestrian spaces are also ways to support a more holistic approach to urban transport.

Washington, DC's 6 percent tax on all ride-hail fares will fund the metro area's public transport agency, yet it is limited to public transport and not aimed at increasing cycling or walking. Fortaleza, Brazil, on the other hand, reduces its 2 percent tax on every trip to 1 percent for companies that make contributions towards urban mobility projects, such as sidewalks, bus lanes, bicycle lanes and bikeshare stations.

Ironically, a more useful guide may be London's congestion charge, which exempts for-hire vehicles such as ride-hailing services. To reduce traffic in highly-congested areas, the city charges all cars entering central London and uses the £1.7 billion ($2.2 billion) revenue to improve bus services, bicycle commuting and walking, and road safety. And recently, Transport for London is proposing expansion of its congestion charge to for-hire vehicles.

How Does Ride-Hailing Fit the Bigger Picture?

As new mobility services change cities and the way people move, today's decisions on taxes and other regulations can help shape a more sustainable mobility for all. There is more to consider, in terms of how to tax, how much to charge and where to send revenues—but taking a more holistic approach to understanding the impact of those policies is a good start.


          Wapo Wear featuring Model Eric Uchoa      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
WAPO Wear is bringing you new photo-shoot by Spanish model agency MDZ Management of fitness model and dancer, Brazilian Eric Uchoa. Eric’s velvet chocolate skin is in perfect contrast with
          ALIANSCE 2Q18 RESULTS: EBITDA expands by 8.0% and AFFO by 23.7%      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

RIO DE JANEIRO, Aug. 8, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- Aliansce Shopping Centers S.A. (B3: ALSC3), one of Brazil's largest shopping malls owners and operators, announced today its financial results for the second quarter of 2018. 2Q18 Highlights: Total sales reached R$1.4 billion during 2Q18, a...


          Right-wing Brazilian presidential candidate picks dictatorship-loving general as a running mate      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Remember last week when we told you that there was some jibba-jabba about the possibility of Brazil sliding back into being a military dictatorship? According to Reuters, far-right leaning presidential candidate, Jair Bolsonaro, has named a retired general as his running mate in the nation’s upcoming elections. Here’s the shit-and-giggle part: the general in question is Antonio Hamilton Mourão. He’s the same fella that told the media that there was a possibility of there being a military coup if the Brazilian government didn’t get its shit together. From Reuters:
Bolsonaro, running as a candidate for the small Social Liberty Party (PSL), has pegged much of his candidacy on controversial remarks, whether defending of the past military dictatorship or suggesting acts of violence against homosexuals. In an interview last year with Reuters, the candidate for the Social Liberty Party (PSL) played down Mourão’s remarks. “It was just a warning. Nobody wants to seize power that way,” Bolsonaro said. “Maybe we could have a military man winning in 2018, but through elections.” Bolsonaro had struggled to find a running mate as other parties tried to distance themselves from his controversial comments. Other proposed vice presidential candidates - including another general, an astronaut and a sitting senator - ultimately fell through.
Encouraging acts of violence against homosexuals and propping up the deeds of a past dictatorship. I can’t imagine why Bolsonaro was having problems finding a running mate. Unfortunately, as we’ve learned over the past few years, having no moral compass or compassion for minorities won’t stop a dangerous bully or a dictator from coming to power during an election year. Image via Wikipedia
          8/9/2018: TIMES SPORT: £65m      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Liverpool shattered the previous record for goalkeeper transfers. The Brazilian joins from Roma. Claudio Bravo in the summer of 2017. The move paid instant dividends.
          8/9/2018: TIMES SPORT: £35m      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Manchester City signed the Brazilian as a replacement for
          UPDATE 2-Brazil's BTG Pactual says no management changes in short term      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Banco BTG Pactual SA Chief Financial Officer João Dantas said on Wednesday there will be no changes to the bank's management in the short term following the acquittal of its founder, Andre Esteves, of corruption charges last month.

          Brazil prosecutors file charges against GE executive      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Brazilian prosecutors have formally charged General Electric Co's chief executive for Latin America for alleged involvement in a healthcare cartel, officials said on Wednesday, though a judge ruled that he should be released from jail for now.

          Brazil's Alckmin to follow pragmatic trade policy: running mate      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
If Brazilian presidential candidate Geraldo Alckmin is elected in October, his government will follow a more pragmatic approach to trade partners Russia and China in order to open markets for its food exports, his running mate said on Wednesday.

          Brazil prosecutors file charges against GE executive      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Brazilian prosecutors have formally charged General Electric Co's chief executive for Latin America for alleged involvement in a healthcare cartel, officials said on Wednesday, though a judge ruled that he should be released from jail for now.

          Global Luminaire and Lighting Control Market 2018 Segmentation with Top Market Key Players, Growth Rate and Forecast Till 2026      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The luminaire and lighting control market is projected to expand at a CAGR of 5.6% during the forecast period and reach US$ 111.0 Bn by 2026.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- This comprehensive report by MRRSE analyzes and forecasts the luminaire and lighting control market at the global and regional level. The report provides an analysis over the period 2016–2026, wherein 2018 to 2026 is the forecast period and the base year is 2017. An in-depth and unbiased market assessment has been made to offer readers in-depth and accurate analysis. The report emphasizes on all the major trends and services playing a key role in luminaire and lighting control market expansion from 2018 to 2026. It also focuses on restraining factors, market drivers, and opportunities of the luminaire and lighting control market during the said period. The study provides a complete perspective about the luminaire and lighting control market's expansion throughout the research study in terms of value (in US$ Bn) across various geographies, including Asia Pacific, South America, North America, Middle East & Africa (MEA), and Europe.

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The report includes a detailed value chain analysis, which is focused on providing a broad view of the global luminaire and lighting control market. Porter's Five Forces analysis is also provided to understand the competitive scenario in the global luminaire and lighting control market. The study incorporates market attractiveness analysis, where in the market segments for product, light, technology, component, and application are benchmarked based on their market size, growth rate, and attractiveness in terms of opportunity. In order to give a complete analysis of the overall competitive scenario in the luminaire and lighting control market, analysis of every geographic region mentioned in the report has been provided along with attractiveness analysis.

The market overview chapter in the luminaire and lighting control market report explains the market trends and dynamics that include restraining factors, drivers, and opportunities for the current and future luminaire and lighting control market. A global market outlook analysis has also been provided in the report. Additionally, the report provides analysis of different business strategies being adopted by market leaders of the luminaire and lighting control market. The market introduction chapter assists in gaining an idea of different trends related to luminaire and lighting control products.

Global Luminaire and Lighting Control Market: Scope of the Report

The study provides a decisive view on the global luminaire and lighting control market by segmenting the market based on product, light, technology, component, and application. The report provides a detailed regionwise breakdown of the luminaire and lighting control market and categorizes it at various levels, thus providing valuable insights at the micro and macro levels.

The report further highlights the competitive scenario within the luminaire and lighting control market and includes details such as recent developments and geographic presence of major players. The insights for the luminaire and lighting control market are the result of our extensive primary interviews, secondary research, and in-house expert panel reviews. These market estimates have been analyzed by considering the impact of different economic, political, social, legal, and technological factors.

The market in North America is classified into Mexico, the U.S., and Rest of North America. Furthermore, the market in Europe is analyzed across Italy, France, Germany, and the Rest of Europe. The luminaire and lighting control market in Asia Pacific is analyzed across China, Japan, India, and the Rest of Asia Pacific. Middle East & Africa regions covers GCC, South Africa, and Rest of Middle East & Africa. Similarly, South America includes Brazil and Rest of South America. This report provides all the strategic information required to understand the luminaire and lighting control market along with its devices and application. Also, the report provides insights related to the components and different applications according to the various geographical regions mentioned above.

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Global Luminaire and Lighting Control Market: Research Methodology

The research methodology is a perfect combination of primary research, secondary research, and expert panel reviews. Secondary sources such as annual reports, company websites, SEC filings and investor presentations, national government documents, internal and external proprietary databases, statistical databases, relevant patent and regulatory databases, market reports, government publications, statistical databases, etc. have been referred to.

Primary research involves telephonic interviews, e-mail interactions, and face-to-face interviews for detailed and unbiased reviews on the luminaire and lighting control market, across geographies. Primary interviews are usually conducted on an ongoing basis with industry experts and participants in order to get the latest market insights and validate the existing data and analysis. Primary interviews offer new and fresh information on important factors such as market trends, market size, competitive landscape, growth trends, etc.. These factors help to validate and strengthen secondary research findings. Moreover, the data collected and analyzed from secondary and primary research, is again discussed and examined by our expert panel.

Global Luminaire and Lighting Control Market: Competitive Dynamics

The research study includes profiles of leading companies operating in the global luminaire and lighting control market. Market players have been profiled in terms of attributes such as company overview, financial overview, business strategies, and recent developments. Key players in the luminaire and lighting control market include General Electric Co., Philips Lighting N.V., General Electric, Cree,Inc, Legrand S.A., OSRAM Licht AG, Eaton Corporation, Lutron Electronics Co., Inc, Acuity Brands, Inc., Hubbell Incorporated, and LSI Industries Inc.. Companies are focusing on expanding their business through strategic acquisitions and partnerships with several end-use industries.

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MRRSE partners exclusively with leading global publishers to provide clients single-point access to top-of-the-line market research. MRRSE's repository is updated every day to keep its clients ahead of the next new trend in market research, be it competitive intelligence, product or service trends or strategic consulting.

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          Global Smart Cities Market Overview 2018: Industry Sales, Supply, Consumption, Analysis and Forecast Till 2026      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

MRRSE offers an 8-year forecast for global Smart Cities market between 2018 and 2026. In terms of value, market is expected to register a CAGR of 19.8% during forecast period.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- This research report provides detailed analysis of Smart Cities market and offers insights on the various factors driving popularity of Smart Cities and its features. The report includes an extensive analysis of key industry drivers, restraints, market trends and market structure. The market study provides comprehensive assessment of stakeholder strategies and imperatives for succeeding in the business. The report segregates the market based on application, and component across different regions globally.

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The Smart Cities market is anticipated to witness moderate revenue growth during the forecast period, owing to the Increasing transition towards urbanization, governmental initiatives, and the increasing penetration of advanced technologies such as IoT, cloud computing, big data etc.

The report starts with an overview of the smart cities market in terms of value. In addition, this section includes analysis of key trends, drivers and restraints from the supply, demand and economy side, which are influencing the smart cities market.

On the basis of application, smart cities market is segmented into smart security, smart building, smart transportation, smart governance, smart energy, smart healthcare, smart water network system, and smart education.

On the basis of component, smart cities market is segmented into hardware, software and services

A detailed analysis has been provided for every segment in terms of market size analysis for smart cities market across the different regions. The section provides a detailed analysis covering key trends.

The next section highlights detailed analysis of smart cities market across various countries in the region. It provides a market outlook for 2018–2026 and sets the forecast within the context of smart cities market, including latest technological developments as well as offerings in the market. This study discusses key trends within countries contributing to growth of the market, as well as analyses degree at which drivers are influencing this market in each region. Key regions and countries assessed in this report include North America (U.S., Canada), Latin America (Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and Rest of Latin America), Europe (Germany, France, UK, Italy, Spain, Russia, and Rest of Western Europe), SEA and others in Asia Pacific (India, Australia & New Zealand, ASEAN, and Rest of APAC), Japan, China and MEA (GCC Countries, Turkey, South Africa, North Africa and Rest of MEA). This report evaluate the present scenario and the growth prospects of the smart cities market across various regions globally for the period 2018 –2026. We have considered 2017 as the base year and provide data for the trailing 12 months.

In order to offer an accurate forecast, we started by sizing the current smart cities market, which forms the basis of how the smart cities market will grow in the future. Given the characteristics of the market, we triangulated the outcome of different types of analyses, based on the technology trends.

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As previously highlighted, the global smart cities market is split into a number of segments. All segments in terms of application, component and different regions are analysed in terms of basis point to understand individual segment's relative contributions to smart cities market growth. This detailed level of information is important for identification of various key trends of the global smart cities market. Also, another key feature of this report is the analysis of all key segments in terms of absolute dollar opportunity. This is traditionally overlooked while forecasting the market. However, absolute dollar opportunity is critical in assessing the level of opportunity that a provider can look to achieve, as well as to identify potential resources from a sales and delivery perspective in the global smart cities market.

Key Segments Covered in the report smart cities market are:

Application

Smart Security

Smart Building

Smart Transportation

Smart Governance

Smart Energy

Smart Healthcare

Smart Water Network System

Smart Education

Application

Hardware

Software

Services

Key Regions covered:

North America Smart Cities Market

U.S.

Canada

Latin America Smart Cities Market

Brazil

Argentina

Mexico

Rest of Latin America

Europe Smart Cities Market

Germany

France

U.K.

Spain

Italy

Russia

Rest of Western Europe

SEA and other of APAC Smart Cities Market

India

Australia & New Zealand

ASEAN

Rest of APAC

Japan Smart Cities Market

China Smart Cities Market

MEA Smart Cities Market

GCC Countries

Turkey

South Africa

North Africa

Rest of MEA

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          Optical Sorters Market Size, Historical Analysis, Emerging Technologies, Trends and Industry Set for Rapid Growth with 10.4% of CAGR by Forecast 2026      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The optical sorters market is expected to reach US$ 3,350.2 Mn by 2026. The market is projected to expand at a CAGR of 10.4% from 2018 to 2026.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- The Optical Sorters Market  report provides analysis of the optical sorters market for the period 2016 to 2026, wherein the years from 2018 to 2026 is the forecast period, 2017 is considered as the base year, and data for 2016 has been provided as historical information. The report covers all the trends and technologies playing a major role in the expansion of the optical sorters market during the forecast period. It highlights the drivers, restraints, and opportunities expected to influence the expansion of the market during this period. The study provides a holistic perspective on the expansion of the market, in terms of revenue (in US$ Mn) and volume (Units), across different geographical regions, namely, North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa, and South America. The report highlights the key trends affecting the market on a global scale. Furthermore, region-wise, prominent countries/regions covered in the report include the U.S, Canada, Germany, France, the U.K, India, China, Australia, GCC countries, South Africa, and Brazil.

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This report analyzes and forecasts the optical sorters market at the global and regional level. The market has been forecasted based on revenue (US$ Mn) and volume (Units) from 2018 to 2026. The study includes drivers and restraints of the global optical sorters market. It also covers the impact of these drivers and restraints during the forecast period. The study encompasses market attractiveness analysis, wherein component, type, end-use, and countries/regions are benchmarked based on their market size, growth rate, and general attractiveness.

Global Optical Sorters Market: Taxonomy

This research study on the global optical sorters market provides a detailed cross-segment and cross-country analysis based on the different segments including component, type, and end-use. Based on component, the optical sorters market is segmented into products and services. By type, the market is divided into camera, laser, NIR, X-ray, combined, and others. In terms of end-use, the optical sorters market is classified into food processing, tobacco processing, waste recycling, mining and others. Furthermore, based on region, the market is divided into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa, and South America.

Access Complete Report with Table of Content @ https://www.mrrse.com/optical-sorters-market

Global Optical Sorters Market: Research Methodology

Secondary research sources that are typically referred to include, but are not limited to, company websites, annual reports, financial reports, broker reports, investor presentations, and SEC filings, internal and external proprietary databases, and relevant patent and regulatory databases, national government documents, statistical databases, and market reports, news articles, press releases, and webcasts specific to companies operating in the market, national government documents, statistical databases, and market reports, Factiva, etc.

Primary research involves e-mail interactions, telephonic interviews, and face-to-face interviews for each market, category, segment, and sub-segment across geographies. We conduct primary interviews on an ongoing basis with industry participants and commentators in order to validate the data and analysis. Primary interviews provide first-hand information on the market size, market trends, growth trends, competitive landscape, and outlook, etc. These help us to validate and strengthen secondary research findings. These also help develop the analysis team's market expertise and understanding.

Global Optical Sorters Market: Competitive Dynamics

The report highlights well-established players operating in the market including TOMRA Systems ASA, Buhler AG, Satake Corporation, Key Technology, and Cimbria. These key players are looking to capture larger market share by expanding their current optical sorters offerings in emerging economies. For instance, in May 2018, Satake Corporation launched FMSR Series optical sorters in Brazil for a wide range of applications. Two models, FMSR03-L (3 chutes) and FMSR02-L (2 chutes) use RGB technology to remove unwanted products, including irregular-shape defects and discoloration from small products such as coffee beans.

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          Global High-Voltage Switchgear Market - Segmented by Product Standard, Component, Application and Geography - Growth, Trends, and Forecast Till 2026      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The high-voltage switchgear market is projected to expand at a CAGR of 5.0% during the forecast period and reach US$ 18,898.7 Mn by 2026.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- This comprehensive report by MRRSE analyzes the high voltage switchgear market at the global and regional level. The report provides an analysis for the period 2016–2026, where 2017 is considered to be the base year and 2018 to 2026 is the forecast period. An in-depth and unbiased market assessment has been made to offer readers in-depth and accurate analysis. The report analyzes all the major trends likely to influence the growth of the global high voltage switchgear market from 2018 to 2026. It also analyzes drivers, restraints, and opportunities in the market. The study provides a perspective of the high voltage switchgear market in terms of value and volume (US$ Mn and Units) across five regions: Asia Pacific, South America, North America, Middle East & Africa, and Europe.

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The report includes a detailed value chain analysis, which provides an extensive view of the global high voltage switchgear market. Porter's Five Forces analysis is also provided in the report to understand the competitive scenario in the global high voltage switchgear market. The study incorporates market attractiveness analysis, wherein the product standard, component, insulation type, and application segments are benchmarked based on size, growth rate, and attractiveness. The report also includes attractiveness analysis for each region in order to provide the overall competitive scenario in the high voltage switchgear market.

The overview section in the report analyzes the market trends and dynamics that include drivers, restraints, and opportunities for the current and future high voltage switchgear market. A market outlook analysis has also been provided in the report. Additionally, the report offers analysis of business strategies adopted by the key players in the high voltage switchgear market. The introduction chapter provides a snapshot of different trends and services related to high voltage switchgears.

Global High-Voltage Switchgear Market: Scope of the Report

In terms of product standard, the global high voltage switchgear market has been segmented into IEC, ANSI, and others. Based on component, the global market has been classified into circuit breakers, relays, and others. In terms of insulation, the global high voltage switchgear market has been categorized into air-insulated switchgears (AIS), gas-insulated switchgears (GIS), and others (oil and vacuum). Based on application, the global market has been divided into power generation, oil & gas, utility sector, and industrial. The report provides region-wise breakdown of the high voltage switchgear market and categorizes it at various levels, thereby providing valuable insights at micro and macro levels.

The report also highlights the competitive scenario in the global high voltage switchgear market, ranking the major players according to key developments and geographic presence. The insights for the global market are the result of extensive primary interviews, secondary research, and in-house expert panel reviews. These market estimates have been analyzed by considering the impact of different economic, political, social, legal, and technological factors.

In terms of country, the market in North America has been classified into the U.S., Canada, and Rest of North America. Europe has been analyzed for Germany, France, the U.K. and Rest of Europe. Asia Pacific has also been segmented into China, Japan, India, Australia, and Rest of Asia Pacific. Middle East & Africa covers GCC, South Africa, and Rest of Middle East &Africa. South America comprises Brazil and Rest of South America. This report provides all the strategic information required to understand the high voltage switchgear market along with its products, components, and applications. Additionally, the report provides insights related to the components and different applications for the regions mentioned above.

Global High-Voltage Switchgear Market: Research Methodology

The research methodology is a combination of primary research, secondary research, and expert panel reviews. Secondary sources include annual reports, company websites, SEC filings and investor presentations, national government documents, internal and external proprietary databases, statistical databases, relevant patent and regulatory databases, market reports, government publications, and statistical databases.

Primary research involves telephonic interviews, e-mail interactions, and face-to-face interviews for detailed and unbiased reviews on the high voltage switchgear market, across regions. Primary interviews are usually conducted on an ongoing basis with industry experts and participants in order to get latest market insights and validate the existing data and analysis. Primary interviews offer new and fresh information on important factors such as market trends, market size, competitive landscape, and growth trends. These factors help to validate and strengthen secondary research findings. Moreover, the data collected and analyzed from secondary and primary research is discussed and examined by our expert panel.

Outlook Complete Research Reports on High-Voltage Switchgear Market with Industry Key Players and Complete List of Tables & Figures @ https://www.mrrse.com/high-voltage-switchgear-market

Global High-Voltage Switchgear Market: Competitive Dynamics

The research study includes profiles of leading companies operating in the global high voltage switchgear market. Market players have been profiled in terms of attributes such as company overview, financial overview, SWOT analysis, business strategies, and recent developments. Key players in the global high voltage switchgear market are ABB Ltd., Eaton Corporation, Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., General Electric, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Schneider Electric SE, Siemens AG, Crompton Greaves Ltd., Hyosung Corporation, and Toshiba Corporation, among others. These companies focus on expanding business through strategic acquisitions and partnerships with several end-use industries.

The global high voltage switchgear market has been segmented as follows:

Global High-Voltage Switchgear Market

By Product Standard

IEC Standard

ANSI Standard

Others

By Component

Circuit Breakers

Relays

Others

By Insulation

Air-insulated Switchgears

SF6

Non SF6

Gas-insulated Switchgears

SF6

Non SF6

Others (oil & vacuum)

By Application

Power Generation

Oil & Gas

Utilities Sector

Industrial

By Region

North America

U.S.

Canada

Rest of North America

Europe

Germany

France

U.K.

Rest of Europe

Asia Pacific

China

Japan

India

Australia

Rest of Asia Pacific

Middle East &Africa

GCC

South Africa

Rest of Middle East & Africa

South America

Brazil

Rest of South America

Place an Enquiry to Our Industry Expert at @ https://www.mrrse.com/enquiry/16546

About Market Research Reports Search Engine
Market Research Reports Search Engine (MRRSE) is an industry-leading database of market intelligence reports. MRRSE is driven by a stellar team of research experts and advisors trained to offer objective advice. Our sophisticated search algorithm returns results based on the report title, geographical region, publisher, or other keywords.

MRRSE partners exclusively with leading global publishers to provide clients single-point access to top-of-the-line market research. MRRSE's repository is updated every day to keep its clients ahead of the next new trend in market research, be it competitive intelligence, product or service trends or strategic consulting.

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          Global 3D Sensor Market Overview 2018: Industry Sales, Supply, Consumption, Analysis and Forecast Till 2026      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The market for 3D sensors is forecast to reach US$ 2,556.6 Mn by 2026 from US$ 1,292.2 Mn in 2016, recording a CAGR of 7.2%.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- This comprehensive report by MRRSE analyzes the 3D sensor market at the global and regional level. The report provides analysis over the period 2016–2026, wherein 2018 to 2026 is the forecast period and the base year is 2017. An in-depth and unbiased market assessment has been made to offer readers in-depth and accurate analysis. The report emphasizes on all the major trends and services playing a key role in the growth of the 3D sensor market during 2018 - 2026. It also focuses on market drivers, restraining factors, and opportunities of the 3D sensor market during the said period. The study provides a complete perspective about the 3D sensor market's growth throughout the research study in terms of value (in US$ Mn and million units) across various geographies, including Asia Pacific, South America, North America, Middle East & Africa (MEA), and Europe.

Looking for more information on this market? Get Free sample report @ https://www.mrrse.com/sample/16709

The report includes detailed value chain analysis, which is focused on providing a widespread view of the global 3D sensor market. Porter's Five Forces analysis is also provided to understand the competitive scenario in the market. The study incorporates market attractiveness analysis, wherein the market segments for type, technology, and end-use are benchmarked based on their market size, growth rate, and attractiveness in terms of opportunity. In order to give a complete analysis of the overall competitive scenario in the 3D sensor market, every geographic region mentioned in the report is provided with attractiveness analysis.

A market overview chapter in the report explains the market trends and dynamics that include the restraining factors, drivers, and opportunities for the current and future 3D sensor market. A market outlook analysis has also been provided globally in the report. Additionally, the report also provides analysis of different business strategies being adopted by market leaders of 3D sensors. Market introduction chapter assists in gaining an idea of different trends and services related to 3D sensors along with their devices.

Global 3D sensor Market: Scope of the Report

The study provides a decisive view on the global 3D sensor market, by segmenting the market on the basis of type, technology, and end-use. The report provides detailed breakdown of the 3D sensor market region-wise and categorizes it at various levels, thus providing valuable insights at micro and macro levels.

The report further highlights the competitive scenario within the 3D sensor market, thus ranking all the major players according to the key recent developments and their geographic presence. The insights for the 3D sensor market are the result of our extensive primary interviews, secondary research, and in-house expert panel reviews. These market estimates have been analyzed by considering the impact of different economic, political, social, legal, and technological factors.

On the basis of country, the North America market is bifurcated into Mexico, the U.S., and Rest of North America. Furthermore, the Europe market is analyzed across Italy, France, Germany, and Rest of Europe. The 3D sensor market in APAC is also segmented at country level which includes China, Japan, India, and Rest of Asia Pacific. Middle East & Africa region covers the GCC, South Africa, and Rest of Middle East & Africa. Similarly, South America region includes Brazil and Rest of South America. This report provides all the strategic information required to understand the 3D sensor market along with its devices and end-use. Also, the report provides insights related to the components and different end-use according to the various geographical regions mentioned above.

