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          Lynda.com: Ethereum: Building Blockchain Decentralized Apps (DApps)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Are you interested in writing blockchain apps or integrating cryptocurrency into your existing apps? In this project-based course, Drew Falkman shows mobile and web developers who are broadly familiar with programming concepts how to work in the Ethereum blockchain environment. As he walks through the creation of a smart contract, a web user interface, and the JavaScript needed to link the two, Drew helps to familiarize you with key programming concepts and techniques surrounding Ethereum development. Discover what the Ethereum blockchain is and how it differs from bitcoin. Get an introduction to Solidity, the programming language used to write smart contracts on the Ethereum network. In addition, learn how to build decentralized applications (DApps) using some of the web programming languages you're already familiar with.
           Augur Launches Decentralized Prediction Marketplace      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Augur Launches Decentralized Prediction Marketplace

Augur, a blockchain-based predictions platform, has opened to the general public. The platform becomes the “world’s first” decentralized prediction-market platform.

Augur was created by the Forecast Foundation, a not-for-profit corporation whose goal is to build “open-source, public forecasting tools.”

Prediction markets — which are a general type of financial market — have long been dominated by the likes of Paddy Power and DraftKings, which are centrally owned, operated and regulated.  

This centralization causes all kinds of problems, such as restrictions for users in certain regions, higher associated costs to use and limitations on the types of markets that users could create.

A key differentiator for Augur is its global and decentralized nature.

With the launch of the platform, anyone, anywhere, can launch their own events and bet on them. This also allows the platform to create a higher level of liquidity and volume, as well as a diversity of topics not typically covered by traditional prediction markets.

Beyond trading, Augur also solves a key problem by moving “real world information” onto Ethereum’s blockchain in a secure manner where results can’t be altered.

Vitalik Buterin, founder of Ethereum and advisor to the Forecast Foundation, while commenting on the launch of Augur’s decentralized platform said, “I have been excited about the possibility of prediction markets on Ethereum for a long time, and I’m pleased to see Augur being a leader in releasing such a sophisticated system into the wild.”

Furthermore, the platform ensures that events in the markets are accurately reported on. It does this by incentivizing users to report and correct “markets that have been incorrectly reported on” in exchange for “fees from the market” and a chance to earn more Reputation (REP) tokens — which is the cryptocurrency associated with Augur.

Tom Kysar, head of operations at the Forecast Foundation, said, “Today’s launch of Augur represents three years of relentless work to realize the goal of creating the first — and best — decentralized oracle and prediction-market platform.”

Augur raised about $5 million in its initial coin offering (ICO), and its REP token, which launched in October of 2016, now has a $384.1 million market capitalization.

Don’t miss the Fireside Chat at Distributed 2018 in San Francisco on Friday, July 20, when Augur co-founders Joey Krug and Jeremy Gardner will discuss Augur’s journey, as well as the importance of prediction markets. Register here.

This article originally appeared on Bitcoin Magazine.


           CBOE Files with SEC for Bitcoin ETF      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
SEC CBOE ETF

The United States Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is examining an application from the Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) Global Markets which, if approved, could grant the company a coveted bitcoin ETF license, and bring new waves of institutional investors to the bitcoin arena.

The process began in June 2018, when the SEC recently sought comments from industry professionals regarding the ETF in question, which is being offered through the VanEck SolidX Bitcoin Trust – a joint venture between financial firms VanEck and SolidX. The application is the Trust’s third attempt to garner any such license; the first two attempts were rejected in early 2017, upon which the SEC released the following statement:

“Based on the record before it, the Commission believes that the significant markets for bitcoin are unregulated. Therefore, the Commission does not find the proposed rule change to be consistent with the Exchange Act.”

The cryptocurrency space remains largely unmonitored, and the SEC has sought to take a firm stance to ensure consumer protection and safety. After much debate and speculation, however, officials recently decided that both bitcoin and Ethereum – despite its early pre-sale (now ICO) status – were too decentralized to be considered securities, and could not be regulated by the organization.

Regulators of the SEC also announced in late June that they were working on an outline for newer (and less-restrictive) legislation regarding open-ended and low-risk ETFs to increase innovation in the financial space. This could potentially boost the Trust’s chances, along with other ventures seeking to establish bitcoin ETFs in the future.

Granted the VanEck SolidX application moves forward, clients will be able to purchase shares in the Trust, which are worth approximately 25 bitcoins each at press time. Following a period of speculation from interested professionals, the application has now been published for public viewing and commentary, so regulators can better understand if the venture is worth acting on.

“[The ETF], under normal market conditions, will use available offering proceeds to purchase bitcoin primarily in the OTC markets without being leveraged or exceeding relevant position limits,” the Trust’s application reads. It also states that an insurance policy will be set in place, granted theft or cyber attacks occur. Thus, investors can rest assured that their funds will be covered in the event of a loss:

“The insurance policy will carry initial limits of $25 million in primary coverage and $100 million in excess coverage, with the ability to increase coverage depending on the value of the bitcoins held by the Trust.”

Several financial giants have commented that bitcoin-based ETFs are crucial to financial innovation, with companies like JP Morgan calling them the “holy grail for owners and investors” back in February 2018. Should CBOE’s application be passed, client investment options will open in the first quarter of 2019.

This article originally appeared on Bitcoin Magazine.


          A look at .io domains through the lense of startups and the crypto market      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

OnlineDomain.com OnlineDomain.com: Art Malkov takes a look at .io domains through the lense of startups and the crypto market: .Io history, who is using .io domains and why. After I spent years in the domain space, often through the lense of digital marketing, I started to get involved in the exciting and promising blockchain and crypto space …
The post A look at .io domains through the lense of startups and the crypto market appeared first on OnlineDomain.com.

Related Articles:
Trending domain name keywords: crypto, bit coin, ethereum, mining
Trending domain name keywords: coin, crypto, block chain, wallet, ripple, altcoin, currency
Radix Buys .Tech From dot Tech LLC And Plans A Q1 2015 Launch

The post A look at .io domains through the lense of startups and the crypto market appeared first on iGoldRush Domain News and Resources.


          A look at .io domains through the lense of startups and the crypto market      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

OnlineDomain.com OnlineDomain.com: Art Malkov takes a look at .io domains through the lense of startups and the crypto market: .Io history, who is using .io domains and why. After I spent years in the domain space, often through the lense of digital marketing, I started to get involved in the exciting and promising blockchain and crypto space …
The post A look at .io domains through the lense of startups and the crypto market appeared first on OnlineDomain.com.

Related Articles:
Trending domain name keywords: crypto, bit coin, ethereum, mining
Trending domain name keywords: coin, crypto, block chain, wallet, ripple, altcoin, currency
Radix Buys .Tech From dot Tech LLC And Plans A Q1 2015 Launch

The post A look at .io domains through the lense of startups and the crypto market appeared first on iGoldRush Domain News and Resources.


          Lynda - Ethereum Building Blockchain Decentralized Apps DApps      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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          IOS Crypto Wallet Re-Branding (open-source)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
I need an iPhone/iPad crypto currency wallet rebranded for a private ethereum chain. The open source wallet is https://github.com/EzimetYusup/akroma-wallet-ios/ We need logos and wording modified alog with connection to private eth clone blockchain... (Budget: $250 - $750 USD, Jobs: iPad, iPhone, Mobile App Development)
          IOS Crypto Wallet Re-Branding (open-source)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
I need an iPhone/iPad crypto currency wallet rebranded for a private ethereum chain. The open source wallet is https://github.com/EzimetYusup/akroma-wallet-ios/ We need logos and wording modified alog with connection to private eth clone blockchain... (Budget: $250 - $750 USD, Jobs: iPad, iPhone, Mobile App Development)
          以太坊智能合约开发:环境搭建      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

在区块链的世界中,比特币被称为区块链1.0,以太坊进化为区块链2.0,这一跨越的实现缘于以太坊对智能合约的实现。智能合约在以太坊网络中扮演着至关重要的角色,目前ERC20代币的发行、多重签名乃至DApp的开发等都需要通过智能合约来进行实现等,因此学习智能合约的开发是很重要的。这篇文章会详细阐述该如何进行以太坊合约开发环境的搭建,以及编写第一个以太坊上的智能合约。

进行以太坊智能合约的开发需要我们有一个以太坊网络的环境,我建议使用自己搭建的私链进行测试,在自己的私链上,以太币的获取比较容易,对于以太坊私链的的搭建可以参考我的另一篇博文《【Ethereum基础实践】:以太坊测试私链的搭建》

Remix是以太坊官方推荐使用的IDE,在Remix上我们可以进行合约的编写,并且还可以对以太坊环境进行集成,进行智能合约的部署与调试。

Remix有Web版本和Electron APP两个版本:

你可以选择Web版或者Electron版本,它们的功能没有任何差别。

安装Remixd服务

由于Remix提供的是一个在线的Web环境,因此在本地不会存储你所编写的智能合约源文件,如果你希望文件能一直保存在本地,你可以安装Remixd服务。

npm install -g remixd

启动remixd:

# 使用绝对路径
remixd -s /Users/username/path_you_store_contracts

点击Remix IDE左上方按钮连接至remixd服务:

这样就可以在本地编写智能合约了:

连接到以太坊节点

在Remix IDE中,我们可以连接我们自己的以太坊节点进行测试,在控制面板的Run页面中可以配置自定义的以太坊节点,在Environment中选择Web3 Provider:

输入节点对应的IP地址和RPC端口即可进行连接:

在连接节点之后,我们可以看到私链中的各个账户的余额等信息:

这样我们就可以使用自己的以太坊私链进行智能合约的部署与测试了。

接下来我们会编写和部署一个简单的智能合约来演示一下整个流程。

先来看一下合约的源文件代码:

contract Demo {
    uint256 public number = 0;
    
    function Demo(uint8 _initial) {
        number = _initial;
    }
    
    function add() {
        number = number +1;
    }
}

这个合约的功能是在合约中存储了一个数字number,并且提供了一个对该数字进行+1的方法add().

我们先对源代码进行编译:

之后在Run面板点击Create进行部署:

由于该合约的构造方法中需要一个参数,来对number进行初始化,这里我填的是10,另外,在Account中需要选择部署该合约的账户(需要消耗gas),并且输入对应的密码对账户进行解锁:

待创建合约的交易广播至矿工节点并且被打包至区块中之后,我们就可以在面板中看到相关的合约信息了:

点击number可以查看当前的值:

点击add可以触发对应方法(该操作是一个transaction,需要消耗gas),number的值会进行+1:

我们在控制台中可以看到该交易的详细信息:

至此,我们就完成了一个简单的智能合约的部署。

在这部分,我们会以以太坊上的EOS代币合约为例,进行ERC20代币的合约部署与测试。

首先,我们要获取EOS智能合约的源代码,可以在etherscan上获取对应源码:

https://etherscan.io/address/0x86fa049857e0209aa7d9e616f7eb3b3b78ecfdb0#code

contract DSNote {
    event LogNote(
        bytes4   indexed  sig,
        address  indexed  guy,
        bytes32  indexed  foo,
        bytes32  indexed  bar,
	uint	 	  wad,
        bytes             fax
    ) anonymous;

    modifier note {
        bytes32 foo;
        bytes32 bar;

        assembly {
            foo := calldataload(4)
            bar := calldataload(36)
        }

        LogNote(msg.sig, msg.sender, foo, bar, msg.value, msg.data);

        _;
    }
}

contract DSAuthority {
    function canCall(
        address src, address dst, bytes4 sig
    ) constant returns (bool);
}

contract DSAuthEvents {
    event LogSetAuthority (address indexed authority);
    event LogSetOwner     (address indexed owner);
}

contract DSAuth is DSAuthEvents {
    DSAuthority  public  authority;
    address      public  owner;

    function DSAuth() {
        owner = msg.sender;
        LogSetOwner(msg.sender);
    }

    function setOwner(address owner_)
        auth
    {
        owner = owner_;
        LogSetOwner(owner);
    }

    function setAuthority(DSAuthority authority_)
        auth
    {
        authority = authority_;
        LogSetAuthority(authority);
    }

    modifier auth {
        assert(isAuthorized(msg.sender, msg.sig));
        _;
    }

    modifier authorized(bytes4 sig) {
        assert(isAuthorized(msg.sender, sig));
        _;
    }

    function isAuthorized(address src, bytes4 sig) internal returns (bool) {
        if (src == address(this)) {
            return true;
        } else if (src == owner) {
            return true;
        } else if (authority == DSAuthority(0)) {
            return false;
        } else {
            return authority.canCall(src, this, sig);
        }
    }

    function assert(bool x) internal {
        if (!x) throw;
    }
}

contract DSStop is DSAuth, DSNote {

    bool public stopped;

    modifier stoppable {
        assert (!stopped);
        _;
    }
    function stop() auth note {
        stopped = true;
    }
    function start() auth note {
        stopped = false;
    }

}

contract DSMath {
    
    /*
    standard uint256 functions
     */

    function add(uint256 x, uint256 y) constant internal returns (uint256 z) {
        assert((z = x + y) >= x);
    }

    function sub(uint256 x, uint256 y) constant internal returns (uint256 z) {
        assert((z = x - y) <= x);
    }

    function mul(uint256 x, uint256 y) constant internal returns (uint256 z) {
        assert((z = x * y) >= x);
    }

    function div(uint256 x, uint256 y) constant internal returns (uint256 z) {
        z = x / y;
    }

    function min(uint256 x, uint256 y) constant internal returns (uint256 z) {
        return x <= y ? x : y;
    }
    function max(uint256 x, uint256 y) constant internal returns (uint256 z) {
        return x >= y ? x : y;
    }

    /*
    uint128 functions (h is for half)
     */


    function hadd(uint128 x, uint128 y) constant internal returns (uint128 z) {
        assert((z = x + y) >= x);
    }

    function hsub(uint128 x, uint128 y) constant internal returns (uint128 z) {
        assert((z = x - y) <= x);
    }

    function hmul(uint128 x, uint128 y) constant internal returns (uint128 z) {
        assert((z = x * y) >= x);
    }

    function hdiv(uint128 x, uint128 y) constant internal returns (uint128 z) {
        z = x / y;
    }

    function hmin(uint128 x, uint128 y) constant internal returns (uint128 z) {
        return x <= y ? x : y;
    }
    function hmax(uint128 x, uint128 y) constant internal returns (uint128 z) {
        return x >= y ? x : y;
    }


    /*
    int256 functions
     */

    function imin(int256 x, int256 y) constant internal returns (int256 z) {
        return x <= y ? x : y;
    }
    function imax(int256 x, int256 y) constant internal returns (int256 z) {
        return x >= y ? x : y;
    }

    /*
    WAD math
     */

    uint128 constant WAD = 10 ** 18;

    function wadd(uint128 x, uint128 y) constant internal returns (uint128) {
        return hadd(x, y);
    }

    function wsub(uint128 x, uint128 y) constant internal returns (uint128) {
        return hsub(x, y);
    }

    function wmul(uint128 x, uint128 y) constant internal returns (uint128 z) {
        z = cast((uint256(x) * y + WAD / 2) / WAD);
    }

    function wdiv(uint128 x, uint128 y) constant internal returns (uint128 z) {
        z = cast((uint256(x) * WAD + y / 2) / y);
    }

    function wmin(uint128 x, uint128 y) constant internal returns (uint128) {
        return hmin(x, y);
    }
    function wmax(uint128 x, uint128 y) constant internal returns (uint128) {
        return hmax(x, y);
    }

    /*
    RAY math
     */

    uint128 constant RAY = 10 ** 27;

    function radd(uint128 x, uint128 y) constant internal returns (uint128) {
        return hadd(x, y);
    }

    function rsub(uint128 x, uint128 y) constant internal returns (uint128) {
        return hsub(x, y);
    }

    function rmul(uint128 x, uint128 y) constant internal returns (uint128 z) {
        z = cast((uint256(x) * y + RAY / 2) / RAY);
    }

    function rdiv(uint128 x, uint128 y) constant internal returns (uint128 z) {
        z = cast((uint256(x) * RAY + y / 2) / y);
    }

    function rpow(uint128 x, uint64 n) constant internal returns (uint128 z) {
        // This famous algorithm is called "exponentiation by squaring"
        // and calculates x^n with x as fixed-point and n as regular unsigned.
        //
        // It's O(log n), instead of O(n) for naive repeated multiplication.
        //
        // These facts are why it works:
        //
        //  If n is even, then x^n = (x^2)^(n/2).
        //  If n is odd,  then x^n = x * x^(n-1),
        //   and applying the equation for even x gives
        //    x^n = x * (x^2)^((n-1) / 2).
        //
        //  Also, EVM division is flooring and
        //    floor[(n-1) / 2] = floor[n / 2].

        z = n % 2 != 0 ? x : RAY;

        for (n /= 2; n != 0; n /= 2) {
            x = rmul(x, x);

            if (n % 2 != 0) {
                z = rmul(z, x);
            }
        }
    }

    function rmin(uint128 x, uint128 y) constant internal returns (uint128) {
        return hmin(x, y);
    }
    function rmax(uint128 x, uint128 y) constant internal returns (uint128) {
        return hmax(x, y);
    }

    function cast(uint256 x) constant internal returns (uint128 z) {
        assert((z = uint128(x)) == x);
    }

}

contract ERC20 {
    function totalSupply() constant returns (uint supply);
    function balanceOf( address who ) constant returns (uint value);
    function allowance( address owner, address spender ) constant returns (uint _allowance);

    function transfer( address to, uint value) returns (bool ok);
    function transferFrom( address from, address to, uint value) returns (bool ok);
    function approve( address spender, uint value ) returns (bool ok);

    event Transfer( address indexed from, address indexed to, uint value);
    event Approval( address indexed owner, address indexed spender, uint value);
}

contract DSTokenBase is ERC20, DSMath {
    uint256                                            _supply;
    mapping (address => uint256)                       _balances;
    mapping (address => mapping (address => uint256))  _approvals;
    
    function DSTokenBase(uint256 supply) {
        _balances[msg.sender] = supply;
        _supply = supply;
    }
    
    function totalSupply() constant returns (uint256) {
        return _supply;
    }
    function balanceOf(address src) constant returns (uint256) {
        return _balances[src];
    }
    function allowance(address src, address guy) constant returns (uint256) {
        return _approvals[src][guy];
    }
    
    function transfer(address dst, uint wad) returns (bool) {
        assert(_balances[msg.sender] >= wad);
        
        _balances[msg.sender] = sub(_balances[msg.sender], wad);
        _balances[dst] = add(_balances[dst], wad);
        
        Transfer(msg.sender, dst, wad);
        
        return true;
    }
    
    function transferFrom(address src, address dst, uint wad) returns (bool) {
        assert(_balances[src] >= wad);
        assert(_approvals[src][msg.sender] >= wad);
        
        _approvals[src][msg.sender] = sub(_approvals[src][msg.sender], wad);
        _balances[src] = sub(_balances[src], wad);
        _balances[dst] = add(_balances[dst], wad);
        
        Transfer(src, dst, wad);
        
        return true;
    }
    
    function approve(address guy, uint256 wad) returns (bool) {
        _approvals[msg.sender][guy] = wad;
        
        Approval(msg.sender, guy, wad);
        
        return true;
    }

}

contract DSToken is DSTokenBase(0), DSStop {

    bytes32  public  symbol;
    uint256  public  decimals = 18; // standard token precision. override to customize

    function DSToken(bytes32 symbol_) {
        symbol = symbol_;
    }

    function transfer(address dst, uint wad) stoppable note returns (bool) {
        return super.transfer(dst, wad);
    }
    function transferFrom(
        address src, address dst, uint wad
    ) stoppable note returns (bool) {
        return super.transferFrom(src, dst, wad);
    }
    function approve(address guy, uint wad) stoppable note returns (bool) {
        return super.approve(guy, wad);
    }

    function push(address dst, uint128 wad) returns (bool) {
        return transfer(dst, wad);
    }
    function pull(address src, uint128 wad) returns (bool) {
        return transferFrom(src, msg.sender, wad);
    }

    function mint(uint128 wad) auth stoppable note {
        _balances[msg.sender] = add(_balances[msg.sender], wad);
        _supply = add(_supply, wad);
    }
    function burn(uint128 wad) auth stoppable note {
        _balances[msg.sender] = sub(_balances[msg.sender], wad);
        _supply = sub(_supply, wad);
    }

    // Optional token name

    bytes32   public  name = "";
    
    function setName(bytes32 name_) auth {
        name = name_;
    }

}

使用上述相同的部署方法,我们就可以看到EOS合约中提供的相关方法,并且开始测试了:


