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US envoy spews vitriol as 6 more EU nations defy sanctions bypass device INSTEX & urge saving Iran nuclear deal

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Preview Six European countries, among them US NATO allies, have joined an EU scheme to bypass Donald Trump’s sweeping sanctions, which ban all trade activities with Iran, raising the ire of a notorious American ambassador in Berlin.
Read Full Article at RT.com
          

‘A friendly hand’: pope urges more help for Fukushima victims

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Pope Francis on Monday urged renewed help for victims of Japan's 2011 earthquake, tsunami and Fukushima disaster, warning "nobody can start over alone" as he noted "concern" over nuclear power.

The post ‘A friendly hand’: pope urges more help for Fukushima victims appeared first on Asian Correspondent.


          

Germany is closing all its nuclear power plants. Now it has a problem with deadly waste

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The post Germany is closing all its nuclear power plants. Now it has a problem with deadly waste appeared first on Zakynthos Informer.


          

Bellport MS Hosts Take a Vet to School Day

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Bellport Middle School students were provided the opportunity to visit with veterans on Nov. 8 prior to the nation’s annual Veterans Day. During the Take a Vet to School program, 10 veterans visited classrooms to discuss their experiences during military service. This is the first year the District hosted the event. Rocco DeVito told the students about his experiences in the Navy and his service on the USS Carl Vinson, a supercarrier whose deck serves as a landing and takeoff location for planes. He shared a video of takeoff and landing, telling the students “They took off day and night, 24 hours a day.” Gary Travers, who was stationed in the U.S. Army’s Fort Hood base in Texas, described the Cuban Missile Crisis and how the U.S. prevented a nuclear war. Director of Humanities Jaclyn O’Hagan said the Take a Vet to School Program put veterans’ service into a real-life perspective and brought to life some of the historical events that students are currently learning about in their history classes.
          

Healthcare: Nuclear Medicine Technologist II - Houston, Texas

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Location: Houston Methodist Hospital 6565 Fannin St. Houston, TX 77030 Category: Imaging Services Job Type: Full-Time Posted Date: Nov. 25, 2019 Work Shift: DAY Work Week: M - F Job Summary JOB SUMMARY The Nuclear Medicine Technologist II is an experienced Technologist who completes a variety of routine to complex nuclear medicine procedures of high difficulty. A member of the direct patient care team, is fully competent in all aspects of Nuclear Medicine. Serves as a mentor to Nuclear Medicine Technologist I's and students by utilizing skills and knowledge to help train and educate others*. Works independently exercising sound judgment and executing above average clinical skills on challenging diagnostic procedures and patient care situations. Provides direct assistance to physicians with all diagnostic / special procedures. Delivers exceptional patient care and adheres to radiation standards and guidelines established by radiology agencies to ensure optimal patient safety and customer service. Note: some duties and responsibilities may not be applicable or expected to a lesser degree for PRN status employees; evidenced with an * at the end of the item. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES PEOPLE 20% Promotes a positive work environment and contributes to a dynamic, team focused work unit that actively helps one other to achieve optimal department results. Collaborates with all members of the patient care team by actively communicating and reporting pertinent patient care information and data in a comprehensive manner. EF Guides and mentors Nuclear Medicine Technologist I's and students to help build confidence in skills, knowledge and abilities*. SERVICE 30% Performs Nuclear Medicine procedures. Nuclear Medicine is a modality of radiology that uses radioactive substances. EF Provides care for the physical needs of patients by executing various nuclear medicine concepts to maximize performance. This includes: positioning, physiology, procedure preparation, and technical factors. Modifies technical factors to achieve desired imaging results and recognizes complications / limitations associated with certain procedures. Proactively identifies how to address these for optimum outcomes. EF Provides direct assistance to physicians during diagnostic or special procedures, including assisting with sterile technique. QUALITY/SAFETY 30% Follows radiation safety standards and conducts all imaging procedures accordingly. Properly utilizes patient radiation protection and immobilization during diagnostic procedures. Maintains proper sterile techniques for procedures, regularly practices aseptic techniques, and ensures compliance with infection control procedures. Complies with job, departmental and hospital safety standards, practices and policies. EF Identifies opportunities for corrective action and process improvement providing recommendations, and contributes to meeting departmental and hospital targets for quality and safety. Reports ""near misses"" and inputs errors promptly into PSN to improve processes and identify trends. Ensures all imaging equipment has had QC performed as required and is in safe working order prior to use. Reports any malfunctions to management and regularly practices preventive maintenance procedures; calls for service if needed. EF Assists with implementation and education of departmental based safety initiatives and standards of practice*. FINANCE 10% Provides accurate and complete documentation of patient procedures. Enters charges at the time service is delivered. EF Uses resources efficiently; does not waste supplies. Self-motivated to independently manage time effectively and prioritize daily tasks. GROWTH/INNOVATION 10% Participates in departmental projects and shared governance activities*. Seeks opportunities to expand learning beyond baseline competencies with a focus on continual development as a Technologist. Fosters a positive and constructive teaching environment by engaging students and co-workers (Nuclear Medicine Technologist I's) in learning opportunities that are valuable and in alignment with business objectives*. This job description is not intended to be all inclusive; the employee will also perform other reasonably related business/job duties as assigned. Houston Methodist reserves the right to revise job duties and responsibilities as the need arises. EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS Graduate of an American Medical Association (AMA) approved Radiology Technology Program EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS At least 3 years experience as a Nuclear Medicine Technologist CERTIFICATES, LICENSES AND REGISTRATIONS REQUIRED American Registry of Radiologic Technologist in Nuclear Medicine (ARRT (NM)) or Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification (NMTCB) Registration as a Medical Radiologic Technologist (MRT-GC) thru the Texas Medical Board American Heart Association BLS KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS AND ABILITIES REQUIRED Demonstrates the skills and competencies necessary to safely perform the assigned job, determined through on-going skills and competency assessments Ability to work independently; capable of handling challenging / difficult diagnostic procedures and patient care situations. Demonstrates sound judgment and executes above average clinical skills. Possesses basic computer knowledge; operates multiple computer systems to include, Hospital / Radiology Information Systems and Office software to maintain patient and exam documents. Exhibits strong interpersonal and team player skills with all levels of the healthcare team and assures delivery of excellent customer service to all patients, visitors, physicians and co-workers. Adapts to multiple ongoing priorities with minimal supervision including, organizing work flow and actively participating in problem-solving. Sufficient proficiency in speaking, reading, and writing the English language necessary to perform the essential functions of this job, especially with regard to activities impacting patient or employee safety or security. Ability to effectively communicate with patients, physicians, family members and co-workers in a manner consistent with a customer service focus and application of positive language principles. Equal Employment Opportunity Houston Methodist is an Equal Opportunity Employer. Equal employment opportunity is a sound and just concept to which Houston Methodist is firmly bound. Houston Methodist will not engage in discrimination against or harassment of any person employed or seeking employment with Houston Methodist on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity,national origin, age, disability, status as a protected veteran or other characteristics protected by law. VEVRAA Federal Contractor - priority referral Protected Veterans requested. Company Profile Since its founding in 1919, Houston Methodist Hospital has earned worldwide recognition. Houston Methodist Hospital is affiliated with the Weill Medical College of Cornell University and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, one of the nation's leading centers for medical education and research. Houston Methodistis consistently ranked in U.S. News & World Report's ""Best Hospital"" list and was recently named the number one hospital in Texas. FORTUNE magazine has placed Houston Methodist on its annual list of ""100 Best Companies To Work For"" since 2006. Houston Methodist Hospital directs millions of research dollars into patient care and offers the latest innovations in medical, surgical and diagnostic techniques. With 1,119 licensed beds, 67 operating rooms and over 6,000 employees, Houston Methodist offers complete care for patients from around the world. Company Description: At Houston Methodist, we take our responsibility as the region---s premier health care system seriously.With a national reputation for excellence in patient care, education and research, we hold ourselves --- and the careers we build --- to a higher standard. We invite you to find your place among the best of the best, and to stand with us in earning the trust of millions of people across the Houston Metro area every day.Houston Methodist is comprised of a nationally recognized academic medical center and six community hospitals with a history of health care innovation. For the tenth straight year we have been named to FORTUNE---s list of ---100 Best Companies to Work For--- and have also been ranked the no.1 hospital in Texas by U.S. News & World Report.Discover the difference for yourself and join Houston Methodist. ()
          

Healthcare: Cardiac MRI Technologist II - Full Time - Days - Houston, Texas

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Location: Houston Methodist Hospital 6565 Fannin St. Houston, TX 77030 Category: Imaging Services Job Type: Full-Time Posted Date: Oct. 7, 2019 Work Shift: DAY Work Week: Varies Job Summary JOB SUMMARY The Cardiac MRI (CMRI) Technologist II is an experienced cardiac MRI technologist who completes a variety of routine to complex diagnostic cardiovascular procedures to include Cardiovascular MRI exams of high difficulty. A member of the direct patient care team, is fully competent in all aspects of CMRI exams. Serves as a mentor to CMRI Technologist I's and students by utilizing skills and knowledge to help train and educate others. Works independently exercising sound judgment and executing above average clinical skills on challenging diagnostic procedures and patient care situations. May be actively engaged in research projects and activities. Provides direct assistance to physicians with all diagnostic / special procedures. Delivers exceptional patient care and adheres to CMRI exam standards and guidelines established by regulatory agencies to ensure optimal patient safety and customer service. PATIENT AGE GROUP(S) AND POPULATION(S) SERVED Refer to departmental ""Scope of Service"" and ""Provision of Care"" plans, as applicable, for description of primary age groups and populations served by this job for the respective HM entity. DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES PEOPLE - 20% Promotes a positive work environment and contributes to a dynamic, team focused work unit that actively helps one another to achieve optimal department results. Collaborates with all members of the patient care team by actively communicating and reporting pertinent patient care information and data in a comprehensive manner. (EF) Guides and mentors Fellows/observers, CMRI Technologist I's and students to help build confidence in skills, knowledge and abilities. SERVICE - 30% Performs diagnostic cardiovascular procedures to include CMRI exams. Cardiac MRI creates both still and moving pictures of the heart and major blood vessels. (EF) Performs a variety of high quality clinical and research Cardiac MRI exams, differentiating protocols and sequences as needed for each exam. Ensures proper review of patient medical information, independently performs high quality diagnostic studies according to specified protocols for routine, specialty and research studies while teaching, providing care to and appropriately monitoring each patient. Performs post processing and enters data into report documentations. (EF) Provides direct assistance to physicians during clinical and research procedures, including assisting with sterile technique. QUALITY/SAFETY - 30% Follows imaging and MRI safety standards and conducts all imaging procedures accordingly. Properly utilizes patient protective gear and immobilization during diagnostic procedures. Maintains proper sterile techniques for procedures, regularly practices aseptic techniques, and ensures compliance with infection control procedures. Complies with job, departmental and hospital safety standards, practices and policies. (EF) Identifies opportunities for corrective action and process improvement providing recommendations, and contributes to meeting departmental and hospital targets for quality and safety. Reports ""near misses"" and inputs errors promptly into PSN to improve processes and identify trends. Ensures all imaging equipment has had QC performed as required and is in safe working order prior to use. Reports any malfunctions to management and regularly practices preventive maintenance procedures; calls for service if needed. (EF) FINANCE - 10% Provides accurate and complete documentation of patient procedures. Enters charges at the time service is delivered and ensures correct charges are entered for the procedure performed. (EF) Uses resources efficiently; does not waste supplies. Self-motivated to independently manage time effectively and prioritize daily tasks. GROWTH/INNOVATION - 10% Participates in departmental projects and shared governance activities. Assumes ownership of one or more research projects as assigned. Seeks opportunities to expand learning beyond baseline competencies with a focus on continual development as a technologist. Fosters a positive and constructive teaching environment by engaging students and co-workers in learning opportunities that are valuable and in alignment with business objectives. Takes the lead in teaching/training others. (EF) This job description is not intended to be all inclusive; the employee will also perform other reasonably related business/job duties as assigned. Houston Methodist reserves the right to revise job duties and responsibilities as the need arises. EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS Graduate of education program approved by the credentialing body for the required credential(s) indicated below EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS 3 years MRI experience with at least 1 year specifically in cardiovascular imaging; may consider HM CMRI Technologist with at least 2 years imaging experience of which at least 1 year as CMRI with HM CERTIFICATES, LICENSES AND REGISTRATIONS REQUIRED Certification from one of the following credentialing organizations : American Registry for Diagnostic Sonography (ARDMS), Cardiovascular Credentialing International (CCI), Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board (NMTCB), or American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) If certification held thru NMTCB or ARRT, registration as a Medical Radiologic Technologist (MRT-GC) is required MRI Registry required through ARRT (MR), ARMRIT or CAMRT American Heart Association BLS KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS AND ABILITIES REQUIRED Demonstrates the skills and competencies necessary to safely perform the assigned job, determined through on-going skills and competency assessments Ability to work independently; capable of handling challenging / difficult diagnostic procedures and patient care situations; demonstrates sound judgment and executes above average clinical skills Possesses advance computer knowledge, in order to operate multiple systems, which includes, Hospital Information Systems, Office software, Reporting/processing systems to maintain patient and exam documentations Exhibits strong interpersonal and team player skills with all levels of the healthcare team and assures delivery of excellent customer service to all patients, visitors, physicians and co-workers. Must possess a positive attitude with the self-motivation to work efficiently and effectively with peers Adapts to multiple ongoing priorities with minimal supervision including, organizing work flow and actively participating in problem-solving Sufficient proficiency in speaking, reading, and writing the English language necessary to perform the essential functions of this job, especially with regard to activities impacting patient or employee safety or security Ability to effectively communicate with patients, physicians, family members and co-workers in a manner consistent with a customer service focus and application of positive language principles Possesses a strong understanding of the cardiovascular system, understanding advance knowledge in anatomy/physiology and pathologies associated Ability to correctly recognize pathologies seen in scans and communicate with CMRI Fellow and/or Attending Demonstrates advance knowledge of cardiac rhythms (i.e. sinus, atrial fibrillation, tachycardia, bigeminy???etc.) and knowing what modifications to sequences are needed, in order to provide the physician with proper images Ability to scan on different software platforms in order to perform/establish research protocols Ability to independently post process and establish measurements needed for physician's readings Sufficient proficiency in speaking, reading, and writing the English language necessary to perform the essential functions of this job, especially with regard to activities impacting patient or employee safety or security Equal Employment Opportunity Houston Methodist is an Equal Opportunity Employer. Equal employment opportunity is a sound and just concept to which Houston Methodist is firmly bound. Houston Methodist will not engage in discrimination against or harassment of any person employed or seeking employment with Houston Methodist on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity,national origin, age, disability, status as a protected veteran or other characteristics protected by law. VEVRAA Federal Contractor - priority referral Protected Veterans requested. Company Profile Since its founding in 1919, Houston Methodist Hospital has earned worldwide recognition. Houston Methodist Hospital is affiliated with the Weill Medical College of Cornell University and New York-Presbyterian Hospital, one of the nation's leading centers for medical education and research. Houston Methodistis consistently ranked in U.S. News & World Report's ""Best Hospital"" list and was recently named the number one hospital in Texas. FORTUNE magazine has placed Houston Methodist on its annual list of ""100 Best Companies To Work For"" since 2006. Houston Methodist Hospital directs millions of research dollars into patient care and offers the latest innovations in medical, surgical and diagnostic techniques. With 1,119 licensed beds, 67 operating rooms and over 6,000 employees, Houston Methodist offers complete care for patients from around the world. Company Description: At Houston Methodist, we take our responsibility as the region---s premier health care system seriously.With a national reputation for excellence in patient care, education and research, we hold ourselves --- and the careers we build --- to a higher standard. We invite you to find your place among the best of the best, and to stand with us in earning the trust of millions of people across the Houston Metro area every day.Houston Methodist is comprised of a nationally recognized academic medical center and six community hospitals with a history of health care innovation. For the tenth straight year we have been named to FORTUNE---s list of ---100 Best Companies to Work For--- and have also been ranked the no.1 hospital in Texas by U.S. News & World Report.Discover the difference for yourself and join Houston Methodist. ()
          

Life, reconciliation and fraternity

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分子グラフェノイドのトポロジカルエンジニアリングによる量子単位

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Robustly coherent spin centers that can be integrated into devices are a key ingredient of quantum technologies. Vacancies in semiconductors are excellent candidates, and theory predicts that defects in conjugated carbon materials should also display long coherence times. However, the quantum performance of carbon nanostructures has remained stunted by an inability to alter the sp2-carbon lattice with atomic precision. Here, we demonstrate that topological tailoring leads to superior quantum performance in molecular graphene nanostructures. We unravel the decoherence mechanisms, quantify nuclear and environmental effects, and observe spin-coherence times that outclass most nanomaterials. These results validate long-standing assumptions on the coherent behavior of topological defects in graphene and open up the possibility of introducing controlled quantum-coherent centers in the upcoming generation of carbon-based optoelectronic, electronic, and bioactive systems.


          

共通の遺伝子がミヤコグサにおける側根発達と根粒共生との双方の経路を駆動する

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Legumes develop root nodules in symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria. Rhizobia evoke cell division of differentiated cortical cells into root nodule primordia for accommodating bacterial symbionts. In this study, we show that NODULE INCEPTION (NIN), a transcription factor in Lotus japonicus that is essential for initiating cortical cell divisions during nodulation, regulates the gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 2-LIKE 18/LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN 16a (ASL18/LBD16a). Orthologs of ASL18/LBD16a in nonlegume plants are required for lateral root development. Coexpression of ASL18a and the CCAAT box–binding protein Nuclear Factor-Y (NF-Y) subunits, which are also directly targeted by NIN, partially suppressed the nodulation-defective phenotype of L. japonicus daphne mutants, in which cortical expression of NIN was attenuated. Our results demonstrate that ASL18a and NF-Y together regulate nodule organogenesis. Thus, a lateral root developmental pathway is incorporated downstream of NIN to drive nodule symbiosis.


          

Pope Francis: Even Having Nuclear Weapons Is Immoral

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Pope Francis' view on nuclear weapons can be summed up in a few simple words:

Just say no.

The use and possession of weapons should be made "immoral" under official Catholic teaching, Francis told reporters aboard the papal plane Tuesday (Nov. 26), taking a new step in terms of the Vatican's position on this issue.

He also expressed reservation concerning the use of nuclear energy.

"An accident (through the) possession or the folly of some leader could destroy humanity," Francis said. "I have a personal opinion: I wouldn't use nuclear energy until it is totally safe to use it."

Francis made the comments during a news conference on his way back from a weeklong apostolic visit to Thailand and Japan.

The pope answered eight questions from journalists traveling with him on the papal flight. The questions ranged in topic from the financial scandals that have been hitting the Catholic Church in recent months to the death penalty being used in so-called Christian nations.

He also commented on the political unrest in his native South America, which he admitted to be "in flames," and the ongoing protests in Hong Kong against the extradition of its nationals to China.

During his trip to Japan, Pope Francis visited Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the two cities hit by atomic bombs a few days apart in early August 1945.

"Hiroshima was a true human catechesis on cruelty," Francis said.

Francis also addressed the financial scandals that have been plaguing the Vatican in recent months, for the first time since Vatican police raided the offices of the Vatican Secretariat of State in October.

The pope said Tommaso Di Ruzza, who directed the Vatican's anti-money laundering entity, was arrested Tuesday along with four other Vatican employees, including one clergyman. All are being interrogated by Vatican police.

According to reports by Italian media, the new wave of financial scandals is tied to risky investments by the Vatican Secretariat of State into underperforming prime real estate in London. Some of the funds for those investments came from Peter's Pence, which collects funds from around the world to be used for charitable work. Several middlemen who helped arrange the investment have profited millions for the deal, according to reports by the Financial Times.

Francis said the arrests are a sign the Vatican is making progress in fighting corruption.

"The denunciation did not come from outside the Vatican; it came from the inside," Francis said, spinning the scandals as a victory in the Vatican's ongoing efforts to clean up its financial arm.

The pope said there is nothing wrong in investing Peter's Pence, the money that is collected across the world for the church, in what he called "widow's investments," meaning small and safe ventures.

But things change, he added, if there are signs of corruption.

Francis said that the auditor general at the Vatican informed him that some aspects of the London deal were questionable. Francis said he instructed the auditor to file a report to the Vatican prosecutor, which eventually led to the October raid.

"It is a very bad thing. It is not good that these things happen inside the Vatican, but everything has been clarified by internal mechanisms which are starting to work," he said.

Francis gave credit to his predecessor, Emeritus Pope Benedict XVI, for taking steps to reform the Vatican's finances in the past.

"Pope Benedict was very wise," said Francis. "He started a process that matured and matured."

Francis also criticized the "hypocrisy" displayed by several Christian nations that claim to be in favor of promoting peace while profiting from the global arms trade.

"A country should have the courage to say I cannot speak about weapons because my economy grows a lot thanks to the production of weapons," he said, observing that today "peace is really, really weak."

Francis also referred to the uprisings and demonstrations in Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil and Bolivia as a situation "in flames." He added that the growing unrest in Chile "frightens" him.

The pope said that Venezuela and Bolivia have reached out to the Holy See to mediate the profound divisions that risk tearing the countries apart. He also briefly mentioned the ongoing protests in Hong Kong, asking for peace and dialogue so that problems may be solved.

He also said he would love to visit Beijing.

"I love China!" he said. {eoa}

© 2019 Religion News Service. All rights reserved.


          

3 Theories for What Revelation's 'Wormwood' Judgment Could Really Be

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Many Christians—and even churches—avoid studying the book of Revelation, often believing it to be too confusing, inapplicable or metaphorical. However, the individual who avoids this book unknowingly shortchanges themselves: Readers are told in the first few verses that those who read and truly hear this revelation will be blessed. Furthermore, believers are challenged in 1 Thessalonians 5 not to be found ignorant regarding these end-times events because we do not belong to the night or in darkness. Today, we will try to dissect one of the most mysterious judgments in Revelation: Wormwood.

In the final book of the Bible, the apostle John is well into a lengthy, colorful description of coming events. Elderly and exiled, John is an eyewitness as a series of seven seals on a vellum scroll are peeled back, one by one. Only the Lamb of God who was slain was deemed worthy to open these seals from what is obviously a very important document. Seal one through six have already been opened with dramatic and effective results. Revelation 8 starts by telling of a period of time—one half-hour—when heaven will be completely silent after the breaking of the seventh seal. Then, seven angels, appointed for this specific moment in time, prepare themselves to sound.

The third trumpet is accompanied by an ominous series of events in John's vision: "The third angel sounded, and a great star from heaven, burning like a torch, fell on a third of the rivers and on the springs of waters. The name of this star is Wormwood. A third of the waters became wormwood, and many men died from the waters, because they were made bitter" (Rev. 8:10-11).

While not everyone asserts that prophecy will be dealt specifically via an incoming comet or asteroid, admittedly, a casual English reading of the entire chapter of Revelation 8 certainly lends itself to such an interpretation. That said, there are other options regarding the meaning of this Wormwood and what its arrival may portend in this prophetic "trumpet" discussion.

Often, in our corporate church imagination, the prevailing narrative regarding the blowing of the trumpet spawns visions of a spiritual entity (angel) perched peacefully on a cloud awaiting his cue. When the time has arrived, he blows the third trumpet and watches, disengaged, from his cushy seat in the heavens while a giant rock splashes into the earth's most important freshwater source.

But maybe, just maybe, there is an angel who is more involved than this cartoon version—and perhaps we're not looking at an impact/collision event at all.

It would be easy to keep our collective sights only on "natural space activity" (however erratic) and forget another theory about Wormwood that may, according to some scholars like Michael S. Heiser, be the most obvious conclusion regarding these poisonous waters. Could Wormwood be a fallen angel?

The notion that trumpet three, Wormwood, would be an entity—especially with how many spiritual and demonic beings these judgments are increasingly producing around this time—will probably appear in that day to both Christ's devoted ones and the Antichrist's followers as a real possibility.

In this article, we will explore possible alternate explanations for Wormwood in order to prepare you for the end-times reality that could begin at any moment. But first, I should explain how to approach serious interpretation of Revelation and its mysterious prophecies.

Biblical Literalism

When interpreting the Wormwood judgment, scholars arrive at many different conclusions—some easier to grasp than others. Some believe the "falling star" could actually mean a "falling angel," and others suggest that the "bitterness" (poisoning) of wormwood actually means "famine" and has nothing to do with water. We'll get to both of those theories in the next section. Nevertheless, both concepts demand that the question of literality in the interpretation of Revelation is at least visited briefly so readers can understand: 1) why the interpretations—even among scholars—vary so widely, and 2) why many of these theories are equally plausible.

There is a popular (and respectable) principle of biblical interpretation that many instructional books will teach as one of the first rules to follow when studying the Bible: "If a verse can be interpreted literally, it should be. The only occasion when a Scripture should not be taken literally is when doing so creates an absurdity."

For instance, 2 Timothy 4:13 contains a clear, non-allegorical order for Timothy to bring Paul's cloak and documents. To take 2 Timothy 4:13 as literal does not create an absurdity, because it's not illogical or unreasonable in any way to assume Paul wanted Timothy to swing by with some supplies next time he was headed Paul's way. However, John 3:3, taken to the fullest application of literality, means that a man must crawl through his mother's womb again (be "born again") before he can go to heaven. But as we know, even Nicodemus realized that a literal interpretation would create an absurdity, so he sought clarification, and Jesus further explained that this rebirth was "of ... the Spirit" (John 3:4-6), leading us today to understand that this was a metaphor.

Therefore, to follow one of the most fundamental principles of biblical interpretation, "wormwood" would be a poisoning of fresh waters (not "famine") and "Wormwood" would be a space-body mass object of some kind (not an "angel" or "fallen angel"). Assuming we're dealing with asteroids and a poisoning, we have been able to conclude a literal interpretation that "does not create an absurdity." This is perhaps why many scholars of the Word resist the allegorical or metaphorical approach to the book of Revelation any time we can see a logical, literal explanation for what's coming.

Yet the very first rule of biblical interpretation, which must be acknowledged before any and all others in any serious approach to Scripture, is this: "There can only be one, true meaning of the verse in question, and that is the meaning that the author of that book intended for his original readers. No interpretation that disagrees with the author of the book (and, by extension, the Holy Spirit who led such a composition) can ever be the right one."

The real issue lies in getting to the bottom of what that author meant, and not in deciding what we think makes the most sense to us today. That faulty approach is called eisegesis—"putting into Scripture what was never there"—which is the opposite of exegesis—"pulling out of Scripture what has been there from the beginning." It's also to commit the error of placing hermeneutics (what it means to us, today) ahead of exegesis (what it meant to them back then).

Yet this conundrum has never been bigger than when we get to Revelation, for the following reasons:

Unlike a didactic work or a historical narrative, John was documenting a future reality, not a past one, and the language of his vision often demands allowance for the same kind of prophetic imagery we have seen elsewhere in the Word, ripe with symbolism and metaphor, much like some of the messages given by the major prophets of the Old Testament.

Parts of Revelation can be interpreted literally without creating an absurdity, whereas other areas absolutely cannot.

As will be shown shortly, the original audience can and did recognize a language and imagery ("star" as "angel") from first-century authors that is lost from mainstream Bible studies today. This unfortunately tends to leave the interpretation of a difficult book like Revelation only to those supremely educated scholars whose field of specialty (like Heiser and Gregory K. Beale) lies in comprehending the full and complete culture at the time of the original author's penning. Since this is a minority, that means that an extreme minority of the church is sorting it all out, and the responsibility of comprehending "literal" versus "nonliteral" appears insurmountable for many.

Based on those points, we may be tempted to say all these trumpet judgments are symbols, and none of them are literal. If John intended to share his already overwhelming prophetic vision in language his contemporaries would understand—perhaps because what he saw was already so hard to put into words of any language—then we, too, should be willing to visit that possibility. It all boils down to context.

Rethinking Wormwood

Well-known among Bible scholars, but largely undiscussed in lay-Christianity, is the fact that the word "star" is frequently a personification of either a saint or angel in the Word, as well as classic and ancient extrabiblical Jewish writings or apocryphal accounts. One major, scriptural point of comparison scholars also make is the link between Michael as guardian angel in Daniel 12:1, and his relation to the intelligent and personified "stars" two verses later. This association was so well known by the New Testament writers that it felt like a natural extension of terms by the time John of Patmos wrote that "The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches" in Revelation 1:20b.

And elsewhere, in The New Bible Commentary, the close proximity of the other stars of the trumpet judgments as angelic messengers of death appears obvious enough to immediately consider Wormwood an angel as well: "Since the star that falls at the sounding of the fifth trumpet (9:1) is an angelic being, it is possible that Wormwood is also an angel."

But another question is now presented: If the "star" is really an "angel" and not an asteroid that might set off eruptive phenomena or some equivalent, then what, exactly, are the "bitter waters" that result in death?

When we trace "wormwood" back to its Hebrew root, la'anah, it represents extreme suffering and destruction—the opposite of righteousness and justice. That could mean just about anything in an eschatological trumpet judgment creating mass death. Beale postulates that Wormwood may not be referring to a literal poisoning of fresh waters, but a pouring out of bitter suffering, a curse, that results in death by famine.

Though Wormwood is described as "burning," fire isn't remotely limited to literality. Even on some occasions when fire has meant a literal flame, it has also indicated a personification or theophany (Ex. 3:2-6, 13:21, 19:18). Most pertinent to our study, however, are moments when "fire" represents a symbol of the wrath of God or a judgment:

God's wrath is fire. Psalm 89:46 says, "How long, O Lord? Will You hide Yourself forever? How long shall Your wrath burn like fire?" (See also Ezek. 21:31, 22:31, 38:19).

God's rebuke is fire. Isaiah 66:15 says, "For the Lord shall come with fire and with His chariots like a whirlwind, to render His anger with fury and His rebuke with flames of fire."

God's fury is fire. Lamentations 2:4 says, "He has bent His bow like an enemy, with his right hand set like an adversary; He has killed all who were pleasant to His eye; in the tabernacle of the daughter of Zion, He has poured out His fury like fire."

God's jealousy is fire. Zephaniah 3:8 says, "Therefore wait for Me, declares the Lord, until the day when I rise up to seize the plunder; for My decision is to gather nations, to assemble kingdoms, to pour on them My indignation, all My fierce anger; for all the earth will be devoured with the fire of My jealousy."

There are more examples, but you get the idea. Fire is used throughout the Word to represent a judgment of God upon the earth. With this in mind, one of the most powerful arguments for "fire" as a judgment of God in the form of famine is Ezekiel 5.

The prophecy regarding the "thirds" begins with friction between Israel and the Babylonian armies, during the symbolic act of cutting Ezekiel's hair:

"As for you, son of man, take a sharp sword. Take and cause it to pass upon your head and upon your beard as a barber's razor. Then take balances to weigh and divide the hair. You shall burn with fire a third part in the midst of the city when the days of the siege are fulfilled. Then you shall take a third part and strike it with the sword all around the city. And a third part you shall scatter in the wind. And I will draw out a sword after them. You shall also take a few in number from them and bind them in the edges of your robes. Then take some of them again and cast them into the midst of the fire and burn them in the fire. For a fire shall come out into all the house of Israel" (Ezek. 5:1-4).

It seems pretty clear by this point that fire is judgment, but obviously not a literal flame that engulfs and kills "all" the house of Israel. Looking a little way down the road in the same narrative, we read what this "fire" actually refers to:

"I will do in you what I have not done, and the like of which I will not do anymore, because of all your abominations. Therefore the fathers shall eat their sons in your midst, and the sons shall eat their fathers. ... A third part of you shall die by pestilence or by famine; they shall be consumed in your midst. ... When I send upon them the deadly arrows of famine which shall be for their destruction and which I will send to destroy you, then I will also increase the famine upon you and break your staff of bread. So I will send upon you famine and wild beasts, and they shall bereave you of children. And pestilence and bloodshed shall pass through you. And I will bring the sword upon you. I the Lord have spoken it" (Ezek. 5:9-17).

This passage is a clear and present indicator that "fire" as a judgment can mean "famine." (For a fuller explanation of this topic—and how the first two trumpets fit this pattern as well—read The Wormwood Prophecy.)

Battle of the Ages

Scripture makes no small point about it: The third trumpet will be devastating and terrifying. It may be delivered via a meteor collision. It could come as a sweeping famine. A nuclear event is not entirely out of the question. Perhaps an asteroid will strike a nuclear power plant, and the ensuing desolation will launch a dearth unlike any the world has yet seen.

Or perhaps the event will have a different, darker undertone.

Maybe the third trumpet—or all the trumpets—will be a byproduct of spiritual warfare taking place in heavenly realms, between which our planet—along with many other unsuspecting cosmic bodies—will become caught in the crossfire.

Some may think that this possibility is surely an exaggeration, but consider this: we often make the assumption that since angels can appear in a fleshly, human form (Heb. 13:2), and since Jesus walked the earth as a man, in the flesh (1 Tim. 3:16), that entities within the spiritual realm are of similar size and capability as human beings. But nothing could be further from the truth. We know from Scripture that God's strength is unending (Job 9:4), His knowledge is infinite (Ps. 147:5) and all victory is His (Col. 2:15).

Furthermore, Revelation 10:1-3 gives us insight as to what one particular angel appearing during this time will look like: "Then I saw another mighty angel coming down from heaven, clothed with a cloud and a rainbow on his head. His face was like the sun, and his feet like pillars of fire. He had a little scroll open in his hand. He set his right foot on the sea and his left foot on the land, and cried out with a loud voice, like a lion roaring. When he cried out, seven thunders sounded their voices."

This one holy entity is so large that the Bible tells us he literally stands over the land and sea. His voice—as a roar of a lion—is enough to call forth the response of seven thunders. Thus, this being has the strength to provoke natural elements upon the earth.

Revelation is filled with accountings of holy angels interacting with natural elements in the earthly realm out of obedience to God, but what of the fallen ones? What about those entities who were once similar to the angels of heaven, but rebelled alongside Lucifer so long ago? Will these agents of evil attempt to manipulate created fixtures as well?