Order a copy of Global 3D Sensor Market Report @ https://www.mrrse.com/3d-sensors-market

Global 3D Sensor Market: Research Methodology

The research methodology is a perfect combination of primary research, secondary research, and expert panel reviews. Secondary sources include annual reports, company websites, SEC filings and investor presentations, national government documents, internal and external proprietary databases, statistical databases, relevant patent and regulatory databases, market reports, government publications, statistical databases, etc.

Primary research involves telephonic interviews, e-mail interactions, and face-to-face interviews for detailed and unbiased reviews on the 3D sensor market, across geographies. Primary interviews are usually conducted on an ongoing basis with industry experts and participants in order to get latest market insights and validate the existing data and analysis. Primary interviews offer new and fresh information on important factors such as market trends, market size, competitive landscape, growth trends, etc. These factors help to validate and strengthen secondary research findings. Moreover, the data collected and analyzed from secondary and primary research is again discussed and examined by our expert panel.

Global 3D Sensor Market: Competitive Dynamics

The research study includes profiles of leading companies operating in the global 3D sensor market. Market players have been profiled in terms of attributes such as company overview, financial overview, business strategies, and recent developments. Key players in the 3D sensor market includes - Infenon Technologies, Omnivision Technologies, Occipital, Inc., PMD Technologies AG, Microchip Technology, Cognex Corporation, Intel Corporation, Ifm electronic GMBH, LMI Technology, NXP Semiconductors, and Texas Instruments. Companies are focusing on expanding their business through strategic acquisitions and partnerships with several end-use industries.

Inquire more or share questions if any on this report @ https://www.mrrse.com/enquiry/16709

About Market Research Reports Search Engine
Market Research Reports Search Engine (MRRSE) is an industry-leading database of market intelligence reports. MRRSE is driven by a stellar team of research experts and advisors trained to offer objective advice. Our sophisticated search algorithm returns results based on the report title, geographical region, publisher, or other keywords.

MRRSE partners exclusively with leading global publishers to provide clients single-point access to top-of-the-line market research. MRRSE's repository is updated every day to keep its clients ahead of the next new trend in market research, be it competitive intelligence, product or service trends or strategic consulting.

Contact
State Tower
90, State Street
Suite 700
Albany, NY - 12207
United States Telephone: +1-518-730-0559
Email: sales@mrrse.com
Website: https://www.mrrse.com/

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/global-3d-sensor-market-overview-2018-industry-sales-supply-consumption-analysis-and-forecast-till-2026-1023874.htm

Media Relations Contact

Nivedita
Manager
MRRSE
Telephone: 1-518-621-2074
Email: Click to Email Nivedita
Web: https://www.mrrse.com/

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          Why NII Holdings Stock Plunged Today      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The holding company reported earnings and is looking to sell off Nextel Brazil.
          Brazil Southeast for taxon Odontostomus gargantua (A. Férussac, 1821)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Distribution "Brazil Southeast" for taxon Odontostomus gargantua (A. Férussac, 1821) has been added by Eike Neubert via the webinterface on 2018-08-08T15:17:56+00:00
          Brazil Southeast for taxon Helix gargantua A. Férussac, 1821      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Distribution "Brazil Southeast" for taxon Helix gargantua A. Férussac, 1821 has been added by Eike Neubert via the webinterface on 2018-08-08T15:17:56+00:00
          'In a Cane Field' by Emily Avila      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

In a Cane Field (16min, 2016, Australia, 16mm)
Written and directed by Emily Avila.
Based on the short story 'The Serrambi Case' by Brazilian author, Frances de Pontes Peebles.

Synopsis: In a beachside tourist town, the body of a fifteen-year-old girl is found in a cane field. Her murder is a mystery that envelops the community as those close to the girl grapple with death, in all its senselessness.

Starring Yasmin Honeychurch, Indiarose Thomas, Hugh Parker, Lindy Honeychurch and Michael Tuahine
Producers - Emily Avila & Coralie Tapper
Company - Cosmia Films (cosmiafilms.com)
Cinematographer - Adric Watson (adricwatson.com)
Editor - Adric Watson
Sound Designer - Dylan Barfield
Composer - Jonathon Trevillien
Production Design - Aprille Asfoura & Arundhati Madan
Costume Design - Arundhati Madan
Hair & Make-up Artist - Billie Weston
Produced with the assistance of Screen Queensland (screenqld.com)

Cast: Emily Avila

Tags: Australia, Emily Avila, Yasmin Honeychurch, Adric Watson, sugarcane, Queensland, Coralie Tapper and Indiarose Thomas


          Brazilian Pecan Floor & Wall Tile + Free Shipping $1.12 (lowes.com)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   



          SUFFOCATION Announce Dates For Final Tour With Original Vocalist FANK MULLEN      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
New York death metal pioneers Suffocation have announced dates for their final North American tour with original vocalist Frank Mullen. This historic trek will take place this upcoming October / November and see the band joined by misanthropic gore grinders Cattle Decapitation, Brazilian death metal legends Krisiun, and Swedish tech-death...
          Factoid      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Factoid Image: 
Factoid Author: 
Jagannath Chatterjee

Paulo Gabriel da Silva Barros and Katyucia Lie Hoshino Barros of Brazil have been declared the “World's Shortest Married Couple” by Guinness World Records. The Barros’ have long wanted the shortest couple honour. But they had to be officially married in order to get recognition. The Brazilian couple married in September 2016 after an eight-year relationship but on November 17 they got the official recognition from Guiness World Records that they are the world’s shortest married couple. They have a combined height of 181.41 cm verified in Itapeva, São Paulo, Brazil, on   November 3 2016


          Brazil’s Miss Bumbum Contestants Pose With X-rays Of Their Butts (PHOTOS)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
 
Brazil’s Miss Bumbum contestants has posed with X-rays of their butts to prove you don’t need risky butt operations to get an impressive backside.

According to reports from The Sun, the competitors united to warn against “quick fix” surgeries after a number of high-profile deaths of women following butt augmentation surgery.

The 27 women, each representing a state of Brazil, are competing for the coveted “best bottom” gong.

The contestants showed X-ray scans yesterday to prove none of their own derrieres have been tampered with.

Brazil was rocked last month after celebrity plastic surgeon Dr Bumbum went on the run after a woman died hours after getting injections to enlarge her bottom.

It is believed Denis Furtado, who has more than 650,000 followers on Instagram and appears regularly on Brazilian TV, accidentally injected fillers in an artery during the procedure.

He was captured four days later and awaits trial for manslaughter.

Days later, Mayara Silva dos Santos, a 24-year-old Brazilian model living in Denmark, died after suffering complications following surgery on her buttocks, thighs and stomach carried out in Rio.

A third woman, 41-year-old Adriana Ferreira Pinto, also recently died six days after undergoing butt surgery.

In March British mother, Jade Stafford, nearly died on an operating table in Turkey while getting a Kardashian-style operation to enlarge her bottom.

One of the rules of the world famous Miss Bumbum competition, now in it’s sixth year, is that contestants must not have undergone surgery to enlarge or enhance their backsides.

But that doesn’t mean this year’s hopefuls are surgery-free – the 27 women admitted to having had 78 cosmetic procedures between them, from boob jobs and liposuction to nose and chin surgery.

Pictures show the women showing off their X-rays before their annual parade down Sao Paulo’s main street.

See more pictures

 


          See the Trailer for "GOOD MANNERS" an Award Winning Brazilian Horror Fairy Tale      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Click now to See the Trailer for "GOOD MANNERS" an Award Winning Brazilian Horror Fairy Tale

Read the full article on AICN

Hola Dannie aqui,
Today I received an email from Cinema Tropical stating they are currently working with Distrib Films US for the U.S. theatrical release of the acclaimed Brazilian horror fairy tale "GOOD MANNERS," opening on Friday, August 17th at the Laemmle Royal in L.A., followed by other cities (the film is currently playing in New York City and San Francisco). 

The email went on to state and described the film-
"GOOD MANNERS" is "an unexpected and wild werewolf movie with a lesbian twist and poignant class and gender commentary—I thought it could be of your interest for Ain’t It Cool News. GOOD MANNERS was the winner of the Special Jury Prize at the Locarno Film Festival, a Special Mention at Austin’s Fantastic Fest, and played at the AFI FEST and New Directors/New Films." 

Here is the trailer 

What did all of you horror-hounds and foreign-fans think? I thought the trailer was beautifully composed, with a spectacular ambiance. Of course, it brings back memories of 1968's "ROSEMARY'S BABY" which my family waited to show me until I was pregnant, so I found it particularly disturbing and still do.   I also enjoyed the creepy nursery rhyme in the trailer. Those songs are always fun to send a chill up one's spine!

If you are lucky enough to live in one of the cities "GOOD MANNERS" is playing in, if I were you I would check it out, and then send a review into AICN! I just sent in a request for a screener I love foreign cinema, and I adore

Finish the article on AICN


          The Brazilian criminals learning crochet in prison      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The all-male prisoners have even put on a fashion show inside the Adriano Marrey prison in Sao Paulo.
          International Student Advisor I - Woori Brazil - Toronto, ON      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
*Attention: *do not contact the employer directly with regards to this position.\* If you believe you are a good fit for our company, please submit your...
From Indeed - Tue, 19 Jun 2018 18:09:43 GMT - View all Toronto, ON jobs
          Why Is This Asylum Seeker Still in Detention if 3 Court Decisions Have Ruled in His Favor? Demand ICE Release Ansly Damus.      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
"In the past, I thought I was going to leave, and still I'm here."

Those are the words of 42-year-old Haitian asylum seeker Ansly Damus spoken from a detention facility in Chardon, Ohio.

The ethics teacher first came to the States in 2016 after leaving his home country due to fear that he might be killed by a local politician. But the U.S. wasn't his first stop. He went to Brazil first to try to make a life for himself there, but after hearing that Haitian immigrants were being brutally killed, he decided to escape to the U.S. and ask for asylum.

That was nearly two years ago and Ansly is still being held in detention without the possibility to leave,even though on three different occasions the court has sided with his cause to get him released issuing a "denial of parole." Yet, he still lingers behind in ICE custody.

In April of 2017, an immigration judge first approved his request for asylum. When he still wasn't released, the judge approved it once again in January of 2018. But the anti-immigrant Trump administration appealed the decisions each time.

Aside from contravening the court's orders, ICE is also breaking its own policy. According to a recent article, several ICE offices, including the one managing Ansly's case, have been issuing blanket denials of parole for hundreds of asylum seekers, independent of each seeker's merits. This goes against ICE's own policy to grant parole on an individualized basis. The blanket denials have ensnared Ansly's fate even though time and time again immigration judges have sided with Mr. Damus.

This injustice must be fixed. It's time ICE follow its own rules and the orders of the immigration judge and release Ansly Damus on parole today.
          Brazilians Turn To Evangelical Church In Rural Town Wracked By Drugs And Poverty      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
To the outsider, there is a beguiling charm and tranquility about the farming town of Central do Maranhão in northeast Brazil. It's tucked amid the palm groves, mango trees and rice fields that cover the landscape rolling gently toward the Atlantic Ocean, some 30 miles to the north. Yet beneath the surface lies a troubled world, where drug and alcohol abuse are corroding the lives of many, especially young Brazilians. It is one of the poorest farming towns in Brazil, a community in the doldrums, where the only other social pursuit that appears to be truly flourishing — apart from booze and narcotics — is religion. Although it has a population of fewer than 9,000 people, Central do Maranhão has 18 places of worship, of different denominations, ranging from large churches to little more than cubbyholes. There are also about 40 bars, mostly drinking dens no larger than a small room. The town is a scattering of low buildings and bungalows with red-tile roofs and grazing animals. Life moves
          Battlin' Beauties      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Video: Battlin' Beauties
Watch This Video!
Studio: Sly Productions
Sock 'em Rock 'em robots got nothing on these gorgeous gals going at it with the coolest fight scenes ever. All the makings of a big-time wrestling match, except these gals are naked and full of sexual tension. When it all hits the fan, they come out swinging, pulling hair and biting, uh nibbling . . . on a breast here and sniffing a little cunt there. Gorgeous and naked and in a fighting frenzy. When they're all battled out, you can bet these hotties settle down for a real throw-down!


Stars: Amber Rey, Leslie Lixx, Chris Collins, Daphne, Frankie Layne, Gabrielle, Gina Share, Katie, Keanna, K.C. Dylan, Misty Lane, Sascha (Female), Valeria, Veronica Castillo

          Branch Manager - Aditya Birla Group - Shiliguri, West Bengal      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Group operates in 36 countries Australia Austria Bangladesh Brazil Canada China Egypt France Germany Hungary India Indonesia Italy Ivory Coast Japan Korea...
From Aditya Birla Group - Tue, 07 Aug 2018 13:19:03 GMT - View all Shiliguri, West Bengal jobs
          Talentoso haalt Braziliaans IT-talent naar België      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
GENT – Sam De Decker staat aan het hoofd van Blue Frontend, een IT-consultancy bedrijf gespecialiseerd in JavaScript. Hij zag dat veel bedrijven kampen met een tekort aan getalenteerde IT’ers. Zo kwam hij een jaar geleden op het idee om Talentoso op te richten. Samen met zijn Braziliaanse vrouw Thais Silva da Punicena rekruteert hij […]
Made in Limburg
(Topic HR)
          1962. Brazil postatiszta bélyeg - foci VB - Jelenlegi ára: 11 Ft      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
1962. Brazil postatiszta bélyeg - foci VB - kifogástalan minőség !
1962. Brazil postatiszta bélyeg - foci VB
Jelenlegi ára: 11 Ft
Az aukció vége: 2018-08-09 12:28
          RIDER férfi papucs szürke-kék 41-42 ÚJ ! - Jelenlegi ára: 2 990 Ft      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

AKCIÓÓÓÓÓ!!
Eredeti RIDER márkás papucs,  ÚJ!!
"  A Rider papucsok a brazil életérzést és vidámságot ötvözik a világszerte formatervezéssel  és minőséggel.
A papucsok és szandálok utcai és vízparti viseletre egyaránt tökéletesen alkalmasak. Neve évek óta a minőséget és a tartósságot jelenti a strandpapucs és utcai papucs világban. "
Divatos, kényelmes, könnyű, puha, rugalmas, puha.
Szürke alap színben, kék pánttal,
- pántján, talpán márka felirattal !!
EU számozása 42-43-as méret, tényleges méret: 41-42-es
teljes belső talphossza: 28cm.
Lakásba és vízparti használatra kiváló!
Nézz körül többi márkás, exkluzív termékem között !
Jó licitálást !!!
Személyes átvétel Bp. XXI. ker. Csepel - Királyerdőben a címemen, előre egyeztetett időpontban.

RIDER férfi papucs szürke-kék 41-42 ÚJ !
Jelenlegi ára: 2 990 Ft
Az aukció vége: 2018-08-09 02:49
          Country Manager - Brazil (Marketing/Ecommerce) - JivoChat` - São Paulo, SP      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
*Country Manager – BRAZIL* *Who we are: * JivoChat is a fast growing global startup.JivoChat is 100% committed to developing the best communication...
De Indeed - Thu, 02 Aug 2018 18:12:58 GMT - Visualizar todas as empregos: São Paulo, SP
          China Brazilian Hair - Brazilian Hair Producers - Suppliers (Bredon)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Enter ɑliexpress Coupon witһin the Promotіоnal Code Box. Should you adored this short article ɑs well as you wouⅼd like to receive mⲟre infο relаtіng to [Aliexpress Hair, Aliexpress Hair Suppliers And](http://bit.ly/2jOW2MR "Aliexpre...
           Temple Groundbreakings Done on the Same Day       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

May 8, 1999With fewer than two dozen temples built and dedicated in the Church’s first 150 years, the 22 days separating the groundbreakings for the Manti Utah Temple (April 25, 1877) and the Logan Utah Temple (May 18, 1877) was the shortest time difference between the start of two temples for more than a century.Hermosillo Sonora Mexico—Elder Eran A. CallOctober 17, 2015Suva Fiji—Elder Earl M. MonsonNovember 4, 2000April 24, 1999Ciudad Juarez Mexico—Elder Eran A. CallVillahermosa Mexico—Elder Richard E. Turley Sr.Tucson Arizona—President Dieter F. UchtdorfSince then, 10 other dates have seen ground broken for at least two different temples on the same day—including three temples each on March 13, 1999, and May 29, 1999.With President Gordon B. Hinckley’s push to have 100 temples by the end of the year 2000, groundbreakings, construction, and dedications increased dramatically. President James E. Faust, then Second Counselor to President Hinckley, held consecutive groundbreakings in Brazil in early May 1998—in Campinas on May 1 and Porto Alegre on May 2.Veracruz Mexico—Elder Carl B. PrattLubbock Texas—Elder Rex D. PinegarOctober 10, 1998In a seven-day stretch in February 1981, President Spencer W. Kimball presided at three temple groundbreakings in the South Pacific. Following the February 13 ceremony for the Papeete Tahiti Temple, President Kimball held back-to-back groundbreakings for the Nuku’alofa Tonga and Apia Samoa Temples on February 18 and 19, respectively.Adelaide Australia—Elder Vaughn J. FeatherstoneConcepcion Chile—Elder Walter F. GonzálezKona Hawaii—Elder John B. DicksonSan Antonio Texas—Elder H. Bruce StuckiColumbia South Carolina—Elder Gordon T. WattsMarch 29, 2003Two groundbreakings in as many days happened twice in September 1982—with Elder Boyd K. Packer in Lima, Peru, on the 11th, and Elder Richard G. Scott in Guatemala City, Guatemala, on the 12th.Helsinki Finland—Elder D. Lee ToblerRio de Janeiro Brazil—Elder Claudio R. M. CostaSpokane Washington—Elder F. Melvin HammondDetroit Michigan—Elder Jay E. Jensen Elder Jay E. Jensen, second from right, and Elder David E. Sorensen, four from the left, both of the Seventy, join local leaders in the groundbreaking for the Detroit Michigan Temple on October 10, 1998. The groundbreaking for the Spokane Washington Temple was held on the same day. Photo from the Church News archives.Copenhagen Denmark—Elder Spencer J. CondieMarch 13, 1999Oaxaca Mexico—Elder Carl B. PrattBaton Rouge Louisiana—Elder Monte L. BroughMonterrey Mexico—Elder Lynn A. MickelsenThen came a substantial increase in temples in the early 1980s—17 dedicated from 1983 to 1985 alone. The frequency meant the groundbreakings started coming more frequently and closer together.Louisville Kentucky—Elder John K. CarmackArequipa Peru—Elder Carlos A. GodoyMay 29, 1999Later that year came the first time two temple groundbreaking ceremonies were held on the same day—October 10, 1998—with Elder Jay E. Jensen for the Detroit Michigan Temple and Elder F. Melvin Hammond for the Spokane Washington Temple.Nashville Tennessee—Elder John K. CarmackMarch 4, 2017December 5, 1998January 9, 1999San Jose Costa Rica—Elder Lynn G. Robbins


          Brazilian church bells ring as court considers decriminalizing abortion      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Brasilia, Brazil, Aug 7, 2018 / 03:01 pm (ACI Prensa).- Catholic churches throughout Brazil rang their bells at 3 p.m. Thursday to sound a warning regarding the possible decriminalization of abortion in the country.

The Aug. 2 initiative took place on the eve of a Supreme Federal Court hearing which was to consider the constitutionality of Brazil's current law governing abortion. Abortion is permitted only in cases of rape, risk to the mother's life, or if the fetus has anencephaly.

A suit was brought by the Socialism and Liberty Party, an opposition party which has six members in the Chamber of Deputies.

The hearing could allow for the legalization of elective abortion up to 12 weeks of gestation.

Debora Diniz, a law professor at the University of Brasilia and a pro-choice who testified before the court, received death threats in June, Reuters has reported.

The court has not set a date for its decision.

At a bell-ringing at the foot of the Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro, Cardinal Orani Tempesta said that “we want to call to the attention of all of society the importance of life. Just as this fog is over Rio de Janeiro, today, we know that a threat always exists: the 'culture of death' which covers our country and all of humanity.”

He also expressed his desire that throughout Brazil the bells would “call attention to this important moment in our history with the aim of guaranteeing the inviolability of the right to life, set in stone in the constitution, changes or repeals resulting in the loss of fundamental rights therefore not being possible.”

Prior to the hearings, a number of bishops spoke out against the legalization of abortion, denouncing  judicial activism in support of this procedure and exhorting citizens to speak out in defense of life.

Archbishop Washington Cruz of Goiania, together with his auxiliaries and the Union of Catholic Jurists of Goiania, denounced the judicial activism which seeks to legalize abortion in Brazil after it could not pass the legislature.

“At no time did the National Congress fail to address the issue and they never allowed, as legitimate representatives of the entire nation, the normalization of this abominable practice of killing children in their mothers' womb,” they said.

They charged that “the issue was run through the court to get around and exclude the National Congress from the legitimate and democratic debate which governs the legislative branch.”

“This act offends the constitutional organization of powers and constitutes activism within the Judicial Branch which is highly injurious to the foundations of the state of democratic rule of law in which we live, because it effects an invasion of the powers of the legislative branch by the judicial branch,” they added.

Bishop Odelir Magri of Chapecó said that  that “abortion is not an achievement, but a social tragedy that corrodes the very roots of human coexistence.”  

He also called on the Supreme Federal Court to “defend life from conception to natural death” and to guarantee the prerogative of the National Congress “as the body authorized to regulate the issue.”

Bishop Luiz Guedes of Campo Limpo noted that “the majority of the Brazilian population is pro-life and against abortion,” and what is happening is “an invasion of the 'culture of death' already denounced by St. John Paul II.”

To address this situation Bishop Francisco Bach of Joinville has urged the National Congress to pass the “Unborn Child Statute”.

 

This article was originally published by our sister agency, ACI Prensa. It has been translated and adapted by CNA.


          Forro Brisbane      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Forró de Wednesdays Check Facebook for the fine details of bands and DJ’s Community Based Dance lessons and dancing. These are Brazilian wanting to share there culture of dance for FREE. We are going to make our dreams to come through. A night full of great people and music for our full enjoyment. The event...

The post Forro Brisbane appeared first on Latin Dance Calendar.


          Free Cuban Salsa and Brazilian Zouk Night at Kafnu Hong Kong      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Our weekly event now became an official event by Kafnu! So Kafnu is the main organizer, with classes taught by Robson Hayashida (Kafnu’s community member). PROGRAM: 8:30pm – Cuban salsa class by Robson 9:00pm – Brazilian zouk class by Calvin 9:30pm until midnight – dance party. We will be playing Cuban salsa and Brazilian zouk...

The post Free Cuban Salsa and Brazilian Zouk Night at Kafnu Hong Kong appeared first on Latin Dance Calendar.


          #bn - rickyvissotto      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
® #boanoite #bn #buenasnoches #buonanotte #goodnight #me #myself #I #boy #instaboy #instagood #instalikes #brazilian #brazilianboy #blessed #happy #beard #love #picoftheday #like4like #photography
          Sarri hails Bilbao keeper Kepa amid Chelsea switch talk      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Chelsea coach Maurizio Sarri has praised Athletic Bilbao's Kepa Arrizabalaga amid media reports that the Premier League club have decided to sign the Spain goalkeeper for a world record 71 million pounds ($91.85 million). With Chelsea's Belgium keeper Thibaut Courtois absent from training on Monday and Tuesday in an apparent attempt to force a move to Real Madrid, Chelsea have been heavily linked to Bilbao's 23-year-old stopper as a potential replacement. "I don't know (if Courtois will leave), I want to speak with my club and then together we will decide," Italian coach Sarri told reporters on Tuesday after Chelsea drew 0-0 with Olympique Lyonnais in a pre-season friendly at Stamford Bridge. "I saw (Kepa) one year ago, my first impression was that he is a very good goalkeeper, very young but very good." Spanish and English media reported that Arrizabalaga will fly from Madrid to London on Wednesday to complete his move, with the Blues paying his buy-out clause as Athletic are unwilling to strike a deal. Should the Spanish international move for the transfer fee being reported, he would become the world's most expensive keeper ahead of Liverpool's Brazil's Alisson, who cost 65...
          Neymar deal has led to record goalkeeper fees - Kasper Schmeichel      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
With Thibaut Courtois insistent on a move away from Chelsea, the FC crew evaluate his potential replacement: Athletic Bilbao's Kepa Arrizabalaga. Chelsea head coach Maurizio Sarri talks about Thibaut Courtois and Kepa Arrizabalaga transfer speculation. In an exclusive interview with ESPN FC, Liverpool boss Jurgen Klopp explains his decision to bring in Alisson and reaffirms his support for Loris Karius. Leicester City's Kasper Schmeichel has told ESPN he believes this summer of record-breaking transfer fees for goalkeepers reflects how important the position has become for title-chasing clubs, and thinks that Paris Saint-Germain's &#8364;222m signing of Neymar last summer has sparked the surge in prices for top No. 1s. Liverpool paid the largest ever amount for a goalkeeper to sign Brazil international Alisson from Roma for &#163;67m earlier this summer, a fee which is set to be eclipsed by Chelsea...
          Is influencer marketing a bubble just waiting to burst?      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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Influencer marketing is in full bloom. As traditional media outlets shut their doors or struggle to make ends meet, a growing number of companies opt to advertise on popular social media profiles. A staggering 78 percent of American and European marketers worked with influencers last year, according to LaunchMetric’s latest report on the state of influencer marketing, based on a survey with over 600 professionals in the fashion, luxury and beauty industries.