          ETH Dapp 及相关开发工具介绍      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

去中心化应用

去中心化应用是可以使用户和供应商之间直接互动的服务(例如,连接某些市场上的买方和卖方,文件存储里的持有者和储存者)。以太坊去中心化应用典型地通过HTML/Javascript网络应用与用户互动,使用Javascript API与区块链通信。去中心化应用典型地在区块链上有自己的相关合约套件,用来编码商业逻辑,允许持久存储对共识要求严格的状态。记住由于以太坊网络上的运算天生冗余,执行的gas成本会比离链的私人执行成本更高。这就激励着去中心化应用开发者限制执行的代码数量和储存在区块链上的代码数量。

去中心化应用目录

使用以太坊的去中心化应用被编译到以下列表,在开发的不同阶段列出(概念,工作原型,实时/部署的)。如果你在开发去中心化应用, 考虑向这些列表添加入口:

  • Ðapps 的Ethercasts状态
  • Dappslist
  • Dappcentral – 去中心化应用的分类页面,带说明,代码验证和网络数据。
  • Dapps邮件列表 – 以太坊上的开发者邮件列表(停止使用)。

列表中提供的去中心化服务覆盖大范围的领域,包括金融,保险,预测市场,社交网络,运算和存储分配,赌博,市场,物联网,管理,合作,开发和游戏。

将来,去中心化应用可能会在去中心化应用浏览器里集成的dappstores中列出和分配。

去中心化应用浏览器

  • Mist – 由基金会开发的官方GUI去中心化应用浏览器,开发阶段。 Mist as Wallet dapp在试用中。
  • Syng – Jarrad Hope开发的移动以太坊浏览器(开发阶段) – 由DEVgrants支持
  • MetaMask – Aaron Kumavis Davis的浏览器内GUI。Github上的Epicenter Bitcoin访谈 – 由DEVgrants支持
  • AlethZero – C++ eth客户端GUI(停止使用)。
  • Supernova – (停止使用)。

开发者工具

去中心化应用开发需要理解Web3 Javascript API, the JSON RPC API和Solidity编程语言。

注意:有开发者工具帮助你开发、测试和部署去中心化应用,自动使用以下列出的资源。

  • Web3 JavaScript API – 想要和以太坊节点交互的时候,主要用到的JavaScript SDK。
  • JSON RPC API – 与节点交互的低级JSON RPC 2.0界面。这个API被Web3 JavaScript API使用。
  • Solidity Docs – Solidity是以太坊开发的智能合约语言,编译到以太坊虚拟机操作码。
  • 测试网络 – 测试网络帮助开发者开发和测试以太坊代码及网络互动,不需花费主网络上自己的以太币。测试网络选项在下面列出。
  • 去中心化应用开发资源。这会帮助你开发,排错和部署以太坊应用。

去中心化应用开发资源

示例

  • pricefeed使用实例 – web3脚本打印所有的账户余额
  • 以太坊合约实例

https://dappsforbeginners.wordpress.com/tutorials/your-first-dapp/ https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Dapp-Developer-Resources

教程

Mix-IDE

Mix是官方以太坊IDE,它允许开发者在以太坊区块链创建和部署合约及去中心化应用。它包含一个Solidity源代码排错器。Mix

IDEs/Frameworks

下面是用于写以太坊去中心化应用的开发者框架和IDE。

  • Truffle – Truffle是以太坊的开发环境,测试框架和资产管道。
  • Dapple – Dapple是Solidity开发者工具以帮助建立和管理以太坊类似的区块链上复杂的合约体系。
  • Populus – Populus是用Python语言写的智能合约开发框架。
  • Eris-PM – Eris Package Manager部署并测试私有和公共链上的智能合约体系。
  • Embark – Embark是用JavaScript写的去中心化应用开发框架。
  • EtherScripter (已淘汰,停用)
  • 韧性原始交易广播

以太坊控制台

以太坊节点的命令行控制台。

以太坊控制台通过IPC连接到在背景运行的以太坊节点(用eth和geth测试)并提供一个交互的javascript控制台,包括web3对象和管理员附件。

这里可以找到可用管理列表 以太坊节点控制指令

要使用这个控制台,你需要启动一个本地以太坊节点和可用的ipc沟通插口(数据目录中的geth.ipc文件)。开启一个节点后,ipc插口默认位于你的以太坊本地主目录。你也可以设置—test选项来使用特定节点测试指令。

然后你可以在控制台输入

这是—test模式节点指令的释义:

关于节点配置文件的更多信息。

底层服务- Whisper

  • 什么是Whisper,用途是什么 – stackexchange问答
  • Gavin Wood: 嘘!Whisper – youtube上的DEVCON-1演讲视频
  • Whisper概览和dream API用途 –
  • ELI5

Swarm

Swarm是分布式存储平台以及内容分发服务,以太坊web 3堆栈自带的基层服务。Swarm的首要目标是提供足够去中心化和冗余的以太坊公共记录储存,尤其是储存和分配去中心化应用代码和数据,以及区块链数据。从经济观点看,它允许参与者有效集中储存和带宽资源,用以为所有参与者提供之前提到的服务。

从终端用户的观点看,Swarm和WWW并没有很大不同,除了上载并不是针对一个特定的服务商。目标是点对点存储,并提供抗DDOS、零故障、容错、抗审查的解决方案以及自我维护,这归功于一个使用点对点记账体系并允许以付款交换资源的内置激励体系。Swarm被设计为与以太坊devp2p多协议网络层次,为了域名解决方案的以太坊区块链,服务支付和内容可用性保险结合。

swarm 上的ÐΞVcon演讲

  • Viktor Trón, Daniel A. Nagy:Swarm – YouTube上的以太坊 ÐΞVcon-1演讲
  • Daniel A. Nagy:保持公共记录安全可用 – YouTube上的以太坊ÐΞVcon-0演讲

Code and status

在线和离线存储

以太坊定时器

  • 作者: Piper Merriam
  • 网站: alarm_main_website。
  • 文档: alarm_documentation。

促使安排交易稍后发生的市场。提供unix中crontab或javascript 中的setTimeout类似的角色。 •以太坊提案中的去中心化cron服务 – 作者Peter Szilagyi

Ethereum Computation Market

  • 作者: Piper Merriam
  • 网站: computation_market_main_website。
  • 文档: computation_market_main_website。

促使离线运算可验证执行的市场。允许每个昂贵的运算在以太坊虚拟机内使用,不必实际支付在链上执行它们的高额gas成本。

BTCRelay

BTCrelay

  • 更多信息 (关于ETH/BTC双向peg,不需修正比特币代码)。
  • BTCrelay 审查

RANDAO

随机数: https://www.reddit.com/r/ethereum/comments/49yld7/eli5_how_does_a_service_like_szabodice_grab_a/

The EVM

以太坊虚拟机(EVM)是以太坊智能合约的执行环境。它不仅被沙箱化,而且实际上是完全隔离的,这意味着以太坊虚拟机内部运行的代码不可以访问网络,文件系统或其他进程。智能合约甚至对其他智能合约的访问权限都是有限的。

合约存在于区块链上,区块链是以太坊特定的二进制格式(以太坊虚拟机字节代码)。然而,合约典型地是用以太坊高级语言写成,用以太坊编译器编译成字节代码,最终用以太坊客户端上传到区块链。

参考资料:

文章中的列表对应的链接可以参考《Ethereum Homestead Documentation》第94页1.7.5 Dapps


          As bitcoin values slide, high-end GPU prices drop, too      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The processing power of high-end gaming cards made them ideal for cryptocurrency mining rigs and they were in hot demand when Bitcoin, Ethereum and other digital token prices leaped to unprecedented heights in late 2017 and early 2018.

That trend now appears to be reversing; add-in board (AIB) prices appear to be declining and supplies increasing – following the same path down as digital token prices crash.

"We have predicted a drop in [application specific processors] as [digital] currencies prices dropped," C. Robert Dow, manager of digital media at Jon Peddie Research, said in an email. "The cost to run the mining rigs is not insignificant, so when the price for the currencies drop..., people will run rigs and choose to dump AIBs on the secondary market hoping to recover some cost."

To read this article in full, please click here


          ‘Mad Skillz’ – Elon Musk Calls Out Ethereum Twitter Scambots      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
elon musk

The SpaceX and Tesla head-honcho took to Twitter to condemn the crypto-scam currently engulfing the platform. Professional thin-person and co-founder of Ethereum, Vitalik Buterin, also weighed in, asking Twitter CEO, Jack Dorsey, to “help us”. Scam, scam, scam, scam! The scam involves bot-armies mimicking celebrities and high-profile users (including Mr Musk), in an attempt to trick ‘normies’ into sending them coin. These posts often appear in a celebrities feed following an authentic post, such as

The post ‘Mad Skillz’ – Elon Musk Calls Out Ethereum Twitter Scambots appeared first on Bitcoinist.com.


          Google Co-Founder Has Been Mining Ethereum With His Son      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Google Co-Founder Says He’s Been Mining Ethereum With His Son

Sergey Brin, co-founder of Google, revealed at this year’s Blockchain Summit that he is mining Ethereum with his son. He also weighed in on the potential of zero-knowledge proofs – Zcash’s underlying privacy option. Blockchain is “Extraordinary” Sergey Brin, co-founder of Google and current president of its parent company, Alphabet, spoke at the Blockchain Summit – an annual event hosted by Sir Richard Branson – on July 8. Brin, whose estimated net worth is roughly around $52

The post Google Co-Founder Has Been Mining Ethereum With His Son appeared first on Bitcoinist.com.


          How blockchain gaming could benefit wildlife conservation      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Blockchain has been one of the hottest sectors in tech over the past couple of years, with cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum soaring in value as they captured the public’s attention. But blockchain has applications well beyond underpinning cryptocurrencies, including gaming and art. On that latter front, a new initiative aims to raise money and […]
          Сооснователь Google признался в майнинге Ethereum      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Сооснователь Google признался в майнинге Ethereum
          Guesser.io Meluncurkan Sistem Taruhan Terdesentralisasi Didukung oleh Ethereum Blockchain      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Industri taruhan sudah semakin tua. Internet bertanggung jawab atas momentum luar biasa di industri taruhan. Sektor ini melakukan pemesanan, dan pasar terus tumbuh sampai berhenti karena ada sedikit atau tidak [...]
          MyEtherWallet предупреждает о другом взломе, настоятельно призывает пользователей Hola переместить средства      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Популярный интерфейс кошелька Ethereum и токеновый кошелек MyEtherWallet — еще раз в центре значительного нарушения безопасности и предупредил своих пользователей, используя популярную VPN для перемещения своих средств. MyEtherWallet (MEW) теперь оправился от второго серьезного компрометации безопасности в течение трех месяцев после того, как заявили, что хакеры скомпрометировали услугу бесплатной виртуальной частной сети (VPN) Hola за … Читать далее «MyEtherWallet предупреждает о другом взломе, настоятельно призывает пользователей Hola переместить средства»
          Ethereum Code Bot Erfahrungen - 100% Gewinnende APP oder Betrug?      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Pubblicata da gogotefa
Ethereum Code Bot Erfahrungen - 100% Gewinnende APP oder Betrug?

Dettagli e commenti su ZicZac: "Ethereum Code Bot Erfahrungen - 100% Gewinnende APP oder Betrug?"
Fonte: surviveinbedbookreview.com
          As bitcoin values slide, high-end GPU prices drop, too      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

The processing power of high-end gaming cards made them ideal for cryptocurrency mining rigs and they were in hot demand when Bitcoin, Ethereum and other digital token prices leaped to unprecedented heights in late 2017 and early 2018.

That trend now appears to be reversing; add-in board (AIB) prices appear to be declining and supplies increasing – following the same path down as digital token prices crash.

"We have predicted a drop in [application specific processors] as [digital] currencies prices dropped," C. Robert Dow, manager of digital media at Jon Peddie Research, said in an email. "The cost to run the mining rigs is not insignificant, so when the price for the currencies drop..., people will run rigs and choose to dump AIBs on the secondary market hoping to recover some cost."

To read this article in full, please click here


          How blockchain gaming could benefit wildlife conservation      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Blockchain has been one of the hottest sectors in tech over the past couple of years, with cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum soaring in value as they captured the public’s attention. But blockchain has applications well beyond underpinning cryptocurrencies, including gaming and art. On that latter front, a new initiative aims to raise money and […]
          Roban las claves privadas de un popular monedero de Ethereum a través de la extensión Hola VPN.      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Ha sido comprometido el código publicado por Hola VPN en Chrome Web Store añadiendo capacidades para el robo de la clave privada del monedero para la criptomoneda Ethereum MyEtherWallet.


Según informan en el canal de Twitter del MyEtherWallet, el código fraudulento ha estado disponible 5 horas. Durante esas 5 horas todos los usuarios de Hola VPN que hayan accedido a la web de MyEtherWallet han sufrido el robo de la clave privada de su "wallet" por lo que lo más seguro es que su cartera haya sido sustraída. Es importante conocer que las extensiones de Google Chrome se actualizan automáticamente.



Cabe la posibilidad de que el atacante no haya transferido los fondos por lo que lo más recomendable sería que se transfirieran los ETH posiblementes sustraídos a otro wallet alternativo para evitar que el atacante pueda hacerse con el control de ellos.

El tema de las extensiones del navegador representa un punto bastante serio en seguridad, las posibilidades que ofrece a un atacante hacerse con el control de una extensión con capacidad de modificar e interactuar con cualquier web que el usuario renderice en su navegador, abre las puertas a los atacantes a usarlas para el robo de casi cualquier credencial electrónica.

En este caso ha sido un monedero de Ethereum pero podría haber sido la web de un banco, la cuenta de Netflix o los credenciales de acceso a las cámaras de seguridad de su casa.


Más información:








          'Videokaarten zullen nog verder in prijs dalen'      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Videokaarten zullen de komende maanden vermoedelijk verder in prijs gaan dalen. Als we een rondje doen binnen de Hardware.Info Prijsvergelijker, dan zien we al dat prijzen de afgelopen maanden al wat lager zijn geworden, maar de verwachting is dat die trend zal doorzetten. Dit als gevolg van een flink afgenomen vraag, grote voorraden en miningkaarten die tweedehands verkocht gaan worden. De oorzaak hiervan is te vinden in de flink gedaalde prijzen van cryptovaluta als Bitcoin en Ethereum. Laats...
          Ngexchanger: Best Place to Buy and Sell Bitcoin, PerfectMoney, Ethereum, and other Cryptocurrency in Nigeria      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
NGExchanger Login

Best place to Buy and Sell Bitcoins, PM, Ethereum and other cryptos in Nigeria Are you wondering how to buy and sell Bitcoins and Altcoins in Nigeria? Of course, you are. It’s quite natural to worry about how you can exchange your cryptocurrency without getting scammed. Therefore, NGexchanger exists. The obvious question is, What is […]

The post Ngexchanger: Best Place to Buy and Sell Bitcoin, PerfectMoney, Ethereum, and other Cryptocurrency in Nigeria appeared first on Nigeria Technology Guide.


           - MyEtherWallet warnt Hola-Anwender vor Hack      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Wieder einmal steht die bekannte Ethereum- und Token-Wallet MyEtherWallet aufgrund einer Sicherheitslücke im Mittelpunkt. Die Entwickler raten allen ihren Benutzern, die auch die Browser-Erweiterung Hola verwenden, ihr Guthaben auf eine neue Wallet zu verschieben.
          HTC принесёт криптокотят на Android      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Компания HTC объявила о партнёрстве с CryptoKitties, самой крупной в мире игрой, построенной на технологии блокчейн. 

Игра CryptoKitties вышла в прошлом году и произвела настоящий фурор. В ней можно покупать и продавать виртуальных котят, наделенных уникальными отличительными признаками. Также можно сводить животных, получать котят и продавать их. Расчеты в CryptoKitties ведутся в криптовалюте Ethereum. 

Игра впервые станет доступна на смартфонах на базе Android. На смартфоне можно будет собирать и выводить криптокотят, как на компьютере. Первым CryptoKitties получит флагманский U12+. Затем игра появится на некоторых других моделях HTC. 

Компания планирует, что CryptoKitties окажется только первой ласточкой в магазине децентрализованных приложений, использующих блокчейн. 

HTC также объявила сегодня о запуске раннего доступа для энтузиастов к её первому блокчейн-смартфону Exodus в третьем квартале этого года.   



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          Блокчейн-смартфон HTC Exodus выйдет осенью      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Компания HTC раскрыла больше подробностей о своём первом блокчейн-смартфоне под названием Exodus. В мае компания анонсировала проект, а теперь разработка продвинулась достаточно далеко, чтобы HTC пообещала ранний доступ в третьем квартале. 

HTC уже запустила специальный сайт для проекта, на нём пока можно подписаться для получения дальнейшей информации. Смартфон описывается как «холодный» кошелёк с ключом восстановления. Подробностей о характеристиках пока не сообщается. Он ориентирован на хранение данных на устройстве, а не в облаке, а также на работу с децентрализованным интернетом и приложениями.  

Фил Чен (Phil Chen), возглавляющий проект, отметил, что стоимость смартфона окажется сравнимой с Finney от Sirin Labs, первым в мире блокчейн-смартфоном за тысячу долларов.  

Как сообщалось раньше, смартфон Exodus получит встроенную аппаратную систему безопасности. Планируется поддержка существующех протоколов, включая Bitcoin, Lightning Networks, Ethereum, Dfinity и прочие. 