We know in that day, Satan will be rallying his forces to wreak havoc upon the earth because he is aware that his time is short (Rev. 12:12). It stands to reason that during these last days, the battle between good and evil, which has raged on since the beginning of the world, would culminate into a climax: the battle of the ages.

To some, this may seem far-fetched, especially since some people interpret the trumpets to represent more subtle means of judgement, such as famine or pestilence. To jump to the conclusion that these instruments of judgment could really mean that bodies within the universe are being knocked around like ping-pong balls seems to some individuals to be quite a jump.

But the next trumpets clearly illustrate that cosmic disturbance will be completely unlike anything our solar system has experienced: "The fourth angel sounded, and a third of the sun was struck, and a third of the moon, and a third of the stars, so that a third of them were darkened. A third of the day had no light, and likewise a third of the night" (Rev. 8:12).

This upheaval will permanently change things on earth. There is no reparation that can be made for the type of damage that will occur for our planet and its surrounding orbital bodies during this catastrophic event.

When the trumpets begin to sound, a dark day has indeed arrived for planet Earth and all those who inhabit it. Death, disease, warfare, pain, torment and dread will run rampant across all who dwell therein on that terrifying day. The only hope for mankind in that moment will be found in whether or not they are one of God's own. For those who reject Him, the nightmare will be just beginning.

But for God's children, Revelation 21:4 tells us a beautiful and joyous reunion with their Maker awaits them: "God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes. There shall be no more death. Neither shall there be any more sorrow nor crying nor pain, for the former things have passed away."


Thomas Horn is the CEO of SkyWatchTV and the founder of Defender Films and Defender Publishing.

CHARISMA is the only magazine dedicated to reporting on what the Holy Spirit is doing in the lives of believers around the world. If you are thirsty for more of God's presence and His Holy Spirit, subscribe to CHARISMA and join a family of believers who choose to live life in the Spirit. CLICK HERE for a special offer.


          

Advancing Faculty Diversity in Physical Science | University of California Riverside

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Riverside, California, The Department of Physics ofessor and one tenured mid-level professor. The positions may be in any area of physics including, but not limited to, high-energy; nuclear; atomic, molecular, and optical;
          

CO2 Stripper Postmortem Thoughts

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Published on November 30, 2019 9:20 PM UTC

[EDIT: A crucial consideration was pointed out in the comments. For all the designs I've looked at, it's cheaper to just get a heat exchanger and ventilation fans, and blow the air outside/pull it inside and eat the extra heating costs/throw on an extra layer of clothing, than it is to buy a CO2 stripper. There's still an application niche for poorly ventilated rooms without windows, but that describes a lot fewer occasions than my previous dreams of commercial use.]


So, I have finally completed building a CO2 stripper that removes CO2 from the air to (hopefully) improve cognition in environments with high CO2 levels. In California, the weather is pretty good so it's easy to just crack a window at any point during the year, but other areas get quite cold during the winter or quite warm during summer and it's infeasible to open a window unless you want to spend an awful lot of money on heating or cooling bills. It didn't work quite as well as the math indicated at first, but the whole thing is built, and basically functional. The rest of this post will be a reflection on the lessons learned while doing so.


1: In hardware, ideas are cheap, execution is expensive

So, the fundamental idea is extremely simple once you have some basic knowledge of chemistry. The goal is to get CO2 into some form that isn't the gas form, via some sort of chemical reaction.

Submarines and CO2 capture from flue gas use a reversible reaction with ethanolamines, where they absorb CO2 at high temperatures and release it at low temperatures. Reversible reactions are good for making waste, but heating up and cooling down large quantities of liquid takes an awful lot of energy. Submarines have nuclear reactors onboard, and flue gas is hot, but we don't necessarily have the energy required. Also ethanolamines are toxic and hard to get a hold of for a civilian and really stinky, being the major component of "submarine smell".

Adsorption onto zeolites is also plausible, but the issue is that it requires alternately exposing the zeolites to high air pressure and low air pressure, and high airflow is required. The combination of high pressure and high airflow means that again, you're using a lot of energy. The basic math is as follows: One human produces about 1 kg of CO2 in 24 hours. We can idealize a perfect CO2 stripper as a magic box that inhales air and spits it out at 0 ppm. If you want a steady-state concentration of 500 ppm for 2 people, then we can see how much air-flow is required to lock up 2 kg of CO2 in 24 hours. This comes out to about 100 cubic feet per minute. This is the bare minimum air flow for any CO2 stripper, but in this particular case, it corresponds to a 25 horsepower air compressor, which is 18 kilowatts. This is equivalent to running 5 electric dryers at once. So that one is out too, especially since we were assuming 100% efficiency at eliminating CO2.

What about irreversible reactions? Just lock the CO2 up as a solid waste? Well, to begin with, this is going to produce quite a waste stream, and consume quite a bit of chemicals, you'd better hope it's safe and that the feed chemical is cheap. The reaction used on space missions used lithium hydroxide. The basic idea is that lithium hydroxide makes a very basic solution. Carbon dioxide is slightly acidic, so it dissolves very fast into basic solutions. Then you get precipitation of lithium carbonate which is safe.

The problem is that lithium hydroxide is quite expensive. It was used on space missions because it's the most mass-efficient way of doing that sort of reaction and every gram counts in space missions, but we want the cheapest way of doing that reaction.

And then we hit upon the perfect solution. Calcium hydroxide. It's an extremely cheap bulk chemical, 15 bucks for a 50-pound sack of it at a hardware store. It's fairly mild as far as hydroxides go, being pH 12.4. So instead of giving you horrible chemical burns, it's safe to handle unless you're exposed to it for over an hour at a time without washing it off. It's the alkaline analogue of the difference between 1 M hydrochloric acid, and lemon juice. And when it reacts with CO2, it makes CaCO3, aka limestone, which is totally harmless. In fact, it's a common laboratory demonstration that breathing onto a solution of this stuff produces a white film/crust on the top, which is the CO2 in the breath locked up as solid limestone. It's the obvious choice if you're trying to remove CO2 via chemical means.

And in fact, in the SSC comment section, someone else independently had the exact same idea! Just lock up CO2 with calcium hydroxide!

The simplicity of an idea in the field of atoms instead of bits doesn't necessarily mean that anyone on earth has ever done it before, though, or will ever do it, and I'm not worried about anyone scooping the idea, because building novel hardware is hard enough to provide a natural barrier to entry unless it's a large company that's interested in the idea. Ideas are cheap, execution is expensive, in both time and money.

2: Only polymaths need apply

If you're trying to build a novel machine in your garage, and aren't working as part of an engineering team, you will either need an improbably wide range of knowledge, or the general ability to pick up whatever you need to learn. There's the basic knowledge of chemistry to spot that this is the obvious reaction to go for, but the full design requires:

Familiarity with wastewater aerators to know what to buy to prevent clogging with solids, knowledge on which materials won't react with your chemicals, the math of air flow in pipes, the ability to read fan pressure/airflow curves, the ability to go from "I want a circuit that does this" to building a novel electronic circuit on a breadboard without frying anything important, enough programming knowledge to write some basic arduino code, familiarity with hazardous waste disposal regulations in your state, familiarity with waste dewatering techniques, familiarity with which sort of pumps can pump sludge instead of pure water, some electrical engineering knowledge to work safely with 220V power without frying yourself or anyone else, knowledge of soundproofing, and especially the familiarity with everything at Home Depot that lets you home in on the most efficient and foolproof way of building a thing that does what you want. Probably some other stuff too that I consider obvious but others might not.

Now, most of this is pretty easy to pick up given enough starting mental firepower, and the sense of what to google for. Or just having lots of experience with building material things.

Having one of the relevant fields of knowledge manifests itself as knowing ahead of time which approaches will work and which will fail and what solutions past work in the area has already found.

For some of these, missing it will manifest as not knowing that there's an incoming bullet in a particular area, like not knowing that fine bubble aerators will promptly clog if there's lots of particulates in the water, or not suspecting that high air flow rates are incompatible with small pipe (I knew the latter one and it still almost got me until I idly decided to work out airflow velocity in the pipe and realized it was around 200 mph)

3: The planning fallacy is huge here.

So, it wound up costing a lot more than I thought and taking a lot longer than I thought. The mechanism of why the planning fallacy hits so hard here is tied in with the design process. What happens is that you start out with a sketchy outline of all the component parts (like, "I need something that automatically dispenses chemical powder"), and as it becomes time to build a part, you drill down further and further in fleshing out the details until eventually you've drilled down far enough for your design to Actually Work in reality. While you do this, you will inevitably come across parts that are a lot harder to do than you expected, which you were glossing over on the first pass. The shiny black box of "build a chemical dispenser" looks more tractable than "how the fuck do I build a motor mounting plate with my inadequate tools", which you didn't initially suspect you had to do because you weren't thinking at that level of detail. And also as you address the parts that are easy to do, all that is left is the parts that are hard or annoying or time-consuming to do, which can be somewhat demoralizing.

Same sort of thing goes with cost. You start out with "so here's the cost for the big parts and everything else that's left shouldn't cost that much" (black-box warning on "everything else"!), and then you go to Home Depot and pick up a bunch of 4-inch ABS pipe and black glue and all the 90 degree and T pieces you need for the aeration pipes and look at the cost and it's 100 bucks. Home Depot trips add up shockingly fast. There's also all the stuff you buy that you don't eventually end up using because the design evolves as you actually try to build it, like buying gears when you don't actually need gears, and all the stuff you didn't think you had to buy but it turns out that you do need it.

And sometimes you just get hit with some problem you didn't expect at all and now have to fix, like "my fan is making a screaming noise, what do"

4. Why is there a valley of death?

Universities and the government funds basic research. Then there's the private sector of business. The gap between the two, where you have to go from basic research to a business selling the new exciting thing is called the "valley of death". Now, you'd think this is what R&D is for. But a lot of R&D from a business seems to be focused on marginal improvements to existing things that already fall under the scope of what the existing business does, and not so much on building a novel thing that can be the seed of a new business. Building a novel thing requires a wide knowledge base, as discussed before, and inevitably takes a lot more money and time than expected. It's the sort of thing done by inventors in a garage as a project of love, not the sort of thing you get paid to do.

Further, crossing the valley of death requires both the technical capacity to build the thing, and the business skills to make a new business from scratch. If you have several people with different skills joined together, it can be bridged, but one flaw of doing it alone is that there are a lot more inventors with the ability to build the thing, than inventors with the ability to build the thing and also the ability or willingness to start a business that sells the thing. I'm in the former category. I can build it, but I hate building it and if I have to build all the machines myself to sell, I'd flatly reject it, and I really don't want to be responsible for running a business selling it, I'd have no idea how to run a business, and it'd eat too much time. My dream is to get a design good enough to sell, patent it, find someone willing to make a business out of it, and just receive a cut of profits without having to be involved in anything more regarding the production or selling of the machines, besides helping out with technical design work. Further, someone with just the business skills won't necessarily have the technical ability to come up with the machine in the first place, let alone build it. And there's also the lemon market problem of businesspeople identifying competent non-scam technical people with a viable design, and technical people finding competent non-scam businesspeople.

There are further issues such as designing the new invention such that it is robust and keeps working for a while (not a property that prototypes generally have), and designing it such that it is easy to build and maintain (also not usually a property associated with garage prototypes).

I've heard that there's a company in the UK that takes garage prototypes and updates the design for robustness, easy constructibility, and cost, which seems like an important part of closing the valley.

5. Building alone vs building as part of a team.

In a certain sense, I was blessed on this project, because I had complete control over the entire design. I had to contend with no meetings, and no unexpected changes to parts of the design that were already locked in, and no team decisions that were dumb and couldn't possibly work. It's the dream for anyone who dislikes group projects in engineering. All failures are attributable to me alone, as well as all successes. Then again, having someone else to work on the project with me definitely would have sped it up and I could rely on their knowledge of things I was ignorant of, relaxing the polymath requirement. Maybe there's an optimal design team size? I guess it'd depend on how parallelizable the work is, as well as how decision-making-quality scales with group size.

6. Final diagnosis and where to go from here.

So, it was over-time and over-budget and didn't work as well as I had hoped, but it does indeed work. Planning fallacy is a huge obstacle here, and I now certainly see why there's a valley of death for this sort of work.

In order to make a version that's practical for domestic use, I'd have to redo the design to be a rain-column design, primarily because it only requires high airflow, instead of the combination of high airflow and high pressure, which requires buying an expensive fan from China and the expensive electronic components which provide the appropriate power to operate the fan. A rain column design could use a much cheaper and simpler fan that operates from a wall outlet.

Further, in order for others interested in CO2 reduction to have one of their own, I'd have to team up with someone who could make a small business in assembling and selling these things, preferably involving someone who is not me building the relevant thing. PM me if interested.







Discuss
          

Other: Hydrogeologist Lead for 100/200 Areas and Permit (Hydrogeologist 4) - Kennewick, Washington

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The Nuclear Waste Program (NWP) program within the Department of Ecology is looking to fill an Hydrogeologist Lead for 100/200 Areas and Permit (Hydrogeologist 4) position. This position is located in our Richland Field Office (RFO) in Richland, WA. The Hydrogeologist Lead for 100/200 Areas and Permit position develops and makes recommendations to the Project Managers on requirements and methods to address environmental contamination, reaching or about to reach the groundwater. The Nuclear Waste Program works in collaborative teams, providing input from various technical fields to solve very complex environmental cleanup problems. We are looking for candidates who have experience in groundwater monitoring, remediation, and groundwater permitting requirements. The applicant must be able to communicate the Program's issues and concerns to Program staff, our permittees and to stakeholders. Candidates should have sufficient experience to be able to suggest technical or regulatory approaches when issues arise. Please view the full job announcement and apply online at: https://www.governmentjobs.com/careers/washington/jobs/1979645/hydrogeologist-lead-for-100-200-areas-and-permit-hydrogeologist-4 ()
          

Price Drop: Civilization Revolution 2 (Games)

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Civilization Revolution 2 1.5.5


Device: iOS Universal
Category: Games
Price: $9.99 -> $1.99, Version: 1.5.5 (iTunes)

Description:

***NOTE: Compatible with iPhone 4S+, iPad 2+, iPad mini 1+, and iPod touch 5 - WILL NOT RUN ON EARLIER DEVICES***

The sequel to one of the most successful strategy games on mobile is here! Sid Meier's Civilization Revolution 2 challenges players  to build a glorious empire that will stand the test of time. This is the first game in the Civilization catalog to be developed and available exclusively for mobile devices. Civilization Revolution 2 offers mobile strategy fans a brand new 3D presentation and more tactical depth than ever before! Find out if you have what it takes to rule the world!

Key Features:
- New Units –  strengthen your military might with brand new combat units including Aircraft Carriers, Jet Fighters and Special Forces.

- New Technology – race to science supremacy with new technology such as: Lasers, Modern Medicine and Information Technology

- New Buildings & Wonders – grow and expand your civilization like never before with new buildings and wonders including Nuclear Power Plant, The Red Cross and Silicon Valley

- Enhanced 3D Graphics – updated 3D graphics taking full advantage of iOS devices graphical capability

- Scenario Challenges  - reenact historic events and battles in the Scenario Mode


Follow us on Facebook:  https://www.facebook.com/civ

Follow us on Twitter: @civgame

What's New

Updated for iOS11 and 64 bit devices.
Performance optimizations.

Civilization Revolution 2


          

生物体内的细胞是如何判断应该表达什么基因的?

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细胞如何判断应该表达什么基因?细胞没有思维,没法跟人一样先做决定然后执行,对细胞而言,决定和执行是同时发生的。下面我主要分享一下细胞如何表达一些特定的基因,而不表达另一些基因的,即基因的选择性表达。

人类细胞有2万多个蛋白编码基因,4万多个非编码RNA基因[1]。如果细胞有思维的话,细胞如何选择表达哪些基因确实是个非常头痛的问题。一个基本的原则是:按需表达。人类细胞经过亿万年的进化,细胞采取最经济的方式来维持正常功能。

管家基因:表达一时爽,一直表达一直爽

基因可简单分为管家基因(housekeeping gene)和非管家基因。管家基因,顾名思义,就像是细胞的管家,在所有类型的细胞中,无论正常还是疾病状态下,都持续稳定表达。因此,至少这部分基因,细胞不需要思考,一直表达就OK啦。

管家基因编码的蛋白是构成细胞的物质基础。常见的管家基因有微管蛋白(tubulin),是细胞内微管的核心组分;肌动蛋白(actin),是细胞骨架的重要组分;甘油醛3-磷酸脱氢酶(GAPDH),参与细胞的糖酵解。

那么,人类基因组中到底有多少管家基因呢?研究者对16种正常人类组织中的基因表达进行分析。根据定义,管家基因需要在所有的组织/细胞中表达基本一致,研究者一共鉴定了3804个管家基因[2]。

人类管家基因的列表详见:tau.ac.il/~elieis/HKG/

基因的多维度表达调控

对人类而言,除了生殖细胞,所有细胞含有的遗传信息基本相同,但呈现在我们眼前的并不是一团细胞,而是一个个鲜活的会思辨的生命。因此,人类本身就是细胞基因选择性表达的最好诠释。对于不同的个体,基因型存在一定差异,但还有一种特殊的情况——同卵双胞胎,基因完全相同,但双胞胎最后会呈现出很多差异,比如双胞胎的性格往往迥异。同卵双胞胎也是基因选择性表达的一个绝佳案例。

那么,为何基因会选择性表达呢?要搞清楚这个问题,首先得明白基因表达的基本流程。根据经典的中心法则,DNA转录得到RNA,RNA翻译得到执行多重生命功能的蛋白质。看起来非常清晰,只要存在DNA,经过中心法则,就能源源不断得到蛋白。但这样是不合理的,细胞并不需要表达所有的基因,只需要在特定的情况下表达特定组合的基因。回答基因在何时何地以何种方式表达,这是“表观遗传学”的研究范畴,也正是我的研究方向。

基因的选择性表达归因于基因的表达调控。基因表达调控可分为多个维度,包括染色体层面的基因组3D结构,DNA层面的化学修饰,RNA层面的RNA加工,包括可变剪接、RNA修饰、非编码RNA调控等,以及蛋白质层面的蛋白质修饰。

染色质层面——染色体高级结构可调控基因表达

真核生物的染色体并不是线性存在于细胞核的。实际上,对人类细胞而言,染色体总长度超过2米,而细胞核尺寸为微米级别,如何将2米长的染色体塞进微米级的细胞核,而且还能执行极其复杂的生物学功能呢?答案是极其复杂的折叠。

既然是染色质折叠,会出现折叠紧密的地方和相对松散的地方。折叠紧密的地方,DNA转录相关的蛋白无法靠近,基因无法表达;而折叠松散的地方,基因表达活性相对更高。因此,染色质结构对基因表达进行了选择。

3D基因组调控基因表达是目前最前沿的研究领域,但是由于这个过程实在太复杂,以及研究的策略和方法并不多,具体的调控机制并不十分清楚。

DNA层面——DNA和组蛋白修饰调控基因表达

很早人们就发现了DNA上可以发生化学修饰,化学修饰主要为胞嘧啶5位上的甲基化,而DNA甲基化可以调控基因的表达。基因的表达需要启动子(转录起始位点附近的一段特殊的DNA序列),启动子区域如果出现DNA甲基化,基因通常沉默;如果没有甲基化,基因通常表达。正如在很多肿瘤细胞中,抑癌基因的启动子区域被甲基化,抑癌基因沉默,促进了癌症的发生。

DNA甲基化调控基因表达其实也是非常复杂。DNA甲基化出现在不同区域,比如基因体,反而是基因活性表达的标志。我们实验室今年发表的文章,揭示了更为复杂的DNA甲基化调控基因表达的新范式[4]。

正如刚才提到的,DNA并不是线性地存在于细胞核中,是高度折叠的。具体的情况是,DNA缠绕在组蛋白上,形成染色体的基本单位核小体。从物理空间上,组蛋白与DNA紧密结合,因此组蛋白的理化性质也可以影响DNA的特性。目前已经发现很多种组蛋白修饰可以调控基因的表达。

组蛋白修饰可通过影响染色体的结构,比如让染色质变得紧缩或者松散,调控基因表达。

RNA层面——可变剪接、RNA修饰、非编码RNA调控

RNA层面的调控更加复杂,包括可变剪接、RNA修饰、非编码RNA调控。很多基因哪怕能顺利转录出RNA,但也不一定能翻译出蛋白;或者经过进一步加工,得到不同形式的转录本,最终翻译出不同的蛋白质。

(1)可变剪接

对于有多个外显子的基因而言,同一个基因可能对应多种不同的转录本,而不同转录本的形成依赖于可变剪接,即采用不同的形式,剪切掉不同的内含子,然后把外显子拼接起来的过程。

如果对于细胞A,你看到的蛋白1的表达;对于细胞B,你看到了蛋白2的表达。蛋白1和蛋白2来源于同一个基因,而可变剪接使得不同细胞表达出不同的形式,这也是基因选择性表达的范例。

(2)RNA修饰

类似于DNA,RNA上也可以发生多种修饰。mRNA上的修饰可影响其稳定性,促进或抑制该mRNA的翻译,即RNA修饰也可以调控基因的表达。RNA修饰是生物医学研究的前沿,有很多金矿有待挖掘。

(3)非编码RNA调控

非编码RNA自己虽然不能翻译为蛋白,但是有决定谁能翻译为蛋白的能力呀!具有调控功能的非编码RNA包括miRNA、siRNA等。

miRNA大约19~22nt,人小鬼大,在细胞浆内靶向mRNA 3’UTR,促进mRNA的降解或者阻断翻译过程,从而抑制这个基因的表达。当然,凡事都有两面性。我们lab的研究发现,miRNA也能出现在细胞核中,通过靶向增强子(类似启动子的具有调控功能的特殊序列),增强基因的表达[6]。siRNA是small interfering RNA,即小非干扰RNA,类似地,也能降解mRNA。

蛋白层面——蛋白修饰

翻译出来的蛋白质本身也可以发生很多修饰,最常见的是磷酸化、泛素化等,这些修饰也可以影响蛋白的活性。

总体而言,把基因比作电灯,这个电灯有很多开关,开关的排列组合,最终决定了基因表达的选择性。

参考文献:

1. Salzberg, S.L., Open questions: How many genes do we have? BMC Biol, 2018. 16(1): p. 94.

2. Eisenberg, E. and E.Y. Levanon, Human housekeeping genes, revisited. Trends Genet, 2013. 29(10): p. 569-74.

3. Caridi, C.P., et al., Nuclear actin filaments in DNA repair dynamics. Nature Cell Biology, 2019. 21(9): p. 1068-1077.

4. Li, J., et al., Guide Positioning Sequencing identifies aberrant DNA methylation patterns that alter cell identity and tumor-immune surveillance networks. Genome Res, 2019. 29(2): p. 270-280.

5. Lam, J.K.W., et al., siRNA Versus miRNA as Therapeutics for Gene Silencing. Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids, 2015. 4: p. e252.

6. Xiao, M., et al., MicroRNAs activate gene transcription epigenetically as an enhancer trigger. RNA Biol, 2017. 14(10): p. 1326-1334.



来源:知乎 www.zhihu.com
作者:xupenggoing

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此问题还有 4 个回答,查看全部。
延伸阅读:
体细胞内有没有基因不同的细胞?
人体中的全部基因只有2到3万个,而细胞数量却有40多万亿,那每个细胞都包含基因吗?

          

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Выбор Soyuz.Ru: 10 лучших металлических альбомов 2017 года

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10

Battle Beast “Bringer Of Pain”

(Nuclear Blast)

Обложка четвертого альбома финского состава обманывает, и обманывает сильно. Гиперреалистический китч впрямую намекает, что сейчас мы услышим тру-металлический альбом с женским вокалом, скроенный по всем возможным композиторским и исполнительским лекалам 80-х – однако те самые 80-е оказываются здесь другими. Говоря прямо, с того момента, как клавишник Янне Бъоркрот (Janne Björkroth) стал основным композитором группы, творчество Battle Beast всё больше стало смещаться в область презираемого многими, но весьма отходного в коммерческом смысле дамского поп-метала в лучших традициях альбома Warlock "Triumph And Agony" (1987) и восьмидесятнических работ Ли Аарон (Lee Aaron). Понятно, что "Bringer Of Pain" впитал в себя все новации и в техническом, и в национальном смысле – так, влияния Nightwish, понятные и простительные для всякого финского состава, собирающегося покорять рок-Олимп (да еще с вокалисткой во главе), весьма ощущаются в ряде пафосных треков. Местами, впрочем, музыканты доходят прямо до границ стиля диско, только с перегруженными гитарами – результат звучит как синтез опять же Nightwish и, не удивляйтесь, ABBA. В большинстве пьес Battle Beast даже не пытаются казаться истинными металлистами, да и аранжировки всех без исключения пьес альбома оказываются построены вокруг клавишных партий Янне. Диву даёшься, как в современном большом мире смещаются музыкальные тренды – собрались вроде бы музыканты поиграть ретро-метал, да и сочинили невзначай поп-альбом с завидным коммерческим потенциалом, успех которого целиком зависит исключительно от степени его раскрутки в мэйнстримных СМИ.

9

Arch Enemy “Will To Power”

(Century Media)

Своим десятым студийным альбомом интернациональный состав доказывает, что будущее экстремального металла как стадионной формы концертного искусства находится в надёжных руках – руках бессменного лидера квинтета, гитариста Микаэля Эмотта (Michael Amott) и вокалистки Алисы Уайт-Глаз (Alissa White-Gluz). Если говорить о балансе музыкальности, должной брутальности и общедоступности материала этой работы, то здесь напрашиваются сравнения не менее как с классикой Iron Maiden первой половины 80-х, вряд ли бывшей в ту эпоху такой уж благозвучной для широкого слушателя. Секрет невероятного успеха современного состава Arch Enemy вовсе не в том, что квинтет превратился в настоящую супергруппу – его вторым гитаристом стал лидер американцев Nevermore Джефф Лумис (Jeff Loomis). Нет, просто Микаэль и барабанщик Даниэль Эрландссон (Daniel Erlandsson) ныне ухитряются в номерах своего авторства сочетать откровенную поп-роковую мелодику и ураганные аранжировки, ну а каков грозный вокал Алиссы – лишний раз объяснять не надо. Честно говоря, “Will To Power” вполне заслуживает звание сверхрадикального мэйнстримомовго рок-альбома – мелодика песен здесь уже ничем на отличается от лучших сочинений в стилистике AOR («рока для взрослых»). Аншлаги по всему миру на концертах Arch Enemy совершенно не случайны – с таким материалом группу вскоре можно будет лицезреть только с противоположного конца немаленького стадиона.

8

Sorcerer “The Crowning Of The Fire King”

(Metal Blade Records)

Шведский состав Sorcerer – это настоящая легенда и миф дум-метала: группа создана бас-гитаристом Джонни Хагелем (Johnny Hagel – также Tiamat) и вокалистом Андерсом Энгбергом (Anders Engberg – также Dreams Fall и Speaking To Stones) аж в 1988 году, но её первый полноразмерный альбом увидел свет всего-то два года назад. Зато на счеты группы два совершенно культовых демо-ленты 1989 и 1992 годов, неоднократно становившиеся добычей бутлегеров. Понятно, что у музыкантов, обладающих таким упорством и такими параллельными карьерами, неправильных воззрений на любимую музыку быть не может, и “The Crowning Of The Fire King” – это личное послание всем тем, кому сильно не хватает в нашей эпохе классических альбомов Candlemass, Solitude Aeturnes и Memory Garden. Всё верно: Sorcerer играют неспешный, монументальный дум-метал, укоренённый, как и у только что перечисленных составов, в классике Black Sabbath и Rainbow 70-х. Понятно, что безупречное соблюдение правил субстиля опять привело к обилию на альбоме номеров с длительностью по восемь-девять минут, однако хорошо поставленный красивый вокал Андерса и чистое продюсирование превращают материал в настоящие произведения музыкального искусства, которые только в Шведской Национальной опере исполнять. Настоящий, в отличие от государственно поддерживаемого «шведского рока» и сиротской поп-музыки, символ национальных корней социалистического королевства в современной музыке. Послушайте и впечатлитесь.

7

Accept “The Rise Of Chaos”

(Nuclear Blast)

Стоит признать, что с 2010 года из творений традиционных хэви-групп наибольшей степенью соответствия современных звуковым стандартам в студии обладают все четыре альбома теперь уже интернациональной группы Accept, спродюсированные бывшим гитаристом британских трэш-составов Godsend и Sabbat Энди Снипом (Andy Sneap). В том числе и “The Rise Of Chaos”. Именно этот альбом в 2017 году стоит приводить как образец космополитического хэви-метала на всех вообразимых уровнях, от собственно музыкального материал до безупречного продюсирования. Плюс ко всему – понятная озабоченность лидера Accept, гитариста Вольфа Хоффмана (Wolf Hoffmann) всеми событиями, творящимися в современном мире.

Читайте также: Accept “The Rise Of Chaos”: Новый эталон старой веры

Результат очевиден – современному слушателю “The Rise Of Chaos” куда более понятен, нежели хэви-классика былых времён от Motörhead до Judas Priest. И новинку очень просто рекомендовать как естественный эталон классического хэви-метала 2010-х – так же просто, как и предыдущий альбом группы “Blind Rage” (2014) три года тому назад. Ультимативность работы подчёркивается и компоновкой песенной программы: так, его первые четыре трека – это настоящие манифесты стиля. Ещё один огромный плюс новой работы Accept – его разумная длина альбома в 46 с половиной минут, совершенно неутомительная для слушателя. Вы хотите узнать, что такое модель 2017 года в традиционном хэви-метале? Последний альбом Accept к вашим услугам.

6

Lancer “Mastery”

(Nuclear Blast)

После нишевого, но вполне громкого успеха составов Bullet, Enforcer и Katana впору вводить в обращение аббревиатуру NWOSweHM, то есть «новая волна шведского хэви-метала». И не в последнюю очередь благодаря усилиям вышеперечисленных коллективов во всеобщее обращение возвращается термин «спид-метал» – впрочем, для страны, подарившей в своё время миру пару культовых сборников "Scandinavian Metal Attack" (1984 и 1986) и полтора альбома состава Torch (1982 и 1983), в этом нет ничего удивительного. То есть желание музыкантов Lancer и подобных групп играть крайне «трушный» старообразный хэви-метал выросло не на пустом месте. Хотя нам, иностранцам, по отношению к Швеции, куда легче сравнивать третий альбом квинтета с общеизвестными мировыми образцами, то есть как собрание сочинений компетентных музыкантов, творящих себе кумиров из Iron Maiden и Queensrÿche одновременно.

Читайте также: 10 лучших альбомов «новой волны британского хэви-метала

Нет, группа не копирует всем известные композиции – речь идёт о духе и настроении, но если бы вокалист Исак Стенваль (Isak Stenvall) жил в Америке, его карьера точно начиналась бы в кавер-группе Queensrÿche: сходство его голоса с молодым Джеффом Тэйтом (Geoff Tate) местами просто удивляет. За Исаком тянутся и музыканты – гитарные мелодии и гармонии навевают воспоминания о дебютном EP сиэттльцев и их же альбоме "The Warning" (1984). Да, альбому в целом может быть приписан некоторый избыток музыкального и исполнительского пафоса – но кто ж в данном субстиле не без греха?

5

Act Of Defiance “Old Scars, New Wounds”

(Metal Blade Records)

Прелесть трэш-метала старой школы, исполняемого и первопроходцами этого стиля, и теми, кто желает попасть в их компанию – именно в консерватизме музыкального материала. Дополнения и усовершенствования в олдскульном трэше не должны выходить за границы допустимого – что и происходит на уже втором альбоме американского квартета Act Of Defiance, созданного вокруг двух бывших музыкантов Megadeth, гитариста Криса Бродерика (Chris Broderick, также экс-Jag Panzer) и барабанщика Шона Дровера (Shawn Drover, также экс-Eidolon). Дебютный альбом квартета “Birth And The Burial” (2015, Metal Blade Records) не стал бомбой в мире нелёгкой музыки, но заставил говорить об Act Of Defiance как минимум уважительно.

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Материал на стыке грув-метала и традиционного трэш-метала не без некоторого налёта техно-трэша здорово напоминал творения Testament грани веков и оказался вполне конкурентоспособен – именно поэтому, как видится, на “Old Scars, New Wounds” почти ничем не отличается от дебюта, разве что грувовых элементов стало чуть поменьше. Лет эдак 30 назад подобный материал назвали бы «пауэр-трэшем», но суть материала состоит в том, что во всех пьесах музыканты комбинируют своеобразный грубый мелодизм и маниакальную игру инструменталистов, причём вокал Генри Дерека (Henry Derek) может быть и чистым. Возможно, любители традиционного трэш-метала осудят “Old Scars, New Wounds” за чрезмерную простоту музыкальной составляющей, однако эта работа радует нас уместным и умелым балансом агрессии и понятных эмоций вокалиста.