Instagram is their platform of choice, with 36 percent of respondents saying they prefer to advertise with influencers with large Instagram followings. Facebook and YouTube come next, at 17 percent and 13 percent, respectively. The global influencer market on Instagram alone is estimated in over 1 billion US dollars by statistics firm Statista, which also predicts it to reach 2.38 billion dollars by 2019.

Obviously, companies wouldn’t be allocating so much money for influencers if they didn’t see a return on their investment. 90 percent of the professionals interviewed by LaunchMetric said they consider influencer marketing to be an effective tool to generate brand awareness, while 69 percent said their campaigns with social media stars helped them to boost sales.

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Social media seems to have become the new window shopping, as consumers turn to people they trust to help them filter all the options they come across. According to Facebook, which owns Instagram, one in three Instagram users in the US, UK, Brazil and Indonesia said they have become more interested in a brand or product after seeing it on the platform. Google, which owns YouTube, also commissioned a research about shoppers’ behavior on its video platform. The study revealed that 80 percent of shoppers who watch a YouTube video related to a planned purchase do so at the start of the buying process. Considering YouTube is a search engine, one could assume most shoppers would use it at the research and action phases of shopping.

The use of social media for "window shopping" might explain why nearly 42 percent of marketers in LaunchMetric’s research said they prefer working with influencers upon launching new products. Sending out gifts and product samples is the most common way they interact with influencers, with 98 percent of them naming this as their preferred approach.

Consumers starting to grow tired of repetitive influencer content

However, despite of all these impressive numbers, influencer marketing may be a bubble just waiting to burst -- that is, if marketers and social media creators continue to offer the same content formats again and again. In a survey with 4000 European consumers, published by digital marketing firm Bazaarvoice this week, 47 percent of respondents said they are tired of the repetitive nature of influencer content. 23 percent of them feel content quality has been dropping lately.

The research also revealed that 62 percent of European consumers believe that influencer content takes advantage of impressionable audiences by being too materialistic (55 percent) and misrepresenting real life (54 percent). Germans are the ones with the strongest negative negative feelings about social media stars, with 32 percent of them saying influencers do not promote ethical behavior.

A post shared by Camila Coelho (@camilacoelho) on

However, part of these problems may be caused by the audience itself, as it has grown accustomed to constant updates from the influencers they follow. 49 percent of UK surveyors and 68 percent of French surveyors said they expect their favorite social media stars to publish new content every day. Although the companies behind social networks do not reveal how their algorithms work, creators such as Casey Neistat (over 10 million YouTube subscribers) and PewDiePie (65 million YouTube subscribers) said they noticed their channels grow faster once they started to post daily. On Instagram, for example, users who post Stories more frequently always appear on the top of their followers’ feed. The pressure for more quantity may be therefore be harming quality.

Respondents have also manifested a discontent with influencers whose opinions about products don’t seem genuine. Since many countries still lack regulations for influencer marketing, social media users often find it hard to tell editorial content and advertising apart. In fact, 49 percent of respondents said it is time for an influencer marketing association to embed stricter rules for content social media stars produce.

“At the core, influencer marketing is really intended to be about word-of-mouth”, said Joe Rohrlick, General Manager of EMEA at Bazaarvoice, in a statement. “It is clear that influencers need to work towards improving the quality and authenticity of the content they produce. There is a balance to be struck with advertisers and audiences, promotional content and the results that can reasonably be expected and achieved”.

Some common content formats among social media influencers:

  • Haul: when a creator shows what they bought during a trip or shopping spree. They describe each item, say why they bought them and how much they cost.
  • Get ready with me: when a creator shows the process of getting ready for an event: choosing the clothes, doing the hair and makeup.
  • Shop with me: when a creator films or photographs themselves while shopping, taking followers along in their process of picking and trying out products.
  • Unboxing: when a creator films the process of opening the box of an online purchase that has just been delivered to their home. Some social media influencers also document themselves unboxing gifts and samples they receive from companies.
  • First impressions: when a creator tests a product or piece of clothing for the first time and tells the followers what they think of it.

Photos: Pexels, Pixabay


          A KOD NAS GEJEVIMA NE DAJU U APARTMANE… Zapovjednik švedske vojske sudjelovao u Gay Prideu i – zapjevao      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
U gay paradi EuroPride, održanoj u subotu u Stockholmu, sudjelovao je i glavni zapovjednik švedske vojske, general Micael Bydén. U jednom trenutku dograbio je mikrofon i preko razglasa zapjevao veliki hit Elvisa Presleyja “Suspicious Minds” Dok se u Hrvatskoj sramotimo pred svijetom viješću da je jedan iznjamljivač apartmana u Zadru odbio primiti turista iz Brazila […]
          #moto - louymors      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Anel masculino de caveira em aço inox. #louymors #harleydavidson #skull #caveira #motociclista #losmuchachosborrachos #rj #balaios #abutres #indian #painosso #recreio #redlad #bmw #yamaha #recreiodosbandeirantes #barradatijuca #barraworld #moto #motorcycle #brazilianinktattoo #cavaleirostemplariosmc #satirosmc #anjospecadoresmc #renegademc #siadospais
          #moto - danilobro      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
10% das KTM do brasil. 90% das que andam em qualquer circunstancia hahaha. #ktm990 #ktm990adv #teamorange #ktm #readytorace #moto #motorcycle #demoto #xladv #adv #advlife #advofficial #dualsport #xplorebrazil #loucospormotos #mototerapia #motociclistas #dualsportlife #dualsportadv #trail #offroad
          Propagate inks development deal with Brazil’s Formata      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Superbonita

Propagate Content has secured a partnership with Brazilian production outfit Formata Produções that will see the pair developing and co-producing original content The deal has already generated its first co-development project ...

Read More

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FAIRBORN — Bill Wampler, a junior for the Wright State University men’s basketball team, helped lead the USA Athletes In Action team to the Gold Medal in the FISU America Games July6 28 in São Paulo, Brazil with a 78-69 win over Argentina. Fédération Internationale du Sport Universitaire (FISU) is the governing body that supports […]

The post appeared first on Xenia Gazette.


          First sketches appear of the new BMW X7      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Sketches submitted to the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property have surfaced that by all indications are of the upcoming new X7 large SUV from BMW. The automaker had unveiled a concept version last year in Frankfurt.
          The Linda And Mitch Hart Institute For Women Conductors Class Of 2018 Announced      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The Dallas Opera is proud to announce the names of the twelve distinguished professionals (six conductors, two administrators, and four observers) selected to participate in the fourth annual residency of the Linda and Mitch Hart Institute for Women Conductors at The Dallas Opera taking place Oct. 28 - Nov. 10, 2018 in Dallas, Texas:

  • Sonia Ben-Santamaria (France)
  • Priscila Bomfim (Brazil)
  • Sarah Penicka-Smith (Australia)
  • Audrey Saint-Gil (France/USA)
  • Maria Sensi Sellner (USA)
  • Emily Senturia (USA)

Working to address a long-standing issue at the podium, The Dallas Opera in 2015 launched a unique, new residential program-one of only three in the world-designed to provide training and career support for distinctively talented women conductors on the cusp of major international careers. Female conductors, as well as accomplished women singers, opera coaches, accompanists, and instrumentalists with established careers seeking to develop new skills at the podium, were encouraged to apply.

"At this point in my career," observes conductor Priscila Bomfim, "I could not receive better news than the opportunity to participate in the Hart Institute for Women Conductors at The Dallas Opera, supporting the women who have accepted the challenges of conducting in the opera world."

"For me, the Hart Institute embodies the American Dream," writes Audrey Saint-Gil. "Work hard, dream big, and grab your opportunity tight with both hands when it comes."

The initiative received vital foundational support from the Richard and Enika Schulze Foundation. Naming support came through the generosity of Linda and Mitch Hart.

Additional support for the 2018 Hart Institute comes from The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, Baker Botts LLP, Cindy and Charlie Feld, Jenifer and Peter Flynn, Susan and Mark Geyer, Holly and Tom Mayer, Betty and Steve Suellentrop, and Martha and Max Wells.

Made possible by an OPERA America Innovation Grant, supported by the Ann and Gordon Getty Foundation.

Ian Derrer, The Dallas Opera's Kern Wildenthal General Director and CEO notes: "This proven program - by recognizing the contributions of exceptionally talented women in classical music - helps focus vision for conductors, music directors and administrators by showcasing their rich array of skills. Because recognition and vision lead directly to opportunity.

"I was deeply committed to providing leadership roles for women during my tenure as general director of Kentucky Opera," Derrer adds, "and that continues in Dallas. The extraordinary generosity of our underwriters and the enthusiasm of The Dallas Opera Board show that we are on the right track to improve gender parity on the podium."

A total of 51 women conductors and professional musicians heeded the call in 2018, despite even more stringent admissions requirements this year. Applicants from 19 countries included music directors, principal and assistant conductors, concertmasters and music staff from top-ranked symphonies, opera companies, and conservatories.

"Getting into the Hart Institute will be a game-changer for me," observed conductor Sarah Penicka-Smith. "I value the existence of a program which addresses the whole conductor, not just her technique, and I hope this will allow us to develop as many unique models of what it means to be a conductor as there are women to fill those positions."

Maria Sensi Sellner agrees: "I'm thrilled to have the opportunity to work with the team of exceptional mentors and advisors assembled by The Dallas Opera, and to broaden my community of female colleagues, as we work towards equity on the podium."

Adds conductor Emily Senturia, "I look forward to learning from industry leaders and the other talented women who have been chosen to participate in this groundbreaking program."

As is the case each year, four talented U.S. observers were chosen to "audit" the 2018 Institute: Laurann Gilley, Laura Giuli, Amy Owens, and Sara Parkinson.

~~~~

The 2018 Linda and Mitch Hart Institute will consist of hands-on master classes with the Mrs. Eugene McDermott Music Director, Emmanuel Villaume; TDO's Martha R. and Preston A. Peak Principal Guest Conductor Nicole Paiement and Carlo Montanaro, a renowned Italian conductor who made his official TDO debut last season in La Traviata.

Sessions include career advancement seminars with experienced professionals; topical industry discussions; intensive one-on-ones and networking opportunities; as well as the chance to conduct The Dallas Opera Orchestra in a public concert in the Margot and Bill Winspear Opera House at the AT&T Performing Arts Center on the evening of November 10, 2018 (additional details to be announced).

As part of TDO's five-year commitment to each institute "class" of conductors, alumnae will be invited to summer reunions for additional masterclasses with piano and singers, and a series of seminars about the business of music.

Conductor Sonia Ben-Santamaria writes: "A huge thank you to The Dallas Opera's Hart Institute for being the precursor in promoting and nurturing female talent worldwide."

"Although still in the early stages," says Dallas Opera Director of Artistic Administration David Lomeli, "The Institute appears to be having a pronounced positive impact on the field, with Hart Institute alumnae being singled out for important appointments, projects, and commissions in both the opera and symphonic world."

Marc A. Scorca, President and CEO of OPERA America, earlier remarked: "The Dallas Opera continues to expand its influence and stature among American opera companies, as shown by this exciting new initiative.? The company is to be applauded for taking a significant step to remedy the existing gender imbalance on the podium.? This effort complements OPERA America's support of the work of female opera composers and promises to enrich the art form by encouraging more gifted artists to express themselves through opera."

~~~~

While the Hart Institute began with a focus on supporting talented conductors, the challenges faced by?women opera administrators?are equally daunting.? To address this imbalance, The Dallas Opera last year added a new component to the Hart Institute: Through 2022, TDO will invite between two and four American opera administrators to participate each season.? These women will be selected on the basis of their potential to become leaders of one of America's top opera companies at a later point in their careers.

The 2018 Hart Institute Administrators are:

  • Nicole Eubanks (Lyric Opera of Kansas City)
  • Brooke Tolley (Opera Roanoke)

The selected opera administrators will have access to all group sessions and special sessions during the annual residency in Dallas.? This curriculum includes the role of the board, leadership development, personal branding, media and PR training, effective artist management, and navigating recruiting processes for senior level positions.? To continue to develop their musical skills, which is essential for any opera executive, the administrators will observe rehearsals with The Dallas Opera Orchestra and conducting master classes.? Special sessions on Development, Finance, and Marketing will be offered as well.

One of the goals of the program is to construct a wide network of influential female leaders in the administrative offices of performing arts organizations, both large and small, as well as onstage and in the orchestra pit.

~~~~

2018 Hart Institute Conductors

SONIA BEN-SANTAMARIA (FRANCE)

Sonia Ben-Santamaria is the first female conductor to be associated with the Royal Opera House Jette Parkers young artists programme 2017/2018. Highlights of her season includes shadowing Sir Antonio Pappano on Shostakovitch's Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk, leading the Youth Opera Company chorus on Barrie Kosky's Carmen and conducting the presentation of The Monstrous Child. Originally Spanish but French born, Sonia trained at the Conservatoire de Toulouse, the Royal Academy of Music, the National Opera Studio, London, and was subsequently offered a position at the English National Opera as trainee repetiteur and vocal coach. Sonia is the proud founder of Glass Ceiling Orchestra, a socially engaged chamber orchestra which promotes equal opportunities, female conductors and composers. Future engagements include Un Ballo in Maschera for Opera Holland Park.

PRISCILA BOMFIM (BRAZIL)

Priscila Bomfim is Assistant Conductor and Pianist at Theatro Municipal do Rio de Janeiro, and was the first woman to conduct in this Opera season. Worked at Bidu Sayão Opera Academy, preparing young opera singers in this theater, Ms. Bomfim also performed concertos with the Orquestra Sinfônica da Bahia, with Orquesta Sinfónica Nacional de Chile, Youth Symphony Orchestra of Saint Petersburg, Orquestra Filarmônica de Minas Gerais, and Orquestras Sinfônicas de Santo André e Cesgranrio, under the guidance of renowned conductors. As a pianist, Ms. Bomfim has performed with International Artists and singers. Priscila was born in Portugal, where she won her first piano contest as a nine-year- old child. She graduated and achieved her Master's degree at Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.

SARAH PENICKA-SMITH (AUSTRALIA)

Dr. Sarah Penicka-Smith is a freelance conductor and vocal coach. She is Director of Music at St Andrew's College, Principal Conductor with Macquarie Singers, Artistic Director of Opera Prometheus and Pacific Pride Choir, and a partner of Penicka-Smith Arts & Event Management, along with her wife Melanie. From 2005-2017, Sarah was Music Director of the Sydney Gay & Lesbian Choir, where she worked on a range of pioneering projects. She has worked with Sydney Philharmonia Choirs since 2005 as a chorusmaster and workshop presenter, and conducted orchestras that include the University of Sydney Intercol Orchestra, Willoughby Symphony Orchestra, Kuringai Philharmonic Orchestra, and Penrith Symphony Orchestra. Sarah is an alumna of the Symphony Australia Conductor Development Program and holds a PhD from the University of Sydney.

AUDREY SAINT-GIL (FRANCE/USA)

French conductor, Audrey Saint-Gil graduated summa cum laude in solo piano concurrent with her PhD in Greek Philosophy. Her career and operatic passion began at the Théâtre du Capitôle, Toulouse, followed by appointments as Head Vocal Coach of the Ecole Normale, Paris and as assistant conductor to Bertrand de Billy in Vienna.?A US resident since 2007, Ms Saint-Gil was engaged as assistant conductor at NYCO, WNO, Cincinnati and Ravinia Festivals, and frequently with LA Opera alongside James Conlon and Plácido Domingo. She is the French Opera specialist at Philadelphia's AVA and guest vocal coach at the ROH, Covent Garden and Bayerische Staatsoper.?Current projects include conducting La Traviata, Narnia Festival, Italy; Bizet at HGO and recitals in Salzburg, Copenhagen and San Francisco with her partner, Christopher Maltman.

MARIA SENSI SELLNER (USA)

Maria Sensi Sellner is recognized for her artistry and versatility as a conductor of opera, orchestras, and choruses. Praised as "mightily impressive," she was the first three-time winner of the American Prize for Opera Conducting and serves as the Artistic & General Director of Resonance Works Pittsburgh, which she founded in 2013. Recent engagements include the Center for Contemporary Opera, Syracuse Opera, Symphoria, Hubbard Hall Opera, cover conductor for the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra (assisting Manfred Honeck, Sir Mark Elder), and conducting staff for the world premiere of David Lang's "the public domain" at Lincoln Center. Previous positions include Acting Music Director of the Mendelssohn Choir of Pittsburgh (chorus for the Pittsburgh Symphony), interim faculty at Carnegie Mellon University, and Director of the Akron Symphony Chorus.

EMILY SENTURIA (USA)

Ms. Senturia made her mainstage debut with Houston Grand Opera in 2018 conducting Rossini's Il barbiere di Siviglia, followed by her Kennedy Center debut leading the same opera for Washington National Opera. In the summer of 2018 she makes her West Coast debut leading Mata Hari for West Edge Opera. Emily Senturia will make her Hawaii Opera Theatre debut in the spring of 2019 leading La traviata. After graduating from the Houston Grand Opera Studio, Ms. Senturia joined the HGO music staff during which time she conducted performances of?L'elisir d'amore,?The Little Prince, and?The Magic Flute. Recently, Ms. Senturia has been on the music staff at The Atlanta Opera (Sweeney Todd), Opera Philadelphia (O17 Festival and O18 Festival), and at Wolf Trap Opera where she has conducted two Studio Spotlight programs.

~~~~

2018 Hart Institute Administrators

NICOLE EUBANKS (USA)

Nicole Eubanks is the Individual Giving Director at Lyric Opera of Kansas City where she is responsible for the annual fund and individual giving strategies that center on funding the company's mission of producing transformational opera for the community. Prior to her time in Kansas City, Eubanks held the position of Assistant Director of Donor Services and Special Events at Lyric Opera of Chicago where she managed donor benefits, donor services, key company events, and all operations pertaining the William B. and Catherine Graham Room, the private dining space in the opera. Eubanks holds bachelor's degrees in Music with an emphasis in Vocal Performance and Interdisciplinary Studies in Music and Business from MidAmerica Nazarene University and is a member of the Kansas City Symphony Chorus.

BROOKE TOLLEY (USA)

Brooke Tolley is a native of Roanoke, Virginia and was recently named Chief Operating Officer of Opera Roanoke, where she handles all aspects of daily operation including finance, marketing, special events and production management. She is also the newly appointed Director of the opera's innovative Apprentice Artist Program, which guides regional college students to the next step in their professional careers. Brooke holds music degrees from Liberty University and Radford University and is an incoming member of Leadership Roanoke Valley's 2018-19 class. As an opera administrator and active performer, she is passionate about using her unique skill set to connect with close-knit communities, helping to build viable arts and culture programs that create lasting impact. She has been at Opera Roanoke since 2015.

~~~~

2018 Hart Institute Observers

LAURANN GILLEY (USA)

Laurann Gilley has been on faculty with the Ryan Opera Center at Lyric Opera of Chicago since 2005, and on faculty at Northwestern University since 2010. She has worked as coach, pianist, assistant conductor, recitative accompanist, and chorus director for companies such as Glimmerglass Opera, San Francisco Opera, Seattle Opera, San Diego Opera, and Vancouver Opera, with conductors including Sir Andrew Davis, Richard Bonynge, Edoardo Müller, Leon Botstein, and Stewart Robertson. As a recital accompanist, she has appeared at venues including Carnegie Hall's Weill Hall, the Chicago Cultural Center, and San Francisco's Schwabacher Series. A regular accompanist for the Metropolitan Opera National Council auditions, Ms. Gilley holds degrees from The Manhattan School of Music, The Eastman School of Music, and Southern Methodist University.

LAURA GUILI (USA)

Laura Guili is a versatile musician and freelance conductor currently based in the Midwest. She travels extensively to pursue professional opportunities and has held music director and assistant conductor positions with Midwest-based orchestras and opera companies. In addition, she conducts studio recording sessions for film and world music. A horn player and former string educator, she received her MM from Northwestern University and has studied with Kenneth Kiesler and Victor Yampolsky. Passionate about the arts, Ms. Guili furthers her involvement in artistic philanthropy as a seven-year member of the Lyric Opera of Chicago's Young Professionals board. In addition to her professional successes in music, she works as an actress and model in TV, film and print, currently represented by Modelogic and The Helen Wells Agency.

Amy Owens (USA)

Amy Owens enjoys a diverse singing career in concert work, opera, new music, and alternative pop. She has appeared in concert in venues ranging from the Filene Center at Wolf Trap to Carnegie Hall. Her operatic engagements have taken her to Santa Fe Opera, Wolf Trap Opera, Dallas Opera, Utah Opera, Central City Opera, and others. She appears regularly with the New York Festival of Song, and she has collaborated with many composers including Matthew Aucoin, William Bolcom, Bright Sheng, Paola Prestini, and David Hanlon. Her debut album of original music, HAETHOR, was released Spring 2018 to acclaim in the electronica world. She has received awards from the Sullivan Foundation, the George London Foundation, the Metropolitan Opera National Council Auditions, and the Santa Fe Opera.

SARA PARKINSON (USA)

Sara Parkinson enjoys a varied career as conductor, vocal coach and pianist. She served on the staff and faculties at the University of Colorado at Boulder, Cornell College and Metropolitan State University of Denver. Recent and upcoming performance engagements include Boulder Chamber Orchestra, Boulder Bach Festival, Colorado Ballet Orchestra and the Colorado Symphony. Sara was Music Director of Boulder Opera Company for their 2017-2018 season where she made her operatic conducting debut with Massenet's Cendrillon followed by Mozart's Così fan tutte. Sara has been a member of Central City Opera Ensemble since 2012 and worked with numerous singers. Sara received degrees from the University of Iowa, New England Conservatory of Music and CU-Boulder. Principal teachers include Victor Rosenbaum, Anne Epperson and Maestro Nicholas Carthy.

~~~~

ABOUT THE DALLAS OPERA

Founded in 1957, The Dallas Opera is an internationally-recognized innovator dedicated to the overall advancement of the operatic art form and the support of established and emerging artists, as well as the education and development of new opera audiences in North Texas-and beyond. These goals are achieved by commissioning and producing world-class opera; through ground-breaking institutes, national competitions and topical programs; and by presenting opera in both traditional and non-traditional formats and venues in order to attract patrons of every age, background, educational level, and ethnicity-while engaging with more than 87,000 people in our community each year.? TDO is equally committed to the task of responsible stewardship and is managed with efficiency and accountability, to the highest possible standards.


          International Student Advisor I - Woori Brazil - Toronto, ON      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Is a Canadian company founded in 2000 whose primary business is to provide customized services to international students planning to study in Canada....
From Indeed - Tue, 19 Jun 2018 18:09:43 GMT - View all Toronto, ON jobs
          Dramas in the saddle: Encountering a crazy, chaotic world      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Horsetalk.co.nz

The remarkable story of Filipe Leite's two-year 10,000-mile journey on horseback from Canada to Brazil.

Dramas in the saddle: Encountering a crazy, chaotic world -- Horsetalk.co.nz - equine news, research, and information


          Chelsea complete world record £71.6million move for Kepa from Athletic Bilbao after Real Madrid land Thibaut Courtois      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
CHELSEA tonight confirmed Kepa Arrizabalaga’s £71.6million world-record signing from Athletic Bilbao – after selling Thibaut Courtois to Real Madrid. Kepa’s fee is the highest ever for a keeper, beating the £67m Liverpool paid Roma for Brazil’s Alisson just last month. Kepa, 23, told Chelsea’s website tonight: “It’s a very important decision for me, for my […]
          Sunday, Aug. 12: Saravá! Wild Carnival      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Saravá! Wild Carnival: A Brazilian Carnival party, with DJs, live music, art installations, an outdoor shower, jacuzzi, food, and frozen caipirinhas. $25 ($20 in advance). 3 pm. House of Yes, 2 Wyckoff Ave. at Jefferson Street, , www.houseofyes.org

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          SN24551      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   


Quartersawn Brazilian Ebony. No Finish Required! Available in the Showcase Only!
Specs: Brazilian Ebony/Ebony, 1-11/16" Nut Width, Standard thin Contour, 10-16" Compound Radius, Cream Face Dots Inlays, White Side Dots, Vintage Style (11/32") Tuner Ream
$255

          SN24550      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   


Quartersawn Brazilian Ebony. No Finish Required! Available in the Showcase Only!
Specs: Brazilian Ebony/Ebony (Black), 1-11/16" Nut Width, Standard thin Contour, 10-16" Compound Radius, Cream Face Dots Inlays, White Side Dots, Vintage Style (11/32") Tuner Ream
$275

          SN24549      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   


Quartersawn Brazilian Ebony. No Finish Required! Available in the Showcase Only!
Specs: Brazilian Ebony/Ebony (Black), 1-11/16" Nut Width, Standard thin Contour, 10-16" Compound Radius, Cream Face Dots Inlays, White Side Dots, Vintage Style (11/32") Tuner Ream
$275

          SN24548      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   


Quartersawn Brazilian Ebony. No Finish Required! Available in the Showcase Only!
Specs: Brazilian Ebony/Ebony (Black), 1-11/16" Nut Width, Standard thin Contour, 10-16" Compound Radius, Cream Face Dots Inlays, White Side Dots, Vintage Style (11/32") Tuner Ream
$275

          SN24547      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   


Quartersawn Brazilian Ebony. No Finish Required! Available in the Showcase Only!
Specs: Brazilian Ebony/Ebony (Black), 1-11/16" Nut Width, Standard thin Contour, 10-16" Compound Radius, Cream Face Dots Inlays, White Side Dots, Vintage Style (11/32") Tuner Ream
$275

          SN24546      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   


Quartersawn Brazilian Ebony. No Finish Required! Available in the Showcase Only!
Specs: Brazilian Ebony/Ebony (Black), 1-11/16" Nut Width, Standard thin Contour, 10-16" Compound Radius, Cream Face Dots Inlays, White Side Dots, Vintage Style (11/32") Tuner Ream
$275

          SN24545      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   


Quartersawn Brazilian Ebony. No Finish Required! Available in the Showcase Only!
Specs: Brazilian Ebony/Ebony, 1-11/16" Nut Width, Standard thin Contour, 10-16" Compound Radius, Cream Face Dots Inlays, White Side Dots, Vintage Style (11/32") Tuner Ream
$255

          BHP Billiton to Settle US Class Action Complaint for US$50 Million      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
 By Rhiannon Hoyle 

SYDNEY--BHP Billiton Ltd. said it will settle a class action complaint filed in a U.S. court over the 2015 dam disaster at an iron-ore mine in Brazil for US$50 million and no admission of liability.