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          'We let price take care of itself,' says Ethereum co-founder      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Joseph Lubin, the co-founder of Ethereum and ConsenSys, talks about the volatile price movements in the cryptocurrency space.
          The Future of Cryptocurrency      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Information Technology Blog - - The Future of Cryptocurrency - Information Technology Blog In recent times, the cryptocurrency has continued to gain increased popularity and understanding its value and use has attracted a large amount of public attention. Initially, it appeared somewhat scary and unfamiliar, just like the credit card looked to the users in its early days. You may have come by terms such as Ethereum, and … The post The Future of Cryptocurrency appeared first on Information Technology Blog.
          Ethereum-based Strategy Game 'Cryptogirl' Launches In Open Beta      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   


          (USA-CA-Marina del Rey) Cryptography Engineer - Blockchain & REMOTE!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Cryptography Engineer - Blockchain & REMOTE! Cryptography Engineer - Blockchain & REMOTE! - Skills Required - Cryptography, Encryption, Golang, React.JS If you are a Cryptography Engineer interested in blockchain, please read on! **Top Reasons to Work with Us** We are a well funded, pre-launch, FinTech startup that's going to disrupt the banking and credit industry! Based in sunny Marina del Rey, we not only have flexible work hours but employees who work remotely across the US. Our founding team is stacked with blockchain and fintech experts who have had successful prior statups. We are growing quickly and this is the opportunity to join the ground floor with significant equity! **What You Will Be Doing** - Build a decentralized network of financial data to be shared in a peer to peer like network - Design decentralized applications and APIs to handle sensitive and confidential data - Design, architect, develop, and implement a premeir decentralized network on blockchain that allows for strong data security, excellent control of data, ease of integration, reduction of cost and creation of new profit centers - Build off of Ethereum with Solidity and SmartContracts, also work with Golang, Python and ReactJS - Architect a unique dual-layer blockchain that overcomes scalability concerns while working at the intersection of FinTech and Blockchain - Craft a decentralized solution to a typically centralized problem from the ground up - Develop models within distributed computing frameworks - Maintain a well-tested codebase with continuous integration **What You Need for this Position** We only require a degree in Computer Science and extensive development experience with a modern backend language like Go, Python, Java, or Ruby on Rails. Nice to Have: - Cryptography - Encryption - Golang - React.JS **What's In It for You** - Extensive Medical Coverage - health, dental, vision - Competitive salary package with early stage equity - Flexible work hours - Remote work option So, if you are a Cryptography Engineer with experience, please apply today! Applicants must be authorized to work in the U.S. **CyberCoders, Inc is proud to be an Equal Opportunity Employer** All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, disability, protected veteran status, or any other characteristic protected by law. **Your Right to Work** – In compliance with federal law, all persons hired will be required to verify identity and eligibility to work in the United States and to complete the required employment eligibility verification document form upon hire. *Cryptography Engineer - Blockchain & REMOTE!* *CA-Marina del Rey* *GB1-1466880*
          (USA-CA-Berkeley) Senior Blockchain Engineer - Hyperledger, Ethereum, On Chain!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Senior Blockchain Engineer - Hyperledger, Ethereum, On Chain! Senior Blockchain Engineer - Hyperledger, Ethereum, On Chain! - Skills Required - Smart Contracts, HyperLedger, Ethereum, Blockchain, Chaincode, Corda, Java, JavaScript Based in Berkeley, CA with recent capital investments of $50 Million+ we are a TOP ranked Crypto Currency/Blockchain company developing state of the art technologies. Think bitcoin combined with international reach and deep capital investments in technology! We recently invested well over $50 Million into expanding our Los Angeles technology hub and we are looking to grow our team by 30 people over the next 6 months! We are holding strong as one of the most profitable Crypto tech companies in the world! Our commitment to sustained success starts with our people, we put our people first and we consider every member of our team to be part of our growing family. We are looking to hire an experienced Blockchain Engineer who can help us build and grow our Los Angeles stronghold. We are looking for someone who has experience mentoring engineers, but is comfortable being 100% hands on technically. If you have proven success in leading engineering teams and have a strong desire to be involved in Blockchain technologies, then please read on! **What's In It for You** - Competitive Salary + Bonus + STOCK Options! (Heavy on Base Salary) - Complete and Comprehensive Benefits Package! - Performance Based Bonus Package! - Quarterly Team Events! - Paid Vacation, Sick Time and PTO! (Unlimited) - Industry Leading Technology! - Crypto/Blockchain Tech! **What You Need for this Position** Bachelor's or Master's/PhD in Computer Science plus: - 3+ years experience in Software Engineering - Experience w/ Blockchain Tech - Smart Contracts, Chaincode, Hyperledger, Ethereum or Corda So, if you are a Senior Blockchain Engineer that is inspired by innovation, please apply today! Applicants must be authorized to work in the U.S. **CyberCoders, Inc is proud to be an Equal Opportunity Employer** All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, disability, protected veteran status, or any other characteristic protected by law. **Your Right to Work** – In compliance with federal law, all persons hired will be required to verify identity and eligibility to work in the United States and to complete the required employment eligibility verification document form upon hire. *Senior Blockchain Engineer - Hyperledger, Ethereum, On Chain!* *CA-Berkeley* *DF2-1466958*
          (USA-MD-Bethesda) Blockchain Engineer - Java, Hyperledger, Ethereum!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Blockchain Engineer - Java, Hyperledger, Ethereum! Blockchain Engineer - Java, Hyperledger, Ethereum! - Skills Required - Smart Contracts, HyperLedger, Ethereum, Blockchain, Chaincode, Corda, Java, JavaScript Based in Bethesda, MD with recent capital investments we are a unique Blockchain company developing state of the art technologies. Think bitcoin combined with international reach and household pet technology! Our commitment to sustained success starts with our people, we put our people first and we consider every member of our team to be part of our growing family. We are looking to hire an experienced Blockchain Engineer who can help us build and grow our Maryland stronghold. We are looking for someone who has experience mentoring engineers, but is comfortable being 100% hands on technically. If you have proven success in leading engineering teams and have a strong desire to be involved in Blockchain technologies, then please read on! **What's In It for You** - Competitive Salary + Bonus + STOCK Options! (Heavy on Base Salary) - Complete and Comprehensive Benefits Package! - Performance Based Bonus Package! - Quarterly Team Events! - Paid Vacation, Sick Time and PTO! (Unlimited) - Industry Leading Technology! - Crypto/Blockchain Tech! **What You Need for this Position** Bachelor's or Master's/PhD in Computer Science plus: - 3+ years experience in Software Engineering - Experience w/ Blockchain Tech - Smart Contracts, Chaincode, Hyperledger, Ethereum or Corda - 5+ Years expertise in Java, Python or other OO Programming So, if you are a Blockchain Engineer that is inspired by innovation, please apply today! Applicants must be authorized to work in the U.S. **CyberCoders, Inc is proud to be an Equal Opportunity Employer** All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, disability, protected veteran status, or any other characteristic protected by law. **Your Right to Work** – In compliance with federal law, all persons hired will be required to verify identity and eligibility to work in the United States and to complete the required employment eligibility verification document form upon hire. *Blockchain Engineer - Java, Hyperledger, Ethereum!* *MD-Bethesda* *DF2-1466861*
          (USA-CA-Los Angeles) Senior NodeJS Developer - Blockchain/Ethereum startup!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Senior NodeJS Developer - Blockchain/Ethereum startup! Senior NodeJS Developer - Blockchain/Ethereum startup! - Skills Required - NodeJS, Blockchain/Ethereum, Experience in an Agile startup environment, MongoDB, API Design (REST/SOAP) Based in Los Angeles, CA - We're Free, open-source, client-side interface for generating Ethereum wallets & more. We enable our users to interact with the Ethereum blockchain easily & securely. We are looking to hire team players with a desire to learn about Blockchain world and help grow our community. **Top Reasons to Work with Us** - We're offering great compensation, benefits, and tons of internal growth opportunity! **What You Will Be Doing** - Working in an agile, startup environment as a Senior Developer. - Designing, developing, and delivering new full-stack web application, and oversee development of our planned mobile integration. - Collaborating with our team and will ensure that project is scoped, resourced, and delivered as a professional product. **What You Need for this Position** More Than 5 Years of back end development experience, as well as prior experience with: - NodeJS - MongoDB - API Design (REST/SOAP) - Experience in an Agile startup environment BONUS EXP: - Blockchain/Ethereum experience - Frontend web development experience So, if you are a Senior NodeJS Developer with experience, please apply today! Applicants must be authorized to work in the U.S. **CyberCoders, Inc is proud to be an Equal Opportunity Employer** All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, disability, protected veteran status, or any other characteristic protected by law. **Your Right to Work** – In compliance with federal law, all persons hired will be required to verify identity and eligibility to work in the United States and to complete the required employment eligibility verification document form upon hire. *Senior NodeJS Developer - Blockchain/Ethereum startup!* *CA-Los Angeles* *AP3-1467016*
          MyEtherWallet warnt Hola-Anwender vor Hack      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Wieder einmal steht die bekannte Ethereum- und Token-Wallet MyEtherWallet aufgrund einer Sicherheitslücke im Mittelpunkt. Die Entwickler raten allen ihren Benutzern, die auch die Browser-Erweiterung Hola verwenden, ihr Guthaben auf eine neue Wallet zu...

The post MyEtherWallet warnt Hola-Anwender vor Hack appeared first on Blockchain ICO News Bitcoin-Altcoin.


          Співзасновник Google зізнався в майнінгу криптовалют      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Співзасновник відомої компанії Google Сергій Брін займається майнінгом криптовалюти Ethereum зі своїм дев'ятирічним сином. Про це підприємець розповів під час виступу на саміті Blockchain Summit в Марокко, передає Bloomchain.
          Vitalik Buterin Banishes Centralized Exchanges to Hell      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

It’s not often you get to see a Russian-Canadian programming wunderkind sentence centralized exchanges into hell, but attendees of TC Sessions: Blockchain got to see it live. Vitalik Buterin, Co-Founder of Ethereum, captured the sentiments of a cryptocurrency community frustrated with the industry’s gravitation towards centralization by commenting “I definitely hope centralized exchanges go burn […]

Post source: Vitalik Buterin Banishes Centralized Exchanges to Hell

More Bitcoin News and Cryptocurrency News on TheBitcoinNews.com


          Opera is expanding its suite of cryptocurrency tools with a built-in wallet      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Opera is preparing to give Android users a built-in Crypto Wallet, the latest in its suite of tools for cryptocurrencies. The next version will include a brand new storage solution for Ethereum, its tokens and various collectibles. Currently, those who hold more exotic digital assets often have to fumble through annoying extensions or use multiple wallets to conduct transactions. The newest version of the Opera browser for Android also has built-in integration with Ethereum’s Web3 API. It marks the first time a major browser has taken Web 3.0 mainstream. What’s promised is an environment where Ethereum’s decentralized apps (dApps) will…

This story continues at The Next Web

          Opera is expanding its suite of cryptocurrency tools with a built-in wallet      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Opera is preparing to give Android users a built-in Crypto Wallet, the latest in its suite of tools for cryptocurrencies. The next version will include a brand new storage solution for Ethereum, its tokens and various collectibles. Currently, those who hold more exotic digital assets often have ... Reported by The Next Web 2 hours ago.
          Opera is expanding its suite of cryptocurrency tools with a built-in wallet      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Opera is preparing to give Android users a built-in Crypto Wallet, the latest in its suite of tools for cryptocurrencies. The next version will include a brand new storage solution for Ethereum, its tokens and various collectibles. Currently, those who hold more exotic digital assets often have to fumble through annoying extensions or use multiple wallets to conduct transactions. The newest version of the Opera browser for Android also has built-in integration with Ethereum’s Web3 API. It marks the first time a major browser has taken Web 3.0 mainstream. What’s promised is an environment where Ethereum’s decentralized apps (dApps) will…

This story continues at The Next Web
          Criptovalute: maxi furto da 24.984 ETH sull'exchange Bancor, rubati anche NPXS e BNT      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
La sicurezza continua ad essere il tallone d'Achille delle criptovalute. L'exchange Bancor, molo utilizzato anch dagli investitori italiani, ha annunciato ieri pomeriggio di aver sospese in modo temporaneo le proprie attività a causa di una imprevista falla di sicurezza. Dietro queste parole molto istituzionali c'è una realtà che ha viso ben 23 milioni di dollari "evaporare" dalla piattaforma. A tanto ammonterebbe il maxi furto che Bancor ha subito proprio ieri. In un messaggio affidato a Twitter e che subito ha fatto il giro della rete, la piattaforma israeliana ha precisato che "Bancor ha riscontrato una falla di sicurezza. Nessuno dei wallet degli utenti è stato compromesso. Per completare l’indagine abbiamo avviato una fase di manutenzione e rilasceremo ulteriori dettagli a breve. Cercheremo di riprendere le attività il prima possibile". Ovviamente quanto successo ieri all'exchange ha alimentato le paure di chi da tempo si chiede se comprare criptovalute è sicuro.  Se in una prima fase la notizia del maxi furto subito da Bancor si è limitata a poche comunicazioni e a uno striminzito annuncio sul sito istituzionale, successivamente è stato lo stesso exchange a fornire ulteriori detagli su quello che è avvenuto. Bancor ha precisato che un portafoglio utilizzato per aggiornare smart contract è stato compromesso e poi utilizzato in modo fraudolento per prelevare 24.984 Ethereum  corrispondenti a 12,5 milioni di dollari. Sempre lo stesso wallet ha poi rubato 229.356.645 NPXS (pari a circa 1 milione) e 3.200.000 BNT (pari a circa 10 milioni di dollari. Complessivamente sono state asportate criptovalute per coplessivi 23,5 milioni di dollari. Un vero e proprio bollettino di guerra quindi in quello che si è configurato come un assalto organizzato opera di hacker professionisti. Dinanzi a quanto avvenuto, l'exchange israeliano non ha potuto fare altro che provare a tranquillizzare gli utenti e i clienti affermando: "Stiamo comunque lavorando con dozzine di exchange di criptovalute per tracciare i fondi rubati e rendere più difficile ai ladri la loro liquidazione". L'assalto comunque è fatto e gli investitori in criptovalute sono tornati a chiedersi se tutti quegli analisti che da mesi parlano di rischio affidabilità per le cripto non abbiano un pò di ragione. Proprio i furti, sempre più frequenti e sempre più efficaci, sono uno dei motivi alla base dei tanti ribassi del Bitcoin & C. Oggi la quotazione BTC è in calo del 4,8% a 6300 dollari. In rosso anche tutte le altcoin a maggiore capitalizzazione con Ethereum in calo del 6,5% e Ripple in ribasso del 3,6%. 
          Trusthourdeposit--trusthourdeposit.com      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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          Ethereum Classic Market Capitalization Tops $1.68 Billion (ETC)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Ethereum Classic (CURRENCY:ETC) traded 8.6% lower against the U.S. dollar during the one day period ending at 23:00 PM Eastern on July 10th. Over the last seven days, Ethereum Classic has traded 1.2% higher against the U.S. dollar. Ethereum Classic has a total market cap of $1.68 billion and approximately $353.53 million worth of Ethereum […]
          TrialChain: A Blockchain-Based Platform to Validate Data Integrity in Large, Biomedical Research Studies. (arXiv:1807.03662v1 [cs.DC])      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Authors: Hao Dai, H Patrick Young, Thomas JS Durant, Guannan Gong, Mingming Kang, Harlan M Krumholz, Wade L Schulz, Lixin Jiang

The governance of data used for biomedical research and clinical trials is an important requirement for generating accurate results. To improve the visibility of data quality and analysis, we developed TrialChain, a blockchain-based platform that can be used to validate data integrity from large, biomedical research studies. We implemented a private blockchain using the MultiChain platform and integrated it with a data science platform deployed within a large research center. An administrative web application was built with Python to manage the platform, which was built with a microservice architecture using Docker. The TrialChain platform was integrated during data acquisition into our existing data science platform. Using NiFi, data were hashed and logged within the local blockchain infrastructure. To provide public validation, the local blockchain state was periodically synchronized to the public Ethereum network. The use of a combined private/public blockchain platform allows for both public validation of results while maintaining additional security and lower cost for blockchain transactions. Original data and modifications due to downstream analysis can be logged within TrialChain and data assets or results can be rapidly validated when needed using API calls to the platform. The TrialChain platform provides a data governance solution to audit the acquisition and analysis of biomedical research data. The platform provides cryptographic assurance of data authenticity and can also be used to document data analysis.


          HTC Exodus, annunciato il primo telefono al mondo basato su blockchain      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

HTC Exodus, primo telefono al mondo basato su blockchain

HTC preannuncia l’arrivo sul mercato del primo telefono al mondo basato su blockchain: HTC Exodus. Arriva così l'annuncio ufficiale del costruttore dopo le prime anticipazioni circolate nel mese di maggio.

Nel comunicato il costruttore evidenzia i limiti delle attuali leggi sul copyright e sulla privacy, definite come appartenenti a un’epoca oramai passata. HTC Exodus viene presentato come il dispositivo che permetterà agli utenti di riprendere il controllo sulla propria identità e sui propri dati personali. Il terminale è focalizzato sulle applicazioni decentralizzate e sulla sicurezza e include un sicuro portafoglio cold storage.

htc blockchain«Nella nuova era di Internet le persone sono generalmente più consapevoli del valore dei propri dati, il che rappresenta una opportunità perfetta per consentire agli utenti di riappropriarsi della propria identità digitale» dichiara Phil Chen, Chief Crypto Officer di HTC. «HTC Exodus è un nuovo punto di partenza perché è un telefono ancora più personale da dove hanno origine tutti i dati legati all’utente che lo utilizza. È entusiasmante poter offrire per primi l’opportunità di decentrare Internet e rimodellarlo a favore dell’utente contemporaneo».

L’avvento dei Bitcoin e della rete Ethereum ha aperto la strada all’idea della “scarsità digitale” e dei token non fungibili (NFT). Oggi HTC ha stretto una partnership con il primo e più famoso gioco NFT al mondo sulla blockchain, Cryptokitties, per una sua distribuzione esclusiva su alcuni dispositivi HTC, a partire da HTC U12+.

Questo è il primo passo nella creazione di una piattaforma e di un canale di distribuzione per i creativi che realizzano prodotti digitali unici. Gli smartphone sono i dispositivi mobili più diffusi per la fruizione di beni digitali e per lo sviluppo del potenziale delle dApps (app decentralizzate) e per questo ne diventeranno il loro distributore principale.

HTC Exodus, primo telefono al mondo basato su blockchainLa collaborazione con Cryptokitties rappresenta la fase iniziale della costruzione di un marketplace non fungibile e un app store per i crypto gaming. È sempre Phil Chen ad annunciare il piano di HTC «Comprendiamo il potenziale della scarsità digitale e la sua unicità. Con Exodus, HTC punta a essere il principale mercato di beni blockchain.

«Siamo qui per invitare tutti gli sviluppatori a distribuire i propri giochi basati su blockchain e NFT tramite i nostri prodotti. Crediamo che sia in atto un cambio di paradigma e l’ago della bilancia sta tornando a pendere in direzione del diritto di proprietà e del valore del contenuto».

HTC annuncia inoltre due partnership: con Animoca, distributore di Cryptokitties, e con Bitmark, progetto di proprietà digitale basato sulla crittografia. Per maggiori informazioni su HTC Exodus è ora disponibile un sito dedicato: ulteriori dettagli sulle specifiche verranno rilasciati nei prossimi mesi.

- Click qui per l'articolo originale con commenti >> HTC Exodus, annunciato il primo telefono al mondo basato su blockchain


          Sergey Menambang Ethereum Dengan Putranya      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

California, SunduL – Sergey Brin, salah satu pendiri Google, mengungkapkan pada KTT Blockchain tahun ini bahwa dia menambang Ethereum dengan putranya. Dia juga mempertimbangkan potensi bukti pengetahuan nol, pilihan privasi Zcash yang mendasari. Blockchain Luar Biasa Sergey Brin, salah satu pendiri Google dan presiden perusahaan induknya saat ini, Alphabet, berbicara di Blockchain Summit acara tahunan […]

The post Sergey Menambang Ethereum Dengan Putranya appeared first on Sundul.com.


          Ngexchanger: Best Place to Buy and Sell Bitcoin, PerfectMoney, Ethereum, and other Cryptocurrency in Nigeria | Nigeria Technology Guide      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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          Market - Opera Crypto is a browser-based Ethereum wallet for smartphones      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Cryptocurrencies: they're kind of a big deal. Bitcoin, one of the most popular digital currencies on the market, had a market capitalization of $118 billion in the first...
           Coin Control - Bitcoin & Ethereum Live Price       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Coin Control is all in one place Cryptocurrency price tracker app that allow you to analyze the real time prices of coin gain and deduction...
          Hola VPN: aanvallers hadden kortstondig controle over Chrome-extensie      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hola VPN, een bedrijf dat vpn-diensten aanbiedt, waarschuwt zijn gebruikers dat kwaadwillenden kortstondig de controle hadden over zijn Chrome-extensie. Daarmee voerden ze een phishingaanval uit op gebruikers van Ethereum-walletdienst MyEtherWallet.
          В популярный браузер встроили криптовалютный кошелек      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Opera стала первым крупным веб-браузером, встроившим криптовалютный кошелек Веб-браузер Opera для Android запускает приватную бета-версию с встроенным криптокошельком. Криптовалютный кошелек Opera будет поддерживать Ethereum Web3 API и будет интегрирован со «стандартным WebView». Менеджер по продукту Чарльз Хэмел отметил, что «став первым крупным браузером, который открывает Web 3.0, Opera делает Интернет будущего более доступным». СПРАВКА PAYSPACE […]

Запись В популярный браузер встроили криптовалютный кошелек впервые появилась PaySpace Magazine.


          „Krasse Skills“: Elon Musk beeindruckt von Ethereum-Bots auf Twitter      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Elon Musk hat auf Betrugs-Bots aufmerksam gemacht, die berühmte Twitter-Konten imitieren, um Krypto nichtsahnenden Opfern zu stehlen

The post „Krasse Skills“: Elon Musk beeindruckt von Ethereum-Bots auf Twitter appeared first on Blockchain ICO News Bitcoin-Altcoin.


          Взлом еще одной криптоплатформы давит на стоимость биткоина      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Сегодня главная криптовалюта просела до 6,3-6,4 тыс. долларов на новостях о взломе швейцарской криптоплатформы Bancor.

К 09:11 по московскому времени стоимость биткоина уменьшилась на 1,33%, до 6,48 тыс. долларов.

Альтернативные цифровые валюты также снижаются: Ethereum на 6,71%, до 435,4 доллара, Ripple на 4,21%, до 0,447 доллара, Bitcoin Cash на 4,7%, до 693,94 доллара. Капитализация рынка виртуальных валют на сегодняшний день составляет 250,66 млрд долларов. Биткоину принадлежит 44% всего рынка криптовалют.

Криптотрейдеры отыгрывают новости о хакерской атаке на швейцарскую криптоплатформу. Вчера из «кошелька» платформы были украдены 23,5 млн долларов в различных цифровых валютах. Кошельки пользователей платформы в результате атаки не пострадали.