4

Blazing Rust “Armed To Exist”

(Pure Steel Records)

Очарование NWOBHM, сиречь «новой волны британского хэви-метала», было крайне малодоступно отечественным слушателям и музыкантам по причине вполне прозаической: этот термин в родных СМИ, причём профильных, был впервые (!) упомянут в 1991 году. То есть картина вырисовывается дурацкая: Iron Maiden любим, а что такое NWOBHM – не знаем. И дебютный альбом питерского квинтета Blazing Rust оказался всего-то третьей NWOBHM-работой в России, после демо-альбома москвичей Lady Prowler (1992) и работы также питерцев Iron Driver “Prisoner Of Time” (2015). Тем не менее, очередной важный освоении музыкального и, что гораздо важнее, идеологического наследия NWOBHM, сделан – и сделан безупречно в смысле не столько самого субстиля NWOBHM, сколько современного мифа о нём. Да ведь Armed To Exist” издан не абы где, а пусть на вполне себе андерграундном, но опять же идеологически крепком лейбле, немецком Pure Steel Records. Но и музыка не подводит, вкупе с продюсированием – только говорить о материале нужно также не впрямую, а путём аналогий. Итак, представьте себе молодую британскую группу конца 70-х, кумиром музыкантов которой является Judas Priest, желающую звучать чуть посерьёзнее и помрачнее, При этом в номере “Blindfold” обнаруживается неподдельная родная удаль – в остальном же питерцы выступают матёрыми гимнописателями. Здесь не думают о коммерческой привлекательности материала и не пишут баллад, зато явно рассчитывают материал альбома на бодрую концертную подачу. Причём настолько, что альбом и слушается как готовая сценическая программа, а манера записи здесь также придерживается NWOBHM-идеологии: альбом не перепродюсирован и не звучит стерильно, однако он и не ударяется в совсем уж подвальную низкобюджетность, которой ныне грешат многие составы, теоретически возрождающие дух былых времён.

3

Overkill “The Grinding Wheel”

(Nuclear Blast)

Дух здоровой пощёчины общественному вкусу в неэкстремальном хэви-метале в целом на сегодняшний день лучше всего выражен именно в творчестве Overkill, причём примерно эдак уже пятый раз подряд, начиная с альбома «Immortalis» (2007), и с совершенно невероятной лихостью и озверелостью. Такой дух вечного бунтарства у Overkill ныне сочетается с написанием материала, более всего схожего с гипотетическими гимнами мировой технократической революции: «…с каким торжеством / он швырял свои пальцы на струны» – вот с таким, как это получается у Дэйва Линска (Dave Linsk) и Дерека Тэйлера (Derek “The Skull” Tailer). Новая работа нью-йоркцев – настоящий спид-трэш мегаполиса XXI века, и здесь можно обнаружить даже следы панк-рока большого города. Но, как это часто и бывает с подобными работами, перед нами – настоящее художественное заявление, а именно: лучшая музыка часто создаётся в не лучшие для человечества времена. И, конечно, "The Grinding Wheel" одним махом даёт слушателю понять, что такое современный Overkill – и, шире, современный трэш-метал старой школы: злобная вокальная подача Бобби Эллсуорта (Bobby «Blitz» Ellsworth) характерная глубокая бас-гитара Ди Ди Верни (D.D. Verni) и натуральный барабанный погром Рона Липницкого (Ron Lipnicki) плюс безупречный чистый микс Энди Снипа (Andy Sneap) и обложка Трэвиса Смита (Travis Smith) – собственно, непонятно чего еще и желать. Мира во всём мире? Но в таких условиях альбомы, равновеликие "The Grinding Wheel" точно не создаются и не записываются.

2

Starsoup “Castles Of Sand”

(Metalism Records)

Первый альбом московского прогрессив-металлического проекта “Bazaar Of Wonders” (2015) собрал в мировом масштабе мешок восторженных рецензий и явно оказался лучшей отечественной прог-металлической работой со времён легендарной сюиты «Автографа» «Век №20» (1985). Вторая работа Starsoup не демонстрирует, в отличие от дебюта, фейерверка субстилей и темпов – так, вокал лидера проекта Алексея Маркова (также Distant Sun) значительно ужесточился, а аранжировки стали несколько более аскетичными и одномерными. Но если темповые хэви-номера по-прежнему находятся в треугольнике Metallica-Dream Theater-Queensrÿche, то мрачноватая балладная составляющая способна удивить поклонников классического Blind Guardian или вызвать неожиданные параллели с впавшим в лёгкую депрессию и размышления обо всём сущем Supertramp. Последнее описание относится к балладам с обильными фортепианными партиями Рустама Ахматгараева. Судя по развернувшимся за две недели с момента релиза альбома Интернет-дискуссиям, “Castles Of Sand” уже оказался для нашей сцены работой, способной вызвать живой интерес и обсуждение прежде всего в профессиональной среде, а не между тех, у кого любимых отечственных хэви-групп – ровно две, и те известно какие. Плюс ко всему – изобретательный дизайн: каждой пьесе соответствует отдельная иллюстрация, могущая быть и обложкой отдельного сингла. А про разгул радикального профессионализма в деле продюсирования отдельных партий и сведения матерала уже можно и не говорить.

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Threshold “Legends Of The Shires”

(Nuclear Blast)

Не просто альбом года – но и, говоря смело, возвращение года. Ведь предпоследний на сегодняшний день студийный альбом уилтширского секстета Threshold “For The Journey” (2014) являл собой, вы уж извините, полнейший и скучный музыкальный формализм в рамках собственного уникального звучания группы. Плюс ко всему состав в третий раз (!) покинул (точнее, видимо, был уволен) вокалист Дэмиан Уильсон (Damian Wilson), которого заменил Глинн Морган (Glynn Morgan, экс-Mindfeed). Причем в традиции группы Глинн уже работал с Threshold – он пел на альбоме “Psychedelicatessen” (1994) и мини-концертнике Livedelica” (1995), а также принимал участие в работе над сингловым боксом группы “Paradox – The Singles Collection” (2010). И вот – как бы не лучшая работой группы после альбома “Clone” (1998). Никаких претензий к работам Threshold 2000-х годов – но всё же самодовлеющая, какая-то скульптурная монументальность не очень к лицу группе, которая явилась на сцену не свои умения в игре в сложных размерах демонстрировать, а создавать и исполнять песни. Именно песни, пусть и отягощённые несколько необычной ритмикой и протяжёнными, но при этом всегда понятными соло лидера состава, гитариста Карла Грума (Karl Groom) и бессменного клавишника Ричарда Уэста (Richard West). Причем за материалом Threshold слышится национальная традиция, а сам альбом концептуален с форматной (двойник!) и музыкальной точки зрения. Формально это музыкальное единство обеспечивается тремя частями титульного трека “The Shire”, где Threshold смело вступает на территорию, застолблённую Pink Floyd и Genesis, и выходит победителем. Плюс ко всему масса полубалладных фрагментов альбомных пьес имеют приятную для нашего уха славянскую мелодику. Столь завидные музыкальные стати альбома означают, что почти все пьесы отлично слушаются и вне концепта двойного студийного альбома – они и сами по себе хороши.

Читайте также: Выбор Soyuz.Ru: 10 лучших металлических альбомов 2016 года


          

same guts and marrow as those before him. He’ll fit in perf (ingen svar)

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An indepth look at the Texans fifth round pick Charles Omenihu" Real Joel Heath Jersey , Actual, Thought-Provoking Texans AnalysisThe Film Room2019 NFL Draft2019 NFL Draft: Taking A Closer Look At Charles OmenihuNew,28commentsAn indepth look at the Texans fifth round pick Charles OmenihuCDTEvery team has their quirks. The Chiefs can always find speed. The Steelers scout wide receivers better than any team in the league. The Titans love to invest in their offensive line then defend Marcus Mariota when he’s always injured. And the Texans, well the Texans, are smitten by late round and undrafted defensive linemen who are decent against the run but can’t rush the passer. Jared Crick. Sam Montgomery (lol). Jeoffrey Pagan. Christian Covington. Joel Heath. Brandon Dunn. Carlos Watkins. Angelo Blackson. In the fifth round of the 2019 NFL Draft the Texans selected University of Texas defensive end Charles Omenihu. Is Omenhiu like those previous ghosts, or is he something more, is he a complete player? Omenihu is a fine run defender. He is rarely driven back in the run game. Consistently he maintains his gap and ground. He knows how to take on half of the offensive lineman and sit. His pad level is usually great and he uses his elongated arms to extend offensive linemen. Most run plays look like this.via GfycatWhen the defense allows him to be aggressive and storm the gap, he can drive the inside half of the offensive lineman and into the ball carrier. His hands are a plus too. He can fumble around the dark and use them to feel his way to the ball like fuzzy antennas.via GfycatHe can make plays in the backfield when he shoots the gap. He isn’t going to take on the outside half, drive, sit, shed, and go devour the running back. The lateral quickness isn’t here to do this. Instead his tackles for a loss come from him penetrating into the backfield by going through half the lineman D.J. Reader Jersey , or slanting into the inside gap, getting skinny, and dragging down the ball carrier. It’s impressive how good he is at making himself smaller and narrowing the target the offensive lineman has.via GfycatHis best trait is his arm length and wing span. He’s one of those monstrous fruit bats, or a condor riding the vectors, hazy and dreamlike. Omenihu is able to consistently press linemen off of him, to give himself the freedom and ability to find and chase the football, even if he doesn’t have the quickness to close the gap and snap up the ball carrier.As a run defender he’s a 3-4 defensive end. He’ll play the 4i or 5. He’ll take on the inside shoulder and sit and maintain his gap, and every once in a while he’ll dive bomb the inside gap, make a play in the backfield, and lose his damn mind. Yet, he won’t be a consistent disruptive force against the run. In the NFL he should be solid, dependable Christian Covington Jersey , and has the frame he can add weight and strength to. Angelo Blackson probably doesn’t need to worry about his playing time anytime soon. The problem is most of what he does in the pass game isn’t going to work at the next level. I’m going to fight the first person who brings up his 9.5 sacks last season at UT to dispute this. Omenihu beat offensive tackles by long arming, or getting to the outside shoulder and ripping against some abhorrent pass sets. Geeze man, I have no idea what the kids are learning in school nowadays. Close down all the universities. Student debt, like employee provided healthcare, limits personal freedom anyways. These pass sets are putrescent and have no resemblance to what Omenihu will see once OTAs begin. This is trudgery from the right tackle. His feet are heavier than cheap rollerblades. He opens the gate, delays contact, doesn’t punch, and gives Omenihu his outside shoulder. The quarterback never reacts to the rush either. Come on man. Step up.via GfycatThe left tackle from Baylor has an atrocious set here too. He’s slow out of his stance, he is way too high, he lunges and dips his head when he attempts to punch the end, and Omenihu rips around his punch without a problem. It’s a fine pass rush move. It shows off Omenihu’s rip well, but the pass blocking is atrocious.via GfycatIn the pros Omenihu is going to struggle to reach the outside shoulder Andre Hal Jersey , make contact first, and beat the tackle to the point of attack. He even made the lumbering Dalton Risner look quick. There’s a general lack of short area quickness here. I bet you most of his next level pass rushes will look just like this.via Gfycat via GfycatAs an edge rusher, Omenihu struggles to beat the tackle to the point of attack with speed and quickness alone. It takes an awful pass set for it to happen. Omenihu is an edge rusher who has to win with his hands—plain and simple. Long arms and rips. Long arms and rips. That’s his game.He doesn’t have the athleticism to explode off the ball and run around the tackle. But he does have a knack for jumping the snap. You’ll see it occasionally with him. He’ll move instantaneous with the ball, and get around the tackle immediately. This isn’t because of a superb get off though. This is him understanding how to jump the snap.via GfycatIt doesn’t work every time. Against quicker, non hideous tackles, the lineman can catch back up and get drive Omenihu wide fairly easily.via GfycatHe lacks the athleticism to close the gap between him and the quarterback. Tackles have the ability to peel back and knock him off the arc once they get beat, and quarterbacks can scramble away from him when they see him in time. There isn’t any burst once he gets off the block.via Gfycat via GfycatOut the edge he also lacks an inside move. He doesn’t have the strength to overwhelm linemen with a bullrush. He doesn’t have a counter to his edge rush and rip. In the NFL, a player can’t be a productive rusher without a counter. Omenihu doesn’t have one. He’s all long arms and rips.via Gfycat via GfycatThe Texans employ J.J. Watt and Jadeveon Clowney, as of now, and this will lead to Omenihu rushing on the interior, either as a 3, 4i Greg Mancz Jersey , or 5, depending on how wide they want to get Watt and Clowney. Occasionally, he’ll get some reps as an end when Clowney is a nuclear bomb detonating and decimating the interior of the line of scrimmage. The lack of lateral quickness and strength when space is confined doesn’t translate to the interior of the field either.On a defensive line with Watt and Clowney, vulture sacks are available. Just ask Covington and others who have enjoyed this trickle down effect. Watt and Clowney will command the spotlight and force the quarterback into the arms of other rushers. Omenihu plays hard. His motor doesn’t stop. The motor chugs though. He also isn’t a great at running stunts. When he loops inside he runs right into guards, when he loops wide he is met at the point of attack easily. Players who know how run stunts well can walk their way into a couple of sacks by playing with this hellacious duo.via Gfycat via GfycatIt doesn’t look like there’s underdeveloped potential or athleticism to exploit here either. Omenihu can, should, and probably will get stronger and gain weight, but I wouldn’t expect for him to suddenly develop the lateral quickness or burst needed to become a competent pass rusher. It looks like this is about it for him.I wouldn’t expect much from Omenihu this year. The team has similar players in Blackson, Dunn, Heath, and a great run defender who can’t rush the passer in Reader. Omenihu may get some time here and there, but he won’t be able to play the run as well as them to get onto the field this season. As a pass rusher Jon Weeks Jersey , he’s much of the same. He’s a limited athlete who is going to struggle to get to the quarterback. There’s tools here. Long arms. Jump off the snap. A neat little rip when he gets his head across the tackle’s face. But overall he’s going to be locked down against NFL offensive linemen. Eventually, once Houston is done signing their mediocre defensive ends to 4-year $16 million contracts, he may one day replace them and do much of the same.So to answer the question, Omenihu isn’t any different, he’s just like all the others, made from the same guts and marrow as those before him. He’ll fit in perfectly here.via Gfycat Ah. The breath before the Super Bowl. Matt and his good friend Taylor briefly discuss the conference titles and pick their own imaginary Pro Bowl team."You can pick your nose. You can pick your friend’s nose. You can pick your mom’s nose. But you can’t pick your Pro Bowl Roster. That changes today. Matt Weston and his good friend Taylor briefly rehash the NFL Conference Championship Games and pick their own Pro Bowl teams. It’s a gigantic waste of time, but you ain’t got anything better to do, so you are going to listen, just like how you are going to watch the Pro Bowl on Saturday.Make sure to subscribe to the show no matter how you listen to it.SUBSCRIBE BELOW.The direct link is here and below is the embedded player. SUBSCRIBE.You can subscribe on iTunes here.You can subscribe on Android/Google here. You can subscribe/listen on Spotify here.While you’re at it, you should write a lovely review and give us the three stars out of five star rating we deserve. Keep that in mind when you download the episode this week.Thanks for staying awhile and listening. Enjoy the show while you do whatever it is that you do.
          

TLDR Interviews Green Co-Leader Jonathan Bartley

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In this episode Jack, Ben and Zac interview the Green Party's co-leader, Jonathan Bartley. We discuss a variety of topics from their manifesto, nuclear power and UBI to veganism, drumming and plants. 


          

Nuclear Med Tech Outpatient | Good Samaritan Medical Center

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West Palm Beach, Florida, Summary Under minimal supervision, performs basic Nuclear Medicine procedures, as requested by a licensed physician. Exercises professional judgment in providing healthcare services, to assist in dia
          

Sleepwalking with the Bomb - John C. Wohlstetter - История

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Anyone wishing to understand the past, present and future of nuclear weapons should read this fine book before saying a word on the subject.
RICHARD PERLE, Resident Fellow, American Enterprise Institute and Assistant Secretary of Defense, 1981–1987

Sleepwalking with the Bomb shows how we can forestall nuclear catastrophe. It offers familiar faces, cases and places to illustrate how the civilized world can face the most pressing nuclear dangers. Drawing from both history and current events, John Wohlstetter assembles in one place an integrated, coherent and concise picture that explains how best to avoid the “apocalyptic trinity”—suicide, genocide and surrender—in confronting emerging nuclear threats.


          

Galactic Reassurances: No ‘Alien Invasion’ Permitted – Part 1/2

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Let’s now look at what two of our sources have said about the cabal’s plans to mount a false-flag alien invasion and/or “Second Coming” – those who speak through Mike Quinsey and those who speak through Suzy Ward. It’s probable that the galactics’ neutralization of all nuclear missiles made them rethink their plans because the […]
          

Nations ease up on import restrictions Japanese food

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Countries around the world are relaxing or altogether scrapping their restrictions on Japanese food imports put in place after the 2011 accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant. On Nov. 4, Singapore announced it would no longer ban food imports from Fukushima Prefecture, and the European Union…
          

The blessings of free trade

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It's interesting to see that the West is suddenly discovering the intrinsic dangers of free trade when it is China providing services to other nations:
China could shut off the Philippines' power grid at will, a report has warned - highlighting fears about Beijing's role in infrastructure around the world. A report for Philippine lawmakers found that the country's national security 'is completely compromised' by China's access to the power grid.

Chinese engineers have exclusive access to parts of the system and could shut it down remotely, the report seen by CNN reveals. The findings will spark alarm in the West where China is helping to build a new nuclear power station in the UK and has already faced sanctions from the US.
But why would this cause any problems? Surely the New Filipinos who happen to be of Chinese descent love their new country and are just as Filipino as those whose great-great-grandparents were born in Manila are!

Paper nationalism is, and has always been, a shameless lie told by immigrants to advantage themselves vis-a-vis the native populations. 

And who cares if China can shut off the Philippines' power grid anyhow. The important thing is that the arrangement is more economically efficient, right? And nothing is more important than economic efficiency!
          

JOHN CHUCKMAN COMMENT: HOW MOSCOW VIEWED ISRAEL AS AN AMERICAN NUCLEAR-ARMED THREAT FIFTY YEARS AGO – AN IMPORTANT INSIGHT INTO MIDDLE EAST AFFAIRS OF THE TIME – AND AN IMPORTANT CLUE ABOUT ISRAEL’S COMPLEX NATURE – SOMETHING RARELY DISCUSSED IN THE WEST

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John Chuckman COMMENT POSTED TO AN ARTICLE BY MICHAEL WEAVER IN CHECKPOINT ASIA   “The Soviet-Israeli War 1967-1973: The Soviet Struggle vs Israel in the War of Attrition “The Soviets played a far more direct, long-lived and impactful role in the notionally Egyptian-Israeli struggle than is generally understood   https://www.checkpointasia.net/the-soviet-israeli-war-1967-1973-the-soviet-struggle-vs-israel-in-the-war-of-attrition/   “Soviet leaders not only […]
          

JOHN CHUCKMAN COMMENT: IN LIGHT OF PUTIN’S WORDS ABOUT LIVING IN CAVES WITHOUT HYDROCARBONS – SOME IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT AMERICA’S SHALE-OIL PRODUCTION TRUMP HAS EXPRESSED SUCH CHILDISH ENTHUSIASM OVER

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John Chuckman COMMENT POSTED TO AN ARTICLE IN CHECKPOINT ASIA   “Putin Says Humanity Will End Up in Caves If It Abandons Oil and Nuclear “The Russian energy balance is one of the greenest in the world due to the use of hydropower, nuclear energy and gas generation, Putin added, before going on to extol […]
          

US Envoy to Germany Fumes as More States Opt for INSTEX in Defiance of American Anti-Iran Sanctions

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Previously, Tehran, suffering under unilateral American sanctions, threatened to withdraw from the nuclear deal signed in 2015 if European countries don't get their INSTEX trading mechanism working and thereby re-enable trade with Iran.
          

Secret identity of fourth Soviet spy who stole US atomic bomb secrets finally revealed

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THE NAME of a missing Soviet spy which was hidden from the public for the past 70 years has just been revealed. The American man stole US atomic bomb secrets along with three other known individuals. This stealing of highly classified information between 1940 and 1948 was said to fast-track the Soviet’s development of nuclear […]
          

Workers With Bachelor’s Degree Tend To Lose Jobs To AI 5 Times Over

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A new report by Brookings Institution has debunked the notion that blue-collar jobs like fast food preparation, machine operation will be most affected due to AI. The report concludes that highly-educated and high paying jobs will face the worst brunt of artificial intelligence as opposed to the previously established notion.

The study is conducted by Stanford University doctoral candidate Michael Webb who analyzed more than 16,000 AI patents and over 800 job descriptions.

The study mentions that workers having a bachelor’s degree will be impacted up to 5 times more by the advent of AI than the workers who hold a high school degree. The reason behind it is the fact that AI tends to take over the jobs that involve planning, reasoning, problem-solving, and predicting outcomes.

Brookings study has also listed the high-paying jobs that will witness the highest exposure to AI. Here’s the list:

  • Chemical engineers
  • Political scientists
  • Nuclear technicians
  • Physicists
  • Occupational therapists
  • Gas plant operators
  • Administrative law judges, adjudicators, and hearing officers

The job profiles listed above have a median yearly salary of around $100,000. For example, according to the data by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median salary of a Chemical engineer is $104,910 per year; a nuclear technician earns the median salary of $79,140 per year.

This is a clear indication that AI will severely impact high-paying jobs and workers with higher educational degrees.

Speaking to CNBC, Webb says, “AI is good at tasks that involve judgment and optimization, which tend to be done by higher-skilled workers. So if you’re optimizing ads as an online marketer or a radiologist interpreting medical scans, all of these things take a long time for humans to be good at them. But when it comes to algorithms, once you have the right training data, they tend to be better than humans.”

What can be done to save your job from AI?

To mitigate the exposure of AI in jobs, Anima Anandkumar, the director of machine learning research at Nvidia, says that workers should ask themselves the following three questions:

  • Is my job fairly repetitive?
  • Does my job involve a trove of data that could be used for training an AI system?
  • Are there any objectives that could be used for evaluating my job?

Anima says that workers must develop skills for jobs that require human interaction and creativity.


          

Nuclear News Roundup Dec 01, 2019

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Nuclear News Roundup Nov 30, 2019

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The political album of the year (plus 9 others that are awesome)

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Political albums from November 2019.
November 28, 2019

Here are the best new albums that relate to this month's political news, including the album of the year. If you read to the end, there's also a bonus. What albums would you suggest? Comment on TwitterFacebook, or email


1. TO THE GRAVE - GLOBAL WARNING

On November 1, Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison announced plans to take action against banks and insurers that were boycotting the coal industry over climate change concerns. Four days later, 11,000 scientists declared a link between human activity and climate change, yet as people began to die in "unprecedented" bushfires sweeping Australia, Deputy Prime Minister Michael McCormack blasted anyone linking the fires to climate change as "raving inner-city lunatics". In the midst of the madness, Sydney deathcore band To The Grave released their new climate-themed album, which opens with the apt song "Holocaustralia". "In a genre oversaturated with violent lyrics simply for the sake of violence, I found that the most horrific things I could write about were right in front of us all, the things most of us choose not to look at," said singer Dane Evans, whose vocals range from a roar to a Gollum-like rasp over music that's as extreme as Australia's politics. LISTEN>>>    

2. ARCHIE ROACH - TELL ME WHY 

Things got batshit crazier when McCormack's fellow National Party member Barnaby Joyce claimed two people who died in the fires were probably Greens voters, implying they deserved to die because, Joyce claimed, the Greens had stopped the backburning of the bush. It was a complete fabrication, besides the fact that the Greens are strong supporters of Australia's Aboriginal people, who have backburned the bush for millennia. Telling the stories of those people was activist and musician Archie Roach, who released his autobiography along with an accompanying album on November 5. Tell Me Why maps out his life, "from stolen child, teenage alcoholic, seeker, lover, father, musical and lyrical genius, to social advocate and First Nations leader". It came as protests swept the country after a white policeman shot an Aboriginal man dead in the Northern Territory, adding to the never-ending tally of Black deaths in custody for which no one has ever been jailed. MORE>>>

3. SOLE & DJ PAIN 1 - NO GOD NOR COUNTRY

Raging against such racism is US rapper Sole, who opens his explosive new album with the song "FTL", which seethes: "Slap on the wrist, that's a white male. Slapped behind bars, that's a black male. Don't need me explaining white supremacy cos so many see it every day. But to my fellow settlers: check yourself, don't forget everything you've got's on the back of someone else. Fuck the law, cos it's racist. Fuck the court it's too expensive. Fuck the jails they don't fix shit. Fuck the cops cos they ain't shit." And on "Extremist" the long-time podcaster and protester spits: "As we speak, millionaires are buying up streams and lakes in New Zealand, building doomsday bunkers. What about the rest of us who can't afford to leave this mess that you made? If resisting this makes me an extremist, then that word is utterly meaningless." Everything about this record, from Sole's sharp raps to DJ Pain 1's blunted beats, is flawless. It's the album of the year for me. LISTEN>>> 

4. MOOR MOTHER - ANALOG FLUIDS OF SONIC BLACK HOLES 

Also raging against racist cops is Afrofuturist Moor Mother with her new experimental electronic album, released on November 8. On "LA92" she speak-raps: “Latasha got shot over orange juice. No cash, got shot. No justice body rock... LAPD on PCP, body bag body bag for you and me.” The lyrics refer to the 1992 murder of 15-year-old Latasha Harlins by Korean-born liquor store owner Soon Ja Du, who had accused her of shoplifting. The event, along with the videotaped police beating of African-American Rodney King two weeks earlier, became the impetus for the Los Angeles race riots. Describing the album, she said: “My whole work is to fight against the erasure of black people, the erasure of poor people, the erasure of black women, the erasure of women... If you have the knowledge of what’s happening in the world, and what has happened in the world to marginalised people, then what will you do with your energy?” LISTEN>>>

5. COLDPLAY - EVERYDAY LIFE 

Even tame, white British pop rockers like Coldplay were raging about racist police brutality this month. The song "Trouble In Town" on their new album, released on November 22, samples racist harassment by police, while Chris Martin sings: "I get no peace, and I just get more police." The band said they wouldn't tour the album until they could find a way to do it without damaging the environment. Meanwhile, as Britain headed for the polls in a race-baiting election, political albums were released by Black British artists who have first-hand experience of racism. The new album by Kele, who once publicly called out Sex Pistol John Lydon for allegedly being racist towards him, was praised as his "most political work yet". The latest LP by London Afrobeat Collective was hailed as "one of the best of 2019's releases". And the new long-player by Michael Kiwanuka was praised by seemingly everybody, even being called "one of the greatest albums of the decade".​​​​​​ MORE>>>    

     

6. VARIOUS ARTISTS - AQUÍ NOS ESTÁN MATANDO - HERE THEY ARE KILLING US

As police cracked down on activists all over the world, from rioters in Hong Kong to anti-coup protesters in Bolivia, Chilean singer Mon Laferte took a stand against lethal repression in her home country. On the red carpet at the Latin Grammy Awards, Mon Laferte opened her jacket to reveal a message written across her bare chest: "En Chile torturan violan y matan", which in English translates to, "in Chile they torture, rape and kill". After her album, Norma, won Best Alternative Music Album, she posted a photo of her red carpet look on Instagram with the caption, "Mi cuerpo libre para una patria libre", which translates to "My free body for a free homeland". A week later, Chilean record label Imperecedero Discos released a 52-track compilation album to help raise money for the victims of repression at the hands of the Chilean state. The album, titled Aquí Nos Están Matando - Here They Are Killing Us, features punk bands from all over the world. LISTEN>>>

7. LIFE AQUATIC - NEON CORTEX 

On the other side of South America, Brazil's most popular politician, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, was freed from jail on November 8 after his detention prevented him from running in last year's Brazilian elections that made Jair Bolsonaro president. Among Lula's many supporters is US academic Noam Chomsky, who is also the subject of the song "Chomsky's Ford Galaxie" found on the debut album by Brazilian experimental hip-hop outfit Life Aquatic. "Life Aquatic is born in ABC Paulista, the urban centre of greater São Paulo, trying to represent the submergence and lack of oxygen of life in a society that makes the simple become complex," they said. "Breathing becomes a difficult task, generating suffocation and discomfort, as when you are alone and submerged in complete mismatch with your system. Our mission? Try to gain breath again so as not to lose another scuba brother to this average life that tries to swallow us every millisecond." LISTEN>>> 

8. RAISED FIST - ANTHEMS 

As the US tried to reassert its power over South America with a coup in Bolivia and continuous pressure on Venezuela, Sweden dropped its rape charges against WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, who is facing extradition to the US for revealing its state secrets. On November 15, Swedish punks Raised Fist released their new album on the same day that Assange's lawyer called his extradition case "a threat to free speech worldwide". The album's title, Anthems, is no empty boast - the band capture the catchiness, heaviness and rasping vocals of AC/DC and inject that with a heady dose of leftist politics. The release followed a similarly heavy political album from fellow long-time punks, Agnostic Front. Talking about their 12th album Get Loud!, which covers everything from inequality and corruption to political manipulation, the "godfathers of hardcore" said: “We’ve always had a voice; had a lot to say. We’re always screaming for a change." LISTEN>>>

9. DAWN RAY'D - BEHOLD SEDITION PLAINSONG

Also screaming for change are Agnostic Front's fellow punks Subhumans, with their aptly-titled new album, Crisis Point. On "Poison", they yell: "When the earth dries up and the food runs out, all the money in the world won't help you out. Cancer, dementia, poverty prevention, clean up your act avoid extinction." Riffing on the same doom are folk-metallers Dawn Ray'd, with their new album, Behold Sedition Plainsong. On "Soon Will Be The Age Of Lessons Learnt", they warn: "As the ice melts and the ocean swells, all our masters are building is hell. The anticipation, the unsatisfiable hunger, the knowing but not ever knowing. As the last trees are murdered, and the insects are dying in droves, death crawls up the chain." On November 26, the United Nations declared in its annual assessment on greenhouse gases that the world will miss its chance to avert climate disaster without an immediate and all-but-impossible fall in fossil fuel emissions. LISTEN>>> 

10. CATTLE DECAPITATION - DEATH ATLAS 

At the end of the month, Australia's climate politics sank even lower as Energy Minister Angus Taylor faced jail for allegedly doctoring a document to claim that Sydney's Lord Mayor, who supports action against climate change, had spent millions on air travel. Instead of standing him aside, the Prime Minister rang the police. Summing up such dire politics were grindcore band Cattle Decapitation, with their new album, released on November 29. Describing the LP, whose artwork features the Grim Reaper carrying the burnt-out husk of the Earth on his back, vocalist Travis Ryan said: "I want people to be shocked into thinking more about their futures, their loved ones, the pain they're potentially subjecting their future generations to. Everyone just seems to live in the now with no care for tomorrow, and that's incorrect thinking, as far as today goes. Don't make tomorrow a cancelled cheque." MORE>>> 

Bonus: 10 more great new political albums

This column is taking a break until the end of January, so here are 10 extra albums to see you through till then.

1. TOMMY SANDS - FAIR PLAY TO YOU ALL

The latest strong and long-player from a well-loved Irish folk musician who's collaborated with Pete Seeger in the past. MORE>>>

2. BRASS AGAINST - BRASS AGAINST II

Radical covers brass band return with another collection. LISTEN>>>

3. CHADWICK STOKES - CHADWICK STOKES & THE PINTOS

Boston singer-songwriter comes out swinging for the rights of women, immigrants and indigenous people. MORE>>>

4. ANGEL BAT DAWID - THE ORACLE

Avant garde jazz musician takes a trip through Black politics with songs made on her phone. LISTEN>>> 

5. DJ SHADOW - OUR PATHETIC AGE

Legendary sampling pioneer returns with a double album that includes the biting "Drone Warfare". MORE>>>

6. TRIBE - HOMETOWN: DETROIT SESSIONS 1990-2014

Historical anthology from a sprawling political jazz and poetry collective. LISTEN>>>

7. MAKING MOVIES - AMERI'KANA

Quartet of Panamanian and Mexican immigrants tell tales of persecution under Trump. LISTEN>>>

8. STRAY FROM THE PATH - INTERNAL ATOMICS

Metalcore masters blend emotion and introspection into scathing takes on contemporary politics. LISTEN>>>

9. FIT FOR AN AUTOPSY - THE SEA OF TRAGIC BEASTS

Post-deathcore band channel "aggression, anger, frustration, and sadness" at the state of the world. LISTEN>>>

10. JUDY COLLINS - WINTER STORIES

This octogenarian folk musician and veteran activist serves up the closest thing you'll get to a protest Christmas album. MORE>>> 

 


ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Mat Ward has been writing for Green Left Weekly since 2009. He also wrote the book Real Talk: Aboriginal Rappers Talk About Their Music And Country and makes political music. This year, he released a new album about surveillance and an EP with Aboriginal rapper Provocalz. Follow his artist page on Spotify here.

Stream our political albums playlist on Spotifyhere.

Read about more political albums here.

Stream Green Left TV's political music playlist here.

The multi-award-winning journalist John Pilger says: "There are few other newspapers — radical or any other kind — that draw together news and analysis that is as well informed, credible, and non-sectarian as Green Left Weekly. Its work has influenced mine and has been a beacon to those who believe the press ought to be an agent of the people."


          

Sam Watson 1952-2019: A giant of the Aboriginal rights struggle

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Sam Watson. Photo: Alex Bainbridge
November 28, 2019

Sam Watson, a leader of the Aboriginal rights struggle, died on November 27, aged 67. A prominent author, playwright and filmmaker, Watson was also the Socialist Alliance’s (SA) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander affairs spokesperson for many years.

As a leading Murri activist based in Brisbane, Watson was a veteran of Indigenous rights struggles going back to the 1960s. A proud Wangerriburra and Birri Gubba man, he a former academic at the University of Queensland, and received honours for his 1990 novel The Kadaitcha Sung and acclaim for his 1995 film Black Man Down.

In a statement on behalf of the Watson family, Sam’s daughter Nicole Watson said he would be deeply missed, but that his legacy will continue into the future.

"Each year, Sam would be at the forefront of the Invasion Day rally in Brisbane.

"It is his family's hope that the Invasion Day rallies will continue to grow each year, because we know that he will be there in spirit."

Sam became active at the age of 16, handing out how-to-vote cards for the “Yes” campaign in the 1967 referendum on constitutional recognition of Aboriginal people.

Nicole said her father was proud of his Indigenous heritage, which led to his life-long activism.

He was a founding member of the Brisbane chapter of the Australian Black Panthers. "He proudly belonged to the original Aboriginal Tent Embassy" in Canberra from its establishment in 1972, she added.