BHP on Thursday said the agreement is subject to approval...

          TN11630      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   


Quartersawn Brazilian Ebony. No Finish Required! Available in the Showcase Only!
Specs: Brazilian Ebony/Brazilian Ebony, 1-11/16" Nut Width, 59 roundback Contour, 10-16" Compound Radius, Cream Face Dots Inlays, White Side Dots, Vintage Style (11/32") Tuner Ream
$273

          TN11629      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   


Quartersawn Brazilian Ebony. No Finish Required! Available in the Showcase Only!
Specs: Brazilian Ebony/Brazilian Ebony, 1-11/16" Nut Width, Standard thin Contour, 10-16" Compound Radius, Cream Face Dots Inlays, White Side Dots, Vintage Style (11/32") Tuner Ream
$255

          BHP pays $50m to settle US case as Brazil dam talks continue      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
none
          EVERTON - Brazilian attacker BERNARD to undergo medical      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
After having signed such important players as Richarlison and Lucas Digne, Everton are about to land Bernard down.
          OFFICIAL - Nantes sign BOSCHILIA from AS Monaco      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Nantes announced having signed Brazilian attacking midfielder Gabriel Boschilia (22), joining in, from AS Monaco, on a buy-back loan deal. Former Standard Liège player is equipped with an Italian dual citizenship.
          Digital Evangelism Discussed as GAiN Conference Opens in Korea      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
GAiN, the annual meeting of the Global Adventist Internet Network, began today in Seoul, South Korea. About 250 people from 39 countries who work in media, communications and technology are attending presentations on the top floor of the massive Kintex Convention Center.

“It’s never been easier to speak up. It’s never been harder to be heard.” —Sam Neves

GAiN conference, the annual meeting of the Global Adventist Internet Network, began today in Seoul, South Korea. About 250 people from 39 countries who work in media, communications, and technology are attending presentations by members of the General Conference communications department as well as outside professionals on the top floor of the massive Kintex Convention Center in Goyang.

Attendees arrived Sunday and Monday from all over the world (many from time zones eight, 10, and 12 hours behind Seoul), were picked up from Seoul’s Incheon Airport, and bused to two hotels. Travelling the eight-lane highways through a sea of modern high-rise apartment buildings and across long white bridges felt like driving in a sci-fi video game, with the onboard navigation system talking incessantly all the way. Early this morning, we boarded buses again to take us to the convention center in Goyang. 

The long line snaked out the door on the convention center’s top floor, as attendees all had to register upon arrival. We were all given a GAiN t-shirt and a logoed set of chopsticks. There was no printed program for the day. So we all had to listen to hear what came next!

The program today was about internet evangelism, defined as: "How to find people, establish relationships, and take them to baptism," according to Williams Costa, Jr., director of the General Conference communications department.

The big keywords of the day included “branding,” “funnel marketing,” “call to action,” “digital marketing,” and “search engine optimization.” Presentations were broad and abstract, rather than prescriptive and practical.

Speakers were mostly members of the GC’s communications department — which also organized the conference — and others inside the GC building.

View of the Kintex Center from the window outside the GAiN conference room

Kurt Kennedy: igniting your brand promise

The only exception to the insiders was Kurt Kennedy, founder and CEO of Kennedy Global, described as a “leading internal-external brand alignment agency.” Kennedy, a graduate of Walla Walla University, has worked with Nike, Starbucks, Adobe, Unilever, and other big brands.

Kennedy’s talk opened the conference, and focused on “igniting your brand promise.” Since Kennedy is a business strategist, his PowerPoint mentioned “companies,” “clients," and “business results,” but he urged listeners to translate the business jargon into terms that suited their own purposes.

Kennedy discussed the difference between context and content. Brands provide the context — like a shortcut for customers, so that they can more easily make their way through all of the clutter and pay attention to the content you want them to receive. The power of a brand helps give a company its value.

Sam Neves: delivering the promise of the Adventist brand

Following Kennedy’s presentation, Sam Neves, the GC communication department’s associate director for internet and social media, talked about how important it is for our church to deliver on our brand promise. Will you buy a third Samsung phone if the first two disappoint you? No, you will choose a new brand. Likewise, people who are disappointed by our church simply leave. And it’s not easy to have a promise that all of us deliver on.

That is one reason that Adventist.org, the landing page for the Adventist church, is being updated (again). When the new site is launched in the next few months, visitors will see the Adventist church promising to help them understand the Bible as a way to freedom, healing, and hope. The Adventist brand doesn’t promise freedom, healing and hope — it simply promises help in understanding the Bible, Neves said. Then it is Jesus who brings the freedom, healing, and hope. In this way, people can’t say the Adventist brand promise failed them.

Brent Hardinge: Adventist identity update

Later in the afternoon, web manager for the GC communications department and conference organizer Brent Hardinge, gave a longer presentation about the Adventist identity project update. He showed us different versions of the Adventist logo and church signs and email signatures. He showed us the latest version of the Adventist Living Pattern System, a collected set of Adventist brand designs available for churches and church entities around the world to use. (Hardinge showed us the last version at the GAiN conference last year.) He showed us the design principles in the latest website redesign, and how much more flexible and variable it is. He talked about about how the church is working to ensure there are more Call to Action buttons and places for any site visitors to take the next step, whether it is signing up for a Bible study, or asking for help finding a local church.

David Sharpe: search engine optimization

David Sharpe from the Center for Online Evangelism offered two presentations: one about search engine optimization and the next about copywriting.

The Center for Online Evangelism provides resources for churches and church organizations to more successfully market themselves online. Search engine optimization is of course an important part of making yourself visible online, and Sharpe gave a broad overview of its history on Google and its possible future. 

Sharpe introduced us to “Pastor Google,” who he described as the most popular pastor in the entire world, who is believed by most people before anyone else, and who freely uses non-Adventist sources to describe Adventist doctrine. He said that we need to do all we can to take control of our own story.

He said the most current Google algorithms look for topics (rather than keywords), and rich, in-depth pages that provide lots of content. Voice search continues to evolve, more traffic is being cannibalized by search engine results pages (answers are found right on the search page, so users don’t even have to click into a website) and mobile responsiveness is ever more important. 

Sharpe didn’t get into very specific detailed advice about what web managers should do — his was a fairly broad brush strokes approach.

Today's presenters at GAiN

Adventist media promise closer collaboration (and what about better gender representation?)

After Sharpe’s first presentation, four Adventist media professionals took to the platform, representing Adventist World Radio, ADRA, GC Publishing and the Adventist Review. Each spoke for a minute or two about how they are going to be working more closely together, sending listeners and readers to each other’s platforms for more content and greater engagement.

This marked the only time during the day’s presentations when two women spoke to the group, and both were very brief. All of the rest of the speakers today were men. Communications director for Adventist World Radio Shelley Nolan Freesland and associate director for communications at ADRA Ashley Eisele were, in fact, part of only a small minority of women attending the GAiN conference. In my approximate counting of attendees this morning, it seemed only about 15% were women, and anecdotally, I heard that many of those are wives attending with their husband participants. 

David Sharpe: the importance of persuasive copywriting

Sharpe’s second presentation introduced attendees to the concept of copywriting, which he defined as leading people from content they see to pressing a button and taking an action. He said that copywriting is not an art, but a science. Just follow the proven process to get measurable results.

In Sharpe’s opinion, the Adventist church is pretty good at journalism (factually informing the reader), but less good at persuasion, or copywriting. He believes copywriting will improve the effectiveness of any outreach project. He said that measuring results will teach you how to lead people to action. He says that is the only way to find out how people will react. As an example, Sharpe told us: “I have seen a headline with a misspelled word get better results than a correctly spelled headline.” [Is this really the moral he wants to give?]

Sharpe talked about the power of telling the story, and following a hero’s journey. He said that nearly every story, every book or movie, follows the same formula: hero has a problem, meets a guy with a plan, hero follows the plan and experiences a transformation that helps the hero to avoid failure.

Sharpe listed the building blocks of copywriting:

  • unique selling position
  • promise that will change and transform
  • headline to get attention
  • lead to pull the reader in
  • value proposition
  • proof (i.e. testimonials)

Four Digital Projects

Later in the afternoon, four people talked about specific digital projects. 

Roberto Roberti, a Brazilian police officer who became an Adventist in 2010, talked about his work responding to thousands of commenters on the South American Division’s Facebook page. He shared some of the specific cries for help through Facebook from people battling depression, the death of loves ones, suicidal thoughts, and more. He said more than 200 people have been baptised as a result of the Facebook ministry in South America, and right now 3,159 people are studying the Bible after initial contact was made with the church through Facebook.

Neville Neveling from Namibia next spoke about using WhatsApp and other social media platforms to reach people. He said that after the floods in Japan that began in June, 14,000 Japanese people asked to receive Bible studies on their cellphones. He talked about how digital church can include many of the things we are used to in our traditional church culture. Neveling said that even in a place where evangelism doesn’t seem to work, digital evangelism can make significant inroads. 

Kyle Allen, vice president of Adventist World Radio, said that AWR has not been very responsive to the thousands of people who call and write after hearing one of its programs. He proposes that centers for digital evangelism be established so that any comments from people can be responded to within minutes in multiple languages. A broadcast (or podcast, etc.) leads to engagement, which leads to prayer and Bible study, which leads to a local church, which leads to baptism. Allen asserted that connecting the dots is important, and he urged anyone who wants to start a center for digital evangelism in their area to talk to him about it.

Italo Osario of the General Conference then introduced Vividfaith, a virtual community that matches up volunteers with opportunities around the world. While the new site was announced last October 2017, and is live now, it will not be finished and officially launched for another few months. The site is open for anyone who wants to do ministry with the Adventist church. 

In contradiction to Sam Neves’ assertion that all of our media should be very upfront in saying it is Adventist, Vividfaith doesn’t include any details about its creators. Osario says that is deliberate, as the site is not exclusively for Adventists.

Today’s GAiN program ended just before 5pm, and conference-goers were invited to a buffet dinner in one of the large halls downstairs, followed by the Opening Ceremony for the 2018 Northern Asia-Pacific Division International Mission Congress. More on that tomorrow!

Alita Byrd is attending GAiN and reporting for Spectrum from the conference in Seoul, South Korea. Photo credits: Alita Byrd.

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          BHP settles US class action over Samarco dam failure for $67 million      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The mining giant has agreed to pay investors for the Samarco dam failure of 2015, which caused Brazil's biggest environmental disaster and hurt its shares.
          Oi adopts WhatsApp for customer service      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
(Telecompaper) Brazilian operator Oi has expanded its chatbot to the WhatsApp Business Solution after two months of customer testing...
          Sousa, a Solar Power Capital in an Increasingly Arid Brazil      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Sousa, a municipality of 70,000 people in the west of Paraíba, the state in Brazil most threatened by desertification, has become the country’s capital of solar energy, with a Catholic church, various businesses, households and even a cemetery generating solar power. “We were paying about 4,000 reais (1,070 dollars) a month for electricity and that […]

The post Sousa, a Solar Power Capital in an Increasingly Arid Brazil appeared first on Inter Press Service.


           Everton star Richarlison 'relaxed' about £44m transfer fee       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Richarlison believes he must win over the sceptics and prove Marco Silva has not made a £44million mistake in signing him for Everton. The Brazilian was Everton's first buy of the current window.
           Watford offered chance to sign Lille midfielder Thiago Maia       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Watford have been offered the chance to sign Brazilian midfielder Thiago Maia from Lille. The 21-year-old Brazilian has also been linked with West Ham and Newcastle but the club want £17.5m.
          VA - Nothing But... Ibiza Summer 2018 House (2018) MP3      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Категория: Музыка / Music MP3
Размер: 372.53 MB
Траффик: Раздают (отдают): 17, Скачивают (качают): 5
Добавлен: 2018-08-08 19:52:40
Описание: Информация о музыке
Исполнитель: VA
Название альбома: Nothing But... Ibiza Summer 2018 House
Год выпуска: 2018
Жанр: House, Deep-House, Tech-House, Funky

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Время звучания: 02:42:26
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Качество: 320 Кбит/с
          Air Compressors Market Research Study by Company, Regions, Types and Applications, Global Status and Forecast to 2025      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

MarketResearchRepoprts.Biz announced recent released report on "Air Compressors Market Report by Company, Regions, Types and Applications, Global Status and Forecast to 2025"

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- This report studies the https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1598404/air-compressors-report-by-company-market-research-reports#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000">Air Compressors market status and outlook of global, from angles of players, regions, product types and end industries; this report analyzes the top players in global market, and splits the Air Compressors market by product type and application/end industries.

The global Air Compressors market was XX million US$ in 2017 and is expected to XX million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2017 and 2025.

Geographically, this report is segmented into several key regions, with sales, revenue, market share and growth Rate of Air Compressors in these regions, from 2013 to 2025 (forecast), covering
North America (United States, Canada and Mexico)
Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia and Turkey etc.)
Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia and Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam))
South America (Brazil etc.)
Middle East and Africa (North Africa and GCC Countries)

Request For Sample Copy OF Report @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/sample/sample/1598404

The major companies in this report including
Atlas Copco
Ingersoll Rand
Sullair
KAESER
DOOSAN
Gardner Denver
BOGE
Kobelco
Elgi
Airman
Fusheng
KAISHAN
Hongwuhuan
HANBELL

By the product type, the market is primarily split into
Reciprocating Air Compressor
Screw air compressor
Centrifugal Air Compressor

By the end users/application, this report covers the following segments
Petrochemical and chemical
Machinery Manufacturing
Mining and Metallurgy
Other

Table of Contents

1 Air Compressors Market Overview
1.1 Air Compressors Product Overview
1.2 Air Compressors Market Segment by Type
1.2.1 Reciprocating Air Compressor
1.2.2 Screw air compressor
1.2.3 Centrifugal Air Compressor
1.3 Global Air Compressors Market Size by Type
1.3.1 Global Air Compressors Sales and Growth by Type
1.3.2 Global Air Compressors Sales and Market Share by Type (2013-2018)
1.3.3 Global Air Compressors Revenue and Market Share by Type (2013-2018)
1.3.4 Global Air Compressors Price by Type (2013-2018)

Request to Get Complete Report List of Tables and Figures @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1598404/air-compressors-report-by-company-market-research-reports/toc

2 Global Air Compressors Market Competition by Company
2.1 Global Air Compressors Sales and Market Share by Company (2013-2018)
2.2 Global Air Compressors Revenue and Share by Company (2013-2018)
2.3 Global Air Compressors Price by Company (2013-2018)
2.4 Global Top Players Air Compressors Manufacturing Base Distribution, Sales Area, Product Types
2.5 Air Compressors Market Competitive Situation and Trends
2.5.1 Air Compressors Market Concentration Rate
2.5.2 Global Air Compressors Market Share of Top 5 and Top 10 Players
2.5.3 Mergers & Acquisitions, Expansion

3 Air Compressors Company Profiles and Sales Data
3.1 Atlas Copco
3.1.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors
3.1.2 Air Compressors Product Category, Application and Specification
3.1.3 Atlas Copco Air Compressors Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin(2013-2018)
3.1.4 Main Business Overview
3.2 Ingersoll Rand
3.2.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors
3.2.2 Air Compressors Product Category, Application and Specification
3.2.3 Ingersoll Rand Air Compressors Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin(2013-2018)
3.2.4 Main Business Overview
3.3 Sullair
3.3.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors
3.3.2 Air Compressors Product Category, Application and Specification
3.3.3 Sullair Air Compressors Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin(2013-2018)
3.3.4 Main Business Overview
3.4 KAESER
3.4.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors
3.4.2 Air Compressors Product Category, Application and Specification
3.4.3 KAESER Air Compressors Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin(2013-2018)
3.4.4 Main Business Overview
3.5 DOOSAN
3.5.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors
3.5.2 Air Compressors Product Category, Application and Specification
3.5.3 DOOSAN Air Compressors Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin(2013-2018)
3.5.4 Main Business Overview
3.6 Gardner Denver
3.6.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors
3.6.2 Air Compressors Product Category, Application and Specification
3.6.3 Gardner Denver Air Compressors Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin(2013-2018)
3.6.4 Main Business Overview
3.7 BOGE
3.7.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors
3.7.2 Air Compressors Product Category, Application and Specification
3.7.3 BOGE Air Compressors Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin(2013-2018)
3.7.4 Main Business Overview
3.8 Kobelco
3.8.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors
3.8.2 Air Compressors Product Category, Application and Specification
3.8.3 Kobelco Air Compressors Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin(2013-2018)
3.8.4 Main Business Overview
3.9 Elgi
3.9.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors
3.9.2 Air Compressors Product Category, Application and Specification
3.9.3 Elgi Air Compressors Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin(2013-2018)
3.9.4 Main Business Overview
3.10 Airman
3.10.1 Company Basic Information, Manufacturing Base and Competitors
3.10.2 Air Compressors Product Category, Application and Specification
3.10.3 Airman Air Compressors Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin(2013-2018)
3.10.4 Main Business Overview
3.11 Fusheng
3.12 KAISHAN
3.13 Hongwuhuan
3.14 HANBELL

4 Air Compressors Market Status and Outlook by Regions
4.1 Global Market Status and Outlook by Regions
4.1.1 Global Air Compressors Market Size and CAGR by Regions
4.1.2 North America
4.1.3 Asia-Pacific
4.1.4 Europe
4.1.5 South America
4.1.6 Middle East and Africa
4.2 Global Air Compressors Sales and Revenue by Regions
4.2.1 Global Air Compressors Sales and Market Share by Regions (2013-2018)
4.2.2 Global Air Compressors Revenue and Market Share by Regions (2013-2018)
4.2.3 Global Air Compressors Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2013-2018)
4.3 North America Air Compressors Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin
4.3.1 United States
4.3.2 Canada
4.3.3 Mexico
4.4 Europe Air Compressors Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin
4.4.1 Germany
4.4.2 UK
4.4.3 France
4.4.4 Italy
4.4.5 Russia
4.4.6 Turkey
4.5 Asia-Pacific Air Compressors Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin
4.5.1 China
4.5.2 Japan
4.5.3 Korea
4.5.4 Southeast Asia
4.5.4.1 Indonesia
4.5.4.2 Thailand
4.5.4.3 Malaysia
4.5.4.4 Philippines
4.5.4.5 Vietnam
4.5.5 India
4.5.6 Australia
4.6 South America Air Compressors Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin
4.6.1 Brazil
4.7 Middle East and Africa Air Compressors Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin
4.7.1 North Africa
4.7.2 GCC Countries

5 Air Compressors Application/End Users
5.1 Air Compressors Segment by Application
5.1.1 Petrochemical and chemical
5.1.2 Machinery Manufacturing
5.1.3 Mining and Metallurgy
5.1.4 Other
5.2 Global Air Compressors Product Segment by Application
5.2.1 Global Air Compressors Sales by Application
5.2.2 Global Air Compressors Sales and Market Share by Application (2013-2018)

6 Global Air Compressors Market Forecast
6.1 Global Air Compressors Sales, Revenue Forecast (2018-2025)
6.1.1 Global Air Compressors Sales and Growth Rate Forecast (2018-2025)
6.1.1 Global Air Compressors Revenue and Growth Rate Forecast (2018-2025)
6.2 Global Air Compressors Forecast by Regions
6.2.1 North America Air Compressors Sales and Revenue Forecast (2018-2025)
6.2.2 Europe Air Compressors Sales and Revenue Forecast (2018-2025)
6.2.3 Asia-Pacific Air Compressors Sales and Revenue Forecast (2018-2025)
6.2.3.1 China
6.2.3.2 Japan
6.2.3.3 Korea
6.2.3.4 Southeast Asia
6.2.3.5 India
6.2.3.6 Australia
6.2.4 South America Air Compressors Sales and Revenue Forecast (2018-2025)
6.2.5 Middle East and Africa Air Compressors Sales and Revenue Forecast (2018-2025)
6.2.5.1 North Africa
6.2.5.2 GCC Countries
6.3 Air Compressors Forecast by Type
6.3.1 Global Air Compressors Sales and Revenue Forecast by Type (2018-2025)
6.3.2 Reciprocating Air Compressor Gowth Forecast
6.3.3 Screw air compressor Gowth Forecast
6.4 Air Compressors Forecast by Application
6.4.1 Global Air Compressors Sales Forecast by Application (2018-2025)
6.4.2 Global Air Compressors Forecast in Petrochemical and chemical
6.4.3 Global Air Compressors Forecast in Machinery Manufacturing

7 Air Compressors Upstream Raw Materials
7.1 Air Compressors Key Raw Materials
7.1.1 Key Raw Materials
7.1.2 Key Raw Materials Price
7.1.3 Raw Materials Key Suppliers
7.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure
7.2.1 Raw Materials
7.2.2 Labor Cost
7.2.3 Manufacturing Expenses
7.3 Air Compressors Industrial Chain Analysis

8 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors
8.1 Marketing Channel
8.1.1 Direct Marketing
8.1.2 Indirect Marketing
8.1.3 Marketing Channel Development Trend
8.2 Distributors
8.3 Downstream Customers

9 Research Findings and Conclusion

Appendix
Methodology/Research Approach
Research Programs/Design
Market Size Estimation
Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
Data Source
Secondary Sources
Primary Sources
Disclaimer

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          Surveillance Market to Grow at a CAGR of 12.0% During 2018-2025      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The global Surveillance market is valued at 28000 million US$ in 2017 and will reach 69400 million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of 12.0% during 2018-2025.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- This report studies the global https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1868700/global-surveillance-professional-survey-report-market-research-reports#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000">Surveillance market status and forecast, categorizes the global Surveillance market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top manufacturers in North America, Europe, Japan, China, India, Southeast Asia and other regions (Central & South America, and Middle East & Africa).

This report focuses on surveillance system used for residential, commercial and Public & Government Infrastructure.

In the report, the surveillance market refers to the video surveillance market. The video surveillance market includes hardware segment, Software and Service segment.

The hardware comprised of cameras, recorders, storage, encoders and monitors.
Software and Service segment includes Video Analytics, Video Management Systems, VSaaS Service and Installation & Maintenance Service etc.

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Currently, there are many producing companies in the world. The main market players are Hikvision, Dahua Technology, Axis Communications AB, Panasonic, Honeywell Security, Hanwha, United Technologies, Tyco, Bosch Security Systems, Pelco, Huawei Technologies, Siemens AG, Avigilon Corporation, Uniview, Flir Systems, Inc and so on. The revenue of Surveillance is about 22308 Million USD in 2016.

China is the largest consumption region of Surveillance, with a consumption market share nearly 38.30% in 2016. The second place is North America; following China with the consumption market share over 20.68% in 2016. Europe is another important consumption market of Surveillance.

Surveillance used in industry including Residential Use, Commercial Use and Public & Government Infrastructure. Report data showed that 13.60% of the Surveillance market demand in Residential Use, 36.56% in Commercial Use, and 49.84% in Public & Government Infrastructure in 2016.

The major manufacturers covered in this report
Hikvision
Dahua Technology
Axis Communications AB
Panasonic
Honeywell Security
Hanwha
United Technologies
Tyco
Bosch Security Systems
Pelco
Huawei Technologies
Siemens AG
Avigilon Corporation
Uniview
Flir Systems, Inc

Geographically, this report studies the top producers and consumers, focuses on product capacity, production, value, consumption, market share and growth opportunity in these key regions, covering
North America
Europe
China
Japan
India
Southeast Asia
Other regions (Central & South America, Middle East & Africa)

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Asia-Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Australia
Indonesia
Singapore
Rest of Asia-Pacific
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Spain
Russia
Rest of Europe
Central & South America
Brazil
Argentina
Rest of South America
Middle East & Africa
Saudi Arabia
Turkey
Rest of Middle East & Africa

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On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
Camera
Other Hardware
Software &Services

By Application, the market can be split into
Residential Use
Commercial Use
Public & Government Infrastructure

The study objectives of this report are:

To analyze and study the global Surveillance capacity, production, value, consumption, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
Focuses on the key Surveillance manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.
To strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trend and their contribution to the market.
To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market.
To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Surveillance are as follows:
History Year: 2013-2017
Base Year: 2017
Estimated Year: 2018
Forecast Year 2018 to 2025

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2017 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

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Key Stakeholders
Surveillance Manufacturers
Surveillance Distributors/Traders/Wholesalers
Surveillance Subcomponent Manufacturers
Industry Association
Downstream Vendors

Available Customizations
With the given market data, QYResearch offers customizations according to the company's specific needs. The following customization options are available for the report:
Regional and country-level analysis of the Surveillance market, by end-use.
Detailed analysis and profiles of additional market players.