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Материал предоставлен компанией InstaForex - www.instaforex.com
          HTC Exodus, el teléfono basado en blockchain con monedero para criptomonedas que llegará en otoño       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Exodus

HTC ya anunció hace tiempo que trabajaba en un teléfono basado en la tecnología blockchain, popularizada por las criptomonedas como Bitcoin y compañía, pero muy útil para todo tipo de campos tecnológicos. El teléfono se llamaría HTC Exodus y una de sus funciones sería, precisamente, la de servir para operar y almacenar criptomonedas.

Ahora, a pocos meses de una presentación ya oficial, el fabricante taiwanés ha detallado algunas de las funcionalidades de su futuro Exodus. Pues una de las cosas que han hecho en HTC es confirmar que el teléfono debería llegar al mercado en otoño y convertirse en "el primer teléfono monedero con clave de recuperación".

Interoperatividad entre 'blockchains'

Exodus

HTC denomina a su teléfono "la Suiza de los protocolos", destacando que el HTC Exodus será capaz de operar con múltiples protocolos, haciendo que los distintos blockchains se vuelvan interoperables entre sí a través de su teléfono. Los taiwaneses también hablan de que el hardware será completamente seguro y de confianza, y que ocurrirá lo mismo con la interfaz del teléfono.

Como un smartphone basado en blockchain, cada teléfono Exudos vendido por HTC se convertirá en un nodo de su propia red, en el camino de lo que HTC llama la "auténtica descentralización". El fabricante habla de que una de sus intenciones es la de duplicar o triplicar el número de nodos de las redes de Ethereum y Bitcoin, sin mencionar explícitamente a ninguna otra criptomoneda.

Un teléfono seguro, un monedero universal para criptomonedas que llegará en otoño

Hacerse con un HTC Exodus implicará tener un ID único asociado al teléfono, que a su vez se asociará a las distintas carteras o monederos de criptomonedas. Algo que debería garantizar una mayor facilidad a la hora de recuperar las claves de acceso en cualquier momento, y garantizar una mayor seguridad para nuestras inversiones digitales.

Por supuesto, el teléfono se convertirá en un monedero universal, algo que parecía ser la intención inicial de HTC a la hora de desarrollar su Exodus basado en blockchain. El teléfono, como decimos, debería llegar en este otoño aunque el software Exodus podría correr a otros teléfonos de la compañía, entre los que destaca el reciente HTC U12+.

Vía | GSMArena
En Xataka Móvil | HTC despide a 1.500 trabajadores y confirma su prolongada caída


          HTC Exodus, el teléfono basado en blockchain con monedero para criptomonedas que llegará en otoño       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Exodus

HTC ya anunció hace tiempo que trabajaba en un teléfono basado en la tecnología blockchain, popularizada por las criptomonedas como Bitcoin y compañía, pero muy útil para todo tipo de campos tecnológicos. El teléfono se llamaría HTC Exodus y una de sus funciones sería, precisamente, la de servir para operar y almacenar criptomonedas.

Ahora, a pocos meses de una presentación ya oficial, el fabricante taiwanés ha detallado algunas de las funcionalidades de su futuro Exodus. Pues una de las cosas que han hecho en HTC es confirmar que el teléfono debería llegar al mercado en otoño y convertirse en "el primer teléfono monedero con clave de recuperación".

Interoperatividad entre 'blockchains'

Exodus

HTC denomina a su teléfono "la Suiza de los protocolos", destacando que el HTC Exodus será capaz de operar con múltiples protocolos, haciendo que los distintos blockchains se vuelvan interoperables entre sí a través de su teléfono. Los taiwaneses también hablan de que el hardware será completamente seguro y de confianza, y que ocurrirá lo mismo con la interfaz del teléfono.

Como un smartphone basado en blockchain, cada teléfono Exudos vendido por HTC se convertirá en un nodo de su propia red, en el camino de lo que HTC llama la "auténtica descentralización". El fabricante habla de que una de sus intenciones es la de duplicar o triplicar el número de nodos de las redes de Ethereum y Bitcoin, sin mencionar explícitamente a ninguna otra criptomoneda.

Un teléfono seguro, un monedero universal para criptomonedas que llegará en otoño

Hacerse con un HTC Exodus implicará tener un ID único asociado al teléfono, que a su vez se asociará a las distintas carteras o monederos de criptomonedas. Algo que debería garantizar una mayor facilidad a la hora de recuperar las claves de acceso en cualquier momento, y garantizar una mayor seguridad para nuestras inversiones digitales.

Por supuesto, el teléfono se convertirá en un monedero universal, algo que parecía ser la intención inicial de HTC a la hora de desarrollar su Exodus basado en blockchain. El teléfono, como decimos, debería llegar en este otoño aunque el software Exodus podría correr a otros teléfonos de la compañía, entre los que destaca el reciente HTC U12+.

Vía | GSMArena
En Xataka Móvil | HTC despide a 1.500 trabajadores y confirma su prolongada caída

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La noticia HTC Exodus, el teléfono basado en blockchain con monedero para criptomonedas que llegará en otoño fue publicada originalmente en Xataka Móvil por Samuel Fernández .


          Đồng sáng lập Google Sergey Brin tiết lộ ông là một thợ đào Ethereum      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Đồng sáng lập Google Sergey Brin có một tiết lộ khá ngạc nhiên khi anh là một thợ đào Ethereum (ETH) tại Hội nghị thượng đỉnh Blockchain ở Morocco chủ nhật ngày 8 tháng 7. Brin hiện là chủ tịch của Alphabet, công ty mẹ của Google, được thành lập như là một phần của […]
          Ethereum-based strategy game 'Cryptogirl' launches in open beta      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
The makers of Cryptogirl, an extensible strategy card game built on the Ethereum Network, have revealed that an open-beta trial version of the game went live on July 9, 2018. Cryptogirl is the first game to offer both PvE and PvP gaming experiences in a blockchain-based gaming environment. The
          Ethereum Scam Bots on Twitter Draws Attention of Elon Musk      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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          Người đàn ông Trung Quốc giàu nhất sàn giao dịch tiền ảo      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Những năm gần đây, tiền ảo được nhiều nhà đầu tư quan tâm, trong đó có những tỷ phú nức danh như Elon Musk, Richard Branson... Những đồng bạc ảo nổi danh phải kể đến là Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin… Để mua những đồng tiền này, nhà đầu tư cần duyệt y các sàn giao thiệp.

Năm 2017, thị trường tiền ảo nhiều biến động và tăng trưởng mạnh giúp cho các sàn giao tế có một năm bội thu. Một trong những sàn giao du kiếm được nhiều tiền nhất chính là Binance đến từ Trung Quốc do Changpeng Zhao sáng lập.

Điều bất ngờ là sàn giao tiếp này mới được thành lập vào tháng 7/2017. Tính đến tháng 2 năm nay, chỉ sau 7 tháng hoạt động, sàn thực hành gần 1,4 triệu giao tế/giây, với 6 triệu người dùng và là sàn giao tế tiền ảo lớn nhất trên thế giới. Để đưa Binance trở nên startup tăng trưởng nhanh nhất thế giới vào nửa cuối năm 2017, người sáng lập Changpeng Zhao đã có những bước đi táo bạo.

Changpeng Zhao, 41 tuổi, người sáng lập sàn giao dịch tiền ảo lớn nhất thế giới Binance. Ảnh: Bitcoin.

Changpeng Zhao, 41 tuổi, người sáng lập sàn giao tế tiền ảo lớn nhất thế giới Binance. Ảnh: Bitcoin.

Changpeng Zhao luôn xuất hiện với hình ảnh mặc một chiếc áo hoodie màu đen và quần jeans giản dị. Ông được ví như sự kết hợp giữa Mark Zuckerberg và Steve Jobs. Nhìn vào thành quả mà Binance đã đạt được, công ty này xứng đáng được coi như Facebook hay Apple trong lĩnh vực tiền ảo.

Bán nhà để đầu tư tiền ảo

Zhao sinh ra ở thành phố Giang Tô trong một gia đình có bố và mẹ là những kiến thức có tiếng. Tuy nhiên, bố Zhao lại bị Chính phủ Trung Quốc cho là có tư tưởng ủng hộ tư sản và gặp nhiều khó khăn trong công việc. Cuối những năm 1980, gia đình Zhao quyết định chuyển đến sống tại Vancouver, Canada.

Ở tuổi thiếu niên, Zhao sang nhiều công việc làm thêm để kiếm tiền trang trải cuộc sống. Ông từng làm nhân viên bán hàng tại McDonald’s, viên chức làm đêm tại trạm xăng.

Zhao chọn học chuyên ngành khoa học máy tính tại Đại học McGill, đô thị Montreal. Sau khi ra trường, Zhao đảm đương vai trò xây dựng hệ thống kết hợp các lệnh mua bán cho Sở giao dịch Chứng khoán Tokyo. Sau đó, Zhao làm việc tại bộ phận Tradebook của tùng san Bloomberg tại New York, chuyên phát triển các phần mềm về thương nghiệp.

Sau tuổi 27, Zhao nhận ra chừng như tuốt tuột công sức ông bỏ ra không được trả mức lương tương hợp. Với vị trí quản lý của 3 nhóm phát triển tại New Jersey, London và Tokyo trong vòng 2 năm nhưng thu nhập của ông chỉ tăng lên có 3 lần so với ban sơ.

Zhao mất nhẫn nại, năm 2005 ông bỏ việc và chuyển đến sống tại Thượng Hải để khởi nghiệp dự án trước nhất với tên gọi Fusion System. Công ty này chuyên xây dựng hệ thống giao du cho các công ty môi giới.

Năm 2013, Zhao biết đến Bitcoin trong lần chơi bài cùng một nhà đầu tư. Zhao bắt đầu tìm hiểu sâu hơn các dự án về tiền ảo và cơ chế hoạt động của chúng. Đến năm 2014, Zhao liều bán căn hộ ở Thượng Hải để đầu tư vào tiền ảo Bitcoin.

Bước ngoặt cuộc thế Zhao mở ra khi ông quyết định tham gia vào công ty Blockchain.info với tư cách là một trong 3 thành viên trước tiên chuyên cáng đáng mảng ví điện tử. Là người đứng đầu một mảng quan trọng tại Blockchain.info, Zhao có dịp tiếp xúc với các chuyên gia về Bitcoin nức tiếng như Roger Ver và Ben Reeves. Điều này tạo điều kiện thuận lợi để Zhao hiểu hơn về tiền ảo và lên ý tưởng xây dựng một sàn giao tiếp tiền ảo thuần túy mà không cần sự có mặt của tiền mặt.

Đồng tiền ảo Bitcoin đang dần được các quốc gia xem xét và chấp nhận lưu thông trên thị trường. Ảnh: Bitcoin.

đồng tiền ảo Bitcoin đang dần được các quốc gia coi xét và ưng ý lưu thông trên thị trường. Ảnh: Bitcoin.

Năm 2017, khi ICO (hình thức huy động vốn tiền ảo từ các nhà đầu tư) bùng nổ, Zhao quyết định đưa vào hoạt động sàn giao thiệp tiền ảo Binance. Tháng 7/2017, Binance bán ICO đầu tiên với giá mở bán mỗi token BNB là 10 cent. Tuy nhiên startup Binance đã sang nhiều khó khăn và cạnh tranh ác liệt để có được thành công như hôm nay.

Để tránh việc sàn giao dịch tiền ảo Binance bị chi phối khối lượng giao tế, Zhao chuyển hội sở từ Thượng Hải sang Hong Kong. Tại đây, Binance không có hồ sơ nộp thuế nên không đủ điều kiện để thuê văn phòng diện tích lớn. tuốt tuột nhân viên của Binance phải chen chúc làm việc trong văn phòng với diện tích khiêm tốn.

"Chúng tôi thậm chí đã phải đặt bàn làm việc ngay bên ngoài nhà vệ sinh", Zhao nhớ lại.

Những nỗ lực của hàng ngũ Binance đã được đền đáp xứng đáng khi Binance đạt mức tăng trưởng lên đến 200% và đạt được lượng vốn hóa trên 1,3 tỷ USD. Đầu năm nay, CEO Changpeng Zhao góp mặt vào danh sách những tỷ phú thế giới với tổng tài sản khoảng 1,39 tỷ USD.

Chỉ sau một năm hoạt động, Binance đã soán ngôi Bittrex trở nên sàn giao tiếp tiền ảo lớn nhất thế giới. Khách hàng của Binance có 38% đến từ Mỹ, thị trường lớn thứ 2 là Nhật Bản, quốc gia công nhận giá trị của những đồng tiền ảo trong giao dịch thương nghiệp.

Thảo Nguyên

Theo Forbes


          以太坊智能合约OPCODE逆向之理论基础篇      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

作者:Hcamael@知道创宇404区块链安全研究团队

在我们对etherscan等平台上合约进行安全审查时,常常会遇到没有公布Solidity源代码的合约,只能获取到合约的OPCODE,所以一个智能合约的反编译器对审计无源码的智能合约起到了非常重要的作用。

目前在互联网上常见的反编译工具只有porosity[1],另外在Github上还找到另外的反编译工具ethdasm[2],经过测试发现这两个编译器都有许多bug,无法满足我的工作需求。因此我开始尝试研究并开发能满足我们自己需求的反编译工具,在我看来如果要写出一个优秀的反汇编工具,首先需要有较强的OPCODE逆向能力,本篇Paper将对以太坊智能合约OPCODE的数据结构进行一次深入分析。

基础

智能合约的OPCODE是在EVM(Ethereum Virtual Machine)中进行解释执行,OPCODE为1字节,从0x00 - 0xff代表了相对应的指令,但实际有用的指令并没有0xff个,还有一部分未被使用,以便将来的扩展

具体指令可参考Github[3]上的OPCODE指令集,每个指令具体含义可以参考相关文档[4]

IO

在EVM中不存在寄存器,也没有网络IO相关的指令,只存在对栈(stack),内存(mem), 存储(storage)的读写操作

使用的push和pop对栈进行存取操作,push后面会带上存入栈数据的长度,最小为1字节,最大为32字节,所以OPCODE从0x60-0x7f分别代表的是push1-push32

PUSH1会将OPCODE后面1字节的数据放入栈中,比如字节码是0x6060代表的指令就是PUSH1 0x60

除了PUSH指令,其他指令获取参数都是从栈中获取,指令返回的结果也是直接存入栈中

内存的存取操作是MSTOREMLOAD

MSTORE(arg0, arg1)从栈中获取两个参数,表示MEM[arg0:arg0+32] = arg1

MLOAD(arg0)从栈中获取一个参数,表示PUSH32(MEM[arg0:arg0+32])

因为PUSH指令,最大只能把32字节的数据存入栈中,所以对内存的操作每次只能操作32字节

但是还有一个指令MSTORE8,只修改内存的1个字节

MSTORE(arg0, arg1)从栈中获取两个参数,表示MEM[arg0] = arg1

内存的作用一般是用来存储返回值,或者某些指令有处理大于32字节数据的需求

比如: SHA3(arg0, arg1)从栈中获取两个参数,表示SHA3(MEM[arg0:arg0+arg1]),SHA3对内存中的数据进行计算sha3哈希值,参数只是用来指定内存的范围

上面的stack和mem都是在EVM执行OPCODE的时候初始化,但是storage是存在于区块链中,我们可以类比为计算机的存储磁盘。

所以,就算不执行智能合约,我们也能获取智能合约storage中的数据:

eth.getStorageAt(合约地址, slot)   
# 该函数还有第三个参数,默认为"latest",还可以设置为"earliest"或者"pending",具体作用本文不做分析

storage用来存储智能合约中所有的全局变量

使用SLOADSSTORE进行操作

SSTORE(arg0, arg1)从栈中获取两个参数,表示eth.getStorageAt(合约地址, arg0) = arg1

SLOAD(arg0)从栈中获取一个参数,表示PUSH32(eth.getStorageAt(合约地址, arg0))

变量

智能合约的变量从作用域可以分为三种, 全局公有变量(public), 全局私有变量(private), 局部变量

全局变量和局部变量的区别是,全局变量储存在storage中,而局部变量是被编译进OPCODE中,在运行时,被放在stack中,等待后续使用

公有变量和私有变量的区别是,公有变量会被编译成一个constant函数,后面会分析函数之前的区别

因为私有变量也是储存在storage中,而storage是存在于区块链当中,所以相当于私有变量也是公开的,所以不要想着用私有变量来储存啥不能公开的数据。

全局变量的储存模型

不同类型的变量在storage中储存的方式也是有区别的,下面对各种类型的变量的储存模型进行分析

1. 定长变量

第一种我们归类为定长变量,所谓的定长变量,也就是该变量在定义的时候,其长度就已经被限制住了

比如定长整型(int/uint......), 地址(address), 定长浮点型(fixed/ufixed......), 定长字节数组(bytes1-32)

这类的变量在storage中都是按顺序储存

uint a;       // slot = 0
address b;    // 1
ufixed c;     // 2
bytes32 d;    // 3
## 
a == eth.getStorageAt(contract, 0)
d == eth.getStorageAt(contract, 3)

上面举的例子,除了address的长度是160bits,其他变量的长度都是256bits,而storage是256bits对齐的,所以都是一个变量占着一块storage,但是会存在连续两个变量的长度不足256bits的情况

address a;      // slot = 0
uint8 b;        // 0
address c;      // 1
uint16 d;       // 1

在opcode层面,获取a的值得操作是: SLOAD(0) & 0xffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff

获取b值得操作是: SLOAD(0) // 0x10000000000000000000000000000000000000000 & 0xff

获取d值得操作是: SLOAD(1) // 0x10000000000000000000000000000000000000000 & 0xffff

因为b的长度+a的长度不足256bits,变量a和b是连续的,所以他们在同一块storage中,然后在编译的过程中进行区分变量a和变量b,但是后续在加上变量c,长度就超过了256bits,因此把变量c放到下一块storage中,然后变量d跟在c之后

从上面我们可以看出,storage的储存策略一个是256bits对齐,一个是顺序储存。(并没有考虑到充分利用每一字节的储存空间,我觉得可以考虑把d变量放到b变量之后)

2. 映射变量
mapping(address => uint) a;

映射变量就没办法想上面的定长变量按顺序储存了,因为这是一个键值对变量,EVM采用的机制是:

SLOAD(sha3(key.rjust(64, "0")+slot.rjust(64, "0")))

比如: a["0xd25ed029c093e56bc8911a07c46545000cbf37c6"]首先计算sha3哈希值:

>>> from sha3 import keccak_256
>>> data = "d25ed029c093e56bc8911a07c46545000cbf37c6".rjust(64, "0")
>>> data += "00".rjust(64, "0")
>>> keccak_256(data.encode()).hexdigest()
'739cc24910ff41b372fbcb2294933bdc3108bd86ffd915d64d569c68a85121ec'
# 
a["0xd25ed029c093e56bc8911a07c46545000cbf37c6"] == SLOAD("739cc24910ff41b372fbcb2294933bdc3108bd86ffd915d64d569c68a85121ec")

我们也可以使用以太坊客户端直接获取:

> eth.getStorageAt(合约地址, "739cc24910ff41b372fbcb2294933bdc3108bd86ffd915d64d569c68a85121ec")

还有slot需要注意一下:

address public a;                       // slot = 0
mapping(address => uint) public b;      // slot = 1
uint public d;                          // slot = 1
mapping(address => uint) public c;      // slot = 3

根据映射变量的储存模型,或许我们真的可以在智能合约中隐藏私密信息,比如,有一个secret,只有知道key的人才能知道secret的内容,我们可以b[key] = secret, 虽然数据仍然是储存在storage中,但是在不知道key的情况下却无法获取到secret

不过,storage是存在于区块链之中,目前我猜测是通过智能合约可以映射到对应的storage,storage不可能会初始化256*256bits的内存空间,那样就太消耗硬盘空间了,所以可以通过解析区块链文件,获取到storage全部的数据。

上面这些仅仅是个人猜想,会作为之后研究以太坊源码的一个研究方向。

3. 变长变量

变长变量也就是数组,长度不一定,其储存方式有点像上面两种的结合

uint a;         // slot = 0
uint[] b;       // 1
uint c;         // 2

数组任然会占用对应slot的storage,储存数组的长度(b.length == SLOAD(1))

比如我们想获取b[1]的值,会把输入的indexSLOAD(1)的值进行比较,防止数组越界访问

然后计算slot的sha3哈希值:

>>> from sha3 import keccak_256
>>> slot = "01".rjust(64, "0")
>>> keccak_256(slot.encode()).hexdigest()
'20ec45d096f1fa2aeff1e3da8a84697d90109524958ed4be9f6d69e37a9140a4'