Throughout the 1970s, Sam worked with elders to establish Aboriginal community organisations and peak bodies in health, housing, education, employment and legal aid. He was an important figure in the Brisbane Aboriginal Legal Service in the 1990s.

Sam was also a long-time socialist. He always saw the necessity to unite the struggles of Indigenous people with the movements of working people and the oppressed.

Watson contested a number of elections, at state and federal levels, for SA. Running in the March 2009 Queensland state election, Watson told Green Left Weekly: "Socialist Alliance won't tolerate pressure on the most vulnerable in our community — we stand for supporting people instead.

“We won't support big business's rush to profit at our expense.

“We stand up for the rights of working people, the unemployed, students — they are the backbone of our community, yet their rights are being compromised.

“And we will be encouraging people not to feel like victims, but to consider themselves strong, powerful people, and on election day, they will be powerful.”

Watson stressed that SA was not just after votes, but is an activist, campaigning party: "Even after election day, we are a people-based party, and we will continue to connect with people, unlike the corporate parties."

Regarding the current status of the Aboriginal land rights struggle, Sam told GLW in January last year: "Aboriginal people are deeply concerned about the role of multinational corporations, which are seizing our land and water and destroying it.

“In Western Australia, we face uranium mining; in the Northern Territory, a nuclear waste dump; and in Queensland, they want to turn our state into one big coal mine.

“The fight for Aboriginal land rights is still critical for us. Our people will fight to defend our homelands from mining and other threats.”

On the current challenges facing the Aboriginal movement, Sam said: "The Aboriginal rights movement is at a crossroads right now. From the 1990s to the present, we experienced a process of transition from the streets to the boardrooms.

"But the young people are becoming impatient again. Devolution of the Black political movement is going on. Aboriginal people are moving back into the streets to confront white power once more...

“Aboriginal people face major problems right now, and we are demanding strong action — immediately.”

I was a friend of Sam, and worked closely with him over many years in Brisbane. I always admired and loved him for his tireless work for the Aboriginal community, working people and the poor.

He had a vision of a future socialist society in which Black and white communities would live together in harmony and cooperation, and where full sovereignty of Indigenous people would be recognised.

He and his life-long partner Cathy were always present at progressive events in Brisbane and a source of warmth and support for all those struggling for a better world.

Sam will be sorely missed by his beloved family, his friends and comrades, and the Aboriginal community in Queensland and nationally. His steady and patient leadership and wise counsel will be an important legacy for the Indigenous movement and progressive causes more generally.

History will show that Uncle Sam was indeed a giant of the Australian Aboriginal struggle and of the broader fight for a just, cooperative society free of racial oppression.

Sam Watson. Photo: Alex Bainbridge

          

Britain: Most important election in a generation

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November 28, 2019

Britain goes to the polls on December 12, in what could be the most important general election in a generation. Boris Johnson’s increasingly right-wing and chaotic Conservative Party is generally seen as the likely victor, but Labour’s left-wing leader Jeremy Corbyn could once again surprise commentators. Whatever the result, the ongoing story of Britain’s crisis of identity and its relationship with the European Union (EU) is likely to continue.

Currently, polls make depressing reading for those of us on the left. The governing Conservatives are polling a steady 10% more than Labour, and in a winner-takes-all first-past-the-post voting system, are on target for a landslide victory.

Boris Johnson was elected Conservative leader and thus Prime Minister in August. He has had a rocky ride, taking his governing majority down to minus 43, after expelling MPs who would not support his hardline anti-European stance. However, his main policy to fix the Brexit crisis and negotiate an exit from the EU looks like a winning strategy.

Since the referendum in 2016, when Britons narrowly voted to leave the EU, the European question has dominated British politics. Voters, whether for or against Brexit, are weary with delay and uncertainty, and look likely to be persuaded by a promise to finally leave and settle the debate, so things can move on.

Media backs Boris

The British media are fully behind Boris. There are suggestions that the BBC have edited news footage to make Boris Johnson look better.

The pro-EU remain vote is split between several political parties and the pro-leave camp is increasingly firmly voting for the Conservatives. The right-wing Brexit Party is refusing to contest Conservative seats. A recent poll by the Economist magazine puts the Conservatives well ahead of Labour with 44% of the vote in the previous solidly Labour but pro-leave working-class constituency of Great Grimsby.

Britain’s billionaires and hedge funds have been pouring money into the Conservative campaign.

Every day since he was elected Labour leader back in 2015, Jeremy Corbyn has been attacked relentlessly, labelled an anti-Semite and a friend of terrorists. Former Labour MP Ian Austin was wheeled out in the first week of the election, to condemn Corbyn and insist that Labour voters should vote for the Conservatives.

The election result could lead to a large majority for an increasingly right-wing Conservative Party. More centre-right MPs have been expelled from the party and Johnson is known to be close to United States President Donald Trump. Trump will be visiting Britain shortly before the election and a significant trade deal with the US could see the reengineering of British society.

Britain’s beloved National Health Service, a socialist medical institution, could be privatised and sold to US health corporations, as part of any Trump deal. Trexit, a Brexit favouring Trump, could result in an assault on trade unions, animal welfare conditions and environmental standards.

Johnson is taking other lessons from the Trump playbook. If elected, he has promised to introduce identity checks to make voting more difficult and is likely to redraw constituency boundaries to cement Conservative domination in future elections.

The Centre for Social Justice, a Conservative-sympathetic think tank, has revealed plans to raise the pension age from 67 years to as much as 75.

However, a Conservative victory is less likely than the bleak polling figures suggest. There is a possibility that in 2019 there will be a repeat of the 2017 General Election. When former Conservative Prime Minister Theresa May called an election with the promise of exiting from the EU, hoping to take working-class votes, she too was riding high in the polls.

May went to the election with even stronger polls than Johnson — on average 20%. She looked likely to win a huge majority on a right-wing programme. Instead, on election day the Conservatives polled 42%, closely followed by Corbyn’s party on 40% and she lost her majority.

Media campaign against Corbyn

Corbyn is unpopular with the British media and some older voters, but he still has a number of advantages. His clear left-wing program for tackling climate change and ending austerity has allowed Labour to build a membership of more than half a million people. This gives it a formidable election machine able to mobilise voters on election day.

Corbyn is also very popular among young voters, who have been registering to vote in record numbers. “Grime4Corbyn” is just one dimension of the rush from musicians to support him. Corbyn has performed well in the first two General Election debates and the more voters see of him in action the more they like him.

The third party, the centre-right Liberal Democrats, seems to be being squeezed. While strongly pro-EU, the party looks likely to support the Conservatives, as it did in the governing coalition between 2010–15. However, there is huge pressure to vote tactically for Labour in key marginal constituencies to beat the Conservatives.

Lib Dem leader Jo Swinson was ridiculed after a poor performance in a televised debate. Her assertion that she would press the button and launch a nuclear war if necessary has also gone down badly. A bizarre social media hoax that she hated squirrels and hunted them with a rifle has also gone down badly in a nation of animal lovers.

All this helps Corbyn. However, it is far from certain that Labour will close the gap this time around and the election race has a number of additional complexities.

In the north of Ireland, where the Conservatives are a fringe party without MPs and Labour does not run candidates, whoever wins the present government loses.

The right-wing sectarian Democratic Unionists, who feel betrayed by Johnson after supporting his government, won’t help him in a future parliament.

A range of pro-remain parties, including Sinn Fein and the Greens, have stood down candidates in key constituencies to maximise the vote of anti-sectarian and pro-EU candidates.

In Scotland, the Scottish National Party (SNP) has risen sharply in the polls and looks likely to take constituencies from both Labour and the Conservatives. While Labour has traditionally been a pro-union party and has lost support to the SNP, it is possible that the SNP would give a Labour minority government support after December 12, perhaps in return for a new referendum on Scottish independence.

Greens

The Green Party of England and Wales is running more than 470 candidates.

The Scottish Green Party is an independent party and the Northern Irish Greens is a regional party in the Republic of Ireland.

In 2017, it promoted a progressive alliance to challenge the Conservatives. This proved unpopular with Green Party members and Labour refused to participate. This time, it is running a controversial “remain alliance” with Welsh party Plaid Cymru and the Liberal Democrats.

This has been condemned as a move to the right, as the Liberal Democrats supported David Cameron’s Conservative government and now includes many former Conservative MPs.

There is also a risk that Greens candidates will split the vote in some marginal constituencies and deliver victory to Johnson. However, in a number of marginal seats such as Canterbury, the Greens have stood down.

The complexities of the British political scene make any description of the situation difficult. However, a Labour Party fighting on a clear socialist program might just win and change British political history.

Corbyn has promised a new vote on the EU and is perhaps the only leader trying to bridge the divisions on the EU among British voters. Whether he can win — in the face of a well-funded right-wing Conservative Party, strongly supported by the media, Trump and Britain’s billionaires — remains to be seen.

Corbyn certainly has some fight in him and is boldly in solidarity with all those in struggle. Typically, he tweeted in support of striking university workers: “Staff at universities are striking over the next eight days, and I stand with them. University staff deserve fair pay, secure contracts, reasonable workloads and decent pensions. Labour will end the marketisation of education, and we'll put staff and students first.”

With a wave of strikes, including by university lecturers and rail workers, it is clear that militancy is rising in Britain, so win or lose on December 12, the Conservatives face an increasingly united and vibrant left.

[Derek Wall is a former international coordinator of the Green Party of England and Wales.]

Protesters gathered outside the Conservative Party manifesto launch in Telford on November 24.

          

Inconvenient truths about the Greens

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November 27, 2019

While there are serious flaws in Inside the Greens, author Paddy Manning is too good a journalist to suppress vital information. Some of it is explosive.

For instance, during the recent conflicts in the Australian Greens between The Greens NSW and Bob Brown devotees, some in the later camp pushed for the wholesale expulsion of the former.

That was not the only example of such blow-up-the-ship thinking.

According to Manning’s sources, in the wake of David Shoebridge’s victory in the member’s ballot for top position on the 2018 NSW ticket, Brown met with the Greens NSW MPs from the right of the party and pledged support if they split The Greens NSW. This pact was sealed with a weird handclasp, captured in a photo that Manning has seen.

So rabid were these forces that, on top of the chaos in Victoria over the sabotage of Alex Bhathal, they drove an exasperated Richard Di Natale, the Australian Greens parliamentary leader, to the brink of resignation, Manning says.

These events form the climax of the historical narrative which constitutes the major part of Inside the Greens. If Manning indicates no sympathy for these manoeuvres, he certainly is not expressly critical of them.

With three of the four plotting NSW MPs either defeated at the polls or resigning from the Greens, a surface calm now reigns.

The danger is obvious.

The Australian Greens has always been a collaboration of diverse forces, all of whom realise the central issue is the protection of our endangered living environment. Internal intolerance will not bode well for the even wider collaboration that is required to resolve the ecological crisis.

The Greens NSW has brought real benefits to this collaboration: an insistence on grassroots democracy; a critical attitude towards capitalism; and a more relevant left-wing politics.

The fact that then NSW Greens Senator Lee Rhiannon, backed by The Greens NSW, prevented her colleagues from doing a deal over Gonski 2.0 (which privileges federal aid to private and religious schools) demonstrates this.

In the wake of this crisis, the right-wing took aim at the left-wing briefly expelling Rhiannon from the party room and demanding that NSW abandon its requirement that MPs follow policy determined by members.

These conflicts reflect the different origins of the Greens. An early chapter of Inside the Greens quotes the Sydney Greens in 1984 describing themselves thus:

“The Greens in Sydney come from many backgrounds. Environmental and resident activists. Nuclear disarmers. Dissidents from the Labor party who have witnessed betrayals by both wings of that party. Feminists. Anarchists. Those inspired by the German Greens. Socialists of various kinds.”

Manning then comments: “It was as good a summary of the origins of the party as has ever been written.”

Inside the Greens certainly fleshes this description out, and significantly modifies it.

Manning argues strongly that the major roots of the Australian Greens lie in the earlier iterations of a “third party” in Australian politics, namely the Australia Party (1966–75), the United Tasmanian Group (1972–1990) and the Australian Democrats (1977–?).

The argument that they are the main progenitors of the Australian Greens gets strong support from the fact that Brown and the other Tasmanians emerged from this milieu. Brown’s preference in 1990–91 was for a merger of his Tasmanian independents with the Australian Democrats to form the Green Democrats. A coup inside the Democrats scuppered this and Brown returned to collaborating to form the Australian Greens.

This connection to earlier “third party” efforts helps explain the preference pussyfooting with the Liberals and other conservatives that Greens in eastern states — other than NSW — have indulged in, notoriously the deal with Clive Palmer in 2013 and talks with the Liberals in Victoria in 2016. 

These earlier “third” parties were also parliamentarist outfits that eschewed civil disobedience and direct action.

This was not true of the left Greens, who were proud of their connection to the Builders Labourers Federation-led Green Bans movement, the original forest blockade at Terania Creek in NSW in 1979, the women’s anti-nuclear pickets at Pine Gap in 1983 and the Franklin campaign in the early 1980s.

When Inside the Greens gets down to the history of the Australian Greens, it is very much the Bob Brown-Christine Milne version. The bias starts with its account of its formation. On one side are the reasonable initiators and, on the other, the obstructionists — the Tasmanian Greens and Greens NSW respectively.

Except it wasn’t quite like this.

The fact that the talks, the formation and the launch for the Australian Greens took place in Sydney should have alerted Manning to the fact that NSW was playing a central role.

The Greens in NSW held the all-important electoral registration of the party’s name, which it shared widely with the idea of building-up a loosely federated party with local roots.

By 1991, the Greens in NSW had already succeeded in getting a councillor elected to both the Newcastle and Marrickville Councils. Moreover, the lower house election results for NSW Greens candidates in the 1990 federal elections were, if anything, better than the Tasmanians. The first electoral successes on the mainland were in WA and NSW.

The Greens in NSW were a key partner in the formation of the Australian Greens, not a recalcitrant foreign body, as presented. When, for instance, Brown repeats his claim that the “old guard” of the Greens NSW derailed the attempt to form a national greens party at the Getting Together conference in 1986, Manning lets it stand — despite any evidence.

It is possible to acknowledge the valuable contribution that Brown and Milne have made to the Greens without adopting a reverential attitude. It is equally possible to acknowledge the essential contributions of the Greens NSW.

While the bulk of Inside the Greens is a history, its final 90 pages are a discussion of the party’s policy dilemmas.

Manning peppers these chapters with a few radical voices: Jonathon Sri on Brisbane Council is given two pages for his libertarian socialist views and Tim Hollo’s ideas on the commons and ecological democracy gets an airing.

But, in general, Manning’s centrist politics prevail — especially when he dismisses Shoebridge’s policy ideas, which are the closest to the ecological social democracy of Bernie Sanders, Jeremy Corbyn and Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez as you are likely to get in the Greens. 

None of this is meant to deter a reading of Inside the Greens.

In addition to the excellent early chapters, Manning is too conscientious a journalist not to equip observant readers with some of the facts that run against his own predilections.

[This is an edited version of one of the articles on the website Inside Inside the Greens compiled by Lee Rhiannon, Geoff Ash and Hall Greenland which is devoted to remedying errors in Inside the Greens.]

Paddy Manning's Inside the Greens looks at the history of the Greens from the viewpoint of Bob Brown and Christine Milne,

          

Físicos han encontrado evidencia de una nueva fuerza de la naturaleza

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Artículo publicado por: CODIGO OCULTO. Para leer más haga clic en: Físicos han encontrado evidencia de una nueva fuerza de la naturaleza

Todo en nuestro Universo se mantiene unido o separado por cuatro fuerzas fundamentales: la gravedad, el electromagnetismo y dos interacciones nucleares. Un equipo de físicos ahora piensan que han visto las acciones de una quinta fuerza física que emerge de un átomo de helio. Una quinta fuerza de la naturaleza, diferente a todo, ha sorprendido...

Este artículo Físicos han encontrado evidencia de una nueva fuerza de la naturaleza se ha publicado primero en CODIGO OCULTO. Autor de artículo: Redacción CODIGO OCULTO


          

TBT - Evan Peikon on Why We Need To Throw Out Traditional Endurance Training

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Back by popular demand and ready to drop a nuclear bomb of knowledge on his own solo show. Evan dives into why our old conditioning models are broken and what the new science and programming is doing to create the fittest athletes in the world.


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UrFU and Rosatom Held a Training Course on Nuclear Science and Technology

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Researchers from different countries participated in the training course
          

Pope Francis, in Japan, Warns of ‘Selfish Decisions’ on Nuclear Energy

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Making the first visit to the country by a pope in 38 years, Francis called for an end to the nuclear arms race in visits to Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
          

To Nuclear Engineering 3rd Edition Solutions

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To Nuclear Engineering 3rd Edition Solutions
          

Fine-tuning gene expression during stress recovery

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Scientists have discovered non-coding RNA has a novel role to fine-tune gene expressions during stress recovery, getting closer to uncovering a 30-year-old nuclear mystery.
          

Nuclear Medicine Tech PRN - Winnsboro | CHRISTUS Health

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Winnsboro, Texas, Description Prepares radioactive isotopes for administration to patients in accordance with physician's orders. Operates scintillation detection equipment to measure isotope concentrations and scanne
          

Nuclear Med Tech HSH | Geisinger

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CAMP HILL, Pennsylvania, JOB TITLE: Nuclear Med Tech HSH LOCATION: Holy Spirit Hospital DEPARTMENT: Radiology WORK SCHEDULE: Days WORK TYPE: Flex   JOB SUMMARY: Uses radioactive materials to assist in the diagnosi
          

Nuclear Medicine Tech PRN - Winnsboro | CHRISTUS Health

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Winnsboro, Texas, Description Prepares radioactive isotopes for administration to patients in accordance with physician's orders. Operates scintillation detection equipment to measure isotope concentrations and scanne
          

How much should it cost to charge a car?

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Back when nuclear power stations were first proposed, we were promised "energy which is too cheap to meter". That is, the cost of electricity would be so low, invoicing for its use would be prohibitively expensive. Well, that didn't exactly turn out that way! But as our electronics have become more efficient, the cost of…
          

Germany is closing all its nuclear power plants. Now it has a problem with deadly waste

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notoffsidefc comments on russia begins testing underwater nuclear weapon and

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I could definitely tell her I have more than one question for her, and see how that goes. Thank you so much for your compassion! I'm going to bring a list of everything I want to discuss, and I'll definitely have a priority if she doesn't have time to address all of them."I do the best that I can. I'm just what I am." Rush (Best I Can)Before I get into everything, please know that I am not trying to bump this post or anything like that.

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For some reason, I can feel it shortly after I get up in the

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California, A thriving physician's group on the coast of California is seeking BE/BC Non-Invasive Cardiologist to join their team. The practice would prefer someone with additional training in nuclear cardiolog
          

Pete & Pan - Return Of The Goddess

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Artist: Pete & Pan Title: Return Of The Goddess Label: Goa Madness Records Date: November 27, 2019 1. Serra Del Estrela 2. Elysian Fields 3. passing Spirits 4. Tantric Tweak, 5. The Fool 6. Abundance 7. Nowhere 8. Solstice 9. Muse (Bonus Track) Peiter, will you tell me a story? I’ll do better than that for you Peiter, we are going to make one together Pieter Goessens & Pieter van den Broeck make up Pete & Pan. If you haven't watched the Goa Madness interview with these fella's go and do so to get an idea of what they are all about. Alternatively you can take my word for it that they are all about having a fun and bringing enjoyment to the world. And if you know about Goa Madness Records then you probably know that they pretty much only release well produced psychedelic Goa albums. Taking this into account you can expect a well produced psychedelic Goa trance album that is almost filled to the brim with good times and positive story telling. The feel good aspect of this album is something I haven't heard since listening to Spiritual Healing. ~ Serra Da Estrela Good intro's are the most wonderful little gift that makes an album so much better. Serra Estrela has Astrix level Shamanic Tale vibes and does the trick of transporting you to another world like nothing else. The baseline is deadly and the magical atmospheres carry you through to a large vibrant melody that pick you up and take you higher and higher if you let it. Elysian Fields An anthem for all the teenage boys and girls out there that could never get some. A perfect mix of despondent teenage insecurity floats around positive future outlooks. If Elysian Field (Which is perfectly titled) does not pull an adolescent from their glum self pity into a mood terrorized by hope and positivity then nothing but time will. There is a playful little surprise for us further down the line that turns into a gamechanger for the track. 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The explosion of feel good vibes wrapped up in a wide melody makes you want to stroll where rays of sunshine can surround you in warmth the way that Tantric Tweak warms you from the inside. Darker atmospheres crawl out of the intro to Abundance but quickly get buddied up next to some playful positivity. The track builds and builds into something almost unrecognizable to the beginning. Absolutely incredible story telling that has so far remained impossible to not get lost in. Nowhere Melodies of raw sugar screech across your brain and etch themselves into it. Behind that you have a melodies begging you to throw your arms out to the side to glide on euphoria. Solstice Starting energetic and full of playful potential as can be expected with these bubbas. Here you're gonna get more twists, just as many feel good melodies and scorching raw leads of nuclear fusion. Muse (Bonus Track) It's been a long time since ive sat through such a purposefully uplifting banger. Muse is the sort of track you close a magical festival experience with, leaving everyone full of bliss and peace. A favourite from the album for it's pure emotional power. ~ Goa Madness continue their selection of hand crafted, top quality maestro produced Goa Trance. The production quality here is on par with Hypnoxocks Eurythmia, everything is polished, clean & purposeful. Each Track is a story and each finishes far away from where it starts. Listen to your album however you want, but try as many different ways as possible, back to forth, front to back, on shuffle. each time you get a different perspective and a different journey. Some of the track in Return Of The Goddess are the sort of music The Muses Rapt should have been producing in 2019. Well Pieter & Pieter have taken the torch and given us something that is so delightful I'm scared of listening to it too much. If Pieter & Pieter are going to go to the effort of releasing this piece of wonder then i'll face my fears and listen to this album till my heart is content. This album is certainly going into my top 10 for 2019 and something I'll be bumping every time I need a little extra aural love in my life. Thank you Goa Madness and all of the Pieters involved in this project. https://goamadnessrecordsofficial.bandcamp.com/album/return-of-the-goddess
          

Taken to Brink by Trump, Gulf States Are Backpedaling on Iran

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Taken to Brink by Trump, Gulf States Are Backpedaling on Iran(Bloomberg) -- An expanded soccer tournament, a direct flight, clandestine meetings and a pledge to release prisoners of war; diplomacy is breaking out as Gulf Arab nations back away from a Donald Trump-inspired confrontation with Iran. And the signs are everywhere.Last week, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain played their first games of the 2019 Arabian Gulf Cup in Qatar after a last-minute decision to take part -- an apparent breakthrough in a 30-month feud that saw them halt trade and flights over Qatar’s links with Iran and support for Islamist groups.Meanwhile, the Saudi-led coalition that’s fought Iranian-backed Houthi rebels in Yemen since 2015 began releasing jailed Houthis, as efforts to end the conflict gather momentum. Oman is quietly hosting high-level meetings, according to people familiar with the matter, and even Iranian President Hassan Rouhani has hinted at direct channels with the U.A.E.Spooked by the prospect of a catastrophic war with Iran and its proxy militias across the region, Gulf monarchies are in the midst of a strategic rethink. The U.A.E., whose economic model relies in large part on its international links, quickly realized it had most to lose from a military escalation. It had removed most of its troops from Yemen by the end of a turbulent summer that saw oil tankers targeted and a U.S. drone downed in the Gulf without significant American response.While the humanitarian catastrophe unleashed by the Yemen war trained an unwelcome spotlight on Saudi Arabia, it took a brazen strike on Saudi oil installations -- which knocked out half the country’s crude production -- to ram home the risks and prove that Trump was not about to ride to his allies’ rescue.“The attacks shattered any illusion of this magical U.S. security umbrella,” said David Roberts, an assistant professor at King’s College London who studies the Gulf. “It burst the bubble and showed that Iran had the willingness to both do something astonishing like the attack on Aramco facilities and the capability to carry it out.”Iran denies U.S. and Saudi assertions it carried out the Sept. 14 strikes, pointing to Houthi claims of responsibility. But people familiar with investigations into the attacks say they were almost certainly launched from southwestern Iran -- an explosive escalation in Tehran’s pushback against an economic offensive unleashed by Trump and enthusiastically backed by the Saudis.The Trump administration withdrew last year from the 2015 deal meant to prevent Iran from developing a nuclear bomb, and reimposed sanctions that have crippled its oil exports. But the “maximum pressure” policy is designed to coax Tehran into more concessions not to drag the U.S. into a new Middle East war just as it draws down troops in Syria.Rolling back Shiite Muslim Iran’s power remains a priority for the Sunni Gulf Arab leadership. There’s an increasing recognition, however, that no one stands to gain from a military escalation in the world’s top oil-exporting region.Saudi Arabia’s Center for International Communication didn’t respond to an email seeking comment. The U.A.E. declined to comment. But in a Nov. 10 speech, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Anwar Gargash said he saw “a path to a deal with Iran that all parties might soon” be ready to embark on if Tehran demonstrated commitment.War to ‘Cold Peace’In search of a breakthrough, Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan, a former cricketer elected with the backing of a powerful army that provides extensive support for the Saudi military, shuttled between Tehran and Riyadh in October. He met Iran’s supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and Rouhani, as well as Saudi Arabia’s King Salman and Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman, describing talks as “encouraging.”Khan said he traveled at the request of Trump and Saudi Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Adel Al-Jubeir said the diplomacy wasn’t prompted by the kingdom. But deepening unease in the Gulf catalyzed the effort.Turning these overtures into lasting peace between countries that have grown further apart since the 1979 Iranian revolution remains far off.The Gulf states resent Iran’s deep reach into Arab nations. While ongoing protests in Iraq and Lebanon suggest Iran has reached the limit of its regional influence, they are unlikely to reverse political and military advances decades in the making.“Cold peace is possible but we are certainly far from a grand bargain,” said Afshin Molavi, senior fellow at the Foreign Policy Institute at Johns Hopkins. “For that, both Riyadh and Abu Dhabi would have to accept a role for Iran in Arab countries such as Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Yemen.”As they explore ways forward, Gulf states are moving at different speeds.The U.A.E. broke with the U.S. and Saudi Arabia by not naming Iran as the culprit behind attacks in May and June on oil tankers as they sailed toward the Strait of Hormuz, the world’s foremost oil shipping chokepoint.It sent coast guard officials to Iran for the first time in six years and Rouhani hinted at other meetings with senior U.A.E. officials. “We’re moving toward improved relations,” he said Oct. 14. Saudi Arabia is catching up.Washington built a multilateral naval operation to protect shipping in the Gulf after the attacks and sent more troops to Saudi Arabia. Both actions resulted in a “down tick” in Iranian actions,” U.S. Defense Secretary Mark Esper said Nov. 13. “The Iranians should not mistake our restraint for weakness.”Where the U.S. holds back, however, others are crowding in. Besides his role in saving Bashar al-Assad’s regime, Russian President Vladimir Putin has forged a partnership with Iran, created an oil alliance with Saudi Arabia and built ties with Egypt’s Abdel-Fattah El-Sisi, who was warned by the U.S. last month against plans to purchase Russian jets.Putin traveled to Saudi Arabia and the U.A.E. in October after visits by the Saudi king and the U.A.E.’s de-facto leader Mohammad bin Zayed to Moscow. The two Gulf countries and Russia have signed deals valued at billions of dollars.For Iran’s Rouhani, the case for regional engagement is obvious.“Don’t you know that Iran is going to stay here and we will remain neighbors throughout history?” he has said, referring to Iran’s Arab neighbors. “Trump will only be around for a few years and will go back to whatever it was he was doing.”\--With assistance from Golnar Motevalli and Glen Carey.To contact the reporter on this story: Zainab Fattah in Dubai at zfattah@bloomberg.netTo contact the editors responsible for this story: Lin Noueihed at lnoueihed@bloomberg.net, Mark WilliamsFor more articles like this, please visit us at bloomberg.com©2019 Bloomberg L.P.



          

Retired Naval Officer Creates Historic Legacy in His New Memoir

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In his book,  “Living the MIRACLES, A Sailor's Life in the Nuclear Power Age,” the author shares his experiences during a unique time of change in American naval history––that of the transition from diesel to nuclear power.  -   - Albert Kelln was motivated to become a Naval Officer in the early 1950s, at which time he got selected and trained to become a Naval Reactor Operator.  -   - Kelln tells of his voyages on submarine USS Skate to the Arctic Ocean. Kelln is additionally acknowledged to...

Read the full story at https://www.webwire.com/ViewPressRel.asp?aId=250032


          

Papa şi victimele triplului dezastru: indiferenţa se învinge prin compasiune

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«Un moment important al vizitei mele în Japonia». Astfel a definit papa Francisc întâlnirea de luni, 25 noiembrie, cu victimele "întreitului dezastru" – cutremurul, tsunami şi incidentul nuclear – după cum este numită în Japonia explozia centralei nucleare de la Fukushima.
          

Bitter Cold Stops Coal, While Nuclear Power Excels

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Through thick and thin, extreme hot or extreme cold, Bomb Cyclones and Polar Vortexes, this nuclear plant never seems to stop producing over 9 billion kWhs of energy every year, enough to power Seattle. The same with all other nuclear plants in America. Not so much with coal and gas.
          

The Pope’s Nuclear Option For Japan’s Troubled Economy

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The pope may not be an economist. But, inadvertently or not, he spotlighted Japan's need to pivot away from nuclear power.
          

The Staggering Timescales Of Nuclear Waste Disposal

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We're currently thinking in decades or thousands of years. We need to be thinking in millions.
          

Nuclear News Roundup Dec 01, 2019

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Nuclear News Roundup Nov 30, 2019

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North Korea fires unidentified projectiles: South Korea military

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November 28 (Reuters) – North Korea fired unidentified projectiles on Thursday, South Korea’s military said, the first such launch in nearly a month, amid a stalemate in denuclearization talks between Pyongyang and Washington, as a year-end deadline looms to strike a deal. Japan’s Coast Guard said it had detected what appeared to be a missile launched […]

The post North Korea fires unidentified projectiles: South Korea military appeared first on NewsIn.Asia.


          

El Decretazo Digital también va contra ti

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El Decretazo Digital también va contra ti

Este miércoles 27 de noviembre el congreso de los diputados ha dado vía libre por muy amplia mayoría al Real Decreto-ley 14/2019 de 31 de octubre por el cual el gobierno, este, el siguiente o el que venga, podrá intervenir con “carácter excepcional y transitorio” redes y servicios de comunicaciones electrónicas. Las comillas son nuestras porque esta ley tiene mucha chicha y desde la primera línea es un despropósito tras otro con tintes de dictadura orwelliana. Porque ¿quién considera qué es de carácter excepcional? Pues el mismo gobierno.

Esposas de la policía sobre el teclado de un ordenador

Este decreto es una revisión 2.0 de las Leyes Mordaza que promovió el gobierno de Mariano Rajoy, el cual era una nueva vuelta de tuerca a la Ley Sinde del último gobierno de Rodríguez Zapatero. En el fondo todas tienen la misma idea: el gobierno de turno se ha cansado de tener que pedir permiso a un juez para hacer algo ilegal y de que el juez le mande a paseo. Así que optan por legislar; quitan al juez de la ecuación y hacen lo que antes no les dejaban. Gracias a la Ley Sinde pueden cerrar páginas de “piratería” aunque no haya ánimo de lucro, con las Leyes Mordaza hacían ilegal el derecho básico a la protesta no violenta y ahora con el Decretazo Digital podrán cerrar webs que contengan información de disidentes, de sindicatos, de colectivos por los derechos sociales, de colectivos por los derechos de las personas migrantes, etc.

Con este decreto el gobierno podrá cortar redes y comunicaciones (no solo internet) cuando ellos determinen que hay una amenaza para el orden público o cuando estimen que se puedan crear graves problemas económicos a otros proveedores o usuarios de redes o servicios de comunicación. En el caso de los cortes de redes de comunicaciones, hay que tener en cuenta el nivel de complejidad y la gran cantidad de información que se obtiene de estas redes, lo que posibilitaría actuaciones muy concretas, como cortar la conectividad a un número concreto de teléfono o a todos los teléfonos que estuvieran localizados en un área concreta, por ejemplo en la Puerta del Sol de Madrid el 15 de mayo de 2011. En este redactado no solo cabe la “República Digital Catalana”, cabe mucha más gente; en este redactado cabes , seas quien seas.

Cuando una sección sindical, una asamblea de trabajadores y trabajadoras o un comité de empresa esté promoviendo una huelga por motivos laborales en una empresa, especialmente en alguna pública como pueda ser RENFE, ADIF, Enaire o en alguna privada pero cuyo servicio se considera “importante” como pueda ser cualquier teleco, el gobierno podrá ordenar el cierre de la web e incluso el cierre de las comunicaciones en una zona determinada; por ejemplo, en donde se encuentre el sindicato convocante.

Cuando un colectivo esté preparando una huelga general, por ejemplo el movimiento 8M, el gobierno podrá cerrarles las páginas web.

Cuando un grupo ecologista esté preparando una movilización frente a una central eléctrica de carbón o nuclear, el gobierno podrá cerrarles la página web y cortar las comunicaciones en la zona en cuestión.

Cuando vaya a haber una movilización, la que sea, el gobierno podrá cortar la conectividad con Telegram, WhatsApp, como han hecho gobiernos tan “democráticos” como el turco, el chino o el ucraniano.

… y entonces habrá que denunciar al estado ante un juez, e ir a juicio, y esperar. Esperar mucho. Y aunque luego el juez te dé la razón, el daño ya estará hecho. La huelga habrá sido un fracaso, se habrá desmovilizado al colectivo, se habrán desvanecido las fuerzas y un juez dirá que tenías razón y que el gobierno no tenía derecho a cerrar tu web.