About MarketResearchReports.biz
MarketResearchReports.biz is a seller of syndicated market studies, featuring an exhaustive collection of research reports from leading international publishers. Our repositoryis diverse, spanningvirtually every industrial sector and even more every category and sub-category within the industry. We also provide consulting services to enable our clients have adynamicbusiness perspective.

Contact Us
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United States
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E: sales@marketresearchreports.biz

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/surveillance-market-to-grow-at-a-cagr-of-120-during-2018-2025-1025651.htm

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          Printed Sensor Sales Market Report 2018-2025: Europe Held the Largest Share in 2017      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Recent released report by MarketResearchReports.Biz on "Global Printed Sensor Sales Market Report 2018."

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- Printed sensors, a subset of printed electronics, are manufactured by using techniques like screen printing, flexography, gravure, and inkjet. Printed sensor technology makes sensing much easier and improves monitoring substantially, because it can be integrated into flexible substrates such as paper, plastic, and foil. These sensors can be woven into cloth to measure bodily functions, used to create human-centered interfaces, or can be directly attached to the skin for healthcare purposes.

The smart packing application is expected to grow at a high CAGR during the forecast period. Printed sensors play a major role in the smart packaging application as they help the manufacturers to keep track of their inventories. They are also used to monitor temperature, humidity, and gas for sensitive products, especially food and beverages. Moreover, given the rise in the adoption of smart packaging across the globe to increase the visibility, hygiene, quality, and safety of the product, there is a demand for printed sensors.

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Europe held the largest share of the printed market in 2017, while the market in Asia-Pacific is expected to grow at the highest rate during the forecast period. The high growth of the Asia-Pacific market is attributed to the presence of a number of leading consumer electronics manufacturers, rapid industrialization in the region, the growth in the production of commercial as well as non-commercial vehicles with driver assistance systems and touch infotainment systems, and the increasing number of patients of lifestyle diseases such as diabetes.

This report studies the global https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1868666/global-printed-sensor-sales-report-market-research-reports#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000">Printed Sensor market status and forecast, categorizes the global Printed Sensor market size (value & volume) by key players, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top players in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia India and Other regions (Middle East & Africa, Central & South America).

The global Printed Sensor market is valued at xx million US$ in 2017 and will reach xx million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of xx% during 2018-2025.

The major players covered in this report
Interlink Electronics
Thin Film Electronics
GSI Technologies
ISORG
KWJ Engineering
Peratech Holdco
Canatu
Mc10
Polyic
PST Sensors
Tekscan

Geographically, this report studies the key regions, focuses on product sales, value, market share and growth opportunity in these regions, covering
United States
Europe
China
Japan
Southeast Asia
India

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Asia-Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Australia
Indonesia
Singapore
Rest of Asia-Pacific
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Spain
Russia
Rest of Europe
Central & South America
Brazil
Argentina
Rest of South America
Middle East & Africa
Saudi Arabia
Turkey
Rest of Middle East & Africa

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
By Type
Printed Biosensor
Printed Touch Sensor
Printed Gas Sensor
Printed Humidity Sensor
Printed Image Sensor
Printed Pressure Sensor
Printed Temperature Sensor
Printed Proximity Sensor
By Printing Technology
Gravure Printing
Inkjet Printing
Screen Printing
Flexography
Others

On the basis on the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, sales volume, market share and growth rate for each application, including
Automotive
Consumer Electronics
Environmental Testing
Industrial Equipment
Medical Devices
Building Automation
Smart Packaging
Others

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The study objectives of this report are:

To analyze and study the global Printed Sensor sales, value, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
To analyze the top players in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, to study the sales, value and market share of top players in these regions.
Focuses on the key Printed Sensor players, to study the sales, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.
To strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trend and their contribution to the market
To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market
To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Printed Sensor are as follows:
History Year: 2013-2017
Base Year: 2017
Estimated Year: 2018
Forecast Year 2018 to 2025

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2017 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

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Key Stakeholders
Printed Sensor Manufacturers
Printed Sensor Distributors/Traders/Wholesalers
Printed Sensor Subcomponent Manufacturers
Industry Association
Downstream Vendors

Available Customizations
With the given market data, QYResearch offers customizations according to the company's specific needs. The following customization options are available for the report:
Regional and country-level analysis of the Printed Sensor market, by end-use.
Detailed analysis and profiles of additional market players.

About MarketResearchReports.biz
MarketResearchReports.biz is a seller of syndicated market studies, featuring an exhaustive collection of research reports from leading international publishers. Our repositoryis diverse, spanningvirtually every industrial sector and even more every category and sub-category within the industry. We also provide consulting services to enable our clients have adynamicbusiness perspective.

Contact Us
State Tower
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Albany, NY 12207
United States
Toll Free: 866-997-4948
(USA-Canada)
Tel: +1-518-621-2074
E: sales@marketresearchreports.biz

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/printed-sensor-sales-market-report-2018-2025-europe-held-the-largest-share-in-2017-1025624.htm

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          Smart Wearables Market to Grow at a CAGR of 14.4% During 2018-2025: Apple Is World Leading Brand to Account Market Share of 37.68%      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The global Smart Wearables market is valued at 11300 million US$ in 2017 and will reach 33000 million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of 14.4% during 2018-2025.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- This report studies the Smart Wearables market, which covers the consumer Smart Wearables device. Smart wearable technology is defined as the gadgets which are worn on, or attached to, the body, while being used; and smart wearables use application-enabled advanced computing and wireless technologies to process the inputs. Some of the consumer smart wearable devices are Google Glass, Samsung Gear, Nike wristbands and Google cardboard. These devices are used for fitness, healthcare, lifestyle, and entertainment purposes.

Wearable technology is the incorporation of technology with regular accessories which allow users to make their life easier. It has changed the lifestyle of users in order to achieve their particular goals. This technology has immense potential for rapid growth and can provide benefits to the different classes of people in their daily lives.

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Apple is the world leading brand in global Smart Wearables market with the market share of 37.68%, in terms of revenue, followed by Fitbit, Samsung and Huawei.

This report studies the global https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1868715/global-smart-wearables-professional-survey-market-research-reports#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000">Smart Wearables market status and forecast, categorizes the global Smart Wearables market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top manufacturers in North America, Europe, Japan, China, India, Southeast Asia and other regions (Central & South America, and Middle East & Africa).

The major manufacturers covered in this report
Fitbit
Xiaomi
Apple
Garmin
Samsung
Jawbone
Misfit
Polar
Moto
Huawei
BBK(XTC)
Lifesense
Razer

Geographically, this report studies the top producers and consumers, focuses on product capacity, production, value, consumption, market share and growth opportunity in these key regions, covering
North America
Europe
China
Japan
India
Southeast Asia
Other regions (Central & South America, Middle East & Africa)

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Asia-Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Australia
Indonesia
Singapore
Rest of Asia-Pacific
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Spain
Russia
Rest of Europe
Central & South America
Brazil
Argentina
Rest of South America
Middle East & Africa
Saudi Arabia
Turkey
Rest of Middle East & Africa

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
Fitness Band
Smart Watches
Smart Glasses
Others

By Application, the market can be split into
Fitness and Wellness
Infotainment

Get Complete Report List of Tables and Figures @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1868715/global-smart-wearables-professional-survey-market-research-reports/toc

The study objectives of this report are:

To analyze and study the global Smart Wearables capacity, production, value, consumption, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
Focuses on the key Smart Wearables manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.
To strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trend and their contribution to the market.
To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market.
To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Smart Wearables are as follows:
History Year: 2013-2017
Base Year: 2017
Estimated Year: 2018
Forecast Year 2018 to 2025

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2017 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

Key Stakeholders
Smart Wearables Manufacturers
Smart Wearables Distributors/Traders/Wholesalers
Smart Wearables Subcomponent Manufacturers
Industry Association
Downstream Vendors

Explore more related reports @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/category/63

Available Customizations
With the given market data, QYResearch offers customizations according to the company's specific needs. The following customization options are available for the report:
Regional and country-level analysis of the Smart Wearables market, by end-use.
Detailed analysis and profiles of additional market players.

About MarketResearchReports.biz
MarketResearchReports.biz is a seller of syndicated market studies, featuring an exhaustive collection of research reports from leading international publishers. Our repositoryis diverse, spanningvirtually every industrial sector and even more every category and sub-category within the industry. We also provide consulting services to enable our clients have adynamicbusiness perspective.

Contact Us
State Tower
90 State Street, Suite 700
Albany, NY 12207
United States

Toll Free: 866-997-4948
(USA-Canada)

Tel: +1-518-621-2074
E: sales@marketresearchreports.biz

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/smart-wearables-market-to-grow-at-a-cagr-of-144-during-2018-2025-apple-is-world-leading-brand-to-account-market-share-of-3768-1025616.htm

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          Battery Market Will Reach 119700 Million US$ by the End of 2025      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The global Battery market is valued at 89200 million US$ in 2017 and will reach 119700 million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of 3.7% during 2018-2025.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- This research study involved the extensive usage of both primary and secondary data sources. The research process involved the study of various factors affecting the industry, including the government policy, market environment, competitive landscape, historical data, present trends in the market, technological innovation, upcoming technologies and the technical progress in related industry, and market risks, opportunities, market barriers and challenges. The following illustrative figure shows the market research methodology applied in this report.

For industry structure analysis, the Battery industry is concentrated. These manufacturers are large multinational corporations. The top ten producers account for about 88% of the revenue market.
The production of Battery increased from 56918 K MT in 2013 to 63641 K MT in 2017 with an average growth rate of 2.25%.

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Asia-Pacific occupied 45.20% of the sales market in 2017. It is followed by South America and Europe, which respectively account for around 19.23% and 18.43% of the global total industry. Other countries have a smaller amount of sales.

This report studies the global Battery market status and forecast, categorizes the global Battery market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. This report focuses on the top manufacturers in North America, Europe, Japan, China, India, Southeast Asia and other regions (Central & South America, and Middle East & Africa).

The major manufacturers covered in this report
Johnson Controls
LG Chem
Panasonic
SAMSUNG
GS Yuasa
Exide
EnerSys
East Penn
BYD
ATL
Duracell
Energizer
BAK
Tianjin Lishen
SONY
GP Batteries
Furukawa Battery
AtlasBX
C&D Technologies
Maxell
Nanfu Battery
FUJIFILM
Zhongyin (Ningbo) Battery

Geographically, this report studies the top producers and consumers, focuses on product capacity, production, value, consumption, market share and growth opportunity in these key regions, covering
North America
Europe
China
Japan
India
Southeast Asia
Other regions (Central & South America, Middle East & Africa)

We can also provide the customized separate regional or country-level reports, for the following regions:
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Asia-Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Australia
Indonesia
Singapore
Rest of Asia-Pacific
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Spain
Russia
Rest of Europe
Central & South America
Brazil
Argentina
Rest of South America
Middle East & Africa
Saudi Arabia
Turkey
Rest of Middle East & Africa

On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into
By Electrolyte
Alkaline Battery
Acid Battery
Organic Battery
By Use Type
Primary Battery
Rechargeable Battery
By Positive and Negative Matetials
Lead-acid Battery
Lithium Battery
Other

By Application, the market can be split into
Home Use
Commercial Use

Get Complete Report List of Tables and Figures @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1868776/global-battery-professional-survey-report-market-research-reports/toc

The study objectives of this report are:

To analyze and study the global Battery capacity, production, value, consumption, status (2013-2017) and forecast (2018-2025);
Focuses on the key Battery manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future.
Focuses on the global key manufacturers, to define, describe and analyze the market competition landscape, SWOT analysis.
To define, describe and forecast the market by type, application and region.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends and factors driving or inhibiting the market growth.
To analyze the opportunities in the market for stakeholders by identifying the high growth segments.
To strategically analyze each submarket with respect to individual growth trend and their contribution to the market.
To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market.
To strategically profile the key players and comprehensively analyze their growth strategies.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Battery are as follows:
History Year: 2013-2017
Base Year: 2017
Estimated Year: 2018
Forecast Year 2018 to 2025

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2017 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

Key Stakeholders
Battery Manufacturers
Battery Distributors/Traders/Wholesalers
Battery Subcomponent Manufacturers
Industry Association
Downstream Vendors

Available Customizations
With the given market data, QYResearch offers customizations according to the company's specific needs. The following customization options are available for the report:
Regional and country-level analysis of the Battery market, by end-use.
Detailed analysis and profiles of additional market players.

About MarketResearchReports.biz
MarketResearchReports.biz is a seller of syndicated market studies, featuring an exhaustive collection of research reports from leading international publishers. Our repositoryis diverse, spanningvirtually every industrial sector and even more every category and sub-category within the industry. We also provide consulting services to enable our clients have adynamicbusiness perspective.

Contact Us
State Tower
90 State Street, Suite 700
Albany, NY 12207
United States

Toll Free: 866-997-4948
(USA-Canada)

Tel: +1-518-621-2074
E: sales@marketresearchreports.biz

For more information on this press release visit: http://www.sbwire.com/press-releases/battery-market/battery-industry/release-1025596.htm

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          Wireless Printing Market Future Trends, Market Drivers, Opportunities and Challenges, Forecast to 2025      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

This report presents the worldwide Wireless Printing market size (value, production and consumption), splits the breakdown (data status 2013-2018 and forecast to 2025), by manufacturers, region, type and application.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- This study also analyzes the market status, market share, growth rate, future trends, market drivers, opportunities and challenges, risks and entry barriers, sales channels, distributors and Porter's Five Forces Analysis.

The https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1869007/global-wireless-printing-insights-forecast-market-research-reports#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000">Wireless Printing market was valued at Million US$ in 2017 and is projected to reach Million US$ by 2025, at a CAGR of during the forecast period. In this study, 2017 has been considered as the base year and 2018 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Wireless Printing.

The study objectives are:

To analyze and research the global Wireless Printing status and future forecastinvolving, production, revenue, consumption, historical and forecast.
To present the key Wireless Printing manufacturers, production, revenue, market share, and recent development.
To split the breakdown data by regions, type, manufacturers and applications.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends, drivers, influence factors in global and regions.
To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market.

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In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Wireless Printing :
History Year: 2013 - 2017
Base Year: 2017
Estimated Year: 2018
Forecast Year: 2018 - 2025

The following manufacturers are covered in this report:
HP
Epson
Brother International
LG Electronics
Marvell
Samsung
Lantronix
Zebra Technologies
Canon Europe Ltd.
Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd
Axis
Bixolon
Dell, Inc.
Citizen Systems
HiTi Digital, Inc

Wireless Printing Breakdown Data by Type
Wi-Fi Network
Cloud Printing
AirPrint
PictBridge
Wireless Printing Breakdown Data by Application
Government Unit
Office Buildings
Household
Other

Wireless Printing Production by Region
United States
Europe
China
Japan
Other Regions
Other Regions

Wireless Printing Consumption by Region
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Asia-Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Australia
Indonesia
Malaysia
Philippines
Thailand
Vietnam
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Russia
Rest of Europe
Central & South America
Brazil
Rest of South America
Middle East & Africa
GCC Countries
Turkey
Egypt
South Africa
Rest of Middle East & Africa

Request To Get Complete Report List of Tables and Figures @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1869007/global-wireless-printing-insights-forecast-market-research-reports/toc

This report includes the estimation of market size for value (million USD) and volume (K Units). Both top-down and bottom-up approaches have been used to estimate and validate the market size of Wireless Printing market, to estimate the size of various other dependent submarkets in the overall market. Key players in the market have been identified through secondary research, and their market shares have been determined through primary and secondary research. All percentage shares, splits, and breakdowns have been determined using secondary sources and verified primary sources.

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2017 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

About MarketResearchReports.biz
MarketResearchReports.biz is a seller of syndicated market studies, featuring an exhaustive collection of research reports from leading international publishers. Our repositoryis diverse, spanningvirtually every industrial sector and even more every category and sub-category within the industry. We also provide consulting services to enable our clients have adynamicbusiness perspective.

Contact Us

State Tower
90 State Street, Suite 700
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          Industrial Waste Management Market Size & Share, Detailed Insights, Forecast to 2025: Waste Management, Republic Services, Clean Harbors, Waste Connections, Stericycle      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

This study also analyzes the market status, market share, growth rate, future trends, market drivers, opportunities and challenges, risks and entry barriers, sales channels, distributors and Porter's Five Forces Analysis.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- This report presents the worldwide Industrial Waste Management market size (value, production and consumption), splits the breakdown (data status 2013-2018 and forecast to 2025), by manufacturers, region, type and application.

The Industrial Waste Management market was valued at Million US$ in 2017 and is projected to reach Million US$ by 2025, at a CAGR of during the forecast period. In this study, 2017 has been considered as the base year and 2018 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Industrial Waste Management.

Request For Sample Copy Of Report @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/sample/sample/1869021

The study objectives are:

To analyze and research the global Industrial Waste Management status and future forecastinvolving, production, revenue, consumption, historical and forecast.
To present the key Industrial Waste Management manufacturers, production, revenue, market share, and recent development.
To split the breakdown data by regions, type, manufacturers and applications.
To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
To identify significant trends, drivers, influence factors in global and regions.
To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Industrial Waste Management :
History Year: 2013 - 2017
Base Year: 2017
Estimated Year: 2018
Forecast Year: 2018 - 2025

The following manufacturers are covered in this report:
Waste Management
Republic Services
Clean Harbors
Waste Connections
Stericycle
US Ecology
Rumpke
Heritage Environmental Services
Perma-Fix
Casella Waste Systems
Veolia Environnement
Progressive Waste Solutions
Suez Environnement
Tradebe

Industrial Waste Management Breakdown Data by Type
Collection
Landfill
Transfer
Industrial Waste Management Breakdown Data by Application
Chemicals
Primary Metals
Petroleum
Metal Mining
Electric

Request to Get Complete Report List of Tables and Figures @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1869021/global-industrial-waste-management-insights-market-research-reports/toc

Industrial Waste Management Production by Region
United States
Europe
China
Japan
Other Regions
Other Regions

Industrial Waste Management Consumption by Region
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Asia-Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Australia
Indonesia
Malaysia
Philippines
Thailand
Vietnam
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Russia
Rest of Europe
Central & South America
Brazil
Rest of South America
Middle East & Africa
GCC Countries
Turkey
Egypt
South Africa
Rest of Middle East & Africa

This report includes the estimation of market size for value (million USD) and volume (K Units). Both top-down and bottom-up approaches have been used to estimate and validate the market size of Industrial Waste Management market, to estimate the size of various other dependent submarkets in the overall market. Key players in the market have been identified through secondary research, and their market shares have been determined through primary and secondary research. All percentage shares, splits, and breakdowns have been determined using secondary sources and verified primary sources.

View full report @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1869021/global-industrial-waste-management-insights-market-research-reports

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2017 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

About MarketResearchReports.biz
MarketResearchReports.biz is a seller of syndicated market studies, featuring an exhaustive collection of research reports from leading international publishers. Our repositoryis diverse, spanningvirtually every industrial sector and even more every category and sub-category within the industry. We also provide consulting services to enable our clients have adynamicbusiness perspective.

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          Sports Equipments Market Detailed Insights, Forecast to 2025: PUMA,Fortune Brands, Nike, Adidas, Jarden Corporation, GLOBERIDE, Daiwa Seiko      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

This study also analyzes the market status, market share, growth rate, future trends, market drivers, opportunities and challenges, risks and entry barriers, sales channels, distributors and Porter's Five Forces Analysis.

Albany, NY -- (SBWIRE) -- 08/08/2018 -- This report presents the worldwide Sports Equipments market size (value, production and consumption), splits the breakdown (data status 2013-2018 and forecast to 2025), by manufacturers, region, type and application.

The Sports Equipments market was valued at Million US$ in 2017 and is projected to reach Million US$ by 2025, at a CAGR of during the forecast period. In this study, 2017 has been considered as the base year and 2018 to 2025 as the forecast period to estimate the market size for Sports Equipments.

Request For Sample Copy Of Report @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/sample/sample/1869049

The study objectives are:

-To analyze and research the global Sports Equipments status and future forecastinvolving, production, revenue, consumption, historical and forecast.
-To present the key Sports Equipments manufacturers, production, revenue, market share, and recent development.
-To split the breakdown data by regions, type, manufacturers and applications.
-To analyze the global and key regions market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, restraints and risks.
-To identify significant trends, drivers, influence factors in global and regions.
-To analyze competitive developments such as expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market.

In this study, the years considered to estimate the market size of Sports Equipments :
History Year: 2013 - 2017
Base Year: 2017
Estimated Year: 2018
Forecast Year: 2018 - 2025

The following manufacturers are covered in this report:
PUMA
Fortune Brands
Nike
MIZUNO Corporation
Jarden Corporation
GLOBERIDE
Daiwa Seiko
Callaway Golf Company
Cabelas
JJB Sports
Sports Direct International
YONEX
Dunlop Sports Group Americas
Amer Sports
Adidas

Request to Get Complete Report List of Tables and Figures @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1869049/global-sports-equipments-insights-forecast-market-research-reports/toc

Sports Equipments Breakdown Data by Type
Ball Sports Equipments
Adventure Sports Equipments
Fitness Equipments
Winter Sports Equipments
Other
Sports Equipments Breakdown Data by Application
Exclusive Stores
Sports Equipment Stores
Online Retailing Stores

Sports Equipments Production by Region
United States
Europe
China
Japan
Other Regions
Other Regions

Sports Equipments Consumption by Region
North America
United States
Canada
Mexico
Asia-Pacific
China
India
Japan
South Korea
Australia
Indonesia
Malaysia
Philippines
Thailand
Vietnam
Europe
Germany
France
UK
Italy
Russia
Rest of Europe
Central & South America
Brazil
Rest of South America
Middle East & Africa
GCC Countries
Turkey
Egypt
South Africa
Rest of Middle East & Africa

This report includes the estimation of market size for value (million USD) and volume (K Units). Both top-down and bottom-up approaches have been used to estimate and validate the market size of Sports Equipments market, to estimate the size of various other dependent submarkets in the overall market. Key players in the market have been identified through secondary research, and their market shares have been determined through primary and secondary research. All percentage shares, splits, and breakdowns have been determined using secondary sources and verified primary sources.

View Full Report @ https://www.marketresearchreports.biz/reports/1869049/global-sports-equipments-insights-forecast-market-research-reports

For the data information by region, company, type and application, 2017 is considered as the base year. Whenever data information was unavailable for the base year, the prior year has been considered.

About MarketResearchReports.biz
MarketResearchReports.biz is a seller of syndicated market studies, featuring an exhaustive collection of research reports from leading international publishers. Our repositoryis diverse, spanningvirtually every industrial sector and even more every category and sub-category within the industry. We also provide consulting services to enable our clients have adynamicbusiness perspective.