#
b[X] == SLOAD('20ec45d096f1fa2aeff1e3da8a84697d90109524958ed4be9f6d69e37a9140a4' + X)

# 获取b[2]的值
> eth.getStorageAt(合约地址, "20ec45d096f1fa2aeff1e3da8a84697d90109524958ed4be9f6d69e37a9140a6")

在变长变量中有两个特例: stringbytes

字符串可以认为是字符数组,bytes是byte数组,当这两种变量的长度在0-31时,值储存在对应slot的storage上,最后一字节为长度*2|flag, 当flag = 1,表示长度>31,否则长度<=31

下面进行举例说明

uint i;                // slot = 0
string a = "c"*31;     // 1
SLOAD(1) == "c*31" + "00" | 31*2 == "636363636363636363636363636363636363636363636363636363636363633e"

当变量的长度大于31时,SLOAD(slot)储存length*2|flag,把值储存到sha3(slot)

uint i;                // slot = 0
string a = "c"*36;     // 1
SLOAD(1) == 36*2|1 == 0x49
SLOAD(SHA3("01".rjust(64, "0"))) == "c"*36
4. 结构体

结构体没有单独特殊的储存模型,结构体相当于变量数组,下面进行举例说明:

struct test {
    uint a;
    uint b;
    uint c;
}
address g;
Test e;

# 上面变量在storage的储存方式等同于
address g;
uint a;
uint b;
uint c;

函数

两种调用函数的方式

下面是针对两种函数调用方式说明的测试代码,发布在测试网络上: https://ropsten.etherscan.io/address/0xc9fbe313dc1d6a1c542edca21d1104c338676ffd#code

pragma solidity ^0.4.18;

contract Test {

  address public owner;
  uint public prize;

  function Test() {
    owner = msg.sender;
  }

  function test1() constant public returns (address) {
    return owner;
  }

  function test2(uint p) public {
      prize += p;
  }
}

整个OPCODE都是在EVM中执行,所以第一个调用函数的方式就是使用EVM进行执行OPCODE:

# 调用test1
> eth.call({to: "0xc9fbe313dc1d6a1c542edca21d1104c338676ffd", data: "0x6b59084d"})
"0x0000000000000000000000000109dea8b64d87a26e7fe9af6400375099c78fdd"
> eth.getStorageAt("0xc9fbe313dc1d6a1c542edca21d1104c338676ffd", 0)
"0x0000000000000000000000000109dea8b64d87a26e7fe9af6400375099c78fdd"

第二种方式就是通过发送交易:

# 调用test2
> eth.getStorageAt("0xc9fbe313dc1d6a1c542edca21d1104c338676ffd", 1)
"0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000005"
> eth.sendTransaction({from: eth.accounts[0], to: "0xc9fbe313dc1d6a1c542edca21d1104c338676ffd", data: "0xcaf446830000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000005"})
> eth.getStorageAt("0xc9fbe313dc1d6a1c542edca21d1104c338676ffd", 1)
"0x000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000a"

这两种调用方式的区别有两个:

  1. 使用call调用函数是在本地使用EVM执行合约的OPCODE,所以可以获得返回值
  2. 通过交易调用的函数,能修改区块链上的storage

一个调用合约函数的交易(比如 https://ropsten.etherscan.io/tx/0xab1040ff9b04f8fc13b12057f9c090e0a9348b7d3e7b4bb09523819e575cf651)的信息中,是不存在返回值的信息,但是却可以修改storage的信息(一个交易是怎么修改对应的storage信息,是之后的一个研究方向)

而通过call调用,是在本地使用EVM执行OPCODE,返回值是存在MEM中return,所以可以获取到返回值,虽然也可以修改storage的数据,不过只是修改你本地数据,不通过发起交易,其他节点将不会接受你的更改,所以是一个无效的修改,同时,本地调用函数也不需要消耗gas,所以上面举例中,在调用信息的字典里,不需要from字段,而交易却需要指定(设置from)从哪个账号消耗gas。

调用函数

EVM是怎么判断调用哪个函数的呢?下面使用OPCODE来进行说明

每一个智能合约入口代码是有固定模式的,我们可以称为智能合约的主函数,上面测试合约的主函数如下:

PS: Github[5]上面有一个EVM反汇编的IDA插件

[     0x0] | PUSH1                | ['0x80']
[     0x2] | PUSH1                | ['0x40']
[     0x4] | MSTORE               | None
[     0x5] | PUSH1                | ['0x4']
[     0x7] | CALLDATASIZE         | None
[     0x8] | LT                   | None
[     0x9] | PUSH2                | ['0x61']
[     0xc] | JUMPI                | None
[     0xd] | PUSH4                | ['0xffffffff']
[    0x12] | PUSH29               | ['0x100000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000']
[    0x30] | PUSH1                | ['0x0']
[    0x32] | CALLDATALOAD         | None
[    0x33] | DIV                  | None
[    0x34] | AND                  | None
[    0x35] | PUSH4                | ['0x6b59084d']
[    0x3a] | DUP2                 | None
[    0x3b] | EQ                   | None
[    0x3c] | PUSH2                | ['0x66']
[    0x3f] | JUMPI                | None
[    0x40] | DUP1                 | None
[    0x41] | PUSH4                | ['0x8da5cb5b']
[    0x46] | EQ                   | None
[    0x47] | PUSH2                | ['0xa4']
[    0x4a] | JUMPI                | None
[    0x4b] | DUP1                 | None
[    0x4c] | PUSH4                | ['0xcaf44683']
[    0x51] | EQ                   | None
[    0x52] | PUSH2                | ['0xb9']
[    0x55] | JUMPI                | None
[    0x56] | DUP1                 | None
[    0x57] | PUSH4                | ['0xe3ac5d26']
[    0x5c] | EQ                   | None
[    0x5d] | PUSH2                | ['0xd3']
[    0x60] | JUMPI                | None
[    0x61] | JUMPDEST             | None
[    0x62] | PUSH1                | ['0x0']
[    0x64] | DUP1                 | None
[    0x65] | REVERT               | None

反编译出来的代码就是:

def main():
    if CALLDATASIZE >= 4:
        data = CALLDATA[:4]
        if data == 0x6b59084d:
            test1()
        elif data == 0x8da5cb5b:
            owner()
        elif data == 0xcaf44683:
            test2()
        elif data == 0xe3ac5d26:
            prize()
        else:
            pass
    raise

PS:因为个人习惯问题,反编译最终输出没有选择对应的Solidity代码,而是使用Python。

从上面的代码我们就能看出来,EVM是根据CALLDATA的前4字节来确定调用的函数的,这4个字节表示的是函数的sha3哈希值的前4字节:

> web3.sha3("test1()")
"0x6b59084dfb7dcf1c687dd12ad5778be120c9121b21ef90a32ff73565a36c9cd3"
> web3.sha3("owner()")
"0x8da5cb5b36e7f68c1d2e56001220cdbdd3ba2616072f718acfda4a06441a807d"
> web3.sha3("prize()")
"0xe3ac5d2656091dd8f25e87b604175717f3442b1e2af8ecd1b1f708bab76d9a91"
# 如果该函数有参数,则需要加上各个参数的类型
> web3.sha3("test2(uint256)")
"0xcaf446833eef44593b83316414b79e98fec092b78e4c1287e6968774e0283444"

所以可以去网上找个哈希表映射[6],这样有概率可以通过hash值,得到函数名和参数信息,减小逆向的难度

主函数中的函数

上面给出的测试智能合约中只有两个函数,但是反编译出来的主函数中,却有4个函数调用,其中两个是公有函数,另两个是公有变量

智能合约变量/函数类型只有两种,公有和私有,公有和私有的区别很简单,公有的是能别外部调用访问,私有的只能被本身调用访问

对于变量,不管是公有还是私有都能通过getStorageAt访问,但是这是属于以太坊层面的,在智能合约层面,把公有变量给编译成了一个公有函数,在这公有函数中返回SLOAD(slot),而私有函数只能在其他函数中特定的地方调用SLOAD(slot)来访问

在上面测试的智能合约中, test1()函数等同于owner(),我们可以来看看各自的OPCODE:

; test1()
; 0x66: loc_66
[    0x66] | JUMPDEST             | None
[    0x67] | CALLVALUE            | None
[    0x68] | DUP1                 | None
[    0x69] | ISZERO               | None
[    0x6a] | PUSH2                | ['0x72']
[    0x6d] | JUMPI                | None
[    0x6e] | PUSH1                | ['0x0']
[    0x70] | DUP1                 | None
[    0x71] | REVERT               | None
; 0x72: loc_72
[    0x72] | JUMPDEST             | None
[    0x73] | POP                  | None
[    0x74] | PUSH2                | ['0x7b']
[    0x77] | PUSH2                | ['0xfa']
[    0x7a] | JUMP                 | None
; 0xFA: loc_fa
[    0xfa] | JUMPDEST             | None
[    0xfb] | PUSH1                | ['0x0']
[    0xfd] | SLOAD                | None
[    0xfe] | PUSH20               | ['0xffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff']
[   0x113] | AND                  | None
[   0x114] | SWAP1                | None
[   0x115] | JUMP                 | None
; 0x7B: loc_7b
[    0x7b] | JUMPDEST             | None
[    0x7c] | PUSH1                | ['0x40']
[    0x7e] | DUP1                 | None
[    0x7f] | MLOAD                | None
[    0x80] | PUSH20               | ['0xffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff']
[    0x95] | SWAP1                | None
[    0x96] | SWAP3                | None
[    0x97] | AND                  | None
[    0x98] | DUP3                 | None
[    0x99] | MSTORE               | None
[    0x9a] | MLOAD                | None
[    0x9b] | SWAP1                | None
[    0x9c] | DUP2                 | None
[    0x9d] | SWAP1                | None
[    0x9e] | SUB                  | None
[    0x9f] | PUSH1                | ['0x20']
[    0xa1] | ADD                  | None
[    0xa2] | SWAP1                | None
[    0xa3] | RETURN               | None

owner()函数进行对比:

; owner()
; 0xA4: loc_a4
[    0xa4] | JUMPDEST             | None
[    0xa5] | CALLVALUE            | None
[    0xa6] | DUP1                 | None
[    0xa7] | ISZERO               | None
[    0xa8] | PUSH2                | ['0xb0']
[    0xab] | JUMPI                | None
[    0xac] | PUSH1                | ['0x0']
[    0xae] | DUP1                 | None
[    0xaf] | REVERT               | None
; 0xB0: loc_b0
[    0xb0] | JUMPDEST             | None
[    0xb1] | POP                  | None
[    0xb2] | PUSH2                | ['0x7b']
[    0xb5] | PUSH2                | ['0x116']
[    0xb8] | JUMP                 | None
; 0x116: loc_116
[   0x116] | JUMPDEST             | None
[   0x117] | PUSH1                | ['0x0']
[   0x119] | SLOAD                | None
[   0x11a] | PUSH20               | ['0xffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff']
[   0x12f] | AND                  | None
[   0x130] | DUP2                 | None
[   0x131] | JUMP                 | None
; 0x7B: loc_7b
[    0x7b] | JUMPDEST             | None
[    0x7c] | PUSH1                | ['0x40']
[    0x7e] | DUP1                 | None
[    0x7f] | MLOAD                | None
[    0x80] | PUSH20               | ['0xffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff']
[    0x95] | SWAP1                | None
[    0x96] | SWAP3                | None
[    0x97] | AND                  | None
[    0x98] | DUP3                 | None
[    0x99] | MSTORE               | None
[    0x9a] | MLOAD                | None
[    0x9b] | SWAP1                | None
[    0x9c] | DUP2                 | None
[    0x9d] | SWAP1                | None
[    0x9e] | SUB                  | None
[    0x9f] | PUSH1                | ['0x20']
[    0xa1] | ADD                  | None
[    0xa2] | SWAP1                | None
[    0xa3] | RETURN               | None

所以我们可以得出结论:

address public a;
会被编译成(==)
function a() public returns (address) {
    return a;
}

#

address private a;
function c() public returns (address) {
    return a;
}
等同于下面的变量定义()
address public c;

公有函数和私有函数的区别也很简单,公有函数会被编译进主函数中,能通过CALLDATA进行调用,而私有函数则只能在其他公有函数中进行调用,无法直接通过设置CALLDATA来调用私有函数

回退函数和paypal

在智能合约中,函数都能设置一个paypal,还有一个特殊的回退函数,下面用实例来介绍回退函数

比如之前的测试合约加上了回退函数:

function() {
    prize += 1;
}

则主函数的反编译代码就变成了:

def main():
    if CALLDATASIZE >= 4:
        data = CALLDATA[:4]
        if data == 0x6b59084d:
            return test1()
        elif data == 0x8da5cb5b:
            return owner()
        elif data == 0xcaf44683:
            return test2()
        elif data == 0xe3ac5d26:
            return prize()
    assert msg.value == 0
    prize += 1
    exit()

CALLDATA和该合约中的函数匹配失败时,将会从抛异常,表示执行失败退出,变成调用回退函数

每一个函数,包括回退函数都可以加一个关键字: paypal,表示可以给该函数转帐,从OPCODE层面讲,没有paypal关键字的函数比有paypal的函数多了一段代码:

JUMPDEST             | None
CALLVALUE            | None
DUP1                 | None
ISZERO               | None
PUSH2                | ['0x8e']
JUMPI                | None
PUSH1                | ['0x0']
DUP1                 | None
REVERT               | None

反编译成python,就是:

assert msg.value == 0

REVERT是异常退出指令,当交易的金额大于0时,则异常退出,交易失败

函数参数

函数获取数据的方式只有两种,一个是从storage中获取数据,另一个就是接受用户传参,当函数hash表匹配成功时,我们可以知道该函数的参数个数,和各个参数的类型,但是当hash表匹配失败时,我们仍然可以获取该函数参数的个数,因为获取参数和主函数、paypal检查一样,在OPCODE层面也有固定模型:

比如上面的测试合约,调动test2函数的固定模型就是: main -> paypal check -> get args -> 执行函数代码

获取参数的OPCODE如下

; 0xAF: loc_af
[    0xaf] | JUMPDEST             | None
[    0xb0] | POP                  | None
[    0xb1] | PUSH2                | ['0xd1']
[    0xb4] | PUSH20               | ['0xffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff']
[    0xc9] | PUSH1                | ['0x4']
[    0xcb] | CALLDATALOAD         | None
[    0xcc] | AND                  | None
[    0xcd] | PUSH2                | ['0x18f']
[    0xd0] | JUMP                 | None

函数test2的参数p = CALLDATA[4:4+0x20]

如果有第二个参数,则是arg2 = CALLDATA[4+0x20:4+0x40],以此类推

所以智能合约中,调用函数的规则就是data = sha3(func_name)[:4] + *args

但是,上面的规则仅限于定长类型的参数,如果参数是string这种不定长的变量类型时,固定模型仍然不变,但是在从calldata获取数据的方法,变得不同了,定长的变量是通过调用CALLDATALOAD,把值存入栈中,而string类型的变量,因为长度不定,会超过256bits的原因,使用的是calldatacopy把参数存入MEM

可以看看function test3(string a) public {}函数获取参数的代码:

; 0xB2: loc_b2
[    0xb2] | JUMPDEST             | None
[    0xb3] | POP                  | None
[    0xb4] | PUSH1                | ['0x40']
[    0xb6] | DUP1                 | None
[    0xb7] | MLOAD                | None
[    0xb8] | PUSH1                | ['0x20']
[    0xba] | PUSH1                | ['0x4']
[    0xbc] | DUP1                 | None
[    0xbd] | CALLDATALOAD         | None
[    0xbe] | DUP1                 | None
[    0xbf] | DUP3                 | None
[    0xc0] | ADD                  | None
[    0xc1] | CALLDATALOAD         | None
[    0xc2] | PUSH1                | ['0x1f']
[    0xc4] | DUP2                 | None
[    0xc5] | ADD                  | None
[    0xc6] | DUP5                 | None
[    0xc7] | SWAP1                | None
[    0xc8] | DIV                  | None
[    0xc9] | DUP5                 | None
[    0xca] | MUL                  | None
[    0xcb] | DUP6                 | None
[    0xcc] | ADD                  | None
[    0xcd] | DUP5                 | None
[    0xce] | ADD                  | None
[    0xcf] | SWAP1                | None
[    0xd0] | SWAP6                | None
[    0xd1] | MSTORE               | None
[    0xd2] | DUP5                 | None
[    0xd3] | DUP5                 | None
[    0xd4] | MSTORE               | None
[    0xd5] | PUSH2                | ['0xff']
[    0xd8] | SWAP5                | None
[    0xd9] | CALLDATASIZE         | None
[    0xda] | SWAP5                | None
[    0xdb] | SWAP3                | None
[    0xdc] | SWAP4                | None
[    0xdd] | PUSH1                | ['0x24']
[    0xdf] | SWAP4                | None
[    0xe0] | SWAP3                | None
[    0xe1] | DUP5                 | None
[    0xe2] | ADD                  | None
[    0xe3] | SWAP2                | None
[    0xe4] | SWAP1                | None
[    0xe5] | DUP2                 | None
[    0xe6] | SWAP1                | None
[    0xe7] | DUP5                 | None
[    0xe8] | ADD                  | None
[    0xe9] | DUP4                 | None
[    0xea] | DUP3                 | None
[    0xeb] | DUP1                 | None
[    0xec] | DUP3                 | None
[    0xed] | DUP5                 | None
[    0xee] | CALLDATACOPY         | None
[    0xef] | POP                  | None
[    0xf0] | SWAP5                | None
[    0xf1] | SWAP8                | None
[    0xf2] | POP                  | None
[    0xf3] | PUSH2                | ['0x166']
[    0xf6] | SWAP7                | None
[    0xf7] | POP                  | None
[    0xf8] | POP                  | None
[    0xf9] | POP                  | None
[    0xfa] | POP                  | None
[    0xfb] | POP                  | None
[    0xfc] | POP                  | None
[    0xfd] | POP                  | None
[    0xfe] | JUMP                 | None

传入的变长参数是一个结构体:

struct string_arg {
    uint offset;
    uint length;
    string data;
}

offset+4表示的是当前参数的length的偏移,length为data的长度,data就是用户输入的字符串数据

当有多个变长参数时: function test3(string a, string b) public {}

calldata的格式如下: sha3(func)[:4] + a.offset + b.offset + a.length + a.data + b.length + b.data

翻译成py代码如下:

def test3():
    offset = data[4:0x24]
    length = data[offset+4:offset+4+0x20]
    a = data[offset+4+0x20:length]
    offset = data[0x24:0x24+0x20]
    length = data[offset+4:offset+4+0x20]
    b = data[offset+4+0x20:length]

因为参数有固定的模型,因此就算没有从hash表中匹配到函数名,也可以判断出函数参数的个数,但是要想知道变量类型,只能区分出定长、变长变量,具体是uint还是address,则需要从函数代码,变量的使用中进行判断

变量类型的分辨

在智能合约的OPCDOE中,变量也是有特征的

比如一个address变量总会 & 0xffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff:

PUSH1                | ['0x0']
SLOAD                | None
PUSH20               | ['0xffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff']
AND                  | None

上一篇说的mapping和array的储存模型,可以根据SHA3的计算方式知道是映射变量还是数组变量

再比如,uint变量因为等同于uint256,所以使用SLOAD获取以后不会再进行AND计算,但是uint8却会计算& 0xff

所以我们可以SLOAD指令的参数和后面紧跟的计算,来判断出变量类型

智能合约代码结构

部署合约

在区块链上,要同步/发布任何信息,都是通过发送交易来进行的,用之前的测试合约来举例,合约地址为: 0xc9fbe313dc1d6a1c542edca21d1104c338676ffd, 创建合约的交易地址为: 0x6cf9d5fe298c7e1b84f4805adddba43e7ffc8d8ffe658b4c3708f42ed94d90ed

查看下该交易的相关信息:

> eth.getTransaction("0x6cf9d5fe298c7e1b84f4805adddba43e7ffc8d8ffe658b4c3708f42ed94d90ed")
{
  blockHash: "0x7f684a294f39e16ba1e82a3b6d2fc3a1e82ef023b5fb52261f9a89d831a24ed5",
  blockNumber: 3607048,
  from: "0x0109dea8b64d87a26e7fe9af6400375099c78fdd",
  gas: 171331,
  gasPrice: 1000000000,
  hash: "0x6cf9d5fe298c7e1b84f4805adddba43e7ffc8d8ffe658b4c3708f42ed94d90ed",
  input: "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",
  nonce: 228,
  r: "0xa08f0cd907207af4de54f9f63f3c9a959c3e960ef56f7900d205648edbd848c6",
  s: "0x5bb99e4ab9fe76371e4d67a30208aeac558b2989a6c783d08b979239c8221a88",
  to: null,
  transactionIndex: 4,
  v: "0x2a",
  value: 0
}