Por este motivo es importante que la información se difunda. Más allá de que organizaciones judiciales vayan a denunciar este real decreto por inconstitucional, debemos difundir en nuestros entornos lo que significa esta ley. En el trabajo, entre tus amistades, con la familia. Es importante porque esta ley te afecta, quieras o no, tanto como te afectan las Leyes Mordaza.

Para saber más:
Sobre las leyes mordaza [NoSomosDelito]

Sobre el Decretazo Digial podéis leer a Civio, Xataka la Plataforma en defensa de la libertad de información o ADSLZone

La imagen es de Marco Verch, podéis ver la foto original y la licencia.

Coordinadora Jue, 28/11/2019 - 12:14
          

I was going to toss out everything else

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pigslam comments on russia begins testing underwater nuclear weapon and

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When Kevin Willmottstepped into a University of Kansas classroom wearing a bulletproof vest, his students immediately fellsilent.Willmott said that when students and staff members returnedto University of Kansas campus in Lawrence last month, he wanted to let them know exactly where he stands on the gun issue.As he walked into the room on the first day of class, he said that there was"an audible hush.""One of the things I told them was, 'Youtry to ignore that I'm wearing a bulletproof vest, and I'll try to ignore that you could be packing a.44 Magnum,' " he said.Willmott,59, a professorof film and media studies, said in an interview that hedoes not fear his students but is convinced that concealed carry on campuses is "a crazy idea.""We've seen what happened in these horrible incidents at Sandy Hook and Virginia Tech and a bunch of places around the country," Willmott told The Washington Post. "And I don't think it's the students' job to turn into Rambo to try to take on somebody that might be out to do us harm.""The whole idea is just insane, and it can only lead to bad things," he added.[ Guns go to college: Everything you need to know about campus carry ]Campus carry has been a contentious issue at colleges and universities in multiple states, where students and faculty have protested similar gun policies. Students at the University of Texas at Austin, for example, attended a demonstration last year armed with sex toys instead of firearms, to fight "absurdity." At that same school, an economics professor emeritus quit, telling university officials: "Out of self protection, I have chosen to spend part of next Fall at the University of Sydney, where, among other things, this risk seems lower."People were also debating the issue in Kansas last year ahead of the law's implementation at state colleges and universities."When a gun is in a school and harm is meant, there is only one thing that is going to stop that and that is another gun," state Sen.

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Un nuovo modello per prevedere i terremoti

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Un nuovo modello per prevedere i terremoti

Il nuovo modello numerico individua la fonte del pre-cursore ai segnali sismici. Questa ricerca potrebbe un giorno consentire una previsione accurata dei terremoti.

Le simulazioni numeriche hanno individuato la fonte dei segnali acustici emessi da guasti sollecitati nelle macchine da laboratorio per i terremoti. Il lavoro scompone ulteriormente la fisica che guida i guasti geologici, conoscenza che un giorno potrebbe consentire una previsione accurata dei terremoti.

Il dottor Ke Gao, (1) geofisico computazionale del gruppo Geophysics presso il Los Alamos National Laboratory, spiega: “precedenti studi di apprendimento automatico hanno scoperto che i segnali acustici rilevati da un terremoto possono essere utilizzati per prevedere quando si verificherà il prossimo terremoto. Questo nuovo lavoro di modellazione ci mostra che il crollo delle catene di stress all'interno del tallone del terremoto emette quel segnale in laboratorio, indicando meccanismi che potrebbero anche essere importanti sulla Terra.” Ke Gao è l'autore principale dell'articolo pubblicato su Physical Review Letters. (2)

Le catene di stress sono ponti composti da granuli che trasmettono le sollecitazioni da un lato all'altro di un blocco guasti.

Il dottor Gao lavora in un team di Los Alamos che ha identificato il segnale acustico predittivo nei dati provenienti sia dai terremoti di laboratorio sia dalle regioni situate in Nord America, Sud America e Nuova Zelanda. Il segnale indica accuratamente lo stato di stress nell'errore, indipendentemente dalla lettura del segnale.

Per studiare la causa dei segnali acustici, il team ha condotto una serie di simulazioni numeriche sui supercomputer utilizzando il codice HOSS (Hybrid Optimization Software Suite) sviluppato da Los Alamos. Questo nuovo strumento numerico è una metodologia ibrida, il metodo combinato a elementi finiti discreti. Unisce le tecniche sviluppate mediante tecniche a elementi discreti, per descrivere le interazioni grain-to-grain e con tecniche ad elementi finiti, per descrivere le sollecitazioni in funzione della deformazione all'interno dei grani e della propagazione delle onde lontano dal sistema granulare. Le simulazioni imitano accuratamente le dinamiche dell'evoluzione dei guasti sismici, come il modo in cui i materiali all'interno della sgorbia si frantumano e si scontrano tra loro e come le catene di sollecitazione si formano e si evolvono nel tempo attraverso interazioni tra materiali sgorbianti adiacenti.

Los Alamos ha finanziato un programma pluriennale di svariati milioni di dollari composto da esperimenti di modellistica numerica e sforzi di apprendimento automatico per: sviluppare e testare un approccio altamente innovativo; per sondare il ciclo del terremoto; per rilevare e localizzare lo stress guasti che si stanno avvicinando al fallimento.

Il laboratorio nazionale Los Alamos, (3) un istituto di ricerca multidisciplinare impegnato in scienze strategiche per conto della sicurezza nazionale, è gestito da Triad, un'organizzazione di scienze della sicurezza nazionale orientata al servizio pubblico di proprietà paritaria dei suoi tre membri fondatori: Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), Texas A&M University System (TAMUS) e i reggenti dell'Università della California (UC) per il Dipartimento dell'Energia nazionale per la sicurezza nucleare.

Los Alamos migliora la sicurezza nazionale garantendo la sicurezza e l'affidabilità delle scorte nucleari statunitensi, sviluppando tecnologie per ridurre le minacce provenienti dalle armi di distruzione di massa e risolvendo problemi legati all'energia, all'ambiente, alle infrastrutture, alla salute e ai problemi di sicurezza globale.

Riferimenti:

(1) Ke Gao

(2) From Stress Chains to Acoustic Emission

(3) Los Alamos National Lab: National Security Science

Descrizione foto: queste simulazioni prima e dopo mostrano il collasso di una catena di stress dopo un terremoto di laboratorio. - Credit: Los Alamos National Laboratory.

Autore traduzione riassuntiva e adattamento linguistico: Edoardo Capuano / Articolo originale: Numerical model pinpoints source of pre-cursor to seismic signals


          

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Author: xantox
Forum: Physique
Date: 2010-04-06

Tu peux nous en dire plus sur le H non standard ? Comment le détecterait-on dans cette hypothèse ?
La variante principale est celle du modèle standard supersymétrique (minimal ou non minimal). Les variantes non supersymétriques pourraient être en principe très nombreuses et commencent à être repertoriées et étudiées depuis peu (ex. H en présence de dimensions supplémentaires, modèles "petit Higgs", symétrie gauche-droit etc). Nombre de topologies de désintégration sont connues et identifiables. Certains scénarios auront besoin d'une plus forte luminosité et ne seront testables qu'au SLHC. D'autres sont hors portée ou ne sont pas encore bien étudiés, mais bien sûr au début les recherches ne se concentreront pas sur les scénarios de la mauvaise chance avec un H "invisible". Pour une bonne révue du sujet cfr S. Chang et al., "Nonstandard Higgs Boson Decays", Annual Reviews of Nuclear Science, 58, 75-98 (2008).

Pour rester très concret, je pensais qu'on trouverai pkoi la matière a une masse.
Oui, le mécanisme de Higgs explique l'origine des masses des particules. En particulier, dans la théorie électrofaible, la symétrie SU(2) de la fonction d'onde est brisée par le champ de Higgs – ce qui implique des bosons W et Z massifs. Ces derniers ayant été effectivement observés (au CERN en 1983) ce qui est déjà un résultat prodigieux, il est normal de chercher aussi H, car si ce champ n'existe pas, eh bien le modèle standard est faux

Ne pas oublier François Englert et Robert Brout, qui ont trouvé le mécanisme avant Peter Higgs (celui ci l'a redécouvert indépendamment). Et je lis sur Wiki que y'a également Gerald Guralnik, Carl Richard Hagen et Tom Kibble associé à cette trouvaille.
C'est vrai qu'il y aurait une brochette de candidats, incluant Lyndon Evans du CERN. L'idée clé du mécanisme d'acquisition de la masse par brisure de symétrie est en fait due à Nambu (vers 1960). Mais son idée avait besoin d'ajustements techniques et cela fit son chemin. Higgs et les autres ont fait les derniers cent mètres, en trois papiers indépendants publiés en 1964. Celui d'Englert et Brout un peu avant, celui de Higgs et celui successif de Guralnik, Hagen et Kibble. Higgs avait en fait soumis avant, à un journal (publié par le CERN!) qui réfusa son très court papier ne voyant pas très bien ce dont il retournait. Plus tard Higgs le renvoia à un autre journal avec un petit paragraphe explicatif et fut publié cette fois. Ce furent ensuite surtout Weinberg et 't Hooft qui l'inclurent véritablement dans les fondations du modèle standard. Mais bon, comme Nambu, Weinberg et 't Hooft ont déjà eu le prix...
          

Telegram Bot Shutdown

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I dislike a lot of people who are in my contact list. There is nothing personal about anything, but it makes me feel extremely anxious when I spot them being a hypocrite. It happens a lot, so I decided to build a simple Telegram bot which can send reminders to these people, daily. Of course, I gave them the option to unsubscribe. I didn’t want to harass them with my messages. I did it for fun. That’s it.

Here are the messages -

{
  "wisdom" : [
        {"message" : "Lose it all and hit yourself in the head with a hammer to make the voices stop."},
        {"message" : "One day, life will lose meaning. Until then, keep working in an office building."},
        {"message" : "Why do your best when you can just kill yourself? "}
        {"message" : "Someone has to be a pathetic piece of shit. You can do it."}
        {"message" : "The fact that you are sexy, doesn't mean that you are talented."}
        {"message" : "Marriage is just another word for a nuclear test site."}
        {"message" : "You are a lonely normie."}
        {"message" : "Someone should feel pain. You can be that someone."}
        {"message" : "Let people know that your life is incredibly loaded with diseases."}
  ]
}

Thanks to the lovely Inspirbot for all the quotes!

The messages are getting sent in the following format -

Today’s wisdom -

“One day, life will lose meaning. Until then, keep working in an office building.”

To stop getting these quotes, reply “/myasshurts”

Thank You.

  • The Loyal Bot.

The subscribe again, the user needs to message - `/iamafuckfacehypocrite`

I’m going to shut the bot down. It’s been a couple of days, and the people in my contact list must have already received some messages, and I think that’s enough. I know it was a dick move, but I enjoyed doing it. No hard feelings for anyone, it’s just that those people are remarkably irritating.

On a lighter note, I just found out that we can schedule messages on Telegram. Not bad!


          

What a Bloomberg candidacy could mean for climate

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Story 352248938

This weekend, former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg entered the presidential race in classic billionaire style: by buying up $30 million worth of TV ads. Bloomberg’s late-stage entry has sent a jolt through the Democratic primary. Will it do the same for the discussion around climate change — an issue that has been shunted to the tail end of a long progressive agenda?

Bloomberg, a former Republican worth a reported $58 billion, has long made bringing down emissions a centerpiece of his philanthropic work. With his help, the Sierra Club launched the Beyond Coal campaign — an initiative that supports grassroots efforts to shutter coal-powered plants across the United States. Sierra Club estimates the initiative is responsible for shuttering 40 percent of the nearly 300 coal plants that have closed so far. (However, some of those plants switched to natural gas, a less emissions-intensive fossil fuel, which Bloomberg endorsedas a “bridge fuel” as recently at 2016.) Bloomberg also pledged half a billion dollars to help launch Beyond Carbon, another Sierra Club effort that aims to shut down the nation’s remaining coal plants.

Bloomberg has also donated $5 million to the League of Conservation Voters, a group that keeps tabs on how members of Congress vote on climate and environment bills and lobbies for climate action. He’s donated more than $150 million to green groups in total. And he was some of the brains and most of the muscle behind America’s Pledge, a group that aims to fill the void Trump left when he exited the Paris climate agreement by galvanizing regional and local support for green policies.

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There’s more on Bloomberg’s list of green accomplishments, but you get the picture. His money has done a lot of good for the environment. In fact, one could easily argue that Bloomberg has done more for climate action as a philanthropist than progressive elected officials have been able to manage in Congress. As fellow billionaire candidate Tom Steyer pointed out at the fifth Democratic presidential debate last week, Congress hasn’t yet passed a single climate bill.

If Bloomberg has had so much success tackling climate change outside the confines of the Capitol, and politicians have had so little success doing the same thing in Congress, why not just stay put?

New York Representative Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez, who has endorsed Bernie Sanders for president, made exactly that point in a tweet earlier this month. “Call me radical, but maybe instead of setting ablaze hundreds of millions of dollars on multiple plutocratic, long-shot, very-late presidential bids, we instead invest hundreds of millions into winning majorities of state legislatures across the United States?”

To borrow a phrase from Sanders, it’s possible that Bloomberg will be able to walk and chew bubble gum at the same time. He said he plans to spend $100 million in swing states pushing anti-Trump ads. And he could spend up to $20 million more on voter registration in those states. In other words, it’s not like the Bloomberg money tap is going to run dry now that he’s running for president.

Not to mention that the primary contest has been missing a climate hawk since Washington Governor Jay Inslee dropped out. The field could benefit from a new, climate-oriented addition, and Bloomberg has signaled an interest in filling that role. On his campaign website, Bloomberg cites “Fighting climate change” as one of his chief priorities. In the section on addressing the crisis, Bloomberg touts his record on climate and promises to “ensure the federal government leads an ambitious agenda to accelerate the U.S. toward a clean energy economy.”

But because he said he will not accept campaign donations, it’s unclear how Bloomberg will ever meet the Democratic National Committee’s official requirements to make it onto a debate stage. And, no matter how many millions he pours into the race, the billionaire will have to play a lot of catch up to boost his poll numbers. Right now, he’s polling with the bottom tier of 2020 candidates. Turns out there are still a few things money can’t buy.

This story was originally published by Grist with the headline What a Bloomberg candidacy could mean for climate on Nov 25, 2019.


          

Republicans are buying rooftop solar. Will it change their politics?

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Story 352151296

Say you’re walking down the street in a random neighborhood somewhere in the United States, and you see a house with solar panels on the roof. Can you make any assumptions about the people who live inside? Is the decision to install rooftop solar the mark of a liberal climate warrior, or does it cross party lines?

Those are two of the questions Matto Mildenberger and his co-authors set out to answer in a new study published in Nature Energy last week. “I genuinely didn’t know the answer,” Mildenberger, a professor of environmental politics at UC-Santa Barbara, told Grist.

Using the satellite tool Google Project Sunroof, which maps existing rooftop solar installations, the group found more than 4,000 houses with rooftop solar and 4,000 neighboring houses without solar. They then matched the addresses with political and voting behavior data purchased from a political data company. For each address, they acquired information like party affiliation, voting activity, whether the household rented or owned the property, and basic socioeconomic and demographic data. After crunching the numbers, they found that 34 percent of properties with solar belonged to registered Democrats, and 20 percent belonged to registered Republicans. (The remaining 46 percent were independents or unregistered.) The neighboring, non-solar houses were split along similar lines.

“We’re not actually seeing Democrats have solar and Republicans don’t,” Mildenberger said. “This is reasonably strong evidence that people are not deciding to adopt solar out of some sort of ideological preference.” He attributes the higher number of Democrats with panels to the fact that areas with more Democrats, like California, also tend to have more solar panels in general.

Mildenberger’s work builds on similar findings from an earlier study by a group out of UC-Berkeley looking at political affiliation and rooftop solar in just two states: Texas and New York. While those researchers didn’t have the granular address data that Mildenberger’s group worked with, they found that Republican-majority communities had installed rooftop solar panels at the same or greater rates than Democratic-majority communities.

“Both papers are pointing to this fact that Republicans are given this image that they are not participating in the solar revolution, but they are,” said Deborah Sunter, a co-author of the earlier paper who’s now an assistant professor at Tufts. “There’s a mismatch between what the constituents are doing and what the politicians are advocating for.” In several states, like Ohio and Kentucky, Republican-led legislatures are rolling back incentives for renewable energy.

But the new study suggests that could change. That’s because people with rooftop solar were significantly more likely to vote than those without.

In general, primary, and municipal elections between 2008 and 2017, households with solar panels consistently voted more frequently than households without solar installations. Why does that matter? If conservatives with solar are more likely to hit the polls than their neighbors, they also might be likely to lobby their politicians to support clean energy policy.

There’s a theory in political science called “policy feedback”: When a new policy is implemented, and people who may not have supported that policy in the past begin to benefit from it, they might form new coalitions to protect and strengthen the policy. In short, “a new policy creates a new politics.” With solar, the federal solar tax credit and net metering policies created a financial incentive to install rooftop panels, which may have led residents who couldn’t care less about the environment to invest in them. Now, Mildenberger said, these folks have a vested interest in protecting that investment, and may put more pressure on their representatives to support clean energy policies.

“I think that we’re seeing that this technology has the potential to scramble some of the ideological cleavages that exist around climate and energy,” said Mildenberger. “It may be an on-ramp for Republican primary voters to push Republicans to maintain or adopt a more aggressive pro-renewable stance.”

The study illustrates that Republicans are active participants in the clean energy transition, but it’s less clear why. There’s a range of possible motivations driving the decision to invest in solar: it might make financial sense, or someone might like the autonomy of generating their own energy or the idea of being more resilient in the face of power outages. Or they might just think it’s the right thing to do. Why Republicans install solar panels is one question Mildenberger plans to look into next.

Regardless of the reason, Sunter said the new findings are heartening. “It’s really great to see that our country isn’t as divided as I think society or the media is trying to push us to believe that we are,” she said.

This story was originally published by Grist with the headline Republicans are buying rooftop solar. Will it change their politics? on Nov 25, 2019.


          

Global Energy News Roundup: November 27

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Embed from Getty Images The Forum on Energy weekly news roundup brings together a mix of global energy stories from around the web. It is published every week. Please visit our page on Twitter via @forumonenergy Japan Nuclear Regulator Approves Restart of Reactor At Onagawa Power Plant  Japan’s Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) has granted Tohoku Electric Power to restart a reactor at... View Article
          

Nuclear News Roundup Dec 01, 2019

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Nuclear News Roundup Nov 30, 2019

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WATCHMEN - Recensione 1x05 "Little Fear of Lightning"

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Ancora una volta la miniserie targata HBO continua a rimescolare le carte, a ribaltare gli equilbri e a mettere alla prova la nostra sanità mentale pur camminando su un terreno estremamente familiare per i fan del fumetto originale. "Little Fear of Lightning", frase tratta da una famosa citazione di Jules Verne, compie un processo di transazione vera e propria all'interno dello sviluppo della storia, proponendo il tutto da un punto di vista estremamente interessante. Diretto da Steph Green (The Americans) e scritto da Damon Lindelof e Carly Wray (Westworld) l'episodio esplora il passato di Wade Tillman, noto come Looking Glass, dal suo trauma principale fino al presente, dove egli scopre la verità e rivede tutta la sua visione del mondo messa in dubbio.



-2 Novembre 1985: L'episodio si apre nel passato, in un periodo che i lettori del fumetto conoscono molto bene. Il 2 Novembre 1985 a Hoboken, nel New Jersey, un gruppo di giovani discepoli, fra cui figura un giovanissimo Looking Glass, scende da un pullman, dove il loro predicatore li invita a pregare prima di entrare in un luogo di perdizione prima di diffondere la verità a un minuto dalla fine del mondo. Così, sulle note di "Things Can Only Get Better" di Howard Jones, Wade inizia a camminare per strada, chiedendo alle persone che incontra se sono pronte a sentire la verità, ma viene assalito da due di loro, che gli sottraggono i volantini. Una ragazza di nome Roxi porta via Wade dal caos e gli chiede di poter sapere di più e i due finiscono in una stanza degli specchi, dove lei chiede a Wade perchè si trova nel New Jersey, domandandogli se crede che la fine del mondo stia arrivando. Wade spiega che è lì per portare la verità ai peccatori e mostra una certa sicurezza, dicendo di non aver paura di nulla. Sulle note sfumate dell'indimenticata "Careless Whisper" di George Michael, la ragazza inizia a svestirlo, apparentemente per fare sesso con lui, ma alla fine lei fugge via con i suoi vestiti. Realizzando di essere stato giocato, Wade si dice patetico e che ha ottenuto ciò che meritava, ma a un tratto vi è una forte esplosione, che fa esplodere gli specchi intorno a lui. In seguito Wade si risveglia col sangue alle orecchie e uscito fuori vede migliaia di corpi a terra per la strada, fra cui Roxi. Così Wade si riprende i vestiti e vede altre persone sconvolte dai molti corpi a terra. Wade inizia a urlare dal terrore, mentre l'inquadratura ci mostra l'origine di questo caso, vale a dire un gigantesco calamaro teletrasportato a New York.


-Dire la verità: Nel presente Wade lavora come opinionista per delle campagne pubblicitarie e gli viene affidato il commento di uno spot volto a far tornare la gente a New York (con tanto di easter egg in casa HBO, cioè il cameo di Michael Imperioli nel ruolo di se stesso), che lui giudica solo un modo per ricordare alla gente della morte di tre milioni di persone. In seguito mette i panni di Looking Glass e si dirige alla centrale, dove Laurie sta facendo un briefing con tutti gli agenti in merito al Settimo, in particolare sull'importanza di trovare la chiesa dove vengono girati i loro video. Intanto Red Scare e Panda discutono delle varie frange del cristianesimo, quando decidono di chiedere l'opinione di Glass sull'argomento e lui nota che Scare mangia un panino con la lattuga requisita all'uomo che ha sparato a Charlie, non prendendola bene. Poi Angela va alla sua scrivania, chiedendo novità riguardo alle strane pillole del suo nonno, ma lui non ha ancora trovato nulla. Angela gli chiede se ha detto alla sua ex che era una cosa importante e Glass risponde di averlo fatto. Angela lo invita a dirglielo di nuovo, ma lui le spiega che gli sta facendo un favore e che perciò non dovrebbe farci affidamento, ma lei non sembra d'accordo in merito. A un tratto Laurie chiama Glass nel suo ufficio per parlare in privato, invitandolo a togliersi la maschera, visto che conosce il suo viso, ma lui le ricorda che il regolamento prevede l'uso della stessa all'interno del dipartimento, per questioni di sicurezza. Laurie gli garantisce che può fidarsi di lei e così se la toglie. Laurie gli chiede da dove viene e scopre che lui era presente quel famoso 2 Novembre. Lui le conferma che era nel New Jersey e lei gli chiede se è ancora spaventato a seguito di quegli eventi. Glass le dice che dorme bene la notte e Laurie sa bene che il materiale della sua maschera, la reflectatina, viene usata come protezione per le scariche psichiche. Lei sa anche che lavora nella ricerca di mercato, in poche parole dire a un gruppo di idioti quello che dovrebbero dire di un prodotto come copertura per il suo lavoro come vigilante e lui lo conferma. Alla fine lei lo congeda, ma non prima di aver chiesto di certe pillole, dicendo di aver messo una cimice nel cactus della sua scrivania e Glass dice che è una questione privata fra lui e Angela e Laurie decide di lasciarlo andare.

RECENSIONE 1x01 "IT'S SUMMER AND WE'RE RUNNING OUT OF ICE"



-In costante allerta: Tornato a casa Wade vede che ha ricevuto una lettera destinata alla sua ex, Cynthia, con in sottofondo "Some Enchanted Evening" di Frank Sinatra. Così si mette la maschera, prepara la cena, e guarda una scena a luci rosse fra Hooded Justice e Captain Metropolis tratta dalla serie tv sui Minutemen. A un tratto un allarme inizia a suonare e Wade corre nel suo rifugio, cercando di spegnerlo. Ma il rumore non smette e così Wade stacca il pannello e lo distrugge con violenza, per poi chiamare l'ente di sicurezza extra-dimensionale in merito al guasto, ordinando anche della reflectatina. Alla fine si siede sul divano e dopo aver indossato la maschera si addormenta.


-Nostalgia: Il giorno dopo Wade torna al suo impiego di copertura, esprimendo un parere su una linea di profumi, quando riceve una chiamata dalla sua ex Cynthia, la quale lavora in una clinica per la clonazione di animali domestici. Lui la raggiunge e dopo che lei ha scartato uno dei cloni, dice a Wade che le pillole sono Nostalgia, in poche parole dei ricordi in formato pillola, considerati illegali perchè fonte di psicosi, invitando a convincere la sua amica a non prenderle. Wade dice di non aver mai detto di averle avute da una donna e lei gli chiede come mai sceglie sempre quelle che lo mettono a terra. Lui le ricorda che l'ha scelta, ma Cynthia sa che non lo ha mai fatto, perchè ancora traumatizzato dal suo primo incontro con una donna e lui le dice che è per questo che è sfortunato.

RECENSIONE 1x02 "MARTIAL FEATS OF COMANCHE HORSEMANSHIP"



-Terapia di gruppo: Wade partecipa a un gruppo di sostegno per le vittime del 2 Novembre e uno dei partecipanti racconta che sua madre era a Brooklyn quel giorno, restandone molto traumatizzata e sentendo di aver ereditato il trauma. Una donna di nome Renee entra e si siede insieme agli altri e quando un altro chiede se questa situazione finirà, Wade cerca di dare loro una risposta per motivarli:

"I was where you are. I thought about that one-eyed fucker all the time and it terrified me, but I am no longer afraid. On 11/2, the Soviet Union was on the verge of annihilating us, and we were more than prepared to return the favor. Then that enormous, tentacled abomination teleported into New York. If it hadn't arrived when it did, we would all be ash. It united us against a common threat. Does it ever end? Of course it does, because we are all in a tunnel, and every tunnel ends. It ends with light. And if you trust me, I will do my best to show you to it."

Alla fine invita tutto il gruppo a ripetere che esistono molte dimensioni, ma che non devono avere paura perchè vivono nella propria. Finito l'incontro Renee dice a Wade che non crede alle sue parole, che in realtà non è mai uscito dal suo tunnel. Lui la invita a presentarsi al prossimo incontro per discutere della sua esperienza, ma lei gli dice di no, per poi invitarlo a seguirla. I due finiscono in un bar, dove parlano di cereali, la guerra del Vietnam e dei loro rispettivi lavori. Dopo essersi conosciuti, Wade invita Renee a raccontare la sua esperienza del 2 Novembre e lei risponde che il suo trauma viene risvegliato da un film di nome Pale Horse, incentrato sul tragico evento (in realtà la pellicola non esiste, ma è un riferimento celato a Schindler's List di Steven Spielberg, incentrato sul tema della memoria). Lei ammette che la scena della bambina col cappotto rosso è quello che la spaventa di più e che guardarlo più e più volte l'ha aiutata a superare le sue paure e che un'altra cosa che la aiuta in tal senso è il sesso. Questo elemento suscita un certo interesse in Wade e dopo che si sono baciati un auto arriva per prelevarla. Lei lo saluta ma quando l'auto sta per allontanarsi, Wade nota della lattuga e realizza che Renee è un membro del Settimo, chiedendo alla centrale se hanno mai recuperato il veicolo dell'uomo che ha sparato a Charlie. Quando sente che la risposta è negativa, Wade decide di seguirli da solo.


-Il complotto: Wade entra in un magazzino abbandonato e dopo aver trovato una pistola nel furgone di Renee, entra all'interno dell'edificio, per poi ritrovarsi nella chiesa del video. A un tratto una palla da baseballe cade da un portale extradimensionale aperto sopra di lui e così scopre che il Settimo sta creando dei portali. Wade esce allo scoperto e Renee lo nota, mentre un uomo gli spara con proiettili a salve. Lei gli confessa di aver fatto cadere di proposito la lattuga dal furgone per attirarlo all'interno e che in realtà lui non ha contattato la centrale, ma loro. Poi due uomini lo portano in una stanza piena di schermi TV e Renee gli rende indietro il cappello, anch'esso ricoperto di reflectatina. Poi un uomo si siede di fronte a lui e Wade lo riconosce come il senatore Joe Keene. Così si toglie la maschera e gli promette che non lo ucciderà e che il suo compito è impedire omicidi di massa a Tulsa, come Judd avrebbe dovuto fare come capo della polizia. Wade gli chiede se vogliono portare un altro calamaro a Tulsa, ma lui dice che hanno ben altro in mente, proponendo di mostrargli la verità, ma il prezzo per essa è decisamente alto:

"I'm gonna show you something, and after you see it, you're gonna walk out of here and you're never gonna be afraid of big teleporting aliens ever again. Because I'm gonna set you free. In return, I'm gonna ask you to do me a favor. Call it a squid pro quo. This Angela Abar? She either killed Judd Crawford or she knows who did. Either way, she threatens to disrupt the aforementioned peace. I know Agent Blake already suspects her, so how about you just help that along? Angela trusts you. Serve her up, and that way, I don't have to ask these racist Okies to go to her house and kill her and her entire fucking family. I just need to get her off the board for a couple days while I wrap things up. Your call, Wade. Either way works for me. All right. Couple weeks after I was elected senator of the great state of Oklahoma, I was appointed to the Appropriations Committee, which sucked because I wanted something sexy, like Intelligence or Judiciary, but you get what you get. You don't get upset, so I accepted. In my very first day, they brought me into a little room, and they showed me what I'm about to show you. Took me a couple years to pirate a copy for myself. So, Wade, you can tell your cop buddies I'm running the Kavalry and then I'll convince them all you're crazy, which will not be difficult given your secret shiny hats. Or you can press play, and finally be free. I leave it entirely in your hands."

Così mette una videocassetta e Wade decide di avviare la riproduzione, dove appare un Adrian Veidt molto più giovane di quanto abbiamo visto, il quale ha un messaggio rivolto a una persona in particolare:


"Hello, Robert. Adrian Veidt here. Assuming my instructions have been followed to the letter, today is January 21st, 1993, and you were just inaugurated. Allow me to be amongst the very first to say congratulations, President Redford. Sir, I am recording this message on November 1st, 1985, seven years in your past. How I could predict that you would be elected president with such incredible accuracy? Because I didn't predict it. I planned it. Here, in '85, the end is nigh. Nuclear holocaust between the United States and Russia is imminent. Fortunately, I planned for this, too. And the only way to stave off mankind's extinction is with a weapon more powerful than any atomic device. That weapon is fear, and I, Mr. President, am its architect. In 24 hours time, that's seven years ago for you, an extra-dimensional monster will materialize in Manhattan, unleashing a psychic blast that kills half the city's population, and traumatizes millions more. Yet the monster will not have come from another dimension at all. It will have come from me. A hoax, Mr. President. An elaborate, meticulously engineered hoax to save the world. Now, the hard part. What's next. The transition won't start immediately. The world will need time to heal, and, of course, I'll have to maintain the peace with additional small-scale extra-dimensional events. But now, I am sure as you watch this, mankind is ready for change. I envision a stronger, loving world committed to caring for the weak, reversing environmental ruin, and cultivating true equality. I know you share these values. That's why I'll do all I can, and why I did all I could, to get you elected. But this will only work if you willingly become my partner, Mr. President. My partner in building a utopia. But first, I'll need to earn your trust, and you, undoubtedly, have questions. If you'll indulge me for the next few hours, I think I have some answers. So, let's dive in, shall we?"

RECENSIONE 1x03 "SHE WAS KILLED BY SPACE JUNK"



-Lontano anni luce: Nel frattempo Ozymandias prepara la sua tuta, dicendo ai suoi servi che il tempo è l'essenza per la sua impresa. Così i due lo caricano sul trabucco e lo sparano in cielo, mandando in una delle lune di Giove. Dopo essersi goduto la vista, Ozymandias prende i corpi ormai congelati dei suoi ex servi e li dispone per scrivere "Save me" e poi guardando un satellite posto sopra la luna, dice di avercela fatta. Ma i suoi cloni tirano la corda e lui ritorna a terra, dove all'arrivo viene accolto da quest'ultimi e dal Game Warden, il quale lo arresta per aver violato le leggi della sua terra e lui dice che ormai Dio lo ha abbandonato, cosa su cui lui concorda.


-Tradimento: Wade assiste al test di un nuovo profumo e la sua mente torna alla notte del 2 Novembre, con "Careless Whisper" di nuovo in sottofondo, stavolta cantata da Nataly Dawn. Poi torna in centrale, dove Angela gli chiede se ha scoperto altro sulle pillole e lui le pone una domanda davvero criptica:

"Is anything true?" 

Angela non capisce cosa voglia dire e gli dice di smettere di giocare e Wade le dice che le pillole sono di Nostalgia, cioè sono ricordi e vuole sapere a chi appartengono. Angela gli racconta di Will Reeves, del suo legame di parentela con lei e del suo ruolo nell'omicidio di Judd e del fatto che lo ha coperto. Wade le dice che gli dispiace e Angela non capisce cosa voglia dire. Laurie esce velocemente dall'ufficio e dice ad Angela di alzare le mani. Lei chiede a Wade cosa ha fatto e Laurie chiede che venga ammanettata, quando Angela ingerisce le pillole, per poi farsi arrestare. Wade guarda Laurie e indossa la sua maschera. Quella sera Wade torna a casa e vede un pacco, con il nuovo sistema di allarme extra-dimensionale, e lo getta via, per poi riprenderlo. Dopo essere entrato in casa, due uomini del Settimo armati entrano dietro di lui, chiudendo l'episodio.