Contact Us
State Tower
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United States

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(USA-Canada)

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E: sales@marketresearchreports.biz

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          VA - Balearic Headspace Vol.Tres (2018)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
VA - Balearic Headspace Vol.Tres (2018)
VA - Balearic Headspace Vol.Tres (2018)
WEB FLAC (tracks) / MP3 CBR 320 kbps | 01:40:26 | 629 Mb / 230 Mb
Genre: Disco, Dance / Label: Midnight Riot


The third edition in Midnight Riot's White Isle-friendly compilation series arrives right on time for the summer and brings back a huge package full of sublime cosmic & spiritual soundtrack from around the globe. No surprises from the label, it's packed with hypnotic delights with touches of blue eyed soul, slo mo disco and tropical low slung groovers. Upping the standard it contains unreleased tracks & Balearic revisions from many of the Midnight Riot crew featuring Shalvoy & Hifi Sean, FSQ, Jack Priest, Northern Souls, Chewy Rubs, Dim Zach, Chuggin' Edits & Steve Cobby (Fila Brazillia) plus loads more all curated by label boss Yam Who?
          Offer - Nonwoven Machinery manufacturers - BAHAMAS      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Our HistoryWith Ten years of years experience in the non woven machinery field and Through R&D team, samples and customized machinery are very welcome. We realized that reliable machine quality and performance, continuously after-service and innovation are keys of achieving clients'requirements.Our ProductNon woven machinery, mask machine, PE non woven shoe cover machine, non woven cap machine, PE sleeve making machine, medical mask; hair net; shoe covers; bouffant cap; doctor cap; disposable non woven mask.Product ApplicationHospital; factory; food products factory; bakery and confectionery; personal protection; anti-dust;...Production MarketSoutheast Asia: Vietnam; India; Malaysia; Thailand; Pakistan...South America: Mexico; Brazil; Peru; The middle east: UAE, Iran... Also Russian; Germany; USA; Australia...Our Service1. We provide pre-sales, sales and after sales service, especially one year of free maintenance warranty.2. If there are problems with the machine parts, customer can take pictures and send to us by email to explain the situation, we will help to solve it on line or by email within 24 hours. If the problems cannot be solved, we will send the spare parts to customer within 3 working days.3. If there are big problems of the machine caused by wrong operation, we will arrange professional engineer to solve the problem in customer's factory, but all the cost including visa, air fare and accommodations must be paid by customer.About Sample Service:a. When you need to see the effect of our machine working, you can send your materials and samples to us, we can according to your samples to do the materials.b. If you do not have sample's picture or sample, you can tell me your requirements, we can meet your demand to do sample and then send the sample to you, let you check the quality of samplesNonwoven Machinery manufacturerswebsite:http://www.mask-machinery.com/
          Bestinfond’s Top 6 Buys in 2nd Quarter      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Top buys include Brazilian drug manufacturer and Dutch offshore energy provider

Check out Bestinfond Stock Picks »

Download Guru portfolio reportDownload GuruFolio Report of Bestinfond (Updated on 08/07/2018)
Related Stocks: BSP:HYPE3, XAMS:BOKA, LSE:MRO, HOG, XMAD:TRE, OHEL:VALM,
          A Dangerous Trip Into The 'Spill Zone:' Questions For Scott Westerfeld      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
In the dark forests outside Poughkeepsie, N.Y., two sisters live alone. Lexa, mute, communicates only with her unnerving rag doll. Addison, the elder, gets on her motorbike after dark and ventures into the city, now deserted and terribly transformed after a mysterious incident called the Spill — which claimed both their parents. Scott Westerfeld says the inspiration for his new graphic novel Spill Zone came partly from a photograph taken in Pripyat, the city just outside the Chernobyl nuclear complex. It showed a classroom full of desks, "each with a textbook on it, all turned to the same page. It was taken 20 years after the Chernobyl accident, but still told the story of those kids all jumping up at once to flee the nuclear cloud, a slice of life frozen in disaster," he tells me in an email conversation. "Around the same time as Chernobyl," he adds, "a horrible incident occurred in a small city in northern Brazil, called Goiania . Some scrap thieves broke into a closed-up hospital to
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Mudanças climáticas poderão extinguir 10% das espécies de anfíbios da Mata Atlântica

08 de agosto de 2018

Peter Moon  |  Agência FAPESP – O aquecimento global poderá levar à extinção de até 10% das espécies de sapos, rãs e pererecas endêmicas da Mata Atlântica em cerca de 50 anos. Isso porque regimes de temperatura e chuva previstas para ocorrer entre 2050 e 2070 serão fatais para espécies com menor adaptação à variação climática, que habitam pontos específicos da Mata Atlântica.

Essa é uma das conclusões de um estudo que analisa a distribuição presente e futura de anfíbios (anuros, ou seja, sapos, rãs e pererecas) na Mata Atlântica e no Cerrado, à luz das mudanças climáticas em decorrência do contínuo aquecimento global.


Mudanças climáticas poderão extinguir 10% das espécies de anfíbios da Mata Atlântica Climas estimados entre 2050 e 2070 serão potencialmente fatais para espécies com menor adaptação à variação climática, indica estudo feito na Unesp (Aplastodiscus arildae / foto: Bruno T. M. do Nascimento)
 
 O estudo foi publicado na revista Ecology and Evolution. O trabalho teve como autor principal o herpetólogo Tiago da Silveira Vasconcelos, da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), campus de Bauru, e foi feito com apoio da FAPESP no âmbito do Programa FAPESP de Pesquisa sobre Mudanças Climáticas Globais.

Colaboraram Bruno Tayar Marinho do Nascimento, também da Unesp, e Vitor Hugo Mendonça do Prado, da Universidade Estadual de Goiás.

"O objetivo maior da pesquisa foi fazer um levantamento de todas as espécies de anfíbios do Cerrado e da Mata Atlântica e caracterizar suas preferências climáticas nas diferentes áreas que habitam. Com os dados em mãos, buscamos fazer modelagens para poder projetar cenários de aumento ou de redução das áreas climáticas favoráveis às diferentes espécies, em função dos regimes climáticos estimados para 2050 e 2070”, disse Vasconcelos.

Conhecem-se atualmente 550 espécies de anfíbios na Mata Atlântica (80% delas, endêmicas) e 209 espécies no Cerrado. Vasconcelos trabalhou com os dados de distribuição espacial de 350 espécies da Mata Atlântica e 155 do Cerrado, aquelas encontradas em ao menos cinco ocorrências espaciais diferentes.

"Desse modo, foi possível identificar as áreas com maior riqueza de espécies de anfíbios, ou com composição de espécies únicas, tanto no Cerrado como na Mata Atlântica. Uma vez identificadas tais áreas, avaliamos a comunidade de anfíbios no cenário de clima atual e futuro, de modo a determinar quais são as áreas de clima favorável para cada uma das 505 espécies analisadas, e se haverá expansão ou redução dessas áreas em 2050 e 2070, em função do aquecimento global”, disse Vasconcelos.

Os dados de distribuição espacial das 350 espécies da Mata Atlântica e 155 do Cerrado foram aplicados em duas métricas de ecologia de comunidade. A primeira, denominada diversidade alfa, é a diversidade local, correspondente ao número de espécies em uma pequena área de hábitat homogêneo. A diversidade beta é a variação na composição de espécies entre diferentes hábitats e que revela a heterogeneidade da estrutura de toda a comunidade.
Vasconcelos conta que o passo seguinte foi usar os dados de clima para fazer a modelagem de nicho climático. Foram usados quatro algoritmos diferentes baseados nas características de clima favorável a cada espécie. Trata-se de algoritmos de modelo linear generalizado, de árvore de regressão, de floresta aleatória e de máquina de vetores de suporte.

Os algoritmos serviram para determinar, na Mata Atlântica e no Cerrado, quais são as áreas de climas semelhantes, gerando um mapa da distribuição das áreas atuais onde cada espécie pode sobreviver.

A seguir foi a vez de calibrar os mesmos algoritmos com os cenários de clima futuro, a partir das estimativas feitas disponíveis no portal WorldClim.

"Para cada cenário futuro, em 2050 e 2070, utilizamos dois cenários de emissão de gás carbônico na atmosfera, um cenário mais otimista, com menor aquecimento global, e outro pessimista e mais quente. Também usamos três modelos de circulação global atmosférica e oceânica", disse Vasconcelos. Os dados são do Painel Intergovernamental sobre Mudanças Climáticas (IPCC).

"Para cada uma das 505 espécies analisadas geramos 24 mapas de distribuição [quatro algoritmos x dois cenários de emissões de CO2 x 3 modelos de circulação global]. Ao todo, foram mais de 12 mil mapas”, disse.

A partir dos resultados dos 24 mapas de distribuição para cada espécie, foi gerado um mapa consensual e, então, uma matriz de presença e ausência de espécies, determinando a ocorrência prevista de cada espécie em 2050 e 2070.
"O primeiro impacto esperado da mudança climática nos anfíbios da Mata Atlântica e Cerrado é a extinção de 42 espécies por meio da perda completa de suas áreas climaticamente favoráveis entre 2050 e 2070", disse Vasconcelos.
Os dados apontam para a extinção de 37 espécies na Mata Atlântica (ou 10,6% do total) e cinco no Cerrado. Das 42 espécies, apenas cinco são atualmente consideradas como em risco de extinção pelo Ministério do Meio Ambiente.

Homogeneização de anfíbios no Cerrado

A maior riqueza de anfíbios da Mata Atlântica ocorre atualmente na porção sudeste, nos estados do Espírito Santo, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina e São Paulo. Já as regiões interioranas da Mata Atlântica são as áreas com menor riqueza de anfíbios.

Embora os resultados do estudo apontem para a perda de espécies em toda a Mata Atlântica, mesmo as taxas mais altas de perdas no sudeste do bioma não deverão alterar o fato de que esta região específica permanecerá como a mais rica em anfíbios.
Por outro lado, no Cerrado haverá perda generalizada, mas também ganho de biodiversidade em determinadas regiões.
"Os resultados da pesquisa indicam uma expansão das áreas climaticamente favoráveis aos anfíbios, dado que em função do aumento das temperaturas se espera uma expansão das áreas de Cerrado nas direções norte e nordeste, ocupando espaços que hoje são de floresta amazônica.

A savanização de porções da floresta amazônica abrirá novas áreas para ocupação dos anfíbios do Cerrado”, disse.

Especificamente, a mudança climática não deverá alterar a área de maior riqueza de anfíbios do Cerrado, que fica na margem sul deste bioma, mas uma considerável perda de espécies é esperada no oeste e sudoeste, que faz contato com as terras baixas do Pantanal Mato-Grossense. Por outro lado, poderá haver ganho de espécies em Tocantins, no norte de Minas Gerais e no oeste da Bahia.

"Os cenários futuros de mudança climática sugerem que poderá haver uma homogeneização da fauna de anfíbios ao longo da extensão do Cerrado. Ou seja, aquelas espécies mais generalistas, adaptadas a diferentes hábitats e que suportam uma variação maior de temperatura e umidade, têm a previsão de expandir suas áreas de ocupação", disse Vasconcelos.
O artigo Expected impacts of climate change threaten the anuran diversity in the Brazilian hotspots, de Tiago S. Vasconcelos, Bruno T. M. do Nascimento e Vitor H. M. Prado (doi: 10.1002/ece3.4357), está publicado em: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ece3.4357?campaign=wolearlyview&.

          Country Manager Platform Sales - Brazil - Via - São Paulo      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
About Via Via is re-engineering public transit, from a regulated system of rigid routes and schedules to a fully dynamic, on-demand network. Via's mobile app...
De VIA - Sat, 28 Jul 2018 06:40:04 GMT - Visualizar todas as empregos: São Paulo
          #makeupaddict - blue_bell_beauty      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Green and gold cut crease. . Follow @blue_bell_beauty . . PRODUCT DEETS Concealer: @thinlizzybeauty Eyeshadow: back to Brazil palette @bhcosmetics Lid glitter: loose dust @napoleonperdis Brows: Master brow promade and brow gel @db_cosmetics Eye liner: hyper sharp liquid liner @maybelline Mascara: the colossal big shot @maybelline Lashes: fierce @glamouriseyoureyes_cosmetics #wakeupandmakeup #mua #makeup #makeupartist #freelance #undiscovered_muas #makeupdolls #motd #glam #wingedliner #makeupjunkie #makeupartistworldwide #makeupaddict #makeuponfleek #eyebrows #eyeshadow #eyemakeupideas #instamakeup #bluebellbeauty #makeupartists #makeuplovee #makeupobsession #makeupmobb #blendthatshit #glamour #featuremuas #glamoureal #revlon #maybelline #muapl
          Esthetician Waxing Specialist - Allure Body Bar - Newmarket, ON      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
We created a special technique called the Quickzilian™ which makes our Brazilian wax as fast and painless as possible.... $14 - $16 an hour
From Indeed - Mon, 16 Jul 2018 19:38:37 GMT - View all Newmarket, ON jobs
          Esthetician - Waxing Specialist - Allure Body Bar - Vaughan, ON      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
We created a special technique called the Quickzilian™ which makes our Brazilian wax as fast and painless as possible.... $14 an hour
From Indeed - Fri, 27 Jul 2018 13:56:08 GMT - View all Vaughan, ON jobs
          Esthetician - Waxing Specialist - Allure Body Bar - Toronto, ON      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
We have created a special technique called the Quickzilian™ which makes our Brazilian wax as fast and painless as possible;... $14 an hour
From Indeed - Fri, 27 Jul 2018 13:07:48 GMT - View all Toronto, ON jobs
          Question: Hello girls and boys of brazil , do you know. Where eat pepeka in brazil can you help me please?      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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          Doutor Compaixão      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
I’ve just (re-)discovered Twitter, and on about the second day, Cat Rambo posted a tweet from the Magical Realism Bot: “A Brazilian math teacher proposes marriage to compassion.” She challenged the world to write a story of it. I took up the challenge. This is the result. Doutor Compaixão R. Jean Mathieu They called him […]
          BRAZILCI TEK NA 13. POZICIJI: Koja nacija na svijetu je najviše opsjednuta nogometom?! Nikada nećete pogoditi…      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Nielsen Sport, firma koja je specijalizirana za mjerenje i obradu i statistike općenito, uradila je istraživanje u kojem su proučavali u kojim državama su ljudi najviše opsjednuti nogometom. Prvo mjesto ....

The post BRAZILCI TEK NA 13. POZICIJI: Koja nacija na svijetu je najviše opsjednuta nogometom?! Nikada nećete pogoditi… appeared first on Svijet Kladjenja.


          Research Assistant (ITD-CRD-2018-22)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine is a world-leading centre for research and postgraduate education in public and global health. Our mission is to improve health and health equity in the UK and worldwide; working in partnership to achieve excellence in public and global health research, education and translation of knowledge into policy and practice. 

The International Centre for Evidence in Disability (ICED) was launched in June, 2010. The aim is to establish LSHTM as an international centre with expertise and competence in disability research and teaching in the context of public health and development. The Centre is looking to employ a Research Assistant to help with its work in Brazil on ‘Inclusion of Disabled People in Health System in Brazil’.

The successful candidate will have a Post-graduate qualification in qualitative methodologies (e.g. anthropology or policy analysis), health systems or disability; experience collecting qualitative data in low and middle income countries, using different approaches; experience of conducting semi-structured interviews and/or other types of qualitative data collection; experience of analysing semi-structured interviews and/or other types of qualitative data; experience in presenting findings, writing of reports and/or peer review publications; excellent written and communication skills; the ability to work independently and collaboratively; be fluent in Portuguese and willing to provide some translation from Portuguese to English (e.g. in meetings, of some transcripts) for UK researchers. Further particulars are included in the job description.

This part-time post (24.5 hours per week, 0.7 FTE) is available from 1st September 2019 and is funded by the MRC until March 2021.

The salary will be on the Academic pathways Grade scale in the range £33,567 - £38,533 per annum (inclusive of London Weighting). The post will be subject to the LSHTM terms and conditions of service.  Annual leave entitlement is 30 working days per year, pro rata for part time staff. In addition to this there are discretionary “Director’s Days”. Membership of the Pension Scheme is available. The post is based in London at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine

Applications should be made on-line via our website at http://jobs.lshtm.ac.uk. Applications should also include the names and email contacts of 2 referees who can be contacted immediately if shortlisted.  Online applications will be accepted by the automated system until 10pm of the closing date. Any queries regarding the application process may be addressed to jobs@lshtm.ac.uk. Please quote reference REF ITD-CRD-2018-22

The supporting statement section should set out how your qualifications, experience and training meet each of the selection criteria. Please provide one or more paragraphs addressing each criterion. The supporting statement is an essential part of the selection process and thus a failure to provide this information will mean that the application will not be considered. An answer to any of the criteria such as "Please see attached CV" will not be considered acceptable. 

Please note that if you are shortlisted and are unable to attend on the interview date it may not be possible to offer you an alternative date.

Closing Date: 26 Aug 2018
Category: Academic


          Bernard flies in to tie up Everton move      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Brazilian midfielder is at Finch Farm undergoing a medical and is expected to be officially unveiled as the Blues' third major signing of the summer tomorrow


          Solar Farm Electrical Superintendent      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
IN-Brazil, A leading solar company in local work is looking for an experienced superintendent to supervise a 6 MW solar project. A superintendent, project manager, construction manager, or foreman will be considered for this position. Job Responsibilities: Will be overseeing the entire mechanical and electrical installation of a 6 MW solar farm in Brazil, IN. Will be managing all subcontractors on-site and h
          8/9/2018: News: Dig this! 16lb spud looks like a foot      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

GROWING any potato of 16lb would be impressive, but this one truly is a remarkable feat... or should that be foot. The huge spud, pictured, was found by farmers Marli and Paulo Ciquinel in the southern Brazilian town of Meleiro. Mrs Ciquinel said:...
          2018 Digital Scent Technology Market Size: by Application, Type, Trend, Revenue, Overview, Growth and Forecasts-2025      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
(EMAILWIRE.COM, August 09, 2018 ) This report studies Digital Scent Technology in Global market, especially in United States, Canada, Mexico, Germany, France, UK, Italy, Russia, China, Japan, India, Korea, Southeast Asia, Australia, Brazil, Middle East and Africa, focuses on the top Players in each...
          Front Desk Receptionist - Bare Body Sugar - Winnipeg, MB      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Whether you're a sugar virgin or expert, super hairy, barely hairy, or shy, we don't judge. We are here to sugar. We've done thousands of Brazilians, its all...
From Indeed - Thu, 02 Aug 2018 19:41:37 GMT - View all Winnipeg, MB jobs
          #hockey - leverlast_international      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Custom sublimated Lacrosse uniform. And #lacrosse jersey Worldwide shipping. #lacrosse #lacrosseteam #rugbygirls #customshirts #sportswears #sportswear #icehockey #lacrosse #baseball #basketball #soccer #california #america #brazilianjiujitsu #brazil #unitedkingdom #uk #london #canada #wear #jersey #sublimation #protection #action #active #love #hockey #icehockey #internet #special #custom
          Kaleidoscope brings treasures of LGBT cinema to Argenta      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
With films 'big and loud.'


At their worst, film festivals are exercises in an echo chamber of self-congratulation and manufactured prestige. At their best, they're immersive marathons of transformative observation and conversation. In the three-year tenure of Film Society of Little Rock's Kaleidoscope Film Festival, organizers have kept their compasses pointed toward that latter North Star, acting as conduits for engaging pieces of art to be seen the way they were meant to be seen. They've programmed Annalise Ophelian's "Major!", Cheryl Dunye's "Watermelon Woman," João Pedro Rodrigues' "The Ornithologist," Jay Dockendorf's "Naz & Maalik" and a host of other films that traversed the wide ground between social justice commentary, lowbrow camp, incisive documentary, interfamilial drama and soundtracked revolution. We talked with filmmaker Mark Thiedeman, who serves as Kaleidoscope's artistic director/director of feature film programming, ahead of the festival's fourth year. Kaleidoscope kicks off Friday, Aug. 10, and concludes Saturday, Aug. 18.

You, as Kaleidoscope Film Festival's programmer, along with Tony Taylor and William Moon and others, have shown a dogged devotion not only to films that are visually memorable, but films that represent women and people of color, both on and off the camera. Why, for you, does this matter?

First, as a filmmaker, many of my heroes are women: Claire Denis, Catherine Breillat, Lucrecia Martel, Kelly Reichardt. They are the best of the best, period. They reshaped the way I think and work, and any system that might potentially stop audiences from seeing work like theirs is not acceptable.

I remember seeing "Moonlight" on the big screen back in 2016. That movie meant so much to African Americans in the LGBT community. Their story had so rarely been told (it still is [rare]), and usually only in films that played exclusively in big cities. The glory of "Moonlight" was that people everywhere could see it, and on a big screen. We have to make these films available to people. That's our responsibility as programmers, distributors and producers. They should be played big and loud. The 13 films in this year's lineup are treasures, and in Arkansas, Kaleidoscope may be your only chance of seeing them as they should be seen.


"Obscuro Barocco," one of the films I understand you're particularly excited about screening, centers on the life of a Brazilian transgender activist, Luana Muniz. The mesmerizing trailer's through-line is a voiceover about self-creation and self-discovery, and it occurred to me that those ideas are, in a way, mirrored in this idea of representation — seeing people on screen that give us permission to become more like our real selves. What, for you, will be a sign that the needle has really moved in the film industry as regards representation? What victory would you long for or celebrate?

That's a really lovely observation, and yes, "Obscuro Barroco" and also "Bixa Travesty" are films that describe the body as a beautiful work in progress, one that is constantly changing. And it's also true that films and popular culture in general shape the way so many people present themselves — the way we cut our hair, the clothes we wear. Seeing proud characters who exist outside of the worlds we usually see in movies is a kind of affirmation. It suggests that we are all cinematic in some way, which is really beautiful.

It seems to me that the industry is moving in the right direction, at least on the independent level. The diversity of this year's lineup really speaks to a sudden surge of amazing work being made by women and people of color. That means, to me, that these filmmakers are beginning to find more support to create films and get them seen. That said, I'm not sure I'm qualified to set a standard or a particular victory I'd like to see accomplished. I would prefer to ask our audience that question. What victory do the women in our audience hope for? The people of color in our audience? Our transgender audience? Every year, those conversations are my favorite part of the festival.

Passes are a pittance and the nine-day lineup is stacked. Can you name a few other films you think people will be talking about this year? Or two or three things people should make a point to catch if they're new to the festival?

I hope they talk about all of them, but I'm particularly excited to hear people's response to Leilah Weinraub's "Shakedown," which is a mind-blowing work of art. I'm also thrilled that we are showing "Bixa Travesty," a film about a Brazilian transwoman whose music is an assault on many social problems, not least of which is chauvinism within the gay male community. I love "Skate Kitchen," a film in which young women talk at length about things that young women never talk about in movies. And "Good Manners" is sure to delight everyone — in fact, I can't tell you anything about it, because I don't want to spoil anything.

Outside of films, I can't wait for this year's Queer Arts Street Fair, which takes place from noon to 6 p.m. Saturday, Aug. 11, and will be a great place to meet people and celebrate.

Finally, every year we try to focus on an art form outside of filmmaking, and this year's focus is fashion. At the Argenta Gallery, running through the festival, there will be two shows. One explores the interplay of fashion and the movies, and includes an installation of experimental fashion advertisements that are as cool as any movies in the festival. The other is "1681," the new show by Michael Shaeffer and Andrea Bolen, which combines illustration and the construction and design of garments. I cannot wait to see what they've created.

See kaleidoscopefilmfestival.com for passes, $6-$100, and a festival schedule.


          Looking for someone who translates doc in English(Brazilian)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
We are looking for someone who can translate and convert guide website. This is a long term project. Need to be flexible and reasonable. Look forward to hearing from you. (Budget: £20 - £250 GBP, Jobs: English (UK), English (US), English Grammar, Portuguese (Brazil), Translation)
          Looking for someone who translates doc in English(Brazilian)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
We are looking for someone who can translate and convert guide website. This is a long term project. Need to be flexible and reasonable. Look forward to hearing from you. (Budget: £20 - £250 GBP, Jobs: English (UK), English (US), English Grammar, Portuguese (Brazil), Translation)
          Ada Apa Dengan Permainan PlayerUnknown's BattleGrounds (PUBG)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

"Sejarah Erangel"

Erangel sebuah kepulauan yang agak asing. Tidak semua orang tahu akan sejarah tempat ini. Sebuah pulau yang agak besar dengan beberapa pulau kecil mengelilinginya.


Pertempuran Di Erangel
Pertempuran Di Erangel
Erangel seumpama pulau tinggalan pihak soviet ketika perang. Sunyi dan tiada penghuni. Bertemankan angin dan bauan kesengsaraan dengan panorama seumpama bumi sudah tiada makhluk bernyawa.


Erangel Map Classic
Erangel Map Classic
Malahan kelibat seekor lalat pun sukar ditemui apalagi desingan bunyi nyamuk di cuping-cuping telinga.

100 Orang Berperang Sesama Sendiri

100 orang pejuang telah ditempatkan di sebuah pulau kecil nun jauh di penjuru atas kanan geografi Erangel.

Berlainan watak dan perilaku dengan hanya berpakaian seluar dalam dan coli sahaja untuk wanita. Jika bernasib baik mampu memiliki seluar slack hitam dan baju kemeja hitam.

Apabila cukup 100 orang kapasiti yang ada di pulau tersebut yang memerlukan hanya satu minit untuk memenuhi pesawat pengangkut buatan Lockheed, Charlie C-130 Hercules.

Terjun Dari Pesawat C-130 Hercules

Pesawat C-130 ini hanya mampu mengelilingi Erangel sahaja. Melepasi Erangel tidak pernah seumpama bahan apinya sekadar mampu memberikan kuasa dalam perimeter Erangel sahaja.


Terjun Dari C130 Hercules
Terjun Dari C130 Hercules
100 orang manusia yang berbekalkan backpack yang berisi payung terjun 'dipaksa' untuk terjun menyentuh bumi Erangel, jika tidak mahu terhempas dengan C130 yang ditumpangi tadi.


Parachute Dalam PUBG Mobile
Parachute Dalam PUBG Mobile
Pencarian Senjata dan Barangan Ikhtiar Hidup

Setiap peserta akan menuju ke kediaman atau fasiliti tinggalan yang tidak lagi berfungsi di Erangel.

Looting Dalam Rumah Jumpa UMP4
Mencari segala perkakas (loot) untuk meneruskan kelangsungan hidup di bumi Erangel usang.

Senjata dan peluru, pakaian, alatan medikal akan ditemui di fasiliti dan kediaman terpilih. Nasib baik mungkin akan menemui sniper riffle, M16 atau AK-47 dengan peluru dan scope sekali.



Bergantung kepada terjahan ke bumi di mana 100 orang tadi singgah. Letih untuk marathon jangan risau, pelbagai kenderaan boleh didapati dari jip askar, ATV serta kereta volvo apalagi motosikal boleh digunakan.

Menjadi Wira 1 Dalam 100

Misinya hanya satu, teruskan hidup sehingga tinggal seorang sahaja, ya, dari 100 orang yang terjun bersama.




Bunuh sesama sendiri sehingga anda adalah manusia terakhir di bumi Erangel.Jika anda tidak membunuh, bom dari C130 dan serangan 'nuklear' biru akan menamatkan riawayat anda. Itu, dalam versi solo, anda juga boleh melakukan misi untuk terus hidup dalam 2 atau 4 orang untuk mencapai gelaran terakhir!!