我们可以看出来,想一个空目标发送OPCODE的交易就是创建合约的交易,但是在交易信息中,却不包含合约地址,那么合约地址是怎么得到的呢?

function addressFrom(address _origin, uint _nonce) public pure returns (address) {
        if(_nonce == 0x00)     return address(keccak256(byte(0xd6), byte(0x94), _origin, byte(0x80)));
        if(_nonce <= 0x7f)     return address(keccak256(byte(0xd6), byte(0x94), _origin, byte(_nonce)));
        if(_nonce <= 0xff)     return address(keccak256(byte(0xd7), byte(0x94), _origin, byte(0x81), uint8(_nonce)));
        if(_nonce <= 0xffff)   return address(keccak256(byte(0xd8), byte(0x94), _origin, byte(0x82), uint16(_nonce)));
        if(_nonce <= 0xffffff) return address(keccak256(byte(0xd9), byte(0x94), _origin, byte(0x83), uint24(_nonce)));
        return address(keccak256(byte(0xda), byte(0x94), _origin, byte(0x84), uint32(_nonce))); // more than 2^32 nonces not realistic
    }

智能合约的地址由创建合约的账号和nonce决定,nonce用来记录用户发送的交易个数,在每个交易中都有该字段,现在根据上面的信息来计算下合约地址:

# 创建合约的账号 from: "0x0109dea8b64d87a26e7fe9af6400375099c78fdd",
# nonce: 228 = 0xe4 => 0x7f < 0xe4 < 0xff
>>> sha3.keccak_256(binascii.unhexlify("d7" + "94" + "0109dea8b64d87a26e7fe9af6400375099c78fdd" + "81e4")).hexdigest()[-40:]
'c9fbe313dc1d6a1c542edca21d1104c338676ffd'
创建合约代码

一个智能合约的OPCODE分为两种,一个是编译器编译好后的创建合约代码,还是合约部署好以后runtime代码,之前我们看的,研究的都是runtime代码,现在来看看创建合约代码,创建合约代码可以在创建合约交易的input数据总获取,上面已经把数据粘贴出来了,反汇编出指令如下:

; 0x0: main
[     0x0] | PUSH1                | ['0x80']
[     0x2] | PUSH1                | ['0x40']
[     0x4] | MSTORE               | None
[     0x5] | CALLVALUE            | None
[     0x6] | DUP1                 | None
[     0x7] | ISZERO               | None
[     0x8] | PUSH2                | ['0x10']
[     0xb] | JUMPI                | None
[     0xc] | PUSH1                | ['0x0']
[     0xe] | DUP1                 | None
[     0xf] | REVERT               | None
----------------------------------------------------------------
; 0x10: loc_10
[    0x10] | JUMPDEST             | None
[    0x11] | POP                  | None
[    0x12] | PUSH1                | ['0x0']
[    0x14] | DUP1                 | None
[    0x15] | SLOAD                | None
[    0x16] | PUSH1                | ['0x1']
[    0x18] | PUSH1                | ['0xa0']
[    0x1a] | PUSH1                | ['0x2']
[    0x1c] | EXP                  | None
[    0x1d] | SUB                  | None
[    0x1e] | NOT                  | None
[    0x1f] | AND                  | None
[    0x20] | CALLER               | None
[    0x21] | OR                   | None
[    0x22] | SWAP1                | None
[    0x23] | SSTORE               | None
[    0x24] | PUSH2                | ['0x24f']
[    0x27] | DUP1                 | None
[    0x28] | PUSH2                | ['0x32']
[    0x2b] | PUSH1                | ['0x0']
[    0x2d] | CODECOPY             | None
[    0x2e] | PUSH1                | ['0x0']
[    0x30] | RETURN               | None

代码逻辑很简单,就是执行了合约的构造函数,并且返回了合约的runtime代码,该合约的构造函数为:

function Test() {
    owner = msg.sender;
}

因为没有paypal关键字,所以开头是一个check代码assert msg.value == 0

然后就是对owner变量的赋值,当执行完构造函数后,就是把runtime代码复制到内存中:

CODECOPY(0, 0x32, 0x24f)  # mem[0:0+0x24f] = CODE[0x32:0x32+0x24f]

最后在把runtime代码返回: return mem[0:0x24f]

在完全了解合约是如何部署的之后,也许可以写一个OPCODE混淆的CTF逆向题

总结

通过了解EVM的数据结构模型,不仅可以加快对OPCODE的逆向速度,对于编写反编译脚本也有非常大的帮助,可以对反编译出来的代码进行优化,使得更加接近源码。

在对智能合约的OPCODE有了一定的了解后,后续准备先写一个EVM的调试器,虽然Remix已经有了一个非常优秀的调试器了,但是却需要有Solidity源代码,这无法满足我测试无源码的OPCODE的工作需求。所以请期待下篇《以太坊智能合约OPCODE逆向之调试器篇》


针对目前主流的以太坊应用,知道创宇提供专业权威的智能合约审计服务,规避因合约安全问题导致的财产损失,为各类以太坊应用安全保驾护航。

知道创宇404智能合约安全审计团队: https://www.scanv.com/lca/index.html
联系电话:(086) 136 8133 5016(沈经理,工作日:10:00-18:00)

欢迎扫码咨询:

引用

  1. https://github.com/comaeio/porosity
  2. https://github.com/meyer9/ethdasm
  3. https://github.com/trailofbits/evm-opcodes
  4. http://solidity.readthedocs.io/en/v0.4.21/assembly.html
  5. https://github.com/trailofbits/ida-evm
  6. https://github.com/trailofbits/ida-evm/blob/master/known_hashes.py

Paper 本文由 Seebug Paper 发布,如需转载请注明来源。本文地址:https://paper.seebug.org/640/


          Ethereum Building Blockchain Decentralized Apps (DApps)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Ethereum Building Blockchain Decentralized Apps (DApps)

Ethereum: Building Blockchain Decentralized Apps (DApps)
MP4 | Video: 720p | Duration: 1:45:01 | English | Subtitles: VTT | 308.6 MB




          Senior NodeJS Developer - Blockchain/Ethereum startup!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
CA-Los Angeles, Based in Los Angeles, CA - We're Free, open-source, client-side interface for generating Ethereum wallets & more. We enable our users to interact with the Ethereum blockchain easily & securely. We are looking to hire team players with a desire to learn about Blockchain world and help grow our community. Top Reasons to Work with Us - We're offering great compensation, benefits, and tons of internal
          Opera is testing Opera Crypto, a browser-based cryptocurrency wallet for Android, in private beta, with support for tokens and crypto-collectibles (Kyle Wiggers/VentureBeat)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Kyle Wiggers / VentureBeat:
Opera is testing Opera Crypto, a browser-based cryptocurrency wallet for Android, in private beta, with support for tokens and crypto-collectibles  —  Cryptocurrencies: They're kind of a big deal.  Bitcoin, one of the most popular digital currencies on the market, had a market capitalization …


          HTC’s most exciting phone in years might cost more than a next-gen iPhone X      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
HTC quietly announced a new smartphone initiative in May, a phone like nothing else available on the market. The HTC Exodus, due later this year, is supposed to be HTC’s first crypto handset and the world’s first blockchain phone. It might also be doomed to fail, much like every phone HTC made to date. That’s not only because of what it proposes but also because it might cost more than the iPhone X versions Apple is about to launch. The $999 iPhone X proved to be too expensive to meet Apple’s goals, although the phone did very well so far, helping Apple significantly raise the average selling price of the iPhone. Come fall, the three upcoming iPhone X models will be slightly cheaper, with the 2018 5.8-inch iPhone X supposed to cost $899. The HTC Exodus, meanwhile, will cost around $1,000, according to what Phil Chen told The Verge about it. Well, he did not specify the exact price but did say that the Exodus will cost about as much as a different blockchain phone in town, the Sirin Labs Finney. The HTC exec happens to be the company’s chief decentralized officer, and that’s not a joke. Instead, it’s a nod to the emerging crypto world, where decentralization is a significant characteristic of the blockchain. HTC did not reveal many details about the Exodus back in May, other than to say that the blockchain will power it. At the time, that seemed to be a suggestion that the phone won’t run Android. It’s still not clear what operating system we can expect, or what kind of hardware we’re looking at. But HTC wants to announce the handset — you know, again — at the end of the third quarter, and then launch it by the end of the year. From the interview, it appears that HTC is dialing back excitement a bit. In May, the company said that “we envision a phone where you hold your own keys, you own your own identity and data, and your phone is the hub.” It turns out that kind of handset is a little further in the future. The Exodus, meanwhile, will be a phone with a crypto wallet that’s going to be “the most secure hardware wallet out there.” Mhm. Also, it’ll come with CryptoKitties preinstalled, which is an Ethereum-based game — hey, if you’re not familiar with it, you probably don’t need crypto handsets. On the other hand, crypto games on phones could teach you a thing or two about the blockchain, and that’s probably why CryptoKitties will be available initially on HTC U12. HTC does want the Exodus to be able to mine cryptocurrency, to which I say good luck with that. HTC is looking at the matter and might release a white paper this year. The Exodus does sound exciting, and it’s likely we’ll see crypto phones worth buying down the road. Bitcoin may be a bubble, but the underlying blockchain tech isn’t going anywhere anytime soon. But HTC doesn’t have a track record that would convince anyone it can pull off a fantastic device that will sell like hotcakes. That’s sad, but true for a company that crafted so many other exciting phones in the past. As a reminder, the company sold a part of its mobile division to Google and fired some 1,500 employees recently. The ones that remained and, for some reason, still want to make phones for HTC, are working on the Exodus.
          Googles Mitgründer Sergey Brin offenbart sich als Ethereum-Miner      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Googles Mitgründer Sergey Brin enthüllt überraschenderweise, dass er ist selbst Ethereum-Miner ist und bezeichnet das globale Krypto-Netzwerk als „extraordinär".

The post Googles Mitgründer Sergey Brin offenbart sich als Ethereum-Miner appeared first on Blockchain ICO News Bitcoin-Altcoin.


          100,000 Crypto Currency Thefts Prevented By Kaspersky Lab In 2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   


Join- https://t.me/btctradingclub

For more Bitcoin Crypto Currency news Latest Update Crypto Currency Training Auto Trading Crypto BOT & Crypto Trading Signals join above given telegram channel

https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?...yptosignals.app


Crypto Trading Mobile APPS now receive Crypto Signals on Mobile Google Play Store

As cryptocurrency thefts are becoming more frequent and big news for blockchain naysayers, it is important to point out that there are companies out there trying to prevent these issues. The Moscow-based anti-virus firm, Kaspersky Lab, has recently reported preventing 100,000 crypto thefts in 2018 alone.

Kaspersky Lab is a well-known anti-virus company that has been leading the cybersecurity industry for many years. In 2018, they fought off a reported 100,000 approaches used by cybercriminals to steal cryptocurrencies. Their prevention of cryptocurrency thefts is leading experts to praise the company for their vigilance.

Tackling cryptocurrency thefts in 2018
Bearing in mind that the 100,000 prevented attempts have taken place in the first few months of 2018 alone should give you an idea of the security issues that continue to blight the crypto industry. This groundbreaking Russian company recently reported that analyzing the main patterns and trends related to the thefts has helped them to understand the mentality of hackers and to help tackle cryptocurrency thefts, helping users to avoid dodgy and fake exchanges, ICOs and wallets.

Kaspersky went on to detail how cybercriminals have been finding loopholes to exploit the hype in the marketplace and have mainly targeted inexperienced users and novice traders. As part of the prevention, Kaspersky talked about how they tracked over 1,000 ethereum wallets where users were conned out of over 21,000 ether. That total equated to approximately USD 10 million, which is a massive number. You also have to take into consideration that this figure does not include funds that were stolen by cybercriminals directly from the online wallets of victims.

Protecting crypto users online
One of the primary targets for cybercriminals and hackers are Initial Coin Offering (ICO) investors. Kaspersky has pointed out that it is relatively easy for hackers to obtain personal data such as email addresses of the potential investors in certain projects. The cryptocurrency thefts are in the main part very focused from criminals who know how to target the weaknesses of systems.

Once the cybercriminals have the personal info they need, they use fake letters from a ‘startup team’ in the pre-ICO launch phase of the program. The letters are used to talk investors into moving their digital funds to the wallet addresses of the criminals, which is basically another arm of phishing.

Another avenue utilized by fraudsters is to create fake ICOs and projects through social media platforms, through email campaigns and even on search engines such as Google. Some of the frauds in this modern age know no bounds. A recent report from Kaspersky Lab noted that fraudulent schemes are based on the old tried and tested methods of social engineering. They are created to exploit human nature and to take advantage of the ‘human factor’.

As Kaspersky Lab continues to move forward in its quest to eradicate cryptocurrency thefts, it is important that we, as crypto users, use a modicum of common sense and to not put ourselves in the position to be exploited or conned.
          Hatching Honu the CryptoKitty      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

              Honu the CryptoKitty was hatched this Monday morning when the CryptoKitty Charity Auction went live. This adorable and unique art object that will live forever on the Ethereum blockchain is up for sale, and on Sunday the 15th at midnight, she will be released into the wild and have […]

The post Hatching Honu the CryptoKitty appeared first on Arnold Waldstein.


           - Dezentralisierte Börsen: Große Unterschiede bei Effizienz und Kosten      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Nach dem CryptoKitties-Chaos vom vergangenen Jahr ist das Ethereum-Netzwerk wieder einmal verstopft. Aktuell rangiert der Gas-Preis zwischen 50 und 100 Gwei. Recherchen ergaben, dass die Überlastung vermutlich mit der Werbestrategie einer chinesischen Börse zusammenhängt.
          Obchodujeme kryptoměny: ETH/USD (Ethereum) - technická analýza 11.7.2018      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Cena Etherea by se na 4hodinovém grafu v rámci korekce po předchozím propadu mohla vrátit zpět k vyšším úrovním. To signalizuje také indikátor Stochatic, který se nachází v přeprodané oblasti. Pokud věříte v růst k vyšším hodnotám, můžete cílovat na některou z úrovní Fibonacciho expanze.
          Opera test Ethereum-walletfunctie in mobiele Android-browser      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Opera heeft een bètaversie van zijn mobiele Android-browser uitgebracht die een ingebouwde wallet voor cryptovaluta bevat. Daarnaast is er ondersteuning voor DApps op basis van Ethereum en de web3-api.
          Ethereum VS Bitcoin: The 1 Ethereum to USD Chart Telling You Who is the Winner      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Bitcoin and Ethereum are the first and second crypto currency in market capitalization respectively: on July 11, 2018, the BTC market cap is approximately $108.5 billion, while ETH was $437.6 billion. The goal of Bitcoin is to become a digital currency, while Ethereum wants to be a decentralized supercomputer.   So strictly speaking, Ethereum and Bitcoin are two […]

The post Ethereum VS Bitcoin: The 1 Ethereum to USD Chart Telling You Who is the Winner appeared first on LiteracyBase.


          sarah wrote a new post, Ethereum VS Bitcoin: The 1 Ethereum to USD Chart Telling You Who is the Winner      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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          PayPal informa a una usuaria fallecida de que su muerte incumple sus condiciones y podría tomar medidas legales      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Paypal 3460582 1280

Apenas tres semanas después del fallecimiento de Lindsay Durdle, una carta dirigida a ella y remitida por PayPal llegó a su domicilio. "Está incumpliendo la condición 15.4 (c) de su acuerdo con PayPal Credit ya que hemos recibido el aviso de que ha fallecido. [...] Tenemos derecho a cerrar su cuenta, rescindir su contrato y exigir el reembolso del importe total pendiente", decía la misiva.

Howard Durdle, su marido, había notificando a PayPal la pérdida de su esposa poco tiempo antes. Les envió el certificado de defunción, su testamento y su identificación, lo que habían pedido. Por eso, y por lo "insensible" de la misiva según él, no podía dar crédito cuando la leyó.

El asunto ha salido a la luz después de que Durdle contactase con la BBC desolado por un texto que ahora ha difundido en Twitter y Facebook para llamar la atención sobre esta forma de proceder. Quiere que otras compañías se den cuenta de cómo de molestos son los mensajes automáticos que se pueden recibir en medio de una experiencia dolorosa.

PayPal se ha disculpado y está investigando lo ocurrido

PayPal ha reaccionado rápidamente pidiendo disculpas al viudo y transmitiéndole que están tratando el "error", así lo califican, como una prioridad cancelando mientras tanto la deuda que su esposa tenía con la compañía.

Pedimos disculpas sin reservas al señor Durdle por la angustia comprensible que esta carta ha causado. Tan pronto como nos dimos cuenta de este error, nos pusimos en contacto con el señor Durdle directamente para ofrecer nuestro apoyo, cancelamos la deuda pendiente y cerramos la cuenta de su esposa como él solicitó. Estamos revisando urgentemente nuestros procesos internos para garantizar que esto no vuelva a ocurrir.

Según Howard Durdle, un miembro del personal de PayPal le explicó que dicho error puede tener tres posibles explicaciones: la primera es que se trate de un error informático, la segunda que tenga que ver con el uso de una plantilla incorrecta y la tercera es que el asunto derive de un error humano. En cualquier caso, le informaron que fuese cual fuese la causa se solucionaría, aunque desde PayPal no la comentarían al tratarse de un asunto interno.

Durdle ha explicado que gracias a que está en una "situación razonable" en estos momentos es "bastante capaz de lidiar con un proceso de papeleo como este". Sin embargo, asegura que si ha intentado hacer algo de ruido con su caso es para asegurarse de "que PayPal o cualquier otra organización que pueda hacer algo así de insensible, reconozca el daño que pueden causar a una persona que está en un proceso de luto reciente". Según explica, ha visto de primera mano "cómo una carta así puede derrumbar a alguien por completo".

En Genbeta | Estas son los cientos de compañías con las que PayPal comparte tus datos

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La noticia PayPal informa a una usuaria fallecida de que su muerte incumple sus condiciones y podría tomar medidas legales fue publicada originalmente en Genbeta por Toni Castillo .


          HTC Exodus, smartphone-ul cu portofel electronic încorporat, soseşte la toamnă (Telefoane mobile)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Venit cam târziu la „petrecerea” entuziaştilor de cripto-monede, HTC va lansa un smartphone care integrează un „portofel” pentru monede virtuale, bazat pe tehnologia blockchain.

Descris drept primul smartphone echipat cu un „portofel la rece” pentru păstrarea de monede virtuale şi cheie electronică de recuperare, HTC Exodus ar putea fi un accesoriu extrem de „preţios” în buzunarul celora care fac tranzacţii cu bitcoin, ethereum, sau alte monende vitruale.

În afara unor descrieri vagi, lăsate în pagina de produs creată pe site-ul HTC, nu există prea multe informaţii despre noul gadget. Însă fiind vorba de un produs care integrează tehnologia blockchain, putem fi siguri că acesta va avea câteva funcţii exclusive, facilitând păstrarea în formă criptată a portofelelor electronice de monede virtuale.

Trebuie spus că prin modul de funcţionare al tehnologiei, un portofel pentru monede virtuale nu poate fi pierdut sau furat în sensul tradiţional. Protejat cu parolă şi cheie de criptare, acesta este inutil în mâinile unui hoţ de telefoane mobile, dacă parola de acces nu este dezvăluită separat. În plus, atât timp cât există o copie de siguranţă, sau este folosită una dintre modalităţile alternative de recuperare, „banii” virtuali nu sunt cu adevărat pierduţi. Cel mai adesea, furturile de cripto-monede să produc online, atunci când participanţii validează tranzacţia furnizând simultan parola şi cheia criptografică a portofelului electronic, sau, dacă fondurile sunt sustrase din portofelul exchange-urilor de monede virtuale.