RECENSIONE 1x04 "IF YOU DON'T LIKE MY STORY, WRITE YOUR OWN"



VERDETTO

Una delle caratteristiche più rilevanti di Watchmen, almeno in questi cinque episodi, è l'intensa ed articolata caratterizzazione dei personaggi, utilizzando molto spesso un intero episodio per raccontare la storia che li riguarda, analizzandone il loro punto di vista con incredibile dettaglio, forse il tratto più distintivo dello stile di Damon Lindelof. Già con "She Was Killed By Space Junk" abbiamo visto la buona riuscita di questo stile, con la prospettiva di Laurie Blake narrata sotto forma di barzelletta, ma in questo quinto episodio assistiamo non solo a un focus su un altro personaggio di notevole interesse, ma a una serie di rivelazioni e di spunti fondamentali per quello che avverrà nei restanti episodi. Il protagonista di questo quinto capitolo è Wade Tillman, noto come Looking Glass, un uomo il cui trauma risiede nella tragica notte del 2 Novembre 1985, i cui ricordi continuano a tormentarlo in ogni istante della sua vita, un uomo che vede la verità come suo scopo ultimo (basti pensare al suo lavoro come opinionista pubblicitario e il suo ruolo come vigilante che ricerca le risposte dai sospettati attraverso la capsula con le immagini subliminali), con incredibili difficoltà di relazione (fatta eccezione per il suo legame con Angela, forse andato in frantumi dopo il suo ultimo gesto) e cerca di farsene una ragione su quanto ha vissuto, aiutando quelli che come lui hanno sperimentato la sua medesima esperienza, alla fine ritrovandosi di fronte alla verità con la V maiuscola, scoprendo che Adrian "Ozymandias" Veidt (il quale sembra essere molto più lontano di quanto avevamo previsto) è la mente dietro il calamaro gigante di New York, cosa già nota ai lettori del fumetto, ma anche dietro all'elezione dell'attuale presidente Robert Redford. Il fatto stesso che il tutto venga propinato dal senatore Joe Keery, membro attivo del Settimo Reggimento (non l'ha mai raccontata giusta), il quale sostiene di essere diventato membro della setta per garantire la pace a Tulsa, così come avrebbe dovuto fare Judd ai vertici della polizia, fa' pensare al fatto che sì, è vero del complotto ordito da Veidt, ma è anche vero che il Settimo rappresenti un immagine di spregiudicata violenza, specie nella misteriosa scena conclusiva che vede due di loro che entrano armati a casa di Wade, riportandoci all'unica vera domanda: c'è qualcosa di vero? In ogni caso, è Angela a pagare il prezzo di questa verità, dato che anche lei la sta cercando in merito al suo nonno e decide di farlo nel più radicale dei modi, ingerendo le pillole di Nostalgia prima di farsi arrestare, lasciando aperto uno scenario estremamente affascinante per i prossimi episodi, ed essendone rimasti solo quattro, siamo certi che le emozioni e lo shock perdureranno ancora durante la visione.


Nel sesto episodio, dal titolo "This Extraordinary Being", Angela sperimenta gli effetti della Nostalgia, rivivendo il passato del suo nonno Will Reeves mentre si trova in detenzione, in un viaggio che le permetterà di capire quali siano le sue vere intenzioni.




Ci vediamo con la recensione del prossimo episodio! Continuate a seguirci!

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Oak Ridge group marks 20 years of gathering for peace

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OAK RIDGE, Tenn. — One group of people stood outside the Y-12 Nuclear Weapons Complex in Oak Ridge calling for nonviolence and peace. The gathering marks the group's 20th year of Sunday night vigils.
          

Lessons for Artificial Intelligence from Other Global Risks

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View the paper “Lessons for Artificial Intelligence from Other Global Risks”

It has become clear in recent years that AI poses important global risks. The study of AI risk is relatively new, but it can potentially learn a lot from the study of similar, better-studied risks. GCRI’s new paper applies to the study of AI risk lessons from four other risks: biotechnology, nuclear weapons, global warming, and asteroids. The paper is co-authored by GCRI’s Seth Baum, Robert de Neufville, and Tony Barrett, along with GCRI Senior ...

          

Free Download: Nevil Shute, “On The Beach”; "2019 Fukushima..."

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 “On The Beach”
by Nevil Shute

“Nevil Shute’s 1959 novel “On the Beach” is set in what was then the near future (1963, approximately a year following World War III). The conflict has devastated the northern hemisphere, polluting the atmosphere with nuclear fallout and killing all animal life. While the nuclear bombs were confined to the northern hemisphere, global air currents are slowly carrying the fallout to the southern hemisphere. The only part of the planet still habitable is the far south of the globe, specifically Australia and New Zealand, South Africa, and the southern parts of South America.

From Australia, survivors detect a mysterious and incomprehensible Morse code radio signal originating from the United States. With hope that some life has remained in the contaminated regions, one of the last American nuclear submarines, the USS Scorpion, placed by its captain under Australian naval command, is ordered to sail north from its port of refuge in Melbourne (Australia’s southernmost major mainland city) to try to contact whoever is sending the signal. In preparation for this long journey the submarine first makes a shorter trip to some port cities in northern Australia including Cairns, Queensland and Darwin, Northern Territory, finding no survivors.

The Australian government makes arrangements to provide its citizens with free suicide pills and injections, so that they will be able to avoid prolonged suffering from radiation sickness. One of the novel’s poignant dilemmas is that of Australian naval officer Peter Holmes, who has a baby daughter and a naive and childish wife, Mary, who is in denial about the impending disaster. Because he has been assigned to travel north with the Americans, Peter must try to explain to Mary how to euthanize their baby and kill herself with the pill should he be killed on the ocean voyage.

The characters make their best efforts to enjoy what time and pleasures remain to them before dying from radiation poisoning, speaking of small pleasures and continuing their customary activities, allowing their awareness of the coming end to impinge on their minds only long enough to plan ahead for their final hours. The Holmeses plant a garden that they will never see; Moira takes classes in typing and shorthand; scientist John Osborne and others organize a dangerous motor race that results in the violent deaths of several participants. In the end, Captain Towers chooses not to remain with Moira but rather to lead his crew on a final mission to scuttle their submarine beyond the twelve-mile (22 km) limit, so that she will not rattle about, unsecured, in a foreign port, refusing to allow his coming demise to turn him aside from his duty and acting as a pillar of strength to his crew.

Typically for a Shute novel, the characters avoid the expression of intense emotions and do not mope or indulge in self-pity. They do not, for the most part, flee southward as refugees but rather accept their fate once the lethal radiation levels reach the latitudes at which they live. Finally, most of the Australians do opt for the government-promoted alternative of suicide when the symptoms of radiation-sickness appear.”
Freely download “On the Beach”, by Nevil Shute, here:
“On the Beach”, 1959. Full movie.
"2019 Fukushima: It's Much Worse. Entire Ocean Is Dying" 
And So Are We All...
Watch the whole video, but pay close attention from 14:00 to 16:00...
Then read this, if you haven't already:
Do you truly understand what this means? Do you?
God help us...

          

Wrong French address to public opinion

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The French Foreign Minister has called the accession of Norway, Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, Finland and Belgium to the European Special Financial Mechanism(INSTEX) an indication of "Europe's commitment to a nuclear deal with Iran"! These ridiculous statements indicate that the French still intend to continue their joint game with the United States of America against the Islamic Republic of Iran. This dangerous, albeit unpredictable, game was started and continued by U.S. and French Presidents (Trump and Emmanuel Macron) in year 2017.
          

Nuclear News Roundup Dec 01, 2019

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Nuclear News Roundup Nov 30, 2019

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Advancing Faculty Diversity in Physical Science | University of California Riverside

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Riverside, California, The Department of Physics ofessor and one tenured mid-level professor. The positions may be in any area of physics including, but not limited to, high-energy; nuclear; atomic, molecular, and optical;
          

Costain and Createc Develop Technology Set to Revolutionize Nuclear Decommissioning

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Collaborative efforts between smart infrastructure solutions company Costain and technology researchers Createc have resulted in innovative measurement technology for analyzing radiation in...
          

Podróż Apostolska do Japonii: O broni nuklearnej (Nagasaki, Pomnik Pokoju, 24 listopada 2019 r.)

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PODRÓŻ APOSTOLSKA DO JAPONII

PRZEMÓWNIENIE OJCA ŚWIĘTEGO

O BRONI NUKLEARNEJ

Nagasaki, Pomnik Pokoju
24 listopada 2019 r.

[Multimedia]


 

Drodzy bracia i siostry,

To miejsce sprawia, że ​​jesteśmy bardziej świadomi cierpienia i koszmaru, jakie jesteśmy w stanie sobie zadać jako ludzie. Zbombardowany krzyż i figura Matki Bożej, odkryte niedawno w katedrze w Nagasaki, przypominają nam po raz kolejny o niewypowiedzianych potwornościach, jakie na swym ciele poniosły ofiary i ich rodziny.

Jednym z najgłębszych pragnień ludzkiego serca jest pożądanie stabilności i pokoju. Posiadanie broni nuklearnej oraz innej broni masowego rażenia nie jest najlepszą odpowiedzią na to pragnienie. Co więcej, zdają się nieustannie wystawiać je na próbę. Nasz świat żyje przewrotną dychotomią chęci obrony i zapewnienia stabilności i pokoju opartej na fałszywym bezpieczeństwie wspieranym mentalnością strachu i nieufności, co doprowadza do zatrucia relacji między narodami i uniemożliwienia jakiejkolwiek dialogu.

Nie da się pogodzić pokoju między narodami i stabilności z jakimkolwiek usiłowaniem budowania na strachu przed wzajemnym zniszczeniem lub na groźbie całkowitej zagłady. Jest to możliwe jedynie wychodząc z globalnej etyki solidarności i współpracy w służbie przyszłości kształtowanej przez współzależność i współodpowiedzialność całej rodziny ludzkiej dziś i jutro.

Tutaj, w tym mieście, będącym świadkiem katastrofalnych konsekwencji humanitarnych i środowiskowych ataku nuklearnego, zawsze nie dość będzie usiłowań potępiania   wyścigu zbrojeń. Trwoni on bowiem cenne zasoby, które zamiast tego mogłyby zostać wykorzystane na rzecz integralnego rozwoju ludów i ochrony środowiska naturalnego. W dzisiejszym świecie, w którym miliony dzieci i rodzin żyje w nieludzkich warunkach, wydane pieniądze i fortuny zarobione na produkcji, modernizacji, konserwacji i sprzedaży coraz bardziej niszczycielskich broni są nieustanną napaścią wołającą do nieba.

Miliony mężczyzn i kobiet na całym świecie pragną świata pokoju, wolnego od broni nuklearnej. Przekształcenie tego ideału w rzeczywistość wymaga udziału wszystkich: osób, wspólnot religijnych, społeczeństwa obywatelskiego, państw posiadających broń jądrową i tych, które ich nie posiadają, sektora wojskowego i prywatnego oraz organizacji międzynarodowych. Nasza reakcja na zagrożenie bronią nuklearną musi być zbiorowa i skoordynowana, oparta na żmudnej, ale stałej budowie wzajemnego zaufania, która przełamałaby obecnie dominującą dynamikę nieufności. W 1963 r. papież św. Jan XXIII w encyklice Pacem in terris, domagając się również zakazu broni atomowej (por. n. 60), stwierdził, że prawdziwy i trwały pokój między narodami nie może opierać na równowadze sił zbrojnych, ale jedynie na wzajemnym zaufaniu (por. n. 61).

Konieczne jest przełamanie przeważającej obecnie dynamiki nieufności, która grozi doprowadzeniem do demontażu międzynarodowej architektury kontroli zbrojeń. Jesteśmy świadkami erozji multilateralizmu, jeszcze poważniejszej w obliczu rozwoju nowych technologii broni. Takie podejście wydaje się dość niekonsekwentne w obecnym kontekście naznaczonym wzajemnymi połączeniami i stanowi sytuację, która wymaga pilnej uwagi, a także poświęcenia ze strony wszystkich przywódców.

Kościół katolicki, ze swojej strony, nieodwołalnie angażuje się w stanowcze krzewienie pokoju między ludami i narodami: jest to powinność, do której czuje się zobowiązany wobec Boga i wszystkich mężczyzn i kobiet tej ziemi. Musimy niestrudzenie działać i nalegać na niezwłoczne wsparcie głównych międzynarodowych instrumentów prawnych dotyczących rozbrojenia i zakazu broni jądrowej, w tym Traktatu o zakazie broni jądrowej. W lipcu, biskupi Japonii wystosowali apel o likwidację broni nuklearnej, a co roku w sierpniu, Kościół japoński organizuje dziesięciodniowe spotkanie modlitewne w intencji  pokoju. Oby ta modlitwa, niestrudzone starania na rzecz promocji porozumień, nacisk na dialog, były „bronią”, w której pokładamy ufność, a także były źródłem inspiracji wysiłków na rzecz budowania świata sprawiedliwości i solidarności, która zapewniłaby realne gwarancje dla pokoju.

Będąc przekonanym, że świat bez broni nuklearnej jest możliwy i konieczny, proszę przywódców politycznych, aby nie zapominali, że nie obronią nas one przed zagrożeniami dla bezpieczeństwa narodowego i międzynarodowego naszych czasów. Należy rozważyć katastrofalny wpływ ich używania z punktu widzenia humanitarnego i środowiskowego, rezygnując z umacniania atmosfery strachu, nieufności i wrogości, napędzanej doktrynami nuklearnymi. Obecny stan naszej planety wymaga ze swej strony poważnej refleksji nad tym, w jaki sposób można wykorzystać wszystkie te zasoby, z odniesieniem do złożonej i trudnej realizacji Agendy 2030 na rzecz zrównoważonego rozwoju, a zatem osiągnięcia takich celów, jak integralny rozwój ludzki. Zasugerował to  już w 1964 r. papież św. Paweł VI, kiedy zaproponował pomoc najbardziej wydziedziczonym, za pośrednictwem Funduszu Światowego zasilanego częścią wydatków na zbrojenia (por. Przemówienie do dziennikarzy, Mumbaj, 4 grudnia 1964 r.; Enc. Populorum progressio, 26 marca 1967, 51).

Z tego powodu kluczowe znaczenie ma stworzenie narzędzi, które  zapewniłyby zaufanie i wzajemny rozwój oraz możliwość liczenia na przywódców, którzy stanęliby na wysokości zadania. Zadanie to z kolei angażuje nas i stanowi dla nas wszystkich wyzwanie. Nikt nie może być obojętny w obliczu cierpienia milionów mężczyzn i kobiet, które wciąż pobudza nasze sumienia. Nikt nie może być głuchy na krzyk swego brata, wołającego ze swej rany. Nikt nie może być ślepy w obliczu ruin kultury niezdolnej do dialogu.

Proszę was, abyście codziennie gromadzili się na modlitwie o nawrócenie sumień i triumf kultury życia, pojednania i braterstwa. Takiego braterstwa, które potrafiłoby uznać i zagwarantować różnice w poszukiwaniu wspólnego celu.

Wiem, że niektórzy z obecnych tutaj nie są katolikami, ale jestem pewien, że wszyscy możemy modlić się o pokój słowami przypisywanymi świętemu Franciszkowi z Asyżu:

O Panie, uczyń z nas narzędzia Twojego pokoju,
abyśmy siali miłość, tam gdzie panuje nienawiść;
wybaczenie, tam gdzie panuje krzywda;
wiarę, tam gdzie panuje zwątpienie;
nadzieję, tam gdzie panuje rozpacz;
światło, tam gdzie panuje mrok;
radość, tam gdzie panuje smutek.

W tym miejscu pamięci, które nas przytłacza i nie może zostawić obojętnymi, tym bardziej znamienne jest zaufanie Bogu, aby nauczył nas, jak być skutecznymi narzędziami pokoju, a także jak pracować, by nie popełniać błędów z przeszłości.

Obyście wy, wasze rodziny i cały kraj mogli doświadczyć błogosławieństwa dobrobytu i harmonii społecznej.


          

Podróż Apostolska do Japonii: O broni nuklearnej (Nagasaki, Pomnik Pokoju, 24 listopada 2019 r.)

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PODRÓŻ APOSTOLSKA DO JAPONII

PRZEMÓWNIENIE OJCA ŚWIĘTEGO

O BRONI NUKLEARNEJ

Nagasaki, Pomnik Pokoju
24 listopada 2019 r.

[Multimedia]


 

Drodzy bracia i siostry,

To miejsce sprawia, że ​​jesteśmy bardziej świadomi cierpienia i koszmaru, jakie jesteśmy w stanie sobie zadać jako ludzie. Zbombardowany krzyż i figura Matki Bożej, odkryte niedawno w katedrze w Nagasaki, przypominają nam po raz kolejny o niewypowiedzianych potwornościach, jakie na swym ciele poniosły ofiary i ich rodziny.

Jednym z najgłębszych pragnień ludzkiego serca jest pożądanie stabilności i pokoju. Posiadanie broni nuklearnej oraz innej broni masowego rażenia nie jest najlepszą odpowiedzią na to pragnienie. Co więcej, zdają się nieustannie wystawiać je na próbę. Nasz świat żyje przewrotną dychotomią chęci obrony i zapewnienia stabilności i pokoju opartej na fałszywym bezpieczeństwie wspieranym mentalnością strachu i nieufności, co doprowadza do zatrucia relacji między narodami i uniemożliwienia jakiejkolwiek dialogu.

Nie da się pogodzić pokoju między narodami i stabilności z jakimkolwiek usiłowaniem budowania na strachu przed wzajemnym zniszczeniem lub na groźbie całkowitej zagłady. Jest to możliwe jedynie wychodząc z globalnej etyki solidarności i współpracy w służbie przyszłości kształtowanej przez współzależność i współodpowiedzialność całej rodziny ludzkiej dziś i jutro.

Tutaj, w tym mieście, będącym świadkiem katastrofalnych konsekwencji humanitarnych i środowiskowych ataku nuklearnego, zawsze nie dość będzie usiłowań potępiania   wyścigu zbrojeń. Trwoni on bowiem cenne zasoby, które zamiast tego mogłyby zostać wykorzystane na rzecz integralnego rozwoju ludów i ochrony środowiska naturalnego. W dzisiejszym świecie, w którym miliony dzieci i rodzin żyje w nieludzkich warunkach, wydane pieniądze i fortuny zarobione na produkcji, modernizacji, konserwacji i sprzedaży coraz bardziej niszczycielskich broni są nieustanną napaścią wołającą do nieba.

Miliony mężczyzn i kobiet na całym świecie pragną świata pokoju, wolnego od broni nuklearnej. Przekształcenie tego ideału w rzeczywistość wymaga udziału wszystkich: osób, wspólnot religijnych, społeczeństwa obywatelskiego, państw posiadających broń jądrową i tych, które ich nie posiadają, sektora wojskowego i prywatnego oraz organizacji międzynarodowych. Nasza reakcja na zagrożenie bronią nuklearną musi być zbiorowa i skoordynowana, oparta na żmudnej, ale stałej budowie wzajemnego zaufania, która przełamałaby obecnie dominującą dynamikę nieufności. W 1963 r. papież św. Jan XXIII w encyklice Pacem in terris, domagając się również zakazu broni atomowej (por. n. 60), stwierdził, że prawdziwy i trwały pokój między narodami nie może opierać na równowadze sił zbrojnych, ale jedynie na wzajemnym zaufaniu (por. n. 61).

Konieczne jest przełamanie przeważającej obecnie dynamiki nieufności, która grozi doprowadzeniem do demontażu międzynarodowej architektury kontroli zbrojeń. Jesteśmy świadkami erozji multilateralizmu, jeszcze poważniejszej w obliczu rozwoju nowych technologii broni. Takie podejście wydaje się dość niekonsekwentne w obecnym kontekście naznaczonym wzajemnymi połączeniami i stanowi sytuację, która wymaga pilnej uwagi, a także poświęcenia ze strony wszystkich przywódców.

Kościół katolicki, ze swojej strony, nieodwołalnie angażuje się w stanowcze krzewienie pokoju między ludami i narodami: jest to powinność, do której czuje się zobowiązany wobec Boga i wszystkich mężczyzn i kobiet tej ziemi. Musimy niestrudzenie działać i nalegać na niezwłoczne wsparcie głównych międzynarodowych instrumentów prawnych dotyczących rozbrojenia i zakazu broni jądrowej, w tym Traktatu o zakazie broni jądrowej. W lipcu, biskupi Japonii wystosowali apel o likwidację broni nuklearnej, a co roku w sierpniu, Kościół japoński organizuje dziesięciodniowe spotkanie modlitewne w intencji  pokoju. Oby ta modlitwa, niestrudzone starania na rzecz promocji porozumień, nacisk na dialog, były „bronią”, w której pokładamy ufność, a także były źródłem inspiracji wysiłków na rzecz budowania świata sprawiedliwości i solidarności, która zapewniłaby realne gwarancje dla pokoju.

Będąc przekonanym, że świat bez broni nuklearnej jest możliwy i konieczny, proszę przywódców politycznych, aby nie zapominali, że nie obronią nas one przed zagrożeniami dla bezpieczeństwa narodowego i międzynarodowego naszych czasów. Należy rozważyć katastrofalny wpływ ich używania z punktu widzenia humanitarnego i środowiskowego, rezygnując z umacniania atmosfery strachu, nieufności i wrogości, napędzanej doktrynami nuklearnymi. Obecny stan naszej planety wymaga ze swej strony poważnej refleksji nad tym, w jaki sposób można wykorzystać wszystkie te zasoby, z odniesieniem do złożonej i trudnej realizacji Agendy 2030 na rzecz zrównoważonego rozwoju, a zatem osiągnięcia takich celów, jak integralny rozwój ludzki. Zasugerował to  już w 1964 r. papież św. Paweł VI, kiedy zaproponował pomoc najbardziej wydziedziczonym, za pośrednictwem Funduszu Światowego zasilanego częścią wydatków na zbrojenia (por. Przemówienie do dziennikarzy, Mumbaj, 4 grudnia 1964 r.; Enc. Populorum progressio, 26 marca 1967, 51).

Z tego powodu kluczowe znaczenie ma stworzenie narzędzi, które  zapewniłyby zaufanie i wzajemny rozwój oraz możliwość liczenia na przywódców, którzy stanęliby na wysokości zadania. Zadanie to z kolei angażuje nas i stanowi dla nas wszystkich wyzwanie. Nikt nie może być obojętny w obliczu cierpienia milionów mężczyzn i kobiet, które wciąż pobudza nasze sumienia. Nikt nie może być głuchy na krzyk swego brata, wołającego ze swej rany. Nikt nie może być ślepy w obliczu ruin kultury niezdolnej do dialogu.

Proszę was, abyście codziennie gromadzili się na modlitwie o nawrócenie sumień i triumf kultury życia, pojednania i braterstwa. Takiego braterstwa, które potrafiłoby uznać i zagwarantować różnice w poszukiwaniu wspólnego celu.

Wiem, że niektórzy z obecnych tutaj nie są katolikami, ale jestem pewien, że wszyscy możemy modlić się o pokój słowami przypisywanymi świętemu Franciszkowi z Asyżu:

O Panie, uczyń z nas narzędzia Twojego pokoju,
abyśmy siali miłość, tam gdzie panuje nienawiść;
wybaczenie, tam gdzie panuje krzywda;
wiarę, tam gdzie panuje zwątpienie;
nadzieję, tam gdzie panuje rozpacz;
światło, tam gdzie panuje mrok;
radość, tam gdzie panuje smutek.

W tym miejscu pamięci, które nas przytłacza i nie może zostawić obojętnymi, tym bardziej znamienne jest zaufanie Bogu, aby nauczył nas, jak być skutecznymi narzędziami pokoju, a także jak pracować, by nie popełniać błędów z przeszłości.

Obyście wy, wasze rodziny i cały kraj mogli doświadczyć błogosławieństwa dobrobytu i harmonii społecznej.


          

Can The Iran Crisis Be A Blessing In Disguise For Europe?

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Popular protests in Iran came at a particularly delicate time for the nuclear agreement between Iran and the world powers, known as Joint Comprehensive Plan Of Action (JCPOA). More than one year after the United States unilaterally withdrew and re-imposed extraterritorial sanctions against Iran, the JCPOA is hovering precariously on a brink of collapse. Currently, the only obvious path available for Iran and the U.S. to avoid a direct confrontation is the French President Emmanuel Macron's initiative to mediate between them, and to issue a $15 billion credit line to Iran to cover its basic needs. -Eldar Mamedov
          

When Quantum Mechanics and Relativity Collide | Frontiers - Now. Powered by Northrop Grumman.

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The two greatest achievements of modern physics — quantum mechanics and Einstein’s theory of general relativity — share one serious problem: They don’t agree, argues Rick Robinson, writer and blogger.

Photo: Getty Images
As a result, physicists find themselves in the awkward position of seeking to explain the universe using two theories that are not quite able to explain or account for each other.

In fact, these two theoretical frameworks differ not just in their abstruse mathematics, but in the basic ways in which they view the world. As Space.com puts it, general relativity treats the universe as fundamentally smooth and curved. What looks like sharp edges are simply zones of more rapid change, like musical notes recorded on tape or old-fashioned vinyl.

In contrast, quantum mechanics treats the universe as essentially lumpy and sharp-edged, like a digital music recording. Even transitions that appear smooth, if closely examined, resolve into a series of tiny but abrupt changes.

The Large and Small of It
Most of the time, these very different approaches to nature do not get in each other’s way. Einstein’s relativity theory, in spite of its popular association with nuclear energy, is mainly used to explain how the universe works at large scale: the physics of baseballs, planets, galaxies. Quantum mechanics, in contrast, deals with the very small scale: atomic nuclei and smaller, down to the most fundamental building blocks of matter, quarks...


Misadventures in Renormalization
When the mathematical technique called renormalization is used to demonstrate how this unity is applied to gravity, it doesn’t work. In the quantum mechanics framework, gravity should be associated with theoretical particles called gravitons. But gravitons, by reshaping space, render renormalization calculations endlessly complicated, says Space.com. 

Read more...

Source: Now. Powered by Northrop Grumman.

          

Supplementary Materials [Supplemental Data] M900160-MCP200_index. important in heterochromatin maintenance or various

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Supplementary Materials [Supplemental Data] M900160-MCP200_index. important in heterochromatin maintenance or various other nuclear procedures. The mammalian Horsepower1, , and proteins certainly are a grouped category of chromatin-associated proteins that are homologs from the heterochromatin proteins 1(Horsepower1)1, defined as a protein necessary for position influence variegation originally. Position impact variegation may be the silencing sensation that occurs whenever a stop of… More →
          

Taken to Brink by Trump, Gulf States Are Backpedaling on Iran

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Taken to Brink by Trump, Gulf States Are Backpedaling on Iran(Bloomberg) -- An expanded soccer tournament, a direct flight, clandestine meetings and a pledge to release prisoners of war; diplomacy is breaking out as Gulf Arab nations back away from a Donald Trump-inspired confrontation with Iran. And the signs are everywhere.Last week, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain played their first games of the 2019 Arabian Gulf Cup in Qatar after a last-minute decision to take part -- an apparent breakthrough in a 30-month feud that saw them halt trade and flights over Qatar’s links with Iran and support for Islamist groups.Meanwhile, the Saudi-led coalition that’s fought Iranian-backed Houthi rebels in Yemen since 2015 began releasing jailed Houthis, as efforts to end the conflict gather momentum. Oman is quietly hosting high-level meetings, according to people familiar with the matter, and even Iranian President Hassan Rouhani has hinted at direct channels with the U.A.E.Spooked by the prospect of a catastrophic war with Iran and its proxy militias across the region, Gulf monarchies are in the midst of a strategic rethink. The U.A.E., whose economic model relies in large part on its international links, quickly realized it had most to lose from a military escalation. It had removed most of its troops from Yemen by the end of a turbulent summer that saw oil tankers targeted and a U.S. drone downed in the Gulf without significant American response.While the humanitarian catastrophe unleashed by the Yemen war trained an unwelcome spotlight on Saudi Arabia, it took a brazen strike on Saudi oil installations -- which knocked out half the country’s crude production -- to ram home the risks and prove that Trump was not about to ride to his allies’ rescue.“The attacks shattered any illusion of this magical U.S. security umbrella,” said David Roberts, an assistant professor at King’s College London who studies the Gulf. “It burst the bubble and showed that Iran had the willingness to both do something astonishing like the attack on Aramco facilities and the capability to carry it out.”Iran denies U.S. and Saudi assertions it carried out the Sept. 14 strikes, pointing to Houthi claims of responsibility. But people familiar with investigations into the attacks say they were almost certainly launched from southwestern Iran -- an explosive escalation in Tehran’s pushback against an economic offensive unleashed by Trump and enthusiastically backed by the Saudis.The Trump administration withdrew last year from the 2015 deal meant to prevent Iran from developing a nuclear bomb, and reimposed sanctions that have crippled its oil exports. But the “maximum pressure” policy is designed to coax Tehran into more concessions not to drag the U.S. into a new Middle East war just as it draws down troops in Syria.Rolling back Shiite Muslim Iran’s power remains a priority for the Sunni Gulf Arab leadership. There’s an increasing recognition, however, that no one stands to gain from a military escalation in the world’s top oil-exporting region.Saudi Arabia’s Center for International Communication didn’t respond to an email seeking comment. The U.A.E. declined to comment. But in a Nov. 10 speech, Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Anwar Gargash said he saw “a path to a deal with Iran that all parties might soon” be ready to embark on if Tehran demonstrated commitment.War to ‘Cold Peace’In search of a breakthrough, Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan, a former cricketer elected with the backing of a powerful army that provides extensive support for the Saudi military, shuttled between Tehran and Riyadh in October. He met Iran’s supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei and Rouhani, as well as Saudi Arabia’s King Salman and Crown Prince Mohammad bin Salman, describing talks as “encouraging.”Khan said he traveled at the request of Trump and Saudi Minister of State for Foreign Affairs Adel Al-Jubeir said the diplomacy wasn’t prompted by the kingdom. But deepening unease in the Gulf catalyzed the effort.Turning these overtures into lasting peace between countries that have grown further apart since the 1979 Iranian revolution remains far off.The Gulf states resent Iran’s deep reach into Arab nations. While ongoing protests in Iraq and Lebanon suggest Iran has reached the limit of its regional influence, they are unlikely to reverse political and military advances decades in the making.“Cold peace is possible but we are certainly far from a grand bargain,” said Afshin Molavi, senior fellow at the Foreign Policy Institute at Johns Hopkins. “For that, both Riyadh and Abu Dhabi would have to accept a role for Iran in Arab countries such as Iraq, Syria, Lebanon and Yemen.”As they explore ways forward, Gulf states are moving at different speeds.The U.A.E. broke with the U.S. and Saudi Arabia by not naming Iran as the culprit behind attacks in May and June on oil tankers as they sailed toward the Strait of Hormuz, the world’s foremost oil shipping chokepoint.It sent coast guard officials to Iran for the first time in six years and Rouhani hinted at other meetings with senior U.A.E. officials. “We’re moving toward improved relations,” he said Oct. 14. Saudi Arabia is catching up.Washington built a multilateral naval operation to protect shipping in the Gulf after the attacks and sent more troops to Saudi Arabia. Both actions resulted in a “down tick” in Iranian actions,” U.S. Defense Secretary Mark Esper said Nov. 13. “The Iranians should not mistake our restraint for weakness.”Where the U.S. holds back, however, others are crowding in. Besides his role in saving Bashar al-Assad’s regime, Russian President Vladimir Putin has forged a partnership with Iran, created an oil alliance with Saudi Arabia and built ties with Egypt’s Abdel-Fattah El-Sisi, who was warned by the U.S. last month against plans to purchase Russian jets.Putin traveled to Saudi Arabia and the U.A.E. in October after visits by the Saudi king and the U.A.E.’s de-facto leader Mohammad bin Zayed to Moscow. The two Gulf countries and Russia have signed deals valued at billions of dollars.For Iran’s Rouhani, the case for regional engagement is obvious.“Don’t you know that Iran is going to stay here and we will remain neighbors throughout history?” he has said, referring to Iran’s Arab neighbors. “Trump will only be around for a few years and will go back to whatever it was he was doing.”\--With assistance from Golnar Motevalli and Glen Carey.To contact the reporter on this story: Zainab Fattah in Dubai at zfattah@bloomberg.netTo contact the editors responsible for this story: Lin Noueihed at lnoueihed@bloomberg.net, Mark WilliamsFor more articles like this, please visit us at bloomberg.com©2019 Bloomberg L.P.



          

Healthcare: EM Physician - Fort Pierce, Florida

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Envision Physician Services is seeking for Emergency Medicine Physicians to join our team at Lawnwood Regional Medical Center in located in Ft. Pierce, along the beautiful Treasure Coast of Florida. ED Profile: Level II Trauma Center 80,000 annual patient visits 42-bed ED including fast track 3 trauma bays, including 1 pediatric 60 hours of physician coverage and 48 hours of APP coverage Independent contractor status New pay structure with higher base rate and $40,000 sign-on bonus! Candidates must be Board Certified or Board Eligible in-- American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) or American Osteopathic Board of Emergency Medicine (AOBEM). Must also have Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS), Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) --and Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS).-- Must have completed an EM Residency and Board Certified within 5 years. Lawnwood Regional Medical Center is a 380-bed acute-care hospital offering a full range of services. Lawnwood is home to the most experienced Heart Institute on the Treasure Coast and offers diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic care, including open-heart surgery. Other hospital services include a 24/7 emergency department, pediatric emergency department, labor/delivery and birthing, pediatrics, orthopedics, oncology, nuclear medicine, diagnostic services, and a full range of inpatient and outpatient general surgical services. Lawnwood provides the area's only Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Level II Trauma Center, Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and Compressive Stroke Center. Envision Physician Services is a fun organization where everyone is encouraged to know and support one another, where laughter is a familiar background noise and where successes are shared. Whether you are considering full-time, part-time or independent contractor opportunities with Envision Physician Services, you can rest assured you will be working for an industry-leader who delivers a vast array of benefits unmatched within the industry, including: Physician-led organization Strong leadership The support and resources you need to succeed ---A--- rated professional liability insurance Credentialing and enrollment support Extensive variety of locations --- rural, suburban, urban --- by the ocean, by the mountains Extensive variety of settings --- small critical access facilities, major academic medical centers, children's hospitals Safe and comfortable work environment Competitive production-oriented compensation Opportunities for professional development and career advancement Leadership, management and clinical skills education/training including CME programs Optimal staffing ratios and flexible scheduling options Colleague referral bonus program--PandoLogic.Category: Healthcare, Keywords: Emergency Physician ()
          

Group of premiers band together to develop nuclear reactor technology - CBC.ca

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  1. Group of premiers band together to develop nuclear reactor technology  CBC.ca
  2. Jason Kenney, Scott Moe facing mixed reviews from voters, survey suggests  Global News
  3. Premiers meet to chart demands before sit-down with Trudeau early next year  The Globe and Mail
  4. LILLEY: Ford's charm offensive to bring premiers together  Toronto Sun
  5. LILLEY: Can premiers get a pipeline deal at Toronto meeting?  Toronto Sun
  6. View full coverage on Google News

          

Today in History for December 2nd

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Sen. Joseph McCarthy is censured; Scientists demonstrate the world's first artificially-created, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction; Enron files for Chapter 11 protection; Colombian drug lord is shot and killed. (Dec. 2)

 
 
 
 
 
   Reported by USATODAY.com 54 minutes ago.
          