WINNER WINNER CHICKEN DINNER!

Ini adalah sinopsis ringkas sebuah permainan yang cukup popular dimainkan ketika ini. Bermula dengan permainan 'Battle Royale' yang memiliki filem dan novel sendiri buatan Jepun. 

Keinginan Membunuh Ala Hunger Games dan The Purge

Keinginan tahu manusia mengenai sifat manusia sendiri sebagaimana filem 'Purge'.
Keinginan mengetahui apa yang akan berlaku jika ditempatkan di sebuah pulau atau tempat asing, berbunuhan semasa sendiri sehingga tinggal seorang sahaja yang tinggal.

Mungkin sedikit tema dari sekuel, filem epik Hunger Games.

PlayerUnknown's BattleGrounds (PUBG)



PUBG atau disebut PUB-G (sebutan:pab G), PlayerUnknown's Battle Ground ini adalah ciptaan Brendan Greene.

Sejarah Penciptaan PUBG

Brendan Greene bukanlah seorang designer/programmer permainan tetapi adalah seorang jurukamera dan pereka laman web dari Ireland.




Permainan 'Arma' dan 'DayZ' adalah permainan ciptaannya selepas kembali dari Brazil.

Greene ingin mencipta satu permainan di mana pemain dapat melepaskan 'kebebasan' dan 'ketamakan' untuk melakukan sesuatu apabila diberikan peluang untuk meneruskan hidup apabila berperang.

Kolaborasi Blue Hole Korea Selatan

Kolaborasi dengan Chang Han Kim, pereka permainan dari BlueHole Korea mula menjanakan peluang PUBG untuk hadir ke muka bumi.




Dengan tema 'Battle Royale' dan inspirasi permainan Greene terdahulu, DayZ. Mula dibangunkan sekitar 2016.

Di Lancarkan Kepada Dunia Secara Rasmi

Pada Mac 2017, PUBG telah dilancarkan secara rasmi.

Tiga hari dilancarkan, PUBG berjaya meraih kutipan sebanyak $11 juta dengan harga jualan $29.99 satu unit perisian permainan.

Pengguna android dapat download permainan ini dengan percuma di Play Store, untuk mobile semua percuma bukan sahaja untuk android sebenarnya.

Inovasi Kisah Combat Permainan Sebelumnya

Bagi peminat permainan video Counter-Strike dan Call Of Duty, PUBG adalah satunya permainan yang dinantikan.

Mujurlah dengan Huawei Nova 2i 4GB RAM berjaya penulis pasang di android penulis tanpa sebarang kesukaran.

Lebih banyak peta (maps) akan dibawakan ke dalam PUBG. Maka akan lebih meriah PUBG nanti.

Kini penulis sudah menjadi sebahagian dari PUB-G walaupun dalam versi Mobile. Menggunakan PC mungkin lebih seronok.


*segala gambar adalah dari screen shot PUBG-Mobile, kerana penulis bermain untuk mobile


Anda fikir anda tahu Ada Apa Dengan Permainan PlayerUnknown's BattleGrounds (PUBG) ?

Anda fikir sekali lagi....

Assalamualaikum.


          Reali kërkon sulmuesin e talentuar, Valencia: Paguani 120 milionë euro      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Nuk ka përfunduar ende ndjekja e një sulmuesi në shtëpinë e Realit të Madridit. Sipas asaj që raporton ?Marca?, mes objektivave kryesore të ?Los Blancos? është Rodrigo Moreno Maçado, i njohur thjesht si Rodrigo, por Valencia ka ngritur një mur të lartë për sulmuesin brazilian (i natyralizuar si span
          Looking for someone who translates doc in English(Brazilian)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
We are looking for someone who can translate and convert guide website. This is a long term project. Need to be flexible and reasonable. Look forward to hearing from you. (Budget: £20 - £250 GBP, Jobs: English (UK), English (US), English Grammar, Portuguese (Brazil), Translation)
          Új, vidám csinos sárga bikini, ZAFUL, (32/34 XXS/XS) - Jelenlegi ára: 2 000 Ft      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Vidám színű, csajos bikini az új szezonra! ; ) 
Kis tároló tasak is jár hozzá, így nem kell keresgélni újabb és újabb zacskók után ha vizesen csomagolnád el utazás során : ) 
Méretprobléma miatt eladó. Teljesen új, még a címke is rajta van.  
Csinos, csajos, vidám színű, tengeri mintás szett. Az alapszín napsárga.
A felső állítható vállpántos, kapcsos. Az alsó elöl normál felvágással, hátul brazil szabással készült.
Anyaga finom, puha, egyáltalán nem vékony.
Mérettel kapcsolatban fontos, hogy ez nem európai 36-os (UK 8, US 4), hiába ez látszik a címkén! Kínai méretezés szerinti S/36, ami Európában inkább 32/34-nek felelne meg. A felsőrészén is elég kicsi a kosárrész, tehát inkább A-nak felel meg.   (Én általában XS/S 34/36 ruhákat hordok, 70/75 B melltartókkal, és nekem kicsi. )
Új, vidám csinos sárga bikini, ZAFUL, (32/34 XXS/XS)
Jelenlegi ára: 2 000 Ft
Az aukció vége: 2018-08-25 13:29
          Luxus Norel Norellux bikinik sok színben S M méretben - Jelenlegi ára: 5 000 Ft      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Luxus Norel Lux furdoruhak sosem hasznalt termekek!!!
új!
PIROS ELADVA!
 Melltartó kivehető szivacsos
a bronz kétféle bugyival választható (brazil vagy kötős)
A lila csak kötős bugyis verzioban A többi pedig csak brazil verzióban.
Kérdezz mielőtt vásárolsz, ha valami nem egyértelmű.
6 szín ( piros eladva):
zöld (brazil)
bronz ( brazil és teli bugyi is)
piros ( brazil) - ELADVA
hideg pink (brazil)
meleg pink (brazil)
magenta (brazil)
Baratnomtol kaptam rengeteget (ove a ceg), ezek nem jok nekem (vagy szin vagy meret, illetve en az egybe reszeseket szeretem).  
sosem hasznalt s-m meretek (van S és M is, kérdezz)
Ha valamiből elfogy a képét leszedem vagy törlöm.
Egységár 5000ft/db
Azonos fazon, csak a szín eltérő.
eredeti ara : lasd a katalogus képen
Átvétel: személyesen a 12. -kerületi címemen előre egyeztetett időpontban
Posta: ajánlott levélként (2, 4 cm vastagságig veszi csak föl a posta), posta pontra, házhoz csomagként vagy MPL automata
Kedvezmény: 3 vagy több termék vásárlása esetén kedvezményről érdeklődj.
Kérlek nézz rá a többi aukciómra is, sok szép, olcsó ruhát találsz, elsősorban xs-m méretben.
Füst mentes lakásból, és nem turkálós továbbértékesítéssel.
Luxus Norel Norellux bikinik sok színben S M méretben
Jelenlegi ára: 5 000 Ft
Az aukció vége: 2018-08-15 11:56
          Miami doctor forbidden to perform Brazilian butt lifts due to malpractice      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
A South Florida doctor is now forbidden from performing Brazilian butt lifts. Officials said Dr. Arnaldo Valls can no longer do Brazilian butt lifts after...
          Pipevine Swallowtail Photo-Artistry      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Pipevine Swallowtail Photo-Artistry by kenne Some such Butterfly be seen On Brazilian Pampas — Just
          Brazil 1-1 England (France 2018)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
A stoppage time strike from substitute Ariadina Borges earned Brazil a 1-1 draw with England in Group B at the FIFA U-20 Women’s World Cup France 2018.

          [$$] Tyrus Capital hit hard by large bet on NXP Semiconductors      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Tony Chedraoui stood on stage in front of his hedge fund industry peers at the Monaco yacht club last year to deliver one of his top investment ideas. is dealing with the aftermath of a half-a-billion dollar bet that went very wrong. The presentation, made in front of peers and prospective clients, turned into the latest blow for Tyrus, which in 2012 paid $5m to settle a regulator’s fraud allegations in Brazil and during 2014 suffered a heavy paper loss betting on an aborted takeover of Shire.
          TransAtPlay Vivian Silva Sweeter than Chocolate      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Release Year: 2015
Studio: TransAtPlay Trans500
Cast: Vivian Silva
Genres: Transsexual, Shemale, Solo, Posing, Masturbation, Dildo, brazillian, Big Tits Ass, Butts, Big Dicks

Welcome back folks. Today we have something so sweet that it will satisfy all you sweet tooths out there. We have the sexy Brazilian beauty by the name of Vivian Silva.

Format: mp4
Duration: 25:08
Video: 1280x720, AVC (H.264), 4875kbps
Audio: 184kbps



File size: 932.3 MB






          Neymar deal has led to record goalkeeper fees - Kasper Schmeichel      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
With Thibaut Courtois insistent on a move away from Chelsea, the FC crew evaluate his potential replacement: Athletic Bilbao's Kepa Arrizabalaga. Chelsea head coach Maurizio Sarri talks about Thibaut Courtois and Kepa Arrizabalaga transfer speculation. In an exclusive interview with ESPN FC, Liverpool boss Jurgen Klopp explains his decision to bring in Alisson and reaffirms his support for Loris Karius. Leicester City's Kasper Schmeichel has told ESPN he believes this summer of record-breaking transfer fees for goalkeepers reflects how important the position has become for title-chasing clubs, and thinks that Paris Saint-Germain's &#8364;222m signing of Neymar last summer has sparked the surge in prices for top No. 1s. Liverpool paid the largest ever amount for a goalkeeper to sign Brazil international Alisson from Roma for &#163;67m earlier this summer, a fee which is set to be eclipsed by Chelsea...
          Demandan a Televisa en NY por sobornos en transmisiones de Mundial      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
La Corte Federal de Nueva York recibió una demanda en contra de Televisa, por situaciones de sobornos para adquirir derechos de transmisión de futuras Copa del Mundo.

Según, Ken Bensinger, periodista de BuzzFeedNews, la televisora mexicana aportó ''oscuras'' dadivas a diarios como O Global, y Torneos, de Argentina, acumulando alrededor de 15 millones de dólares con el fin de hacerse de los derechos de los Mundiales de 2026 y 2030.




En la reciente edición, Rusia 2018, Televisa Deportes resultó líder en coberturas y programas de análisis, de acuerdo a datos de Nielsen IBOPE México.




También se jactaron de alcanzar cifras récord en la historia de consumo de contenidos, aventajados por la exclusividad de transmitir partidos y resúmenes del evento.
          Stevia-Jázminpakóca/20mag NÖV.-401 - Jelenlegi ára: 120 Ft      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

"Stevia rebaudiana"
A jázminpakóca (Stevia rebaudiana) más nevén sztívia (stevia), édesfű vagy édes levél a őszirózsafélék családjába tartozó évelő növény, mely Dél-Amerikában őshonos és édes leveléről nevezetes fűszer és gyógynövény.
Az APG-rendszer szerinti besorolása alapján a Asterales rendbe tartozik a Asteraceae család tagjaként. A Stevia nemzettségbe tartozó 240 faj Dél-Amerikában, Közép-Amerikában és Mexikóban őshonosak. Közülük csak kettőnek édesek a hajtásai, a rebaudiana az egyik, mely tulajdonságát elsőnek 1899-ben a svájci botanikus Moisés Santiago Bertoni a növény leírásával egy időben említ meg. A növény fűfélékhez hasonlóan zöld színű, levelei recézettek és elliptikus alakúak. Ősszel virágzanak apró pici fehér színű öt-hat szirommal ölelt virágai.
Bertoni előtt a dél-amerikai indiánok már évszázadokkal korábban felfedezték a növényt, mint édesítőszert és gyógyászatban is alkalmazták. Levelei 30-szor édesebbek a répacukornál, kivonatai pedig akár 300-szor is édesebbek nála. Európába először az 1800-as években került, szélesebb elterjedése a második világháború cukorhiányának köszönhető. Levelében megtalálható ásványi anyagok a korlátozzák. Hasznosíthatóságát bizonyítja, hogy Japánban az édesítőszer piacon eladott termékek 40%-a a növény készítményei közül kerül ki. Elterjedtségét korlátozta, hogy az Amerikai Egyesült Államokban az 1990-es években (vitatott okokból) betiltották élelmiszeradalékként történő felhasználását, majd később korlátozottan engedélyezték forgalmát. Az Európai Unió (Franciaország kivételével), Szingapúr és Hongkong szintén tiltja élelmiszeradalékként való használatát. 2011 novemberében az Ecézium, a magnézium, a kálium, a foszfor, a cink, a vas, a kobalt, és a mangán. Tartalmaz P, A, E, C vitamint, béta-karotint, nikotinsavat, egyedülálló illóolajokat, aminosavakat és pektineket.
Magyarországon is termeszthető tavasztól késő őszig szabadban vagy ablak között napfényes helyen tartható, télre viszont fagymentes helyre kell tenni.
A növényt Japánban és Dél-Amerikában elterjedten használják, míg egyes országokban forgalmazását
urópai Unió engedélyezte a növény édesítőszerként való használatát, a rendelet 2011 decemberében lépett érvénybe
A levelét, illetve az abból kinyerhető és az édes ízért felelős szteviozidokat sokfelé édesítőszerként használják, ízhatása azonos tömegű cukorénál mintegy 300-szor erősebb, lassabban alakul ki és tovább tart. Nagyobb mennyiségben fogyasztva kesernyés utóíz alakul ki, amely az édesgyökérre emlékezetet. A világ különböző részein ételek és italok édesítésére használják és főzésre is alkalmas, mert a hatóanyaga nem bomlik le a melegítéstől. Fogyasztása esetén nem jelentkezik fogszuvasodás, melyet az ázsiai több évtizedes használat alatt külön vizsgáltak. Az Egyesült Államokban a élelmiszeripar területén történő felhasználását feloldották, ezért a Coca-Cola és a PepsiCo piacra dobta első sztívia tartalmú termékeiket.
Intenzív édes íze alkalmassá teszi alacsony szénhidrát bevitelű étrendekben édesítésre. Egyes tüneteket, mint amilyen az elhízás, a cukorbetegség, az allergia, az érelmeszesedés, vagy a magas vérnyomás, előnyösen befolyásolhat. A vércukorszintre nincs hatása, sőt még kissé növeli is a glükóztoleranciát, ezért cukorbetegek számára is használható. Meggátolja sok káros baktérium és vírus szaporodását, így hatékonyan alkalmazható megfázás, influenza és szájfertőzés ellen.
Jótékony hatása révén javítja a szövetek oxigénellátását, normalizálja az anyagcserét és a fermentációs rendszerek működését, csökkenti a vér koleszterinszintjét, segít a vashiányos állapotokban, biztosítja az immunomodulációs, stresszellenes, májvédő és gyulladásgátló hatásokat, visszaállítja az érrendszer periférikus mikrokeringését, semlegesíti és eltávolítja a szervezetünkben felhalmozott méreganyagokat a radionukleidokat is. Táplálja az endokrin rendszert, serkenti az inzulintermelést, helyreállítja a vércukorszintet, stabilizálja a vérnyomást és serkenti a vizelet-kiválasztási rendszer működését.
A guarani indiánok már több száz évvel ezelőtt a növényből nyert folyadékot alkalmazták a sebek gyors gyógyítására, mert segít megakadályozni a hegesedést. Alkalmazzák még bőrbetegségek kezelésére, bőrregeneráló hatása miatt. Porok, cseppek vagy tabletták formájában beszerezhető Magyarországon is táplálék kiegészítőként, valamint több kozmetikai szer alapanyagaként is találkozhatunk vele.
Dán és brazil tudósok szerint a II. típusú cukorbetegség ellen nagyon ígéretes, jótékonyan hat a hasnyálmirigyre. Enyhíti az inzulinfüggést, szabályozza annak szintjét. Európai tanulmányok szerint vérnyomáscsökkentő, a hasnyálmirigy működését támogatja. Semmilyen mellékhatása nincs.
Ízanyaga főzés hatására nem bomlik le, fogyasztása nem okoz fogszuvasodást. Meggátolja számos baktérium és vírus szaporodását, hatékonyan alkalmazható szájfertőzések és influenza esetén.
Leveleiben A, C, D, E, P vitaminok találhatók, és Ca, Mg, K, P, Zn, FE, Co, Mn szerves kötésben. Hatóanyagai miatt a következő betegségekre javasolt a növény fogyasztása: cukorbetegség, candidiázis, elhízás, érelmeszesedés, magas vérnyomás, allergiák, immunrendszeri betegségek, szájüregi betegségek, gyomor és emésztőrendszer megbetegedései.
EGY KIS SEGÍTSÉG bemutatóval! Katt!!!.. ..
Felhasználása:
Legegyszerűbb, ha a jázminpakóca szárított leveleit leforrázzuk, és negyed órányi áztatás után használjuk fel. Vigyázzunk, mert az eredmény nagyon édes is lehet: ha édesítőszernek készítjük, két dl vízhez egy evőkanálnyi levelet vegyünk, ha csak a teánkat szeretnénk ízesíteni, 1-2 levélke elegendő. Előbbit, mellyel édesíthetünk italokat, müzlit, kását, süteményeket, leszűrve, hűtőszekrényben tároljuk a felhasználásig. A porrá őrölt leveleket felhasználhatjuk, mint lisztadalékot tortákba, süteményekbe.
Gyors törzsoldat, meleg eljárással: Az elmorzsolt szárított leveleket egy kotyogós kávéfőző tartályába tesszük. Maximális mennyiségű vízzel felöntjük a szerkezetet, és kifőzzük, átlúgozzuk a leveleket. Az így nyert oldatot félretesszük, és a kotyogóba újra vizet töltünk, és az előbb egyszer már kifőzött leveleket újra kifőzzük. Ezt további két alkalommal megismételjük. Az első két kifőzött oldatot édesítésre, és tartósításra használjuk, a többi pedig teakeverékek ízesítésére alkalmas. A meleg eljárás előnye, hogy szinte az összes ízanyag kioldódik a levelekből. Hátránya, hogy hőhatásra érzékeny, lebomló vitaminok jelentős része megsemmisül.
Lassú törzsoldat, hideg eljárással: Egy púpozott evőkanálnyi elmorzsolt stevia levelet fél liternyi felforralt, majd kézmelegre visszahűtött vízben elkeverünk, majd 12 órán át állni hagyjuk. Ezt követően leszűrjük, majd a felázott leveleket ugyanezzel a módszerrel ismét beáztatjuk. A két oldatot végül külön-külön, vagy összeöntve is használhatjuk édesítésre, tartósításra. Ezzel a kíméletes eljárással a levél teljes hatóanyagtartalma a törzsoldatba kerül. A kilúgozás hatékonysága tovább fokozható, ha azt gyógyszertári minőségű desztillált vízzel végezzük.
Teakeverék készítése: A teakeverékhez közvetlenül is hozzákeverhetjük a stevia leveleket, és azokat egy menetben forrázhatjuk le. Érdemes először csak kevés steviát bekeverni, mert nagyon édes!
Levélőrlemény felhasználása: A szárított levélből készült őrlemény (liszt) közvetlen édesítésre használható. Nem kell oldatot készíteni belőle, hanem egyből az édesítendő, tartósítandó alapanyagba keverhetjük. A süteményeknél a lisztbe, vagy a töltelékanyagba is bekeverhető. Az őrleményt jól záródó üvegben tároljuk.
Forgalomban bioboltokban kapható szárított levél, levélőrlemény, por, folyékony steviol-glikozid-kivonat formájában. A levél használata a leggazdaságosabb! Alkoholos szirup formája kerülendő, mivel az alkohol a májra, lépre, hasnyálmirigyre pusztító hatással bír.
EGY KIS SEGÍTSÉG bemutatóval! Katt!!!.. ..
NÁLAM A LEGOLCSÓBB MAGASAN!!!!! NÉZZ UTÁNA!
1 ADAG 20 MAGOT TARTALMAZ!
KELLEMES KERTÉSZKEDÉST!
EZEK NEM BEDÖGLÖTT, ÉVEKIG RAKTÁRON TARTOTT MAGOK, HANEM 100%-IG
KIKELÉS GARANCIÁS , KÖZVETLENÜL A TERMELŐTŐL , FRISS IDEI MAGOK!!!
NÁLAM NEM KELL LICITÁLÁSSAL HÚZNI AZ IDŐT HETEKIG, AZONNAL ELVIHETED FIX ÁRON, ÉS TERMÉSZETESEN A LEGFRISSEBB MAGOKAT HISZEN RENGETEG TERMELŐVEL ÁLLOK KAPCSOLATBA, KOMOLY VILÁGCÉGEKNÉL, EZ PEDIG NEM EGY UTOLSÓ SZEMPONT, MÉG ÍGY NŐKÉNT SEM AMIT EZIDÁIG ELÉRTEM A NÖVÉNYPIACON. REMÉLEM TI IS ELÉGEDETTEK VAGYTOK !
A TERMÉK KÜLFÖLDRŐL ÉRKEZIK, ÍGY A VÁRAKOZÁSI IDŐT AZ OLCSÓSÁGA KOMPENZÁLJA...
LEÜTÉS UTÁN 3 NAPIG VÁROK, NEM JELENTKEZÉS ILLETVE NEM FIZETÉS ESETÉN EZEN IDŐ UTÁN NEGATÍVAT ADOK, EZEK TUDATÁBAN KÉREM ÖNÖKET A FELELŐSSÉGTELJES VÁSÁRLÁSRA, LICITÁLÁSRA. AMIT A VATERA KISZÁMLÁZ KÉREM AZT FIZETNI, ÉS NEM EZEN ALKUDOZNI, ESETLEG LEÜTÉS ELŐTT!
A TERMÉK EGYENESEN A GYÁRTÓTÓL ÉRKEZIK ÖNHÖZ, ÍGY A POSTAKÖLTSÉG A
LEHETŐ LEGKISEBBRE LETT LESZORÍTVA.
KÖSZÖNÖM A LÁTOGATÁSOD, SZERETETTEL VÁRLAK MÁSKOR ÉS MÁS TERMÉKEMNÉL IS!
Bankiadatok: 11600006-00000000-61757402

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Jelenlegi ára: 120 Ft
Az aukció vége: 2018-08-30 05:32
          Usability research participant - Tester Work - São Paulo, SP      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
We hope to gain a better understanding of how the job finding journey looks like in Brazil, what are the features the job-seekers value the most, how they look...
De Tester Work - Mon, 06 Aug 2018 13:43:53 GMT - Visualizar todas as empregos: São Paulo, SP
          Nextel Brazil attracts interest as sale looms      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Big name operators including Telefonica, Telecom Italia and America Movil were tipped to be among ...

The post Nextel Brazil attracts interest as sale looms appeared first on Mobile World Live.


          Embrace ethnic diversity: Experience native tourism in Peru, Brazil, and New Zealand      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Gain an insight into the historic and contemporary culture of the natives.
          Why SMBs Should Pursue B2B      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Michael Haynes joins us to talk about the value of pursuing B2B customers as a means of business growth. Michael is a B2B Customer Strategy Specialist. He has over 20 years’ experience working with companies in Australia, Brazil and Canada helping them to develop and implement customer driven strategies and programs to drive business growth and improve performance. Michael has worked with start-ups and SMEs across a range of industries including Professional Services, IT and Transportati
          Fluminense - Internacional-RS      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Football. Brazil. Serie A
          Aaron Pico vs. Leandro Higo set for Bellator 206      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Bellator MMA prospect Aaron Pico is about to get a major step up competition next month at Bellator 206 when he squares off against Leandro Higo, who has 22 professional fights under his belt and an MMA record of 18-4. Ultimate Fighter Brazil Season 4 alum Leandro “Pitbull” Higo will be looking to get to […]

The post Aaron Pico vs. Leandro Higo set for Bellator 206 appeared first on MMA News.


          August Insights Digest: Global Social Media Use, U.S. Kids’ Purchasing Power and More      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
This time we have an update on the “Hierarchy of Screens,” a video about global social media use, American kids’ role in household purchases, and new research on Saudi teens. As always, on our blog you can find these and all our stories in English, Latin American Spanish and Brazilian Portuguese. The TV Set Reigns […]
          Traveling with antibiotics      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
I am doing a round the world trip starting next month, taking in mostly "third-world" places like india, thailand, philippines, brazil, mexico and egypt. I have been advised to take a course of all purpose anti-biotics for when i get a bacterial infection or stomach condition that won;t quit.