Uşor de intuit, hard disk-ul unui PC nu este cea mai sigură locaţie pentru păstrarea unui portofel de monede virtuale, un hacker sau malware special conceput putând sustrage rapid fişierul extrem de valoros. Tot cu o aplicaţie malware, sau atac de tip phishing, poate fi obţinută şi parola de acces, chiar în timp ce este tastată de utilizator. Funcţionând ca şi portofel „offline”,  HTC Exodus se comportă asemenea unui card bancar, păstrând în siguranţă fondurile deţinute, măcar până la momentul validării următoarei tranzacţii.

 

(...)

Cuvinte cheie: htc

Subiecte asemănătoare:
» HTC înregistrează cea mai mare scădere a încasărilor din ultimii doi ani
» HTC renunţă la 1.500 de angajaţi în urma performanţelor financiare slabe
» Testat pentru durabilitate, vârful de gamă HTC U12+ relevă o posibilă greşeală de proiectare
» HTC U12+ review: un flagship atipic pentru 2018
» HTC U12+, noul smartphone vârf de gamă al HTC, a fost prezentat oficial

Articol original - HTC Exodus, smartphone-ul cu portofel electronic încorporat, soseşte la toamnă, de pe site-ul go4it.ro


          amazon ethereum       Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
amazon ethereum

          Opera lanza un navegador que integra su propia cartera de criptomonedas      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Crypto Wallet Product Screenshots 1024x576

Opera acaba de anunciar una nueva versión de su navegador para Android que combina las funciones de una cartera de criptomonedas con soporte para las aplicaciones descentralizadas de Ethereum. Opera with Crypto Wallet se encuentra actualmente en beta privada y si quieres probarla debes solicitar una invitación ingresando tu email en la página que abrieron para ello.

Para la gente de Opera este paso es importante para "renovar y extender el rol del navegador como una herramienta para acceder a la información, hacer transacciones online y gestionar la identidad de los usuarios de una forma que les ofrezca más control".

Si te preguntas cómo es que eso funciona, pues la cuestión es que Opera Crypto soporta la API de Ethereum Web3, una colección de librerías que permiten a los desarrolladores interacturar con nodos locales o remotos de Ethereum, es decir los ordenadores que participan en la red Ethereum.

Gracias a ello, esta versión de Opera soporta tokens y también coleccionables como los famosos CryptoKitties. La diferencia es que Opera busca ofrecer una alternativa más amigable para el usuario a las carteras de criptomonedas tradicionales.

Enviar y recibir criptomonedas con Opera es tan simple como tocar un botón para generar códigos QR, y gracias a la integración con Coinbase, el usuario puede pagar en tiendas que acepten las monedas directamente desde su cartera en Opera.

La motivación detrás de esto no puede ser un secreto para nadie, la misma gente de Opera admite que tiene que ver con la enorme actividad e interés que han generado las criptomonedas en los últimos dos años especialmente. Pero más allá de eso, el interés de los desarrolladores en apps que se apoyen en redes descentralizadas y las barreras a las que se enfrentan. Opera quiere ayudar a facilitar la adopción de estas tecnologías, habrá que ver ahora si otros navegadores importantes le siguen los pasos.

En Genbeta | Si usas Chrome y quieres cambiar de navegador, Opera es quizás tu mejor opción

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La noticia Opera lanza un navegador que integra su propia cartera de criptomonedas fue publicada originalmente en Genbeta por Gabriela González .


          HTC’nin en özel akıllı telefon modeli “Exodus” için yeni bilgiler      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

HTC ExodusEn son karşımıza amiral gemisi U12+ ile çıkan HTC, biliyorsunuz Exodus kod isimli bir blok zinciri odaklı telefon geliştiriyor. Çıkış tarihi dahil model hakkında yeni bilgiler var. Yeni bilgilerden önce HTC Exodus‘u yeniden hatırlamakta fayda var. Geçtiğimiz aylarda resmi olarak geleceği müjdelenen model, blok zinciri altyapısı üzerine kuruluyor. Bilmeyenler için blok zinciri içerisindeki kayıtların birbirine kriptografik elementlerle bağlı olduğu sürekli büyüyen dağınık bir veritabanı olarak geçiyor. Bu yapıda veriler tek bir merkezde tutulmuyor ve bu da çok ciddi bir güvenlik artışı anlamına geliyor. Günümüzde sık sık yaşanan saldırılara karşı büyük önem arz eden bu altyapı, bitcoin‘in de arkasında bulunuyor. İşte bu doğrultuda geliştirilen modelde evrensel kripto para cüzdanının, kripto paralara destek veren donanım yapısının ve merkezi olmayan uygulamaların yer alacağı söyleniyor. Satışa çıkan Exodus telefonlar arasında blok zinciri oluşturulabileceği de söylenirken, “bitcoin, Lightning Networks, ethereum, dfinity” gibi destekleri de kullanıcılara verilecek deniyor. HTC Exodus’un gelmesi biraz daha sürecek Yapılan yeni açıklamaya göre model sonbahar aylarında resmi olarak satışa […]

The post HTC’nin en özel akıllı telefon modeli “Exodus” için yeni bilgiler appeared first on Teknoloji haberleri - LOG.


          Ethereum: Building Blockchain Decentralized Apps (DApps)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
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Ethereum: Building Blockchain Decentralized Apps (DApps)
MP4 | Video: 720p | Duration: 1:45:01 | English | Subtitles: VTT | 308.6 MB


          Ethereum Building Blockchain Decentralized Apps (DApps)      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Ethereum Building Blockchain Decentralized Apps (DApps)#source%3Dgooglier%2Ecom#https%3A%2F%2Fgooglier%2Ecom%2Fpage%2F%2F10000

Ethereum: Building Blockchain Decentralized Apps (DApps)
MP4 | Video: 720p | Duration: 1:45:01 | English | Subtitles: VTT | 308.6 MB




          Ledger Nano S. Мультивалютный аппаратный кошелек для криптовалюты      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Ledger Nano S - новый, в заводской упаковке, запечатан. Оригинал. Страна производства - Франция Отправка и оплата. Отправка в день заказа. Возможна оплата при получении, наложенным платежом в отделении Новой Почты. Ledger Nano S - мультивалютный кошелек для холодного хранения криптовалюты. На сегодняшний день это одно из самых надежных и самых популярных устройств для хранения криптовалюты. Поддерживается большое количество криптовалют. Это аппаратный кошелек для холодного хранения криптовалюты и обеспечения безопасности электронных платежей Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, ZCash, Dash, Ripple и прочих альткоинов. Ledger Nano хранит данные о криптовалюте в самом устройстве. Для входа требуется кодовое слово и если даже Вы потеряли его, то купив новый Ledger Nano, Вы по этому кодовому слову всегда сможете восстановить доступ к своей криптовалюте. Он подключается к любому компьютеру (USB) и включает безопасный OLED-дисплей для двойной проверки и подтверждения каждой транзакции одним нажатием на боковые кнопки. Преимущества: • Мультивалютность : Ledger Nano S поддерживает Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum, Ripple, ZCash и др. альткоины: держите разные активы в одном аппаратном кошельке. • Дисплей : Проверяйте и подтверждайте транзакции на дисплее, подтверждение выполняется с помощью кнопок. • Безопасность : Ваши конфиденциальные данные никогда не раскроются: надежное хранение обеспечивается в том числе PIN-кодом. • Резервное копирование : Восстанавливайте свои счета на любом устройстве Ledger или на совместимых аппаратных кошельках. Самое безопасное хранение вашей криптовалюты. Аппаратный кошелек — это оригинальная идея для стильного подарка. Комплектация: • Ledger Nano S-кошелёк; • USB кабель; • инструкция; • лист восстановления; • аксессуары. СОВМЕСТИМОСТЬ Windows (7+) , Mac (10. 8+) , Linux или Chrome OS. Требуется Google Chrome или Chromium, и один USB порт для подключения устройства Ledger Nano S. Разъем: USB тип Micro-B. Уровень сертификации: CC EAL5+. Чипы: ST31H320 (защищенный) + STM32F042. МАТЕРИАЛЫ. Матовая нержавеющая сталь и пластик. ГАБАРИТЫ И ВЕС. Габариты: 98 мм x 18 мм x 9 мм. Вес: 16, 2 г ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНЫЕ УСЛУГИ. Также предоставляем услуги по настройке кошелька и покупке/загрузке криптовалюты на кошелек. Наш аналитический отдел проконсультирует (консультация бесплатна) , куда и когда выгоднее вкладываться, а компетентные менеджеры скурируют все сделки для Вашего спокойствия за безопасность. ДОПОЛНИТЕЛЬНАЯ УСЛУГА. Также есть тлг-канал, в котором мы публикуем свежайшую аналитику КриптоРынка, что гарантировано поможет Вам в подборе криптовалюты для себя: t. me/CryptoFreshKha.
          New promising project!      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Contractium is a decentralized software that runs smart contracts based on Ethereum, which run exactly as programmed without any possibility of downtime, censorship, fraud or third party inteference.
This enables businesses and commercial users to create markets, store registries of debts or promises, move funds in accordance with instructions given long in the past (like a will or a futures contract) and many other things that have not been invented yet, all without a middle man or counterparty risk.
This project will be bootstrapped via an CTU token presale in March 2018 by contributors all around the world.
It is being developed on Ethereum Platform. Registration: https://contractium.io/register/15635


          Come il cybercrimine ricava milioni di dollari dalle truffe sulle criptovalute      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Secondo Kaspersky Lab il nuovo trend delle frodi perpetrate dal cybercrimine riguarda le criptovalute. Nel corso della prima metà del 2018 i prodotti Kaspersky Lab hanno bloccato oltre centomila trigger correlati a criptovalute su false piattaforme di scambio e altre fonti.

Prendendo ispirazione dagli investimenti in ICO (Initial Coin Offering) e dalla distribuzione gratis di criptomonete, i cybercriminali sono stati in grado di trarre profitto sia da chi possiede un portafoglio in moneta elettronica, sia da chi è solo alle prime armi in questo campo.

Tra gli obiettivi ci sono appunto gli investitori in ICO. Per loro i cybercriminali creano siti web fasulli che riproducono in modo fedele le pagine online di progetti ICO ufficiali, o cercano di ottenere l’accesso ai loro contatti, così da inviare una email di phishing con il numero di un portafoglio digitale per investitori al quale inviare criptomoneta.

Gli attacchi di maggior successo utilizzano progetti ICO noti. Ad esempio, sfruttando l’ICO di Switcheo e utilizzando una proposta per la distribuzione gratis di moneta, i criminali hanno rubato più di 25.000 dollari in criptovalute dopo aver diffuso il link attraverso un falso account Twitter.

Altro esempio può essere quello della creazione di siti di phishing per il progetto ICO OmiseGo, che ha permesso ai truffatori di guadagnare criptovaluta per un valore di oltre 1,1 milioni di dollari.

Hanno poi suscitato grande interesse nei cybercriminali le voci intorno alla ICO di Telegram, che ha portato alla creazione di centinaia di siti fake che stavano raccogliendo “investimenti”.

Un’altra tendenza molto in voga riguarda le truffe di criptovalute in regalo.

Il metodo scelto prevede che le vittime inviino una piccola quantità di moneta elettronica, alla quale seguirà, in cambio, un pagamento molto più grande della stessa valuta, ma in futuro.

I criminali hanno utilizzato gli account sui social media di personaggi come il magnate Elon Musk o il fondatore del servizio di messaggistica istantanea Telegram, Pavel Durov.

Creando falsi account o rispondendo ai tweet di utenti legittimi tramite account fake, i criminali sono in grado di confondere gli utenti di Twitter, facendoli cadere nella loro trappola e cliccando sulle risposte da account fraudolenti.

Secondo alcune stime di massima fatte da Kaspersky Lab, i cybercriminali sono riusciti a guadagnare più di 21.000 ETH (la criptovaluta di Ether, che utilizza blockchain generata dalla piattaforma Ethereum), pari a circa 10 milioni di dollari, secondo il tasso di cambio corrente, utilizzando proprio i modelli sopra descritti e solo nel corso dell’ultimo anno.

Questa somma non prende in considerazione neanche gli attacchi di phishing classico o alcuni esempi che riguardano la creazione di singoli indirizzi per ogni vittima.

Cinque regole per proteggersi

Per proteggere il proprio capitale in criptovaluta, i ricercatori di Kaspersky Lab consigliano le segiuenti regole:

Non esistono “pranzi gratuiti” e le offerte che sembrano troppo allettanti per essere reali vanno trattate con il dovuto scetticismo.

Controllare sempre le fonti ufficiali per avere informazioni sulla distribuzione gratuita di criptovalute.

Verificare se il portafoglio digitale verso il quale si sta pianificando di trasferire i risparmi è collegato a terze parti. Un modo per farlo è quello di consultare siti che si occupano di blockchain, come etherscan.io e blockchain.info, che permettono agli utenti di prendere visione di informazioni dettagliate su qualunque tipo di transazione in criptomoneta e di capire se un portafoglio possa essere pericoloso o meno.

Controllare sempre gli indirizzi e i dati del collegamento ipertestuale nella barra degli indirizzi del browser: dovrebbe essere, ad esempio, “blockchain.info” e non “blackchaen.info”.

Salvare l’indirizzo del vostro e-wallet in una scheda a parte e fare sempre l’accesso da lì, così da evitare di commettere errori di battitura nella barra degli indirizzi e di accedere, invece, al sito di phishing.

L'articolo Come il cybercrimine ricava milioni di dollari dalle truffe sulle criptovalute è un contenuto originale di 01net.


          $3 Million Fund to Create 25 Marketplaces for Kik Messenger’s Token – CoinDesk      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

myBTCcoin

myBTCcoin 11:26 AM People might just pay money for digital stickers and photos, if it were easier that is. It’s a contrarian view, but it’s the central idea behind one of last year’s largest initial coin offerings (ICOs), which raised $98 million selling ethereum-based tokens created specifically for the messaging app company Kik. To jumpstart a digital […]

myBTCcoin - Bitcoin & Litecoin Mining Pool


          CryptoKitties to Debut Mobile App on HTC’s Flagship Phone – CoinDesk      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

myBTCcoin

myBTCcoin 7:25 AM CryptoKitties, the virtual cat breeding game that became so popular it clogged the ethereum network, is to roll out a version for mobile devices through a partnership with Taiwanese phone maker HTC. CryptoKitties announced the partnership in a release on Tuesday, indicating that the mobile app will first be available on HTC’s flagship […]

myBTCcoin - Bitcoin & Litecoin Mining Pool


          Opera Is Testing a Mobile Browser With a Built-In Crypto Wallet – CoinDesk      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

myBTCcoin

myBTCcoin 3:25 AM In a first for the company, Opera is launching new browser software that has a built-in cryptocurrency wallet. The browser maker said Wednesday that its “new version of the Opera browser for Android… combines easy-to-use crypto wallet functionality with support for the Ethereum Web3 API.” The browser is currently in private beta, […]

myBTCcoin - Bitcoin & Litecoin Mining Pool


          Ethereum’s Joe Lubin: ‘We’re Moving Towards a World of Decentralized Governance’      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Leading crypto industry figures weighed in on the major implications of cryptocurrencies for – and beyond – the global economy, at the Rise conference in Hong Kong Wednesday, July 11. The panel’s participants were the Ethereum Foundation’s co-founder Joseph Lubin, CEO of crypto merchant bank Galaxy Digital Mike Novgoratz, Crypto.com CEO Kris Marszalek, Tenx’s Julian […]

Post source: Ethereum’s Joe Lubin: ‘We’re Moving Towards a World of Decentralized Governance’

More Bitcoin News and Cryptocurrency News on TheBitcoinNews.com


          EOS Progress Put Ethereum (ETH) in Trouble      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
A Blue Ocean For TRON (TRX)

The crypto technology continues to develop, and with each passing day, we see new improvements in the younger cryptos. Despite the fact that Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum (ETH) are still dominating the market, Ethereum, at least, might soon be replaced by none other than EOS itself. Will EOS knock down Ethereum? Ever since Bitcoin first […]

Post source: EOS Progress Put Ethereum (ETH) in Trouble

More Bitcoin News and Cryptocurrency News on TheBitcoinNews.com


          Price Analysis for Ethereum and EOS: What Does the Future HODL?      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
A Blue Ocean For TRON (TRX)

The current rankings for Ethereum and EOS are 2nd and 5th according to CoinMarketCap. Ethereum individual price is suffering a 6.67% low and currently being exchanged at $437 approximately whereas EOS is stuck at 8.85% low being traded at $6.95 at the time of writing. Global crypto markets have been going through a hard time […]

Post source: Price Analysis for Ethereum and EOS: What Does the Future HODL?

More Bitcoin News and Cryptocurrency News on TheBitcoinNews.com


          U.S. Judge Throws Out ‘Meritless’ Lawsuit Against Ethereum Game CryptoKitties      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

A U.S. judge has thrown out a lawsuit that alleged that CryptoKitties creator Axiom Zen had stolen trade secrets and violated a confidentiality agreement in connection with a recent promotion that featured celebrity-based CryptoKitties. According to an...

The post U.S. Judge Throws Out ‘Meritless’ Lawsuit Against Ethereum Game CryptoKitties appeared first on Blockchain ICO News Bitcoin-Altcoin.


          Ethereum-Based Strategy Game ‘Cryptogirl’ Launches in Open Beta      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

This is a paid-for submitted press release. CCN does not endorse, nor is responsible for any material included below and isn’t responsible for any damages or losses connected with any products or services mentioned in the press release. CCN urges reade...

The post Ethereum-Based Strategy Game ‘Cryptogirl’ Launches in Open Beta appeared first on Blockchain ICO News Bitcoin-Altcoin.


          Hackean hola vpn y roban criptomonedas de un popular monedero      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Criptomonedas



Almacenar criptomonedas es uno de los mayores problemas de seguridad a los que se enfrentan sus usuarios. Almacenarlo en los portales de intercambio no es del todo seguro, recomendándose usar monederos. Sin embargo, MyEtherWallet, uno de los más utilizados y más seguros, ha sufrido un grave fallo de seguridad por segunda vez este año a través de Hola VPN, que fue hackeado durante 5 horas.

Hackean MyEtherWallet a través de Hola VPN



Este monedero, al igual que otros, se utiliza para enviar y recibir tokens entre usuarios. Sin embargo, los usuarios de Hola (un VPN gratuito con más de 50 millones de usuarios) que lo utilizasen podían estar afectados por un ataque en el que se les han robado criptomonedas. El resto de usuarios de MyEtherWallet no estarían afectados.



https://www.adslzone.net/app/uploads/2018/07/hola-vpn-myethereumwallet.jpg

hola vpn myethereumwallet



Durante las 5 horas que duró el hackeo, los usuarios de Hola VPN que accediesen a su monedero pueden haber perdido todas sus criptomonedas o el control de su monedero. Desde MyEtherWallet recomiendan enviarlas todas a un nuevo monedero, suponiendo que todavía tengan control sobre él.



Usar un VPN gratis entraña sus riesgos, y entre los gratuitos que recomendamos a principios de año no se encuentra Hola. Por ello, siempre que sea posible y vayamos a trabajar con datos sensibles, es mejor optar por uno de pago.





Si has usado Hola VPN en las últimas 48 horas, cambia tus contraseñas y cambia de monedero



MyEtherWallet ha alertado sobre esto a los usuarios a través de un tweet, donde al parecer el culpable ha sido la extensión de Hola para Chrome. Lo que no se sabe es si también hay otros monederos u otros servicios afectados al respecto, pero no sería raro que los atacantes también estuvieran afectados otros servicios. Si habéis usado Hola VPN en las últimas 24-48 horas, os recomendamos que cambiéis vuestras contraseñas.



Todavía no se sabe cuántos usuarios hay afectados, pero en un ataque de DNS que tuvo lugar el pasado mes de febrero, fueron robados 365.000 dólares en criptomonedas de MyEtherWallet. Este monedero, junto a MyCrypto e Imtoken, son uno de los más populares.



Las criptomonedas tienen algunas ventajas frente al dinero tradicional, pero también tienen sus inconvenientes como hemos visto en este caso. Si existe cualquier problema de seguridad o sufres un robo, es imposible reclamar la devolución de la cantidad una vez ha salido de tu cartera, ya que las transacciones no se pueden revertir.