Revisiting Japan’s nuclear arms debate

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As long as the U.S. nuclear umbrella exists, the Japanese government will not have the political impetus to change its policy on nuclear weapons.
          

RESEARCH TECHNICAL SERVICES SUPERVISOR #00025764 | Missouri University of Science and Technology

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Rolla, Missouri, Hiring Department Mining and Nuclear Engineering Application Deadline December 10, 2019 Full Time/Part Time Full Time, Benefit Eligible Salary $19.47 -$23.49/
          

Countermeasure against nuclear disasters (日本放射線看護学会 第7回学術集会) / 山下 俊一

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7(1):2019, P.26-32
          

The equation of state and some key parameters of neutron stars: constraints from GW170817, the nuclear data and the low mass X-ray binary data. (arXiv:1909.06944v2 [astro-ph.HE] UPDATED)

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Volume: 17, Issue 47 - Article #8
Authors: Jin-Liang Jiang, Shao-Peng Tang, Dong-Sheng Shao, Ming-Zhe Han, Yin-Jie Li, Yuan-Zhu Wang, Zhi-Ping Jin, Yi-Zhong Fan, Da-Ming Wei
          

J0453+1559: A Neutron Star–White Dwarf Binary from a Thermonuclear Electron-capture Supernova?

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Volume: 17, Issue 47 - Article #25
Authors: Thomas M. Tauris, Hans-Thomas Janka
          

Which would you prefer―nuclear war or climate catastrophe?

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To:      The people of the world From:  The Joint Public Relations Department of the Great Powers The world owes an enormous debt of gratitude to Donald Trump, Vladimir Putin, Xi Jinping, Narendra Modi, Boris Johnson, and other heroic rulers of our glorious nations.  Not only are they hard at work making their respective countries great […]
          

We’re headed for a crisis on the Korean Peninsula. The administration isn’t ready.

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North Korea has announced that it is planning to break off the nuclear talks at the end of this year and return to a dangerous pattern of provocation and escalation. Is the administration prepared for ...
          

Identifican cuarto espía soviético filtró secretos de Bomba Atómica

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Tres espías estadounidenses fueron ampliamente identificados por haber robado secretos atómicos estadounidenses entre 1940 y 1948, compartiendo esa información con los soviéticos. Sus acciones aceleraron el desarrollo de las armas nucleares de la URSS y prepararon el escenario para la Guerra Fría. Pero de hecho, había un cuarto espía -con el nombre en clave “Godsend” (Enviado de Dios)- que entregó secretos atómicos a la inteligencia Soviética. La identidad de esa persona fue ocultada a la vista pública hasta ahora. Su nombre real era Oscar Seborer, y trabajó en el Laboratorio…
          

Armi nucleari, Benanti: condanna Papa non è utopia

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Padre Paolo Benanti definisce profetica e attuale, nella corrente stagione geopolitica, la condanna del Papa all’uso e al possesso delle armi nucleari. Secondo il teologo morale è un’affermazione nel solco del magistero che potrebbe modificare il Catechismo
          

La condanna del Papa alle armi nucleari è realismo politico

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Dinanzi alla fine dell’approccio multilaterale ed alla nuova corsa al riarmo atomico, si registra una certa indifferenza da parte dell’opinione pubblica per una questione che invece riguarda l’umanità intera e, dunque, ciascun individuo. Per questo il monito del Papa che arriva dal Giappone ha un’eco mondiale
          

Uno por uno

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Queridos lectores:

Como muchos de mis lectores saben, tengo dos hijos. Hace tiempo referí aquí algunos de mis diálogos con la mayor, y en esta ocasión es el menor el que me dará el motivo para escribir este post. Mi hijo estudia en la actualidad tercer curso de primaria, que es típicamente el momento en que se aprenden las tablas de multiplicar. A él, que tiene interés por todo, le gusta a veces aprovechar nuestros paseos del colegio a casa y de vuelta para ir practicando conmigo las tablas, porque tiene una prisa loca por aprender a multiplicar y a dividir. Y yo, con cierto orgullo de la profesión (al fin y al cabo, yo soy matemático también) le ayudo a irlas repasando. Por eso me quedé helado el otro día cuando mi mujer me comentó que en el colegio, durante la reunión de padres, les habían comentado que, sobre todo, no estudiaran las tablas. Según parece, este año están siguiendo un sistema pedagógico diferente, en el que se trata de que los niños aprendan basándose en una aproximación diferente, más parecida al método del aprendizaje basado en problemas y mucho menos memorístico. Yo no tengo ningún inconveniente en que se introduzcan métodos alternativos a los clásicos, los cuales ya sabemos que tienen muchas limitaciones, y lo cierto es que el niño está aprendiendo mucho y además sabiéndolo relacionar (aunque me queda la duda de si este método será tan eficaz con niños a los que les cueste más). Lo que me dejó completamente patidifuso fue el argumento que, según me comentó mi mujer, le dieron para que los niños no practicaran las tablas de multiplicar. Según parece, en opinión de quién ha hecho este programa docente, estos niños no van a necesitar memorizar tantas cosas porque podrán acceder a internet cada vez que necesiten saber alguna cosa, incluso cuando necesiten hacer algún cálculo, y que por tanto lo importante es que aprendan cómo buscar, y así podrán tener su mente menos ocupada con conocimientos que, en el fondo, no son tan útiles ya que son fácilmente accesibles a voluntad.

Teniendo en cuenta las cuestiones que discutimos en este blog, no puedo estar en un mayor desacuerdo con esos planteamientos. Más aún, me parecen extremadamente peligrosos, porque dejarán a nuestros hijos mucho menos preparados delante del futuro que van a experimentar, que es muy diferente de aquél que los grandes pedagogos y pensadores contemporáneos imaginan.

No se equivoquen con la naturaleza de mi crítica y, sobre todo, con la naturaleza del crítico, en este caso yo mismo. Yo soy todo lo contrario a una persona ajena u hostil a las Tecnologías de la Información. Tuve mi primer ordenador, un ZX Spectrum 64Kb, cuanto tenía 14 años, y desde entonces he programado sin parar, primero en Basic, después en código máquina del Z80 (el procesador del Spectrum), después en Fortran, en C, en Matlab y en IDL; y aprendí también HTML, PHP, Java y C++, aunque no los uso mucho. Con 20 años, di clases particulares para poder comprarme una calculadora programable a la que tengo mucho cariño, auque ya no funcione. Utilizo internet desde que empecé la tesis, con 24 años, y en aquel entonces, hace un cuarto de siglo ya, accedí a los primeros ordenadores conectados a la red que vi en mi vida. Tuve mi primer teléfono móvil poco después, cuando aún era una rareza. Mi ordenador funciona con Linux, que me instalé y mantengo yo mismo, como llevo haciendo desde hace muchos años, a través de múltiples distribuciones (Red Hat, SuSE, Debian, Ubuntu); y aunque detesto el Windows mantengo los ordenadores de mi familia y allegados. Programo procesadores de datos científicos, usando a veces sistemas de computación masiva con acceso regulado por colas, y obviamente soy bastante diestro con el bash scripting. Trabajo intensamente en una misión de la Agencia Espacial Europea, SMOS, en la que tenemos que resolver innumerables cuestiones que van desde la electrónica del instrumento hasta el procesamiento de datos más avanzado.

Por resumir: las Tecnologías de la Información y las Comunicaciones (TIC) forman una parte integral y fundamental de mi vida y de mi trabajo. Y por dejarlo claro, por si alguien pudiera llegar a pensar lo contrario, yo no me opongo a las TIC, ni considero que sean perniciosas per se.

Y, sin embargo, yo creo que las TIC no tienen futuro. Al menos, no como se están planteando hoy en día.

En la actualidad, internet consume el 10% de toda la electricidad que se genera en el mundo, y para cumplir con los planes de expansión previstos ese consumo debería llegar al 20% en tan solo 5 años más. Eso sin contar con el coste energético de la fabricación en sí de los dispositivos, que de acuerdo con los pocos análisis existentes podría ser equivalente hasta a 5 veces la energía consumida en la utilización. Contando que la electricidad es aproximadamente un 20% de la energía final, el consumo de energía por internet estaría alrededor del 2% de la energía final mundial. En términos de energía primaria, como ésta suele ser un 30% mayor que la final, el porcentaje que representaría internet debería ser también menor; sin embargo, contando con que muchos servidores de datos se alimentan con centrales térmicas - en la mayoría de los casos, de carbón - el porcentaje final que representa internet podría llegar incluso al 3% de la energía primaria (debido a la menor eficiencia de la transformación de energía primaria en electricidad de las centrales térmicas). Contando con el proceso de fabricación de los dispositivos electrónicos, el consumo de las TICs estará probablemente en algún lugar entre el 10 y el 20% del consumo de energía primaria en el mundo (lo cual no es tan sorprendente, teniendo en cuenta que actualmente la fabricación de móviles es la mayor manufactura del mundo y que se estima que cada adulto de este planeta tiene móvil). Si los planes de expansión se cumplieran, hacia 2025 el consumo de las TICs se movería entre el 20 y el 40% de la energía primaria mundial, conviertiéndose así en la actividad humana que más energía consumiría, por delante incluso del transporte.

Sin necesidad de introducir otras consideraciones, cualquiera puede tener sus dudas de que se pueda llegar a esos niveles desaforados de consumo energético. Pero es que además, como hemos comentando frecuentemente en este blog, nuestro escenario más probable para los próximos años es el de descenso energético, es decir, que cada año tengamos menos energía por culpa del progresivo agotamiento y encarecimiento de las materias primas energéticas no renovables. Y si vamos a disponer de cada vez menos energía, parece más lógico pensar que ésta se va a destinar primero a usos más fundamentales que la simple navegación por internet. Por tanto, todo indica que las TICs, en vez de expandirse, tendrán que contraerse durante los próximos años. Probablemente no desaparecer, pero sí que racionalizarse y centrarse en aquellas aplicaciones más útiles.


Otra cuestión que merece tanta atención o más que la disponibilidad de energía es la disponibilidad de materiales. Los modernos dispositivos de TIC, y particularmente los teléfonos móviles, utilizan varias decenas de elementos químicos diferentes, y no todos son igual de abundantes o de disponibles. Algunos elementos (como la plata o el platino) son simplemente escasos, lo que limita el número total de dispositivos que se pueden construir al mismo tiempo. Otros elementos no son realmente escasos en la corteza terrestre, pero tienen la categoría de elemento traza, es decir, no forman depósitos geológicos concentrados sino que se encuentran muy dispersos. Estamos muy acostumbrados a la idea de la mina de oro o de carbón o de cualquier otra materia prima, y no caemos en la cuenta que si algunos elementos se han concentrado en ciertas zonas para crear filones ricos en el mineral de interés es debido a procesos físicos, químicos y geológicos que han favorecido ese proceso de concentración, pero que en general la formación de depósitos de gran riqueza de mineral es algo raro en la Naturaleza, y que lo más normal es que los minerales se encuentren dispersos, más o menos diseminados por toda la corteza y solo en concentraciones ligeramente superiores en asociación con algún otro mineral que, éste sí, presenta procesos de concentración. Muchos de los elementos que se usan en la fabricación de móviles, las famosas tierras raras, entran en esa categoría de elemento traza: no son propiamente "raras" en el sentido de escasas, pero sí en el sentido de "rarificadas" o dispersas. La explotación de las tierras raras es algo costoso y en el límite de la rentabilidad económica, y su producción anual es muy limitada, por lo que limitan la cantidad de dispositivos que se pueden fabricar cada año. Hace unos meses, coincidiendo con la celebración del Año de la Tabla Periódica, la Sociedad Europea de Química sacó una tabla periódica en la que se refleja la escasez y la disponibilidad de cada elemento, en la que además indicaron cuáles de ellos se usan, por ejemplo, en la fabricación de un móvil, lo cual resulta muy ilustrativo.




Hay otro aspecto que complica la expansión ilimitada de las TICs, y es la necesidad de emplear una tecnología muy sofisticada. Las obleas de silicio con las que se fabrican los chips tienen que tener un grado de pureza tal que solo se pueden producir en salas especiales con una limpieza extrema (salas blancas). Al final, para poder producir masivamente la ingente cantidad de chips que se consumen hoy en día y que el precio sea muy asequible ha sido necesario escalar las operaciones de modo que en el mundo quedan unas pocas gigafactorías desde las que se fabrican todos los chips que se utilizan en todos los dispositivos. Este ejemplo de las economías de escala llevadas a su máxima expresión hace que la fabricación de chips sea muy vulnerable, de modo que los más que probables vaivenes de la economía mundial y las cada vez más extendidas protestas sociales pueden poner un abrupto fin a este modelo, sin que sea fácil encontrar una alternativa que no pase por volver a diseños antiguos de menor rendimiento pero más sencillos de fabricar localmente.

Otro factor que se suele olvidar con demasiada frecuencia es la relativamente rápida obsolescencia de los sistemas de almacenamiento. Los soportes digitales de consumo masivo no están pensados para durar más de una o dos décadas; incluso las memorias USB y los discos externos más comunes tienen vidas útiles que difícilmente exceden los 20 años. Añádase a eso el ritmo enloquecido al que se consumen los discos duros que se utilizan en los grandes centros de datos, porque, efectivamente, los discos duros son hoy en día consumibles: cualquiera de los grandes centros de almacenamiento de datos ha de reemplazar varias decenas de discos duros cada día. Sin ese flujo continuo de nuevos discos de reemplazo, internet iría progresivamente "perdiendo la memoria", hasta el punto que en el plazo de pocas semanas comenzaríamos a tener problemas para realizar algunas búsquedas, y en un plazo de meses fallarían hasta búsquedas sencillas. Teniendo en cuenta todos los puntos comentados más arriba (consumo de energía, de materiales y vulnerabilidad del sistema de producción), confiar en que se pueda mantener la actual capacidad de buscar contenidos parece poco probable en un futuro nada lejano.

Otro de las ideas fuerza caras a los que están apostándolo todo a un futuro hiperrobotizado y automatizado es el progreso de las redes de telefonía de altísima capacidad, lo cual se corona actualmente con el nuevo protocolo 5G. La discusión de por qué introducir el 5G es lo más parecido en el ámbito de las telecomunicaciones a la construcción de los moais de la isla de Pascua, es decir, el canto del cisne antes del colapso, necesitaría de un post por si mismo. Baste decir aquí que para tener los anchos de banda gigantescos que tanto nos publicitan con el 5G se deben utilizar ondas electromagnéticas de frecuencias bastante superiores a las usadas actualmente, y que se asocian a longitudes de ondas milimétricas. La longitud de onda es un aspecto importante, porque la capacidad de una onda electromagnética de "sortear" un obstáculo depende de cómo de larga sea la onda. Las ondas de radio convencional, con longitudes en el rango métrico, pueden sortear fácilmente un vano como una ventana o una puerta, en tanto las microondas, con un rango centimétrico, se atenúan bastante si no hay una visión relativamente directa entre el emisor y el receptor, y si ya vamos al rango de la luz visible (escalas por debajo de la micra o milésima de milímetro) la energía está tan focalizada que coexisten una al lado de otra zonas iluminadas con zonas de sombra, simplemente dependiendo de por dónde y en qué dirección está pasando la luz. Se estima que con la tecnología 5G, usando las bandas de mayor frecuencia (y por tanto de mayor ancho de banda para transmitir datos más rápidamente) para poder tener una buena calidad de enlace receptor-emisor el número de antenas se tendría que multiplicar por 5 con respecto al estándar actual 4G. Además, en zonas de interiores se tendrían que disponer estratégicamente repetidores para poder mejorar la cobertura interior, ya que cada obstáculo (pared, puerta, etc) atenuaría mucho la señal. Con estos planteamientos, se ve claro que el 5G es una idea megalomaníaca que solo tiene sentido bajo la suposición de que el mundo tiene recursos ilimitados y que podremos tapizarlo con antenas para poder transmitir en 1,2 segundos la última película de moda.


Al final del día, la cuestión con respecto a las TICs es bastante sencilla: ¿cuál va ser la demanda real de esta tecnología, cuando todo lo demás falle, cuando en el mundo haya necesidades más apremiantes y acuciantes como es tener alimentos y agua potable en primer lugar, y por seguir tener trabajo, techo, educación, sanidad...? Lo más probable es que las TICs sean de las primeras tecnologías en sufrir el descenso al que estamos abocados, y que lo harán de manera más aguda. Ésa es por tanto la gran perversión de esta variante del mito del progreso, del Homo Invencibile. No vamos a la hiperrobotización, ni a la Singularidad. A pesar de tantas exageraciones e hipérboles que vemos en los medios, a donde realmente vamos es hacia la decadencia de las TIC.

La verdadera razón por la cual se ha puesto tanto el foco en las TIC durante los últimos años es porque constituyen el único nicho en el cual el desarrollo tecnológico de la Humanidad ha hecho progresos reales y significativos durante las últimas décadas. No hemos colonizado la Luna, ni mucho menos Marte. No estamos avanzando en la exploración espacial. No tenemos una electricidad "demasiado barata para ser medida", como se prometían los primeros proponentes de la energía nuclear. No hay coches voladores ni alimentos sintéticos que se produzcan apretando un botón. No hay nada de todos esos sueños tecnológicos de mediados del siglo pasado. Lo único que ha seguido progresando porque sí tenía margen para progresar mientras la cantidad de recursos y de energía que implicaba era moderada han sido las TIC. Eso explica ese énfasis de denominar a las TIC "nuevas tecnologías", cuando en realidad son tecnologías que tienen décadas de desarrollo. Se enfatiza que son "nuevas" porque son las únicas que realmente progresan, pero llevamos trabajando seriamente con las TIC más de 50 años. No son nuevas: simplemente, son las únicas que están vivas. Aún. 

Por todo lo dicho, es absolutamente necesario que nos replanteemos el futuro, un futuro que será, como dicen algunos, "menos tecnológico", queriendo decir que será un futuro donde la presencia de las TIC será menor. Es perentorio que enseñemos a nuestros hijos conocimientos que sí que les van a ser prácticos y útiles en un futuro que no es como lo esperábamos, donde no tendrán al alcance tantas máquinas para que les den de inmediato la respuesta a las cuestiones que se planteen, sino que ellos mismos deberán buscar esa respuesta a partir de su propio conocimiento y con medios más tradicionales. Y es que el futuro ya no es lo que era.


Salu2.
AMT 

Post Data: No querría acabar este artículo sin hacer una autocrítica importante. Precisamente porque hoy en día tenemos unas TICs tan potentes y poderosas yo mismo he podido escribir este artículo. Yo tengo conocimientos generales sobre los temas que hablo, pero para aclarar dudas y para poner los enlaces más convenientes he utilizado obviamente internet. Gracias a que existe internet este artículo tiene un nivel mayor que el que tendría si yo tuviera que fiarme de mi propia memoria y mis conocimientos. De hecho, de no ser por internet, ni siquiera Vds. podrían leer este artículo. No se confundan, por tanto: yo no denosto las TICs, y yo también las echaré de menos. Pero no se trata de lo que yo prefiero o lo que a mi me gustaría, sino de lo que, lamentablemente, va a suceder.
          

Healthcare: Nuclear Medicine Technologist- PER DIEM Southern CA - Los Angeles, California

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US-CA-EncinoCategory Clinical & Support ServicesType CasualJob SummaryAmen Clinics are outpatient health care clinics that have been providing mental wellness strategies to patients of all ages since 1989. We offer patient-first experiences and customized solutions to an array of behavioral and psychiatric conditions. Amen Clinics employs an array of healthcare professionals across our nationwide locations, including: psychiatrists, integrative physicians, nutritionists, therapists and wellness coaches. These practitioners have diverse educational backgrounds and specialties and are skilled at treating patients in the least harmful, most effective means possible. We use all the tools available to us to help make brain health happen. We believe that a better brain always leads to a better life and that achieving our mission will help to prevent and alleviate suffering, not only for individuals, but also for generations of individuals. The Nuclear Medicine Technologist is an individual who can work in a fast paced, high volume clinic who is efficient, patient and compassionate. The ideal candidate will have a proven history working well with children and adults, well-organized and able to carry out patient studies as well as patient dosing and daily camera and hot lab QCs. With no generator on premises, the clinic receives unit doses from an outside nuclear pharmacy making efficiency a key trait.Essential Duties & ResponsibilitiesResponsible for performing brain SPECT scans, as well as related general quality assurance procedures Performing brain SPECT scansPatient preparation of IVPreparation of patient dosesAdministration of patient dosesProcessing and printing scan images before end of work dayAdministration of testing protocolsMaintain Odyssey hard driveMaintain an accurate and up to date log bookPerform daily quality control on camerasPerform all hot lab dutiesDaily constancy with two sourcesDaily surveysWeekly wipe testsOrder correct number of isotope vials a day prior to scansMaintain all required documentationPerform semi-annual sealed source leak testPerform quarterly dose calibrator linearity testsPerform annual geometry and accuracy test on dose calibratorManage medical supplies inventory Qualifications, Knowledge, Skills & AbilitiesCurrent Nuclear Medicine Technologist License in applicable stateAbility to work efficiently with large patient volumes in a fast paced environmentCapable of working with challenging patientsAbility to communicate technical information to general publicTime management and organization and ability to work independently and within a team are critical.Empathy, emotional stability, ability to relate well to others, good communications skills and above all genuine care and regard for the patient are requiredFamiliarity with brain imaging a plusFamiliarity with Picker Prism 3000 system a plusPhysical Demands:The physical demands described here are representative of those that must be met by an employee to successfully perform the essential functions of this job. Reasonable accommodations may be made to enable individuals with disabilities to perform the essential functions.Frequent sitting for long periods of timeFrequent typing and viewing of a computer screenFrequent use of hand and fingers with machines, such as a computer, copier, fax machine, scanner and telephoneFrequent hearing, listening and speaking by telephone and in personOccasionally required to stand, walk, reach with hands and arms, stoop or bendOccasionally required to lift objects up to 15 lbs. with ability to lift multiple times per dayWork Environment:The work environment described here are representative of those that an employee encounters while performing the essential functions of this job. Reasonable accommodations may be made to enable individuals with disabilities to perform the essential functions.Work indoors in temperature-controlled environmentThe noise level is usually moderate PI115287062 ()
          

New broom at UN nuclear watchdog as Iran tensions rise

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Argentine diplomat Rafael Grossi will be confirmed as the new director general of the UN's nuclear watchdog the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on Monday, with the growing crisis over Iran's nuclear programme at the top of his in-tray.
          

Global Nuclear Power Plant Market Size, Study, by Trends and Regional Forecasts 2019-2025

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Bharat Book Bureau Provides the Trending Market Research Report on “Global Nuclear Power Plant Market Research (2015-2019) and Future Forecast (2020-2025)”under Heavy Industry Category. The report offers a collection of superior market research, market analysis, competitive intelligence and Market reports. A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor. As is typical in all conventional thermal power stations the heat...
          

Giappone, disastro di Fukushima: la rimozione del combustibile nucleare fuso inizierà nel 2021

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Il governo giapponese ha annunciato un nuovo piano per la rimozione dei resti delle…

L'articolo Giappone, disastro di Fukushima: la rimozione del combustibile nucleare fuso inizierà nel 2021 sembra essere il primo su Meteo Web.


          

Secretary General: UK's nuclear weapons important to Nato 

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The SNP oppose nuclear weapons and have called for the removal of the Trident missile system.
          

Fallout 76 players have found a way to kill pacifists via radiation poisoning

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Who would have ever thought that granting players in a sandbox game access to nuclear weaponry would be used irresponsibly? Certainly not Bethesda, which now appears to be dealing with a fresh form of griefing in Fallout 76 thanks to the use of radiation poisoning and a duplication bug. For those who aren’t familiar, PvP […]
          

Nuclear Med Tech Outpatient | Good Samaritan Medical Center

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West Palm Beach, Florida, Summary Under minimal supervision, performs basic Nuclear Medicine procedures, as requested by a licensed physician. Exercises professional judgment in providing healthcare services, to assist in dia
          

EDF’s French rivals request 147 TWh of its 2020 nuclear power output

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PARIS — French power suppliers have requested 147 terawatt hours (TWh) of utility EDF’s nuclear power generation for 2020 through the ARENH auction window, the energy market regulator CRE said on Friday, the strongest demand to date. Under the so-called ARENH mechanism, set up in 2011, EDF’s rivals have the right to buy up to […]
          

Nuclear News Roundup Dec 01, 2019

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Nuclear News Roundup Nov 30, 2019

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RESEARCH TECHNICAL SERVICES SUPERVISOR #00025764 - USA-MO-Rolla

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Job Title RESEARCH TECHNICAL SERVICES SUPERVISOR #00025764 Job ID 32338 Location Rolla Full/Part Time Full-Time Hiring Department Mining and Nuclear Engineering Application Deadline December 10, 2019 ...
          

Nuclear fusion is ‘a question of when, not if’

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The prospects for developing nuclear fusion as a feasible source of energy have significantly improved, say experts. The UK government has recently announced an investment […]

The post Nuclear fusion is ‘a question of when, not if’ appeared first on The Future Is Pretty Rad.


          

How Building Dollhouses Helped One Man Cope with Parkinson’s Disease

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When Barry Roberson received a diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease and progressive supranuclear palsy, he was told he had four years to live. Grappling with the news, he took to the hills behind his house to pray… and received an answer that he never could’ve anticipated: “Build dollhouses.”
          

Healthcare: Physician (General Cardiologist) - Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

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This position is located in the Medicine section at the Oklahoma City VA Health Care System. The Oklahoma City Veterans Affairs Health Care System is seeking a full-time staff physician to be a General Cardiologist in our Medicine Service. The Oklahoma City Veterans Affairs Health Care System is a tertiary care facility serving Oklahoma and part of Northern Texas and an integral part of the educational and research mission of the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center.Note: Only education or degrees recognized by the U.S. Department of Education from accredited colleges, universities, schools, or institutions may be used to qualify for Federal employment. You can verify your education here: http://ope.ed.gov/accreditation/. If you are using foreign education to meet qualification requirements, you must send a Certificate of Foreign Equivalency with your transcript in order to receive credit for that education. For further information, visit: http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/edlite-visitus-forrecog.html.The Cardiologist will participate in inpatient and outpatient quality care, teaching, and research related to cardiovascular diseases. He/she will apply national and VA guidelines to patient screening, surveillance and management of such diseases. The candidate will be heavily involved in research activities within the section, and therefore a strong research background is highly desirable. He/she will also participate in the education and supervision of trainees. A successful candidate must qualify for a faculty appointment at the Assistant Professor level at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. Duties include, but are not limited to the following: Performing echocardiography, exercise and pharmacologic stress testing, Holter monitor and electrocardiogram interpretation, diagnosis and management of arrhythmias and Ischemic Heart Disease. Taking an active role in the evaluation of the patient, deciding treatment/care options, and documenting in the Computerized Patient Record System (CPRS). Serving on service level and/or facility committees as needed and participating in the facility peer review program. Maintaining professional competency, courtesy and flexibility to provide the necessary services of this specialty to our Veteran population. Participating in quality improvement projects. This role may also participate in the expanded use of clinical video telehealth (CVT)/electronic consultation (e-Consult) to improve access to cardiology care. Work Schedule: Variable Financial Disclosure Report: Not Required Recruitment Incentive: Authorized Education Debt Reduction Program (EDRP): This position is eligible for the Education Debt Reduction Program (EDRP), a student loan reimbursement program. If selected for this position you must meet specific individual eligibility requirements, and submit your application within four months of appointment. The final award amount (up to $200,000) and eligibility period (one to five years) is determined by the VHA Education Loan Repayment Services office.Basic Requirements: United States Citizenship: Non-citizens may only be appointed when it is not possible to recruit qualified citizens in accordance with VA Policy. Education: Degree of doctor of medicine or an equivalent degree resulting from a course of education in medicine or osteopathic medicine. The degree must have been obtained from one of the schools approved by the Department of Veterans Affairs for the year in which the course of study was completed. Approved schools are: (1) Schools of medicine accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) for the year in which the degree was granted. OR (2) Schools of osteopathic medicine approved by the Commission on Osteopathic College Accreditation (COCA) of the American Osteopathic Association for the year in which the degree was granted. OR (3) For foreign medical graduates not covered in (1) or (2) above, facility officials must verify with the Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) that the applicant has met requirements for certification, and must obtain a copyof the ECFMG certificate. Licensure: Current, full and unrestricted license to practice medicine or surgery in a State, Territory, or Commonwealth of the United States, or in the District of Columbia. Residency: Completion of residency training, or its equivalent, approved by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs in an accredited core specialty training program leading to eligibility for board certification. English Proficiency: Proficiency in spoken and written English. Physical Requirements: Outlined below. Preferred Experience: Board Certified/Board Eligible in General Cardiology, Echocardiography, Peripheral Vascular Imaging (RPVI) and Nuclear cardiology. Reference: VA Regulations, specifically VA Handbook 5005, Part II, Appendix G-2 Physician Qualification Standard. This can be found in the local Human Resources Office. Physical Requirements: Standing for extended periods, use of fingers and both hands, ability for rapid mental and muscular coordination simultaneously, near vision correctable at 13" to 16" Jaeger 1 to 4; ability to distinguish basic colors, emotional and mental stability. Hearing aid is permitted. Incumbents may experience exposure to blood and body fluids. ()
          

Healthcare: Physician / Cardiology / Oklahoma / Permanent / Work in one of the Top - Oklahoma City, Oklahoma

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An Interventional Cardiologist is needed in Oklahoma. This progressive clinic offers in-office nuclear medicine, cardiac echo, Bio-Z, and EKG. Our client is offering employment from a state-of-the-art hospital with a 64-slice CT scanner, MRI, and Cath Lab that is less than five years old.Hospital Employee . 1:3 Call Ratio. Signing Bonus available, contact us for details. Relocation Bonus available. CME time available. Retirement plan with employer match. ()
          

Nuclear Medicine Tech PRN - Winnsboro | CHRISTUS Health

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Winnsboro, Texas, Description Prepares radioactive isotopes for administration to patients in accordance with physician's orders. Operates scintillation detection equipment to measure isotope concentrations and scanne
          

Engineering: Electromagnetic Effects Design and Analysis Engineer - Senior Level - Norman, Oklahoma

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At Boeing, we are all innovators on a mission to connect, protect, explore and inspire. From the sea bed to outer space, you------ll learn and grow, contributing to work that shapes the world. Find your future with us.This position provides an excellent opportunity to develop new solutions, help grow and mentor the next generation of engineers, and guide the candidates------ career towards the submittal of a candidacy for a position in the Technical Fellowship.Assignments may deal with ------ --Reviewing supplier and partner qualification data ------ --Nuclear Hardening analysis and test ------ --EMI/C analysis and test ------ --EMSEC/TEMPEST analysis and test ------ --HIRF/Lightning analysis and test ------ --RF Co-Site analysis ------ --Antenna Coupling analysis ------ --Electrical Power Quality and Load analysis ------ --Test Automation for aircraft modifications.Other job responsibilities may include ------ --Develops and validates requirements for unique communication, sensor, electronic warfare and other electromagnetic systems and components. ------ --Develops and validates electromagnetic requirements for electrical\electronic systems, mechanical systems, interconnects and structures. ------ --Develops architectures to integrate multiple systems into higher level systems and platforms. ------ --Leads development of trade studies, modeling, simulation and other forms of analysis to predict component, interconnects and system performance and to optimize design around complex requirements. ------ --Develops new and improved modeling and simulation techniques. ------ --Leads development and execution of critical tests to validate performance of designs to requirements. ------ --Manages appropriate aspects of critical supplier and partner performance to ensure compliance to requirements. ------ --Provides support to products throughout their lifecycle by providing guidance and support to resolve complex issues. ------ --Supports project management by providing coordinating development of work statement, budget, schedule and other required inputs and conducting appropriate reviews. ------ --Creates new tools to improve management of projects. ------ --Leads development of major sections of large-scale proposals to support development of new business. ------ --Works under consultative mentorship.This position requires an active (or ability to obtain) U.S. Security Clearance, for which the US Government requires US CitizenshipBasic Qualifications (Required Skills/Experience): Bachelor's degree in engineering, computer science, mathematics, physics or chemistry required. Must possess good organizational, interpersonal, and problem solving skills. Must have demonstrated a strong work ethic and sense of urgency for completing assigned work with a history of meeting commitments. Ability to adjust priorities to multiple demands and unanticipated events. This position requires that you work out of Oklahoma City, OK and offer relocation assistance. If you do not currently reside in or near this location, you must be willing to relocate using relocation assistance. Willingness to travel at least 25% of the time as required Highly motivated and must work well in a team environment. The ability to communicate effectively, both verbally and in writingPreferred Qualifications (Desired Skills/Experience): Active U.S. Security Clearance Previous experience in the defense or aerospace industry Previous experience in Electrical EffectsTypical Education/Experience:Education/experience typically acquired through advanced technical education from an accredited course of study in engineering, computer science, mathematics, physics or chemistry (e.g. Bachelor) and typically 14 or more years' related work experience or an equivalent combination of technical education and experience (e.g. PhD+9 years' related work experience, Master+12 years' related work experience). In the USA, ABET accreditation is the preferred, although not required, accreditation standard.Drug Free Workplace:Boeing --is a Drug Free Workplace where post offer applicants and employees are subject to testing for marijuana, cocaine, opioids, amphetamines, PCP, and alcohol when criteria is met as outlined in our policies. -- ()
          

Turilli / Lione RHAPSODY – Announce “Rebirth And Evolution” European Tour 2020!