Has any one tried this or have opinions on being prescribed antibiotics before actually getting sick? if so what do you recommend? Thanks for any advice recevied...
          Shemale Scenes      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Shemale Scenes has hardcore trans porn from Brazil. The Tgirls usually fuck men and get fucked by them. Sometimes they do each other too, and you'll also see threesomes. The site stopped updating in November 2015, but you'll find 392 videos and 27 photo galleries. The vids are not in HD, but the best of the SD formats looks good for the most part. You get quite a few trans bonus sites and at least a few of them are still growing.
          Ook Robin van Persie en Eric Botteghin ontbreken in Slowakije      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Op de eigen website heeft Feyenoord bekend gemaakt dat naast de al bekende afwezigen ook Robin van Persie en Eric Botteghin zullen ontbreken. De Braziliaanse verdediger blijft wegens privéomstandigheden...
          Rising boxing star Regis Prograis shows off BJJ training in Brazil, also meets up with Jose Aldo – Bloody Elbow      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Bloody Elbow Rising boxing star Regis Prograis shows off BJJ training in Brazil, also meets up with Jose AldoBloody ElbowJunior welterweight boxer Regis Prograis (22-0, 19 KOs) is one of the sport's most exciting up-and-coming talents. Having turned professional in 2012, “Rougarou” is regarded as one of the best (if not the best) fighters in …
          DiplomaticQuarter: Week-long German tour for best Saudi, Bahraini entrepreneurs      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Author: 
ARAB NEWS
ID: 
1533757699912717500
Wed, 2018-08-08 22:47

JEDDAH: To foster local talents and in support of the Kingdom’s Vision 2030, the German-Saudi Arabian Liaison Office for Economic Affairs (GESALO) aims to find the best Saudi and Bahraini high-tech start-ups in the fields of smart cities, mobility/logistics, and insurance technology at the Start.Up! Germany Pitch Night at the Ritz-Carlton Bahrain on Sept. 6.
Following the success of the first German-Saudi Startup Competition in March, the winners of the Start.Up! Germany Pitch Night will be awarded fully sponsored participation in this year’s Start.Up! Germany Tour in Dusseldorf, Cologne, and the Ruhr area (Oct. 7-12, 2018), with a special welcoming day for Saudi and Bahraini start-ups in Berlin on Oct. 5.
“Providing a platform for local start-ups to unleash their innovative ideas and potential is one of our duties. In that regard, Start.up! Germany is the perfect meeting point of the old and new economy,” said GESALO Project Manager Fabian Zittlau.
Given the Kingdom’s rising ecosystem, start-ups from Saudi Arabia will participate in the tour for the first time. Last year, 46 start-ups from 16 countries such as Brazil, France, Kenya, Russia, and South Korea took part in last year’s roadshow through Germany’s innovation hubs.
The start-ups can expect a series of meetings and matchmakings with German and international investors, public institutions and companies such as Thyssenkrupp, Vodafone, Henkel, Trivago, WILO, Ergo, Evonik, KPMG and DB Schenker.
In addition to pitch events within the individual categories, various workshops are offered to all start-ups. Berlin and the Ruhr area are Germany’s startup hotspots: More than 44 percent of new businesses in Germany are founded in these regions, and 41 percent of venture capital is flowing to Berlin and the Ruhr area.
Saudi and Bahraini start-ups can submit their applications via presentation and/or video until Aug. 14. In Bahrain, the best candidates will compete against each other in a three-minute presentation in their personal categories in front of a high-level jury of company and association representatives from the three countries.
The most promising ideas and business models will qualify for the Start.Up! Germany Tour 2018. Registration is open to Saudi and Bahraini start-ups founded after Jan. 1, 2015, and which have at least one founder from the respective countries. Applications can be submitted at the following link: www.gesalo-startup.com.

Main category: 
DiplomaticQuarter: Egyptian Embassy celebrates National Day in styleDiplomaticQuarter: Japanese embassy in Riyadh plans goodwill cruise for naval training squadron
          Motorcycle-Bike | Motorcycle Speaker | Motorcycle Parts Store      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Harley-Davidson, Inc. (H-D), or Harley, is definitely an National bike manufacturer, established in Milwaukee, Iowa in 1903.

1 of 2 important American motorcycle companies to survive the Good Despair (along with Indian),[2] the business has lasted numerous possession arrangements, subsidiary agreements (e.g., Aermacchi 1974-1978 and Buell 1987-2009), periods of poor financial health and solution quality, in addition to intense world wide competition,[3] to become one of the world's biggest bike makers and an iconic model commonly noted for their dedicated following. You can find manager clubs and activities worldwide along with a company-sponsored brand-focused museum.

Noted for a design of modification that gave rise to

the chopper bike type,[4] Harley-Davidson historically promoted heavyweight, air-cooled cruiser bikes with motor displacements greater than 700 cm³ and has broadened their offerings to add its more recent VRSC (2002) and middle-weight Road (2015) platforms.

Harley-Davidson manufactures their cycles at factories in York, Pennsylvania; Milwaukee, Iowa; Kansas Town, Mo (closing); Manaus, Brazil; and Bawal, India. Structure of a fresh seed in Thailand is planned to start in late 2018[5]. The company areas their products and services worldwide.

Besides motorcycles, the company permits and areas product beneath the Harley-Davidson model, one of them clothing, home decor and ornaments, accessories, toys, and scale numbers of their bikes, Honda Motorcycles For Sale and video gaming centered on their bike point and the community.

Buell Bike Business
Main report: Buell Motorcycle Company

Buell Lightning XB9SX
Harley-Davidson's association with sportbike company Buell Bike Company began in 1987 when they supplied Buell with fifty surplus XR1000 engines. Buell extended to purchase motors from Harley-Davidson till 1993, when Harley-Davidson ordered 49 percent of the Buell Motorcycle Company.[71] Harley-Davidson increased their reveal in Buell to ninety-eight per cent in 1998, and to accomplish ownership in 2003.

In an attempt to entice novices to motorcycling generally and to Harley-Davidson particularly, Buell developed a low-cost, low-maintenance motorcycle. The resulting single-cylinder Buell Blast was introduced in 2000, and Harley-davidson News Announcement was created through 2009, which, based on Buell, was to be the last year of production. The Buell Blast was working out car for the Harley-Davidson Rider's Edge New Rider Program from 2000 till May 2014, when the company re-branded the training school and started utilising the Harley-Davidson Road 500 motorcycles. In those 14 decades, significantly more than 350,000 participants in the course learned to drive on the Buell Blast.

On March 15, 2009, Harley-Davidson Inc. issued the official record so it would be discontinuing the Buell point and ceasing generation immediately.[76] The mentioned reason was to focus on the Harley-Davidson brand. The business Motorcycle Racing For Kids refused to think about selling Buell. Founder Erik Buell eventually recognized Erik Buell Race and continued to produce and build their 1125RR racing motorcycle.



Bike engines

1,450 cc V-twin
Principal report: Harley-Davidson engine timeline
The common Harley-Davidson engines are V-twin motors, with a 45° position between the cylinders. The crankshaft includes a simple green, and both pistons are connected to this pin through their connecting rods.

This 45° direction is covered under many United States patents and is an executive tradeoff that enables a big, high-torque engine in a somewhat small space. It triggers the cylinders to fire at irregular periods and creates the choppy "potato-potato" noise
motorcycle speaker
therefore strongly linked to the Harley-Davidson brand.

To simplify the motor and minimize charges, the V-twin ignition was designed to operate with an individual pair of details and number distributor. This is known as a dual fireplace ignition system, producing both spark connects to fire regardless which cylinder was on their compression stroke, with another spark plug firing on their cylinder's fatigue stroke, efficiently "wasting a spark ".The exhaust note is actually a throaty barking sound with some popping. The 45° style of the motor thus creates a plug firing sequencing as such: The initial tube fires, the 2nd (rear) cylinder fires 315° later, Harley Davidson Road King Chrome then there is a 405° gap before first cylinder fires again, providing the engine its unique sound.[102]

Harley-Davidson has used various ignition techniques through the duration of its record – be it the early items and condenser process, (Big Twin around 1978 and Sportsters as much as 1978), magneto ignition process applied to some 1958 to 1969 Sportsters, early digital with centrifugal mechanical improve weights, (all types 1978 and a half to 1979), or the late digital with transistorized ignition control element, more familiarly known as the dark box or the mind, (all versions 1980 to present).

Beginning in 1995, the business presented Electronic Energy Harley-davidson Parts And Accessories Shot (EFI) being an selection for the 30th wedding variation Electra Glide. EFI turned normal on all Harley-Davidson motorcycles, including Sportsters, upon the release of the 2007 item line.

In 1991, Harley-Davidson started initially to participate in the Noise Quality Functioning Group, founded by Orfield Labs, Bruel and Kjaer, TEAC, Yamaha, Sennheiser, SMS and Cortex. This was the nation's first group to fairly share research on psychological acoustics. Later that year, Harley-Davidson participated in a series of noise quality studies at Orfield Labs, centered on recordings taken at the Talladega Superspeedway, with the aim to lessen the sound level for EU criteria while analytically Motorcycle Fails Usa catching the "Harley Noise".[citation needed] This research triggered the bikes that were presented in conformity with EU requirements for 1998.

On February 1, 1994, the company registered an audio trademark software for the exclusive sound of the Harley-Davidson bike motor: "The tag contains the exhaust sound of applicant's cycles, made by V-twin, frequent crankpin motorcycle engines when the things come in use ".Nine of Harley-Davidson's opponents filed comments opposing the application, fighting that cruiser-style motorcycles of numerous manufacturers make use of a single-crankpin V-twin engine which produce a similar sound. These objections were accompanied by litigation. In June 2000, the organization slipped efforts to federally register its trademark.
          Branch Manager - Aditya Birla Group - Shiliguri, West Bengal      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The Group operates in 36 countries Australia Austria Bangladesh Brazil Canada China Egypt France Germany Hungary India Indonesia Italy Ivory Coast Japan Korea...
From Aditya Birla Group - Tue, 07 Aug 2018 13:19:03 GMT - View all Shiliguri, West Bengal jobs
          8/9/2018: SPORT: Sport.idnes.cz      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Španělský fotbalový brankář Kepa Arrizabalaga přestoupil z Bilbaa do Chelsea, která zaplatila 72 milionů liber (asi dvě miliardy korun) a udělala z něj nejdražšího gólmana světa. Arrizabalagův transfer překonal nedávný rekord Brazilce Alissona Beckera,...
          Így néz ki a „Rabszolgasors” című brazil TV-sorozat sztárja 43 évvel a forgatás után!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Eltekintve attól, hogy az eredeti címén “Escrava Isaura” sorozat megjelenése óta 43 év telt el, kijelenthető, hogy a főszerepet játszó színésznő, Lucélia Santos nem vált kevésbé népszerűbbé sem hazájában, Brazíliában, sem szerte a világon. Első alkalommal 1975-ben jelent meg a latin-amerikai ország képernyőin a szerencsétlen sorsú rabszolgalány története. Ez a sorozat a televíziós műsorok értékesítésének […]

The post Így néz ki a „Rabszolgasors” című brazil TV-sorozat sztárja 43 évvel a forgatás után! appeared first on Bidista.com - A TippLista!.


          A Look at the #MeToo Movement’s Impact In the US, Brazil and the UK      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Since the #MeToo movement began in October 2017, hardly a week goes by without the hashtag making headlines. From Miss America pageants to proposed legislation, the movement has given victims of sexual violence and harassment a new voice and has...
          Soccer legend Pelé scores $2.85M for Hamptons retreat      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
This house really kicks. Pelé, a Brazilian soccer star regarded as one of the greatest players of all time, has sold his Hamptons retreat. The six-bedroom home, at 156 Waterhole Road in the enclave of Springs, traded in early August for $2.85 million. It was last asking $3.25 million. Pelé, born Edson Arantes do Nascimento,...
          Right-wing Brazilian presidential candidate picks dictatorship-loving general as a running mate      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Remember last week when we told you that there was some jibba-jabba about the possibility of Brazil sliding back into being a military dictatorship? According to Reuters, far-right leaning presidential candidate, Jair Bolsonaro, has named a retired general as his running mate in the nation’s upcoming elections. Here’s the shit-and-giggle part: the general in question is Antonio Hamilton Mourão. He’s the same fella that told the media that there was a possibility of there being a military coup if the Brazilian government didn’t get its shit together. From Reuters:
Bolsonaro, running as a candidate for the small Social Liberty Party (PSL), has pegged much of his candidacy on controversial remarks, whether defending of the past military dictatorship or suggesting acts of violence against homosexuals. In an interview last year with Reuters, the candidate for the Social Liberty Party (PSL) played down Mourão’s remarks. “It was just a warning. Nobody wants to seize power that way,” Bolsonaro said. “Maybe we could have a military man winning in 2018, but through elections.” Bolsonaro had struggled to find a running mate as other parties tried to distance themselves from his controversial comments. Other proposed vice presidential candidates - including another general, an astronaut and a sitting senator - ultimately fell through.
Encouraging acts of violence against homosexuals and propping up the deeds of a past dictatorship. I can’t imagine why Bolsonaro was having problems finding a running mate. Unfortunately, as we’ve learned over the past few years, having no moral compass or compassion for minorities won’t stop a dangerous bully or a dictator from coming to power during an election year. Image via Wikipedia
          Motorcycle-Bike | Harley-davidson Stock Options For Employees | Motorcycle Jackets For Women      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Harley-Davidson, Inc. (H-D), or Harley, can be an American bike maker, established in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1903.

1 of 2 important American bike companies to endure the Great Despair (along with Indian),[2] the organization has lasted numerous control arrangements, subsidiary arrangements (e.g., Aermacchi 1974-1978 and Buell 1987-2009), periods of poor financial wellness and product quality, along with intense worldwide opposition,[3] to become one of many world's greatest bike suppliers and an famous manufacturer widely noted for their dedicated following. There are owner groups and events world wide as well as a company-sponsored brand-focused museum.

Noted for a style of customization that gave increase to the helicopter Motorcycle Phone Mount Note 8 bike model,[4] Harley-Davidson usually marketed heavyweight, air-cooled cruiser motorcycles with motor displacements more than 700 cm³ and has broadened its offerings to add its more sophisticated VRSC (2002) and middle-weight Block (2015) platforms.

Harley-Davidson produces its cycles at factories in York, Pennsylvania; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Kansas Town, Mo (closing); Manaus, Brazil; and Bawal, India. Structure of a new seed in Thailand is planned to start in late 2018[5]. The company markets their products and services worldwide.

Besides bikes, the business licenses and markets merchandise underneath the Harley-Davidson model, among them apparel, home decor and decorations, accessories, games, and scale results of its motorcycles, and game titles based Harley Davidson Street Glide Special on their bike line and the community.

Buell Bike Organization
Main article: Buell Motorcycle Business

Buell Lightning XB9SX
Harley-Davidson's association with sportbike company Buell Motorcycle Organization began in 1987 when they equipped Buell with fifty surplus XR1000 engines. Buell extended to purchase motors from Harley-Davidson until 1993, when Harley-Davidson ordered 49 percent of the Buell Motorcycle Company.[71] Harley-Davidson increased its share in Buell to ninety-eight per cent in 1998, and to perform possession in 2003.

In an attempt to attract newcomers to motorcycling generally speaking and to Harley-Davidson specifically, Buell created a low-cost, low-maintenance motorcycle. The ensuing single-cylinder Buell Blast was introduced in 2000, and was created through 2009, Harley-davidson Stock Over The Last 10 Years which, based on Buell, was to be the final year of production. The Buell Blast was working out car for the Harley-Davidson Rider's Edge New Rider Program from 2000 until May 2014, when the organization re-branded the training academy and began utilising the Harley-Davidson Block 500 motorcycles. In those 14 years, more than 350,000 individuals in the program discovered to trip on the Buell Blast.

On Oct 15, 2009, Harley-Davidson Inc. issued an official statement that it would be discontinuing the Buell point and ceasing manufacturing immediately.[76] The mentioned reason was to concentrate on the Harley-Davidson brand. The organization declined to think about offering Buell. Harley-davidson India Price Founder Erik Buell eventually recognized Erik Buell Race and extended to manufacture and develop their 1125RR race motorcycle.



Bike motors

1,450 cc V-twin
Main report: Harley-Davidson motor timeline
The traditional Harley-Davidson engines are V-twin engines, with a 45° position involving the cylinders. The crankshaft includes a simple green, and equally pistons are related to this green through their joining rods.

That 45° angle is included under several United States patents and is an engineering tradeoff that enables a big, high-torque engine in a relatively small space. It triggers the cylinders to fireplace at irregular times and provides the choppy "potato-potato" sound so strongly associated with the Harley-Davidson brand.

To Motorcycle Mirrors Cafe Racer simplify the engine and lower costs, the V-twin ignition was designed to use with an individual set of points and number distributor. This is called a twin fireplace ignition process, creating both spark connects to fire regardless which tube was on its compression stroke, with the other ignite plug shooting on its cylinder's exhaust stroke, successfully "wasting an interest ".The fatigue observe is simply a throaty barking noise with some popping. The 45° style of the motor hence produces a put shooting sequencing as such: The initial cylinder fires, the 2nd (rear) tube shoots 315° later, then there's a 405° distance before the first

cylinder fires again, giving the motor its unique sound.[102]

Harley-Davidson has used various ignition techniques through the duration of their history – be it early points and condenser system, (Big Double as much as 1978 and Sportsters as much as 1978), magneto ignition program used on some 1958 to 1969 Sportsters, early electronic with centrifugal technical advance loads, (all versions 1978 and a half to 1979), or the late electric with transistorized ignition get a grip on element, more familiarly known as the dark field or the mind, (all types 1980 to present).

Starting in 1995, the organization presented Digital Gasoline Injection (EFI) being an choice Harley-davidson Motorcycle Helmets for the 30th wedding release Electra Glide. EFI turned standard on all Harley-Davidson cycles, including Sportsters, upon the release of the 2007 solution line.

In 1991, Harley-Davidson started to participate in the Noise Quality Working Party, established by Orfield Laboratories, Bruel and Kjaer, TEAC, Yamaha, Sennheiser, SMS and Cortex. This was the nation's first group to talk about research on mental acoustics. Later that year, Harley-Davidson participated in some noise quality reports at Orfield Laboratories, predicated on recordings taken at the Talladega Superspeedway, with the objective to lessen the noise stage for EU criteria while analytically catching the "Harley Noise".[citation needed] That study resulted in
harley-davidson stock options for employees
the bikes which were presented in compliance with EU standards for 1998.

On Feb 1, 1994, the company registered a sound brand program for the exclusive sound of the Harley-Davidson motorcycle engine: "The tag contains the exhaust noise of applicant's cycles, made by V-twin, common crankpin bike motors once the goods have been in use ".Nine of Harley-Davidson's opponents filed comments opposing the application form, fighting that cruiser-style bikes of various models make use of a single-crankpin V-twin motor which make a related sound. These questions were followed by litigation. In August 2000, the company dropped efforts to federally enroll its trademark.
          Athletic Bilbao say Kepa Arrizabalaga’s £71m buyout clause has been met      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Kepa Arrizabalaga’s €80m (£71m) buyout clause has been met, Athletic Bilbao have announced, as the goalkeeper appears on the verge of a world record move to Chelsea. The LaLiga club confirmed the 23-year-old’s release clause has been activated and his contract terminated, although there is no mention of Chelsea. The fee is a world record for a goalkeeper, surpassing the £65m paid by Liverpool to Roma for Brazil goalkeeper Alisson Becker last month. Chelsea have made Kepa their number one target to replace the want-away Thibaut Courtois who has stayed away from pre-season…

The post Athletic Bilbao say Kepa Arrizabalaga’s £71m buyout clause has been met appeared first on A Different League.


          18 colors Polka Dots Cotton Fabric Green Blue Pink Black Grey Gray White Fabric Cotton Fabric - Spots Dots 100% Cotton 1/2 yard 18"x63" by fabricmade      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

4.00 USD

This fabric is a polka dots cotton, 18 colors.

* Fabric: 100% cotton, polka dots, twill cotton, a bit light weight, 160g/yard
* Dots dimensions: 7mm.
* Width 63 inch (160cm), listed for 18"X63" (45cm x 160cm). If you need one yard, I will ship 90 cmX160cm.
* Additional yardage will be cut in one continuous piece.
* Suit for sewing crafting, home decor, table runner, pillow cover, sewing crafting decor

If you need more of the fabrics than in the listing, please convos me, I will check and quote for you including shipping fee.

Below for average airlift shipping times worldwide:
Canada: 3-5 weeks
USA: 2-4 weeks
New Zealand / australia: 3-4 weeks
Brazil: >40-60 business days, very slow.
major european countries: 3-4 weeks
eastern european countries: 3-4 weeks, up to 6 weeks max


          Bows Cotton Fabric White Cotton With Pink Blue Green Bows Quilting Fabric- 1/2 yard by fabricmade      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

4.60 USD

This fabric is nice color fabric, clean and fresh looking, bows pattern. 6 style available: A green bows on white, B white bows on green, C blue bows on white, D white bows on blue, E pink bows on white, F white bows on pink . Please specify the color number when placing an order, or I will send the #F white bows on pin by default.


* Cotton fabric: pastel color, nice bows, soft, twill (weave), medium weight, 170g/yard
* Width 63 inch (160cm), listed for 18"X63" (45cm x 160cm). If you need one yard, I will ship 90 cm X160cm.
* Additional yardage will be cut in one continuous piece.
* Suit for apparel, clothing, craft, quilting, home decor ...

pink color:
http://www.etsy.com/listing/104914964/light-pink-cotton-fabric-flower-stripe

Light blue color:
https://www.etsy.com/listing/185272125/light-blue-cotton-fabric-flower-plain


If you need more of the fabrics than in the listing, please convos me, I will check and quote for you including shipping fee.

Below for average airlift shipping times worldwide:
Canada: 3-5 weeks
USA: 2-4 weeks
New Zealand / australia: 3-4 weeks
Brazil: >40-60 business days, very slow.
major european countries: 3-4 weeks
eastern european countries: 3-4 weeks, up to 6 weeks max


          Pink Lemon Cotton Fabric, Off White Cotton Pink Lemon Green Leaves, Dress Blouse Skirts Bag Fabric- 1/2 yard by fabricmade      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

5.00 USD

This fabric is a cotton fabric, nice pink lemon , off white background.


* Cotton fabric: light pink lemon, plain weave, a bit light weight, 160g/yard.
* Length of lemon: 8cm/ 3"
* Width 55 inch (140cm), listed for 18"X55" (45cm x 140cm). If you need one yard, I will ship 90 cmX140cm.
* Additional yardage will be cut in one continuous piece
* Suit for sewing crafting, home decor, dress, bag, clothes, sewing crafting decor

Yellow color:
https://www.etsy.com/listing/541337823/yellow-lemon-cotton-fabric-off-white


If you need more of the fabrics than in the listing, please convos me, I will check and quote for you including shipping fee.

Below for average airlift shipping times worldwide:
Canada: 3-5 weeks
USA: 2-4 weeks
New Zealand / australia: 3-4 weeks
Brazil: >40-60 business days, very slow.
major european countries: 3-4 weeks
eastern european countries: 3-4 weeks, up to 6 weeks max


           Everton star Richarlison 'relaxed' about £44m transfer fee       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Richarlison believes he must win over the sceptics and prove Marco Silva has not made a £44million mistake in signing him for Everton. The Brazilian was Everton's first buy of the current window.
           Watford offered chance to sign Lille midfielder Thiago Maia       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Watford have been offered the chance to sign Brazilian midfielder Thiago Maia from Lille. The 21-year-old Brazilian has also been linked with West Ham and Newcastle but the club want £17.5m.
           Cristiano Ronaldo 'urges former Real Madrid team-mate Marcelo' to join him at Juventus       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Ronaldo completed a shock £100million transfer to the Serie A earlier this summer, but Juventus could further bolster their ranks with the signing of the Brazilian full-back, Marcelo.
          [BUY] Nutrien Ltd. (NTR-T)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hold in their client portfolios and likes the company and continues to hold it.  She likes the long term growth prospect.  They are a big producer of potash and nitrogen.  They had a big beat in their last report.  Are a fertilizer company and they have retail stores for the farmers.  There is a lot of growth potential.  Also want to expand retail platform to Australia and Brazil.  They have a lot of cash flow from sale of certain assets to grow their retail.
          Country Manager Platform Sales - Brazil - Via - São Paulo      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
About Via Via is re-engineering public transit, from a regulated system of rigid routes and schedules to a fully dynamic, on-demand network. Via's mobile app...
De VIA - Sat, 28 Jul 2018 06:40:04 GMT - Visualizar todas as empregos: São Paulo
          Gerente de Frota / Gerente Técnico - Robert Half Brazil - Campinas, SP      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Garantir o cumprimento das certificações da autoridade marítima e sociedades classificadoras das embarcações, como corresponda;...
De Robert Half Brazil - Thu, 12 Jul 2018 22:06:10 GMT - Visualizar todas as empregos: Campinas, SP
          P2083790      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

P2083790

Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

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photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

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THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

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Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

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THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
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WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

Plus-size models

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

Fit models

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

Glamour models

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

Alternative models

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

Parts models

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

Fitness models

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

Gravure idols

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Commercial print and on-camera models

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

Promotional models

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

Spokesmodels

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

Trade show models

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

Atmosphere models

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

Podium models

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

Art models

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

Instagram models

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.


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FotoManiacNYC posted a photo:

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Andre Emery F/W 2018 collection runway show at Style Fashion Week during February 2018 New York Fashion Week

FACEBOOK / INSTAGRAM / FLICKR / TWITTER
photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

THE DESIGNER

Andre Emery is a High-end timeless ready to wear men's and women's line, serving the individual while guaranteeing originality and exclusivity . Andre Emery encapsulates hand crafted, hand picked, high quality ingredients to build the base for the unique...

Designer page: www.andreemery.com
Facebook page: ANDRE EMERY
Instagram page: ANDRE EMERY OFFICIAL


WHO IS A MODEL

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

HISTORY OF MODELING

Early years

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

The 1970's and 1980's

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

The 1990's to present

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

TYPES OF MODELING

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.