Ver información original al respecto en Fuente:

https://www.adslzone.net/2018/07/10/hola-vpn-hackeo-myetherwallet/
          Help me build a new blockchain      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hello everyone. I want to make my own coin and my own blockchain. I'd love to hear your ideas and suggestions. IF you're well experienced, I will hire you. we will talk about the prices in private. I need someone remotely working and helping me understand more and more... (Budget: $10 - $30 USD, Jobs: Bitcoin, Blockchain, Ethereum, Golang, node.js)
          Help me build a new blockchain      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hello everyone. I want to make my own coin and my own blockchain. I'd love to hear your ideas and suggestions. IF you're well experienced, I will hire you. we will talk about the prices in private. I need someone remotely working and helping me understand more and more... (Budget: $10 - $30 USD, Jobs: Bitcoin, Blockchain, Ethereum, Golang, node.js)
          Help me build a new blockchain      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Hello everyone. I want to make my own coin and my own blockchain. I'd love to hear your ideas and suggestions. IF you're well experienced, I will hire you. we will talk about the prices in private. I need someone remotely working and helping me understand more and more... (Budget: $10 - $30 USD, Jobs: Bitcoin, Blockchain, Ethereum, Golang, node.js)
          CryptoKitties finally finds a real use-case in charity auction for sea turtles      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

CryptoKitties, the cutesy blockchain game where you can collect, customize, breed, and inevitably pimp out virtual cats is still apparently still a thing. Once so popular that it brought Ethereum to its very knees, dwindling interest has spurred them to adopt a more holistic way to get people to spend money on seemingly worthless vanity tokens. This is “Honu,” the super special-edition CryptoKitty whose name means “turtle” in Hawaiian. He (or she) is certified to exist immutably on the Ethereum blockchain and is so frigging handsome, he’s hand-and-then-some. Ownership of Honu is up for sale, and recent partnerships formed between…

This story continues at The Next Web

          HTC Exodus, Sirin Finney… : peut-on croire au smartphone blockchain ?      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

La startup israélienne Sirin Labs souhaite financer un « smartphone blockchain ». Derrière ce projet pas forcément viable, se cache l'enjeu de l'adoption grand public de l'écosystème d'applications qui émerge autour d'Ethereum et d'autres crypto-monnaies. Le 16 mai 2018, HTC a également annoncé un smartphone « blockchain ». [Lire la suite]
          «М.Видео» подключил новых участников к российскому коммерческому блокчейн-консорциуму      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Открытая блокчейн-платформа на базе Ethereum для факторинговых операций с поставщиками
          Opera tests an in-browser cryptocurrency wallet on Android      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Opera is embracing the cryptocurrency movement by testing an Ethereum wallet in its Android mobile browser. It makes Opera the first major browser to add a built-in crypto wallet. You can import an existing wallet or create a new one, and it allows y...
          Opera tests an in-browser cryptocurrency wallet on Android      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Opera is embracing the cryptocurrency movement by testing an Ethereum wallet in its Android mobile browser. It makes Opera the first major browser to add a built-in crypto wallet. You can import an existing wallet or create a new one, and it a...
          Silicon Valley's hottest VCs just gave this college dropout millions to build a blockchain company called 'Dirt'      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Yin Wu Dirt Protocol

  • Blockchain startup Dirt Protocol just got $3 million from investors including General Catalyst, Greylock, Lightspeed, and Coinbase co-founder Fred Ehrsam.
  • Dirt Protocol's goal is to incentivize truth through a token-based voting system.
  • The company's founder, Yin Wu, describes it as a blockchain-based Wikipedia.

When Yin Wu, 29, began brainstorming names for her blockchain company, Dirt Protocol, she took the opposite approach of most founders. 

"There's a lot of companies in the blockchain industry that have big, lofty sounding names," said Wu. "We wanted to do the opposite."

While "dirt" might conjure to mind a project of unassuming origins, for Wu, it clearly conveys the company's fundamental purpose. 

"Dirt comes from the ground, right?" she said."It's foundational. You need dirt to grow."

Dirt Protocol has vast ambitions for its application of decentralized technology -- both business-wise and philosophically.

Its primary goal? Incentivizing truth. 

To do so, Dirt Protocol has received $3 million from blue chip tech investors including General Catalyst, Greylock, Lightspeed, and Coinbase co-founder Fred Ehrsam.

Spreading false information would become "economically irrational"

The blockchain has been used to tokenize any number of assets, both tangible and otherwise. But what if you could tokenize knowledge in a way that benefited the most trustworthy information?

hacker"Think of Dirt as a set of rules that make it economically irrational to spread false information," said Wu. "With Dirt, if you want to spread a piece of information, you'd need to stake a token."

Wu, a Stanford dropout, offers up her college education as an example:

"For instance, I could say that I'm willing to put down 10 Dirt tokens on the claim that I graduated from Stanford," said Wu. "But it's not true, so someone could easily say, 'I'm going to put down 10 tokens to challenge that information.'"

The challenge would then go to a vote, with participants each putting a token down on the claim they believe to be most trustworthy. 

"In a vote, anyone can put down tokens on either my claim or [my contender's]," said Wu.

Lose the popular vote and you lose your tokens. Vote poorly on a claim, and you'll be meted a small penalty for picking the losing choice, as well. If you offer up the winning information, or vote on the majority's pick, you earn a portion of the token winnings.

Wu describes the winnings as as "an information bounty" that's set up to reward accurate information.

"As a network, there's an incentive to be honest because the value of our tokens will only stay up if people are using them in good faith," she said.

Dirt's first goal is to restore credibility to the blockchain industry using its voting system

Dirt's first goal is to apply its voting system to claims within the blockchain industry itself, where scam and misrepresentation are endemic. If there's a way to verify a blockchain project's claim, like the integrity of a company's forthcoming initial coin offering, Wu suggests it might restore the community's credibility.

From there, the applications are seemingly limitless. Wu suggests that Dirt's voting system could one day be applied to platforms like Facebook or Google, where commenters could back their claims with digital assets. 

But what about people with large followings who could potentially rig the system in their favor?

Wu says that this is a hurdle that Dirt will have to cross in the future. 

It's possible, Wu said, that people with large followings could break a vote because they have more resources, but she was quick to point out that this is an issue that plagues other platforms as well. 

"If someone has a large Twitter following, they can still spread whatever information they want, right?" She said. 

If someone is spreading misinformation, however, Wu said that Dirt would potentially rank their vote as less credible. 

But for now, Dirt's primary concern is with information that has commercial value. The data collected by Dirt would be stored on the ethereum blockchain, where it wouldn't belong to any corporation or company.  

To anyone doubting Dirt's ambitions for the digital-asset backed information, Wu points out Wikipedia as a prime example of a crowd-sourced truth-based project that worked. 

"We're creating Wikipedia, but with  machine-readable data sets that belong in the public domain, and don’t belong to a single party," Wu said.

SEE ALSO: The cruel truth about how much money two founders will likely get after selling their startup for $465 million reveals the catch-22 of raising too much money

Join the conversation about this story »

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          Coinbase Founder Backs Blockchain Startup’s $3 Million Seed Round – CoinDesk      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

myBTCcoin

myBTCcoin 1:27 PM A startup that is developing a protocol based on the ethereum blockchain to allow users to validate information across different datasets has raised $3 million in seed funding. Called DIRT, the San Francisco-based company said Wednesday that notable investment firms taking part in the round include Digital Currency Group, Pantera Capital, China-based Zhenfund […]

myBTCcoin - Bitcoin & Litecoin Mining Pool


          Top Three Enterprise Blockchain Platforms For Rapid Prototyping      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Today, we’ll be taking a thorough look at the top three platforms for blockchain development, specifically Ethereum, Hyperledger Fabric, and R3 Corda. Bitcoin is not on the list. In fact, it doesn’t even make it to the list of top 10 blockchain development frameworks when it’s about developing for the enterprise application of Blockchain.

Top Three Blockchain Development Frameworks

Ethereum

Ethereum is a blockchain development platform that enables blockchain developers to write and distribute next-generation, decentralized applications. -Vitalik Buterin, Co-Founder, Ethereum

Ethereum is one the most suitable blockchain platforms available at present. It’s being widely used across multiple industry use-cases because of its robust smart contracting functionality and flexibility. As a matter of fact, it currently has the most number of use-cases available. Along with Hyperledger Fabric, Ethereum is developing a large digital support community as well as delivering frequent product updates and improvements.


          Bitselect - bitselect.biz      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Я не админ.

Старт: 18.05.2018

Описание:

В мире финансов и инвестиций криптовалютность открывает новую эру возможностей.bitselect ltd. собрала целую группу профессионалов в области инвестиций, торговли и криптовалюты, чтобы предложить вам уникальный сервис, который обеспечивает стабильный рост и высокую рентабельность. Мы можем добиться этого благодаря формированию диверсифицированного и децентрализованного инвестиционного пула. Благодаря такому подходу мы можем минимизировать риски и своевременно реагировать на изменения в валютном и криптовалютном секторах, делая корректировки на месте в нашем инвестиционном портфеле.

Основываясь на опыте наших экспертов, поддерживаемом новейшим передовым программным обеспечением и точными математическими расчетами, нам удалось создать лучшее инвестиционное предложение в крипто-currencysector. Мы контролируем ситуацию на рынке 24/7, поэтому мы всегда держим пальцы от пульса событий и генерируем доход для наших инвесторов независимо от обстоятельств

Инвестиционные планы:

План 1,5% в день на 15 дней
Минимальный вклад: $20
Максимальный вклад: $10,000

План 2% в день на 20 дней
Минимальный вклад: $100
Максимальный вклад: $25,000

План 2,5% в день на 25 дней
Минимальный вклад: $5,000
Максимальный вклад: $30,000

План 3% в день на 45 дней
Минимальный вклад: $25,000
Максимальный вклад: $500,000

План 170% через 15 дней
Минимальный вклад: $2,000
Максимальный вклад: $20,000

План 550% через 25 дней
Минимальный вклад: $4,000
Максимальный вклад: $15,000

План 900% через 30 дней
Минимальный вклад: $8,000
Максимальный вклад: $30,000

План 1800% через 100 дней
Минимальный вклад: $10,000
Максимальный вклад: $50,000

Особенности:

- регистратор домена namecheap.com.
- DDoS защита от cloudflare.com.
- SSL шифрование от Comodo.
- лицензионный скрипт GoldCoders.
- мгновенные выплаты.
- принимает к инвестированию Perfect Money, Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash.
- языковые версии: английская.
- баунти программа с бонусами до $10!

Регистрация: https://bitselect.biz

Вклад:
0.015 BTC
blockchain.com/ru/btc/tx/af46aae1837981cbde1c46b20e6cf2280fc6e1c1066a87415cd27ba41601d29e


          Binance CEO on Buterin’s ‘Burn in Hell’ Comments: ‘There is No Absolute Decentralization’      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

In an interview with TechCrunch last week, Ethereum’s co-founder, Vitalik Buterin, said that he hopes that centralized exchanges go “burn in hell”. Changpeng Zhao, CEO of Binance, though, is not having it. Last week, Vitalik Buterin, who is well-known for his directness, called out centralized cryptocurrency exchanges, saying: I definitely hope centralized exchanges go burn in hell as much as possible. Needless to say, the statement quickly spread across the crypto community like wildfire. Changpeng

The post Binance CEO on Buterin’s ‘Burn in Hell’ Comments: ‘There is No Absolute Decentralization’ appeared first on Bitcoinist.com.


          Silicon Valley's hottest VCs just gave this college dropout millions to build a blockchain company called 'Dirt'      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

Yin Wu Dirt Protocol

  • Blockchain startup Dirt Protocol just got $3 million from investors including General Catalyst, Greylock, Lightspeed, and Coinbase co-founder Fred Ehrsam.
  • Dirt Protocol's goal is to incentivize truth through a token-based voting system.
  • The company's founder, Yin Wu, describes it as a blockchain-based Wikipedia.

When Yin Wu, 29, began brainstorming names for her blockchain company, Dirt Protocol, she took the opposite approach of most founders. 

"There's a lot of companies in the blockchain industry that have big, lofty sounding names," said Wu. "We wanted to do the opposite."

While "dirt" might conjure to mind a project of unassuming origins, for Wu, it clearly conveys the company's fundamental purpose. 

"Dirt comes from the ground, right?" she said."It's foundational. You need dirt to grow."

Dirt Protocol has vast ambitions for its application of decentralized technology -- both business-wise and philosophically.

Its primary goal? Incentivizing truth. 

To do so, Dirt Protocol has received $3 million from blue chip tech investors including General Catalyst, Greylock, Lightspeed, and Coinbase co-founder Fred Ehrsam.

Spreading false information would become "economically irrational"

The blockchain has been used to tokenize any number of assets, both tangible and otherwise. But what if you could tokenize knowledge in a way that benefited the most trustworthy information?

hacker"Think of Dirt as a set of rules that make it economically irrational to spread false information," said Wu. "With Dirt, if you want to spread a piece of information, you'd need to stake a token."

Wu, a Stanford dropout, offers up her college education as an example:

"For instance, I could say that I'm willing to put down 10 Dirt tokens on the claim that I graduated from Stanford," said Wu. "But it's not true, so someone could easily say, 'I'm going to put down 10 tokens to challenge that information.'"

The challenge would then go to a vote, with participants each putting a token down on the claim they believe to be most trustworthy. 

"In a vote, anyone can put down tokens on either my claim or [my contender's]," said Wu.

Lose the popular vote and you lose your tokens. Vote poorly on a claim, and you'll be meted a small penalty for picking the losing choice, as well. If you offer up the winning information, or vote on the majority's pick, you earn a portion of the token winnings.

Wu describes the winnings as as "an information bounty" that's set up to reward accurate information.

"As a network, there's an incentive to be honest because the value of our tokens will only stay up if people are using them in good faith," she said.

Dirt's first goal is to restore credibility to the blockchain industry using its voting system

Dirt's first goal is to apply its voting system to claims within the blockchain industry itself, where scam and misrepresentation are endemic. If there's a way to verify a blockchain project's claim, like the integrity of a company's forthcoming initial coin offering, Wu suggests it might restore the community's credibility.

From there, the applications are seemingly limitless. Wu suggests that Dirt's voting system could one day be applied to platforms like Facebook or Google, where commenters could back their claims with digital assets. 

But what about people with large followings who could potentially rig the system in their favor?

Wu says that this is a hurdle that Dirt will have to cross in the future. 

It's possible, Wu said, that people with large followings could break a vote because they have more resources, but she was quick to point out that this is an issue that plagues other platforms as well. 

"If someone has a large Twitter following, they can still spread whatever information they want, right?" She said. 

If someone is spreading misinformation, however, Wu said that Dirt would potentially rank their vote as less credible. 

But for now, Dirt's primary concern is with information that has commercial value. The data collected by Dirt would be stored on the ethereum blockchain, where it wouldn't belong to any corporation or company.  

To anyone doubting Dirt's ambitions for the digital-asset backed information, Wu points out Wikipedia as a prime example of a crowd-sourced truth-based project that worked. 

"We're creating Wikipedia, but with  machine-readable data sets that belong in the public domain, and don’t belong to a single party," Wu said.

SEE ALSO: The cruel truth about how much money two founders will likely get after selling their startup for $465 million reveals the catch-22 of raising too much money

Join the conversation about this story »

NOW WATCH: A diehard Mac user switches to PC


          Opera announces private beta of browser with cryptocurrency wallet and Dapps support      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

In what seems to be a theme today, Opera has revealed it's launching a private beta for a crypto-integrated version of its browser. This new beta adds a built-in wallet for cryptocurrencies as well as support for Ethereum-based decentralized applications (Dapps, for those in the know).

Opera believes that more people would use cryptocurrencies and Dapps if the platforms using them were more numerous and easier to use. By integrating both into its browser, Opera believes that there's an increased chance for adoption, and it's probably right.

Read More

Opera announces private beta of browser with cryptocurrency wallet and Dapps support was written by the awesome team at Android Police.


          Opera internet tarayıcısına kripto cüzdan geliyor – Video      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Opera internet tarayıcısına kripto cüzdan geliyor – Video

İnternet tarayıcısı Opera, tarayıcısının Android versiyonunun özel beta sürümleri içinde dahili bir kripto cüzdan aracının testlerini gerçekleştiriyor.

Şirketten gelen duyuruya göre, cüzdan ilk olarak ethereum desteğine sahip olacak, daha sonra da diğer kripto para birimleri desteklenecek. Eğer bu özellik hayata geçirilirse, ethereum yatırımcıları Opera’yı kullanarak paralarına daha kolay erişebilecekler.

Devamını okuyun >>


          Coinbase Co-Founder Backs Blockchain Startup's $3 Million Seed Round      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
DIRT, a startup building an ethereum-based blockchain platform for validating information across datasets, has raised $3 million in seed funding.
          Augur Passes CryptoKitties: Ethereum App Sees $400K in First-Day Betting      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
With strong first day volumes, newly launched crypto app Augur has surpassed what may be the most popular decentralized application.
          Israeli crypto-startup Bancor hacked of $13.5 million in digital tokens      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   
Bancor, an Israeli start-up, has been hacked of digital tokens and left poorer by at least $13.5 million.

Bancor confirmed that a part of its network had been compromised, leading to the hack.

Hackers made away with $12.5 million in Ethereum based coins and the remainder in a lesser known crypto-currency named Pundi X. The value of the hack could have been higher had it not been for Bancor's ability to freeze $10 million worth of BNT, its own crypto-currency flavour.

Apparently hackers were able to access a wallet on the platform and inserted a malicious code to steal the coins from Ethereum smart contracts.

Here is a tweet posted by Bancor that confirms the hack:

Who and What is Bancor?

Launched in June 2017, the startup reaped $185 million, of which $153 million were mined within three hours via crowdfunding in the most successful Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs). The startup has been backed by a renowned billionaire investor Tim Draper. Bancor touts itself as being named after a supranational currency conceptualized by economists John Maynard Keynes and E. F. Schumacher. Keynes and Schumacher coined the term for a currency to be used in international trade post the second World War.

Bancor allows users to start their own tokens, and in fact enables selling any digital tokens, thereby referring to itself as a decentralized crypto-trading platform. Many are now questioning the exchange' decentralization characteristics, after this heist.

Charlie Lee, the creator of Litecoin, wrote on his Twitter:

How did the heist take place?

Bancor fell prey to an attack on July 9. And within hours, an official confirmation revealed that "a wallet used to upgrade some smart contracts was compromised." Bancor has assured that the services which were halted initially will resume soon. The platform has also shared that "no user wallets have been compromised in the attack."

Post this hack, the valuations of most volume traded crypto-currencies has slided in the past 24 hours. Bitcoin is down by 3.62% at $6404 per coin, Ethereum is down by 4.13% at $441, Pundi X down by 5.34% at $0.003 according to data from CoinMarketCap. BNT is trading 8.66% down at $2.22 per unit.

Crypto-currencies falling prey to hacks is nothing new. Japanese crypto exchange Coincheck was the latest casualty at the start of this year. Coincheck's hack reported at $530 million is one of the biggest losses for the industry. Previously the biggest loss was attributed to Mt Gox, an exchange platform that revealed $480 million worth bitcoins missing from its accounts.


          هاتف ذكي ليس للجميع      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

بعد صعود نجم العملات الرقمية وتوجه الكثير من الناس نحو الاستثمار في هذا المجال، بدأت بعض الشركات بتقديم هواتف ذكية مخصصة للأشخاص الذين يحتاجون أجهزة تمكنهم من إدارة محافظهم من العملات الرقمية.

وفي منتصف شهر أيار مايو الماضي، أعلنت شركة إتش تي سي أنها طورت هاتفاً ذكياً جديداً يحمل اسم HTC Exodus ويمتاز بأنه يضم عتاداً وتقنيات خاصةً لدعم ما يُعرف بتشفير "سلسلة الكتل" أو Blockchain، وهي التقنية الأمنية التي تشكل أساس العملات الرقمية مثل Bitcoin و Ethereum.

ولكن HTC لم تطرح حينها الهاتف وحتى لم تكشف عن موعد طرحه في الاسواق، إلا ان هذا الامر تغير الآن حيث أعلنت الشركة أن هاتفها سيُباع فعلاً خلال خريف 2018.

وترى HTC في Exodus جهازاً يتيح للمستخدمين الاحتفاظ ببياناتهم وعملاتهم الرقمية في مكان آمن جداً.

وقالت إتش تي سي سابقاً إن Exodus سيدعم التطبيقات اللامركزية، التي تسمى DApps، والتي تعمل على نظام أندرويد ولديها محفظة عالمية لتخزين العملات الرقمية.


          Chadwick Boseman to Star in the Russo Brothers’ 17 Bridges      Cache   Translate Page   Web Page Cache   

nazil.moktari posted a photo:

Chadwick Boseman to Star in the Russo Brothers’ 17 Bridges

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