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Italian symphonic metallers Turilli / Lione RHAPSODY released their much-celebrated debut album »Zero Gravity (Rebirth And Evolution),« on July 5, 2019 through Nuclear Blast. After recently announcing a Latin American run for March 2020, the band is pleased to add a European leg to their tour itinerary today, which will see them perform in 20 cities and 12 countries across the continent in April & May. Support at these shows will come from special guests, their label mates CELLAR DARLING, as well as opening acts CANTERRA (April 13-25) and QANTICE (April 26 – May 8). All dates can be found… Continue reading
          

Nuclear Medicine Tech PRN - Winnsboro | CHRISTUS Health

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Winnsboro, Texas, Description Prepares radioactive isotopes for administration to patients in accordance with physician's orders. Operates scintillation detection equipment to measure isotope concentrations and scanne
          

De#Coding motives behind the Kudankulam intrusion

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The only two States which will gain the most from the KKNP spyware intrusion are China and Pakistan (Getty Images/iStockphoto) The North Korea-based Lazarus group’s attack against Kudankulam Nuclear ...
          

Único crime do Irã é que decidimos não desistir'

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'Único crime do Irã é que decidimos não desistir'

Salvar
 


Pepe Escobar relata um relato abrasador do ministro das Relações Exteriores do Irã sobre as relações de seu país com os EUA
Por Pepe Escobar
em ur-Sultan, CazaquistãoThe Asia Times 
A tempo de esclarecer o que está por trás  das últimas sanções de Washington , o ministro das Relações Exteriores do Irã, Mohammad Javad Zarif, em um discurso na reunião anual do  Astana Club em Nur-Sultan, Cazaquistão, fez um relato abrasador das relações Irã-EUA a um público selecionado de diplomatas de alto escalão, ex-presidentes e analistas.
Zarif foi o orador principal de um painel intitulado "O Novo Conceito de Desarmamento Nuclear". Mantendo um cronograma frenético, ele entrou e saiu da mesa redonda para espremer uma conversa privada com o Primeiro Presidente do Cazaquistão Nursultan Nazarbayev.
Durante o painel, o moderador Jonathan Granoff, presidente do Instituto de Segurança Global, conseguiu impedir que Zafir, um analista do Pentágono, se transformasse em uma disputa de gritos.
Anteriormente, eu havia discutido extensivamente com Syed Rasoul Mousavi, ministro da Ásia Ocidental no Ministério das Relações Exteriores do Irã, uma infinidade de detalhes sobre a posição do Irã em todos os lugares, do Golfo Pérsico ao Afeganistão. Eu estava na mesa redonda de James Bond do Astana Club, enquanto moderava dois outros painéis, um na Eurásia multipolar e o ambiente pós-INF e outro na Ásia Central (assunto de outras colunas).
A intervenção de Zarif foi extremamente forte. Ele ressaltou como o Irã “cumpriu todos os acordos e não obteve nada”; como “nosso povo acredita que não ganhamos por fazer parte do Plano de Ação Conjunto Conjunto; como a inflação está fora de controle; como o valor do rial caiu 70% “por causa de 'medidas coercitivas' - não por sanções porque são ilegais”.
Ele falou sem anotações, exibindo absoluto domínio do pântano inextricável que são as relações EUA-Irã. No final, acabou sendo uma bomba. Aqui estão os destaques.

O ministro do Exterior do Irã, Mohammad Javad Zarif, na reunião anual do Astana Club em Nur-Sultan, Cazaquistão, no início deste mês. Asia Times / Pepe Escobar)
A história de Zarif começou nas negociações de 1968 do Tratado de Não-Proliferação Nuclear, com a posição do “Movimento Não-Alinhado de aceitar suas disposições somente se em uma data posterior” - que aconteceu em 2020 - “haveria desarmamento nuclear. "Dos 180 países não alinhados," 90 países co-patrocinaram a extensão indefinida do TNP ".
Passando para o estado atual, ele mencionou como os Estados Unidos e a França estão "confiando em armas nucleares como um meio de dissuasão, o que é desastroso para o mundo inteiro". Por outro lado, o Irã é um país que acredita em armas nucleares. nunca deve pertencer a nenhum país ", devido a" cálculos estratégicos baseados em nossas crenças religiosas ".
Zarif destacou como “de 2003 a 2012 o Irã estava sob as mais severas sanções da ONU que já foram impostas a qualquer país que não possuía armas nucleares. As sanções impostas ao Irã de 2009 a 2012 foram maiores do que as impostas à Coréia do Norte, que possuíam armas nucleares. ”
Discutindo as negociações para o JCPOA que começaram em 2012, Zarif observou que o Irã partiu da premissa de que "deveríamos ser capazes de desenvolver a energia nuclear que quiséssemos", enquanto os EUA começaram com a premissa de que o Irã nunca deveria ter centrífugas ”. Essa era a opção“ enriquecimento zero ”.
Zarif, em público, sempre volta ao ponto em que “em todo jogo de soma zero todos perdem”. Ele admite que o JCPOA é “um acordo difícil. Não é um acordo perfeito. Tem elementos que eu não gosto e elementos que os Estados Unidos não gostam. ”No final,“ chegamos à aparência de um equilíbrio ”.
Zarif ofereceu um paralelo bastante esclarecedor entre o TNP e o JCPOA: “O TNP foi baseado em três pilares: não proliferação, desarmamento e acesso à tecnologia nuclear para fins pacíficos. Basicamente, a parte de desarmamento do TNP está quase morta, a não proliferação mal sobrevive e o uso pacífico da energia nuclear está sob séria ameaça ”, observou ele.
Enquanto isso, "o JCPOA foi baseado em dois pilares: a normalização econômica do Irã, refletida na resolução 2231 do Conselho de Segurança, e - ao mesmo tempo - o Irã observando certos limites ao desenvolvimento nuclear".
Fundamentalmente, Zarif enfatizou que não há nada de "pôr do sol" nesses limites, como Washington argumenta: "Vamos nos comprometer a não produzir armas nucleares para sempre".
Tudo sobre desconfiança
Então veio a fatídica decisão de Trump em maio de 2018: "Quando o presidente Trump decidiu se retirar do JCPOA, acionamos o mecanismo de resolução de disputas." Referindo-se a uma narrativa comum que descreve ele e o ex-secretário de Estado dos EUA John Kerry obcecados em sacrificar tudo para obter Zarif disse: “Negociamos esse acordo com base na desconfiança. É por isso que você tem um mecanismo para disputas. ”
O secretário de Estado dos EUA, John Kerry, fala com Hossein Fereydoun, irmão do presidente iraniano Hassan Rouhani e ministro das Relações Exteriores iraniano Mohammad Javad Zarif, 14 de julho de 2015 . (Departamento de Estado)
Ainda assim, “os compromissos da UE e os dos Estados Unidos são independentes. Infelizmente, a UE acreditava que eles poderiam procrastinar. Agora estamos em uma situação em que o Irã não está recebendo nenhum benefício, ninguém está implementando sua parte da barganha, apenas Rússia e China estão cumprindo parcialmente seus compromissos, porque os Estados Unidos até os impedem de cumprir plenamente seus compromissos. A França propôs no ano passado fornecer US $ 15 bilhões ao Irã para o petróleo que poderíamos vender de agosto a dezembro. Os Estados Unidos impediram a União Européia de abordar isso. ”
O ponto principal, então, é que “outros membros do JCPOA, de fato, não estão implementando seus compromissos.” A solução “é muito fácil. Volte para a soma diferente de zero. Volte a implementar seus compromissos. O Irã concordou que negociaria desde o primeiro dia.
Zarif fez a previsão de que “se os europeus ainda acreditam que podem nos levar ao Conselho de Segurança e reverter as resoluções, estão completamente errados. Porque isso é um remédio se houver uma violação do JCPOA. Não houve violação do JCPOA. Realizamos essas ações em resposta à não conformidade européia e americana. Essa é uma das poucas conquistas diplomáticas das últimas décadas. Simplesmente precisamos garantir que os dois pilares existam: que haja uma aparência de equilíbrio. ”
Isso o levou a um possível raio de luz entre tanta desgraça e tristeza: “Se o que foi prometido ao Irã em termos de normalização econômica for cumprido, mesmo parcialmente, estamos preparados para mostrar boa fé e voltar à implementação do JCPOA . Caso contrário, infelizmente continuaremos esse caminho, que é de soma zero, um caminho que leva a uma perda para todos, mas um caminho que não temos outra escolha a não ser seguir. ”
Hora da ESPERANÇA
Zarif identifica três grandes problemas em nossa loucura geopolítica atual: uma “mentalidade de soma zero nas relações internacionais que não funciona mais;” vencendo excluindo outras (“Precisamos estabelecer um diálogo, precisamos estabelecer uma cooperação”); e "a crença de que quanto mais armas compramos, mais segurança podemos oferecer ao nosso povo".
Ele afirmou que existe a possibilidade de implementar "um novo paradigma de cooperação em nossa região", referindo-se aos esforços de Nazarbayev: um verdadeiro modelo eurasiático de segurança. Mas isso, explicou Zarif, “requer uma política de vizinhança. Precisamos ver nossos vizinhos como nossos amigos, como nossos parceiros, como pessoas sem as quais não podemos ter segurança. Não podemos ter segurança no Irã se o Afeganistão estiver em turbulência. Não podemos ter segurança no Irã se o Iraque estiver tumultuado. Não podemos ter segurança no Irã se a Síria estiver turbulenta. Você não pode ter segurança no Cazaquistão se a região do Golfo Pérsico estiver em turbulência. ”
Ele observou que, com base nesse raciocínio, “o Presidente Rouhani, este ano, na Assembléia Geral da ONU, ofereceu uma nova abordagem à segurança na região do Golfo Pérsico, chamada HOPE, que é o acrônimo de Hormuz Peace Initiative - ou Hormuz Peace Endeavor para que possamos ter a abreviação HOPE. "
A ESPERANÇA, explicou Zarif, “é baseada no direito internacional, no respeito à integridade territorial; com base na aceitação de uma série de princípios e de uma série de medidas de fortalecimento da confiança; e podemos construir sobre ele à medida que você [abordando Nazarbayev] construiu sobre ele na Eurásia e na Ásia Central. Temos orgulho de fazer parte da União Econômica da Eurásia, somos vizinhos no Cáspio, concluímos no ano passado, com sua liderança, a convenção legal do Mar Cáspio, esses são importantes desenvolvimentos que ocorreram na parte norte do Irã . Precisamos repeti-los na parte sul do Irã, com a mesma mentalidade de que não podemos excluir nossos vizinhos. Estamos condenados ou privilegiados a viver juntos pelo resto de nossas vidas. Estamos limitados pela geografia. Estamos vinculados à tradição, cultura, religião e história. ”Para ter sucesso,“ precisamos mudar nossa mentalidade ”.
Idade da Hegemonia 
Comício do Tea Party contra o Acordo Nuclear do Irã com Donald Trump como orador principal, 9 de setembro de 2015. (YouTube)
Tudo se resume à principal razão pela qual a política externa dos EUA simplesmente não se cansa da demonização do Irã. Zarif não tem dúvidas: “Ainda existe um embargo de armas contra o Irã a caminho. Mas somos capazes de abater um drone americano espionando nosso território. Estamos tentando simplesmente ser independentes. Nunca dissemos que aniquilaríamos Israel. Alguém disse que Israel será aniquilado. Nós nunca dissemos que faríamos isso. ”
Zarif disse que o primeiro-ministro israelense Benjamin Netanyahu foi quem assumiu a ameaça, dizendo:
“Eu era o único contra o JCPOA.” Netanyahu “conseguiu destruir o JCPOA. Qual é o problema? O problema é que decidimos não desistir. Esse é o nosso único crime. Tivemos uma revolução contra um governo que foi apoiado pelos Estados Unidos, imposto ao nosso país pelos Estados Unidos, que torturou nosso povo com a ajuda dos Estados Unidos e nunca recebeu uma condenação única dos direitos humanos, e agora as pessoas estão preocupados por que dizem "Morte à América?" Dizemos morte para essas políticas, porque elas trouxeram nada além dessa farsa. O que eles trouxeram para nós? Se alguém viesse aos Estados Unidos, removesse seu presidente, impusesse um ditador que matou seu povo, você não diria a morte daquele país?
Zarif inevitavelmente teve que evocar Mike Pompeo: “Hoje o secretário de Estado dos Estados Unidos diz publicamente: 'Se o Irã quer comer, deve obedecer aos Estados Unidos'. Isto é um crime de guerra. A fome é um crime contra a humanidade. É uma manchete de jornal. Se o Irã quer que seu povo coma, deve seguir o que ele disse. Ele diz: 'Morte a todo o povo iraniano'. ”
A essa altura, a atmosfera do outro lado da enorme mesa redonda era eletrizante. Podia-se ouvir um alfinete cair - ou melhor, as explosões mini-sonoras vindas do alto da  cúpula rasa  por meio do sistema criado pelo arquiteto estrela Norman Foster, aquecendo o vidro de alto desempenho para derreter a neve.
Zarif foi all-in: “O que fizemos nos Estados Unidos? O que fizemos para Israel? Nós fizemos o seu povo morrer de fome? Quem está fazendo nosso povo morrer de fome? Apenas me diga. Quem está violando o acordo nuclear? Porque eles não gostaram de Obama? Essa é uma razão para destruir o mundo, só porque você não gosta de um presidente? ”
O único crime do Irã, disse ele, “é que decidimos ser nosso próprio chefe. E esse crime - estamos orgulhosos disso. E continuaremos a ser. Porque nós temos sete milênios de civilização. Tínhamos um império que governava o mundo, e a vida desse império provavelmente era sete vezes a vida inteira dos Estados Unidos. Então - com todo o respeito ao império dos Estados Unidos; Devo minha educação aos Estados Unidos - não acreditamos que os Estados Unidos sejam um império que dure. A era dos impérios se foi há muito tempo. A era da hegemonia se foi há muito tempo. Agora temos que viver em um mundo sem hegemonia - hegemonia regional ou hegemonia global. ”
Pepe Escobar, um jornalista brasileiro veterano, é o correspondente geral do Asia Times de Hong Kong   Seu último livro é  2030 ".  Siga-o no  Facebook .
Este artigo é do The Asia Times .

World Nuclear Waste Report erschien zuerst auf Bürgerinitiative Umweltschutz Lüchow-Dannenberg e.V..


          

Bechtel’s Peggy Mccullough to Receive the 2019 ASME Henry Laurence Gantt Medal

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Bechtel senior vice president Peggy McCullough has been awarded the 2019 American Society of Mechanical Engineering (ASME) Henry Laurence Gantt Medal, the organization has announced. McCullough oversees a multi-billion-dollar per-year portfolio of projects that are helping solve some of the most complex challenges faced by government and commercial customers anywhere.

The projects include management and operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, two nuclear security plants in Texas and Tennessee, and Bechtel’s commercial nuclear power business worldwide. Those projects employ more than 15,000 scientists, engineers, technicians, and other professionals.

The Henry Laurence Gantt Medal was established in 1929 and recognizes contributions to society through achievements in management as well as demonstrating understanding and skill in the field of human relations and engineering.

“This recognition is really a testament to the service Peggy has delivered to Bechtel customers for decades,” said Barbara Rusinko, president of Bechtel’s Nuclear, Security & Environmental global business unit. “She exemplifies that dedication we all strive for: to make a customer’s mission our own, and to partner with them for lasting positive impact.”

McCullough was selected based on her leadership of thousands of engineers and scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository, the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant, and the stabilization and design of the New Safe Confinement structure now over the destroyed reactor at Chernobyl. McCullough will accept the award at the ASME Honors Gala during the 2019 ASME Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition in November.

McCullough has more than three decades of engineering, procurement, construction, startup and commissioning, and operations experience. She was elected a Bechtel senior vice president in 2014 and was named general manager of the Nuclear Security and Operations business line in December 2017. She is also president of Bechtel Power Company, Bechtel’s commercial nuclear power subsidiary.

She joined Bechtel in 1988 and has successfully taken on leadership roles on a number of complex megaprojects covering environmental remediation, demilitarization, nonproliferation, and global security.

McCullough holds a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from San Francisco State University.

ABOUT BECHTEL

Bechtel is a trusted engineering, construction and project management partner to industry and government. Differentiated by the quality of our people and our relentless drive to deliver the most successful outcomes, we align our capabilities to our customers’ objectives to create a lasting positive impact. Since 1898, we have helped customers complete more than 25,000 projects in 160 countries on all seven continents that have created jobs, grown economies, improved the resiliency of the world's infrastructure, increased access to energy, resources, and vital services, and made the world a safer, cleaner place.  

Bechtel serves the Infrastructure; Nuclear, Security & Environmental; Oil, Gas & Chemicals; and Mining & Metals markets. Our services span from initial planning and investment, through start-up and operations. www.bechtel.com

Read more on Bechtel's Blog


          

Nuclear News Roundup Dec 01, 2019

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Non-Invasive Cardiology near Pebble Beach, CA | 150k Sign-on Bonus | Jackson Physician Search

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California, A thriving physician's group on the coast of California is seeking BE/BC Non-Invasive Cardiologist to join their team. The practice would prefer someone with additional training in nuclear cardiolog
          

Healthcare: Physician / Family Practice / Washington / Permanent / Family Nurse Pr - Richland, Washington

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Job Description FNP - Family Nurse Practitioner The Heart of the Columbia Basin... The Community - Richland, WA This Tri Cities area along the Snake-Columbia river confluence is agricultural, with irrigated vegetables, fruits, grains, seeds, and livestock with an assortment of industrial and government-related activities mixed in. The towns, which are separated by a few miles, are clean, plain, and simple, with low crime and a relative lack of historic and cultural amenities. Pasco in particular serves as a major Columbia River port for agricultural products, paper and forest products, boats and metal fabrication are also a significant part of the economic base. Richland, 6 miles downriver, plays a major role as commercial, research and administrative center for the vast Hanford Site, a U.S. Department of Energy nuclear waste and research facility. Richland also has the strongest health care facilities and the strongest base of high-paying jobs. Kennewick is more residential and retail-commercial and is the largest and most family-oriented of the three. Overview We are seeking a Family Nurse Practitioner to join our team. The position will include normal outpatient care without any hospital related elements. Position Highlights Monday-Friday clinic schedule Busy practice w/adequate support team NHSC Loan Repayment site HPSA score 16 Productivity & Quality measures incentives Continued Education KurzSolutions is committed to improving health outcomes by providing well-managed companies with the top healthcare talent in the market. ()
          

Professions: Unicenter Support Analyst (Hanford Dept of Energy Site 333163) - Richland, Washington

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ANR Group Inc. is accepting resumes for a Unicenter Support Analyst to fill a contracted role supporting our client, Mission Support Alliance (MSA), a US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site Prime Contractor. MSA provides essential services and tangibles to the entire Hanford complex in support of the overall mission. Hanford is the largest nuclear environmental cleanup site in the world. Consisting of 586 square miles adjacent to the Columbia River, approximately 10,000 employees support the Hanford cleanup mission through contractors and subcontractors. This position is located near Richland, Washington, part of the growing Tri-Cities area of Southeast Washington state. The long-term goal of the Hanford Site clean-up projects is to use vitrification technology to process and solidify 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemical waste stored at the Hanford Site, which is a byproduct of plutonium production during World War II and the Cold War era. This position is not located near any dangerous material. Interested individuals should submit their resume by 4:00 PM PST on Friday, November 29, 2019. US citizenship required POSITION BACKGROUND The MSA Information Management (IM) Network & Computing Services (N&CS) organization requires Computer Operations support to provide Analyst and Administration activities in sustaining the Unicenter Network and Systems Management (NSM) job scheduling services. All work will be done at an MSA worksite. Remote work arrangements are not authorized. RESPONSIBILITIES, TASKS AND ESSENTIAL JOB FUNCTIONS This position will be responsible for supporting Unicenter NSM and other job scheduling activities. In addition, this position will support the software, infrastructure and tools to ensure enterprise level performance, availability and security of these systems. The Analyst will work with the Application Support team and Operations staff to effectively manage the site's job scheduling/batch management infrastructure and content on a 24/7 schedule. Regular tasks and functions will include, but are not limited to the following: Tier-3 troubleshooting support, working with the user support and operations teams to effectively manage and communicate issues and perform problem analysis and resolution. This may involve outside vendors, other support personnel or organizations. Manage day-to-day technical operations, product management, system performance monitoring, configuration, maintenance and repair. Manage integration with other systems, capacity planning, system-wide operation control, task automation and providing recommendations on innovative and/or cost-effective options for delivering and/or improving enterprise web hosting services. Apply revisions, upgrades and patches. Develop new system implementation plans, custom scripts and testing procedures to ensure operational reliability, high availability and system security of enterprise job scheduling/batch management services. Establish guidelines and methods for the installation and management of the host environment and client tools. Develop procedures and documentation for backup and restoration of host operating systems and host-based applications and DR/COOP capabilities. Develop tools, procedures and training sessions for operations and other customer support organizations. Stay current with technological developments and provide recommendations on how to take advantage of new advancements. Ensure system security across enterprise job scheduling/batch management services including contribution to security best practices. Respond to, and resolve access and performance issues. Manage the batch job scheduling and monitoring processes. Coordinate with the applications teams. Interface with the Network Operations Center on production scheduling. Ensure appropriate response and mitigation to events. MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS Bachelor's degree in Computer Science, IT, IS or a related discipline PLUS a minimum of 15 years of IT/IS experience OR a combination of education and work experience (2 years of work experience is considered equivalent to 1 year of formal education). Ten (10) years of experience in operational support of enterprise-wide tools. Ten (10) years of experience with configuration and management of Unicenter NSM systems. Five (5) years of experience with Unicenter NSM in a government environment. Ten (10) years of experience with Windows Server 2 setup and configuration, preferably on virtualized servers. Five (5) years of experience with batch management/job scheduling in an environment that runs 35,000 to 40,000 jobs monthly. Five (5) years of experience in Visual Basic and Perl scripting and the use of K-Edit toolsets. Experience and understanding of deploying enterprise tools to a user base greater than 2,500 users. Ability to provide support during non-standard business hours and be on call 24/7 as needed or as scheduled. Knowledge of industry best practices. DESIRED QUALIFICATIONS Knowledge and experience with Unicenter AE product. Experience with UNIX/Linux platforms in a virtualized environment. Prior experience supporting applications in the Hanford Site network environment. Prior experience supporting job scheduling and batch management for critical Hanford business systems such as Finance, Supply, Asset Management and Project Controls on the Hanford Site network environment. Prior experience with mainframe/mini-computer Systems Administration and Operations. Knowledge and understanding of the Hanford Software Quality Assurance requirements and processes, Production Readiness Review Board (PRRB) process, and System Engineering Control Board (SECB) process. Certifications in the above noted technologies. US Citizenship required. Visa status (Green Card, H1-B) does not substitute for citizenship requirement. The standard weekly work schedule for this position is (Four) 10-hour work days: Monday - Thursday, 6:00 am to 4:30 pm. Primary Work Location: 2261 Stevens Dr., Richland, WA. Occasional visits to the Hanford Site, located 35 miles north of Richland, WA GMail Users: Please monitor your Spam/Junk folders for our response. ()
          

Healthcare: Nurse Practitioner-Cardiology in Washington - Richland, Washington

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Cardiology opening in Richland, Washington. This and other nurse practitioner jobs brought to you by NursingJobCafe.com VISTA's client has a need for an NP who specializes in Cardiology/ Nuclear Medicine. Location: Washington Specialist: Nurse Practitioner Training: 1+ years experience Duration: Ongoing while hiring Board requirement: Board certified Schedule: Mon - Fri Shifts: 8 hours/Call responsibility Hours: M-F 7:30-4:00, 8 hours Sat and Sun 1:3 Weekend Call Census: 5 to 10 EMR: EPIC Systems License requirement: Must be licensed before presentation Privileges: 60 days Partner with your VISTA recruiter today to find your perfect Cardiology job! Keyphrases: cardiologist jobs, cardiology jobs, interventional cardiology jobs, nuclear cardiology jobs, preventive cardiology jobs, clinical cardiology jobs, clinical cardiologist jobs, non invasive cardiology jobs, echocardiogram jobs, vascular jobs, radiology technologist jobs, radiology technician jobs, echo tech jobs, cardiac jobs, pediatric cardiac care jobs, intensive cardiac care jobs, nurse cardiac care jobs, cardiac care associate jobs, cardiologist electrophysiology jobs, electrophysiology cardiology jobs, cardiac cath lab nursing jobs, heart cath lab jobs, cardiac critical care jobs, cardiac critical care medicine jobs ()
          

Professions: Unicenter Support Analyst (Hanford Dept of Energy Site 333163) - Richland, Washington

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ANR Group Inc. is accepting resumes for a Unicenter Support Analyst to fill a contracted role supporting our client, Mission Support Alliance (MSA), a US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site Prime Contractor. -MSA provides essential services and tangibles to the entire Hanford complex in support of the overall mission.Hanford is the largest nuclear environmental cleanup site in the world. Consisting of 586 square miles adjacent to the Columbia River, -approximately 10,000 employees support the Hanford cleanup mission through contractors and subcontractors. -This position is located near Richland, Washington, part of the growing Tri-Cities area of Southeast Washington state. -The long-term goal of the Hanford Site clean-up projects is to use vitrification technology to process and solidify 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemical waste stored at the Hanford Site, which is a byproduct of plutonium production during World War II and the Cold War era. This position is not located near any dangerous material.Interested individuals should submit their resume by 4:00 PM PST on Friday, November 29, 2019.US citizenship requiredPOSITION BACKGROUNDThe MSA Information Management (IM) Network & Computing Services (N&CS) organization requires Computer Operations support to provide Analyst and Administration activities in sustaining the Unicenter Network and Systems Management (NSM) job scheduling services.All work will be done at an MSA worksite. Remote work arrangements are not authorized.RESPONSIBILITIES, TASKS AND ESSENTIAL JOB FUNCTIONSThis position will be responsible for supporting Unicenter NSM and other job scheduling activities. In addition, this position will support the software, infrastructure and tools to ensure enterprise level performance, availability and security of these systems.The Analyst will work with the Application Support team and Operations staff to effectively manage the site's job scheduling/batch management infrastructure and content on a 24/7 schedule.Regular tasks and functions will include, but are not limited to the following:Tier-3 troubleshooting support, working with the user support and operations teams to effectively manage and communicate issues and perform problem analysis and resolution. This may involve outside vendors, other support personnel or organizations.Manage day-to-day technical operations, product management, system performance monitoring, configuration, maintenance and repair.Manage integration with other systems, capacity planning, system-wide operation control, task automation and providing recommendations on innovative and/or cost-effective options for delivering and/or improving enterprise web hosting services.Apply revisions, upgrades and patches.Develop new system implementation plans, custom scripts and testing procedures to ensure operational reliability, high availability and system security of enterprise job scheduling/batch management services.Establish guidelines and methods for the installation and management of the host environment and client tools.Develop procedures and documentation for backup and restoration of host operating systems and host-based applications and DR/COOP capabilities.Develop tools, procedures and training sessions for operations and other customer support organizations.Stay current with technological developments and provide recommendations on how to take advantage of new advancements.Ensure system security across enterprise job scheduling/batch management services including contribution to security best practices.Respond to, and resolve access and performance issues.Manage the batch job scheduling and monitoring processes.Coordinate with the applications teams.Interface with the Network Operations Center on production scheduling.Ensure appropriate response and mitigation to events.MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS AND REQUIREMENTSBachelor's degree in Computer Science, IT, IS or a related discipline PLUS a minimum of 15 years of IT/IS experience OR a combination of education and work experience (2 years of work experience is considered equivalent to 1 year of formal education).Ten (10) years of experience in operational support of enterprise-wide tools.Ten (10) years of experience with configuration and management of Unicenter NSM systems.Five (5) years of experience with Unicenter NSM in a government environment.Ten (10) years of experience with Windows Server 2008-2012 setup and configuration, preferably on virtualized servers.Five (5) years of experience with batch management/job scheduling in an environment that runs 35,000 to 40,000 jobs monthly.Five (5) years of experience in Visual Basic and Perl scripting and the use of K-Edit toolsets.Experience and understanding of deploying enterprise tools to a user base greater than 2,500 users.Ability to provide support during non-standard business hours and be on call 24/7 as needed or as scheduled.Knowledge of industry best practices.DESIRED QUALIFICATIONSKnowledge and experience with Unicenter AE product.Experience with UNIX/Linux platforms in a virtualized environment.Prior experience supporting applications in the Hanford Site network environment.Prior experience supporting job scheduling and batch management for critical Hanford business systems such as Finance, Supply, Asset Management and Project Controls on the Hanford Site network environment.Prior experience with mainframe/mini-computer Systems Administration and Operations.Knowledge and understanding of the Hanford Software Quality Assurance requirements and processes, Production Readiness Review Board (PRRB) process, and System Engineering Control Board (SECB) process.Certifications in the above noted technologies.US Citizenship required. - -Visa status (Green Card, H1-B) does not substitute for citizenship requirement.The standard weekly work schedule for this position is (Four) 10-hour work days: Monday - Thursday, 6:00 am to 4:30 pm.Primary Work Location: -2261 Stevens Dr., Richland, WA. Occasional visits to the Hanford Site, located 35 miles north of Richland, WAGMail Users: Please monitor your Spam/Junk folders for our response. ()
          

IT / Software / Systems: Hanford Senior Software Engineer (333395) - Richland - Richland, Washington

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ANR Group Inc. is accepting resumes for a Senior Software Engineer to fill a contracted role supporting our client, Mission Support Alliance (MSA), a US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site Prime Contractor.--MSA provides essential services and tangibles to the entire Hanford complex in support of the overall clean-up mission.Hanford is the largest nuclear environmental cleanup site in the world. Consisting of 586 square miles adjacent to the Columbia River,--approximately 10,000 employees support the Hanford cleanup mission through contractors and subcontractors.--This position is located near Richland, Washington, part of the growing Tri-Cities area of Southeast Washington state.--The long-term goal of the Hanford Site clean-up projects is to use vitrification technology to process and solidify 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemical waste stored at the Hanford Site, which is a byproduct of plutonium production during World War II and the Cold War era. This position is not located near any dangerous material.Interested individuals should submit their resume by 4:00 PM PST on Friday, November 29, 2019.US citizenship requiredPOSITION BACKGROUNDThe Senior Software Engineer will provide support to the MSA Information Management (IM) Information Systems (IS) Software Engineering Services (SES) workgroup. All work will be done on-site. Remote work arrangements are not authorized for this position.RESPONSIBILITIES, TASKS AND ESSENTIAL JOB FUNCTIONSThis position will provide software engineering support to create, develop, operate and maintain software programs at the Hanford Site. Software engineering support also includes assessment, maintenance, documentation, modernization, testing and implementation functions. Responsibilities will include the support of legacy systems and the production of new systems.Normal tasks and functions of this position will include, but are not limited to:Support software enhancements and significant changes to customer web interfaceTroubleshoot software productions issuesGather requirements from customers and provide estimatesDevelop technical documentationAct as liaison with external vendors for hardware/software supportWork with Software Project Engineers, interface with Project Managers and meet with customer subject matter experts as neededMINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS AND REQUIREMENTSBachelor degree in Computer Science, IT or a related discipline OR a minimum of Ten (10) years of direct work experience in software application development OR a combination of education and work experience (Two (2) years of work experience will substitute for one (1) year of formal education)Ten (10) years work experience in development, implementation and administration of the BMC Remedy SuiteFive (5) years work experience in Crystal Report developmentFive (5) years work experience in Microsoft SQL database design and developmentTwo (2) years work experience in Dynamic Object Oriented Requirements System (DOORS)Ability to work in a multi-task, multi-project development environmentExcellent interpersonal skills with proven ability to work in a team-oriented collaborative environment. Excellent verbal and written communication skillsPossess strong customer relationship skillsAbility to work during non-standard business hoursPREFERRED QUALIFICATIONSFive (5) years work experience in the implementation and support of Hanford Site Enterprise custom and COTS applicationsExperience in providing technical support and administration of applications and servers that support the MSA Service CatalogExperience in the development of Hanford Site applications, systems and infrastructureUS Citizenship required.----Visa status (Green Card, H1-B) does not substitute for citizenship requirement.The standard weekly work schedule for this position is (Four) 10-hour work days: Monday - Thursday, 6:00 am to 4:30 pm.Primary Work Location:--2261 Stevens Dr., Richland, WA and the Hanford site located 35 miles north of Richland, WA.GMail Users: Please monitor your Spam/Junk folders for our response. ()
          

IT / Software / Systems: Hanford Senior Software Engineer/Database Developer (333691) - Richland - Richland, Washington

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ANR Group Inc. is accepting resumes for a Senior Software Engineer/Database Developer to fill a contracted role supporting our client, Mission Support Alliance (MSA), a US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site Prime Contractor.--MSA provides essential services and tangibles to the entire Hanford complex in support of the overall mission.Hanford is the largest nuclear environmental cleanup site in the world. Consisting of 586 square miles adjacent to the Columbia River,--approximately 10,000 employees support the Hanford cleanup mission through contractors and subcontractors.--This position is located near Richland, Washington, part of the growing Tri-Cities area of Southeast Washington state.--The long-term goal of the Hanford Site clean-up projects is to use vitrification technology to process and solidify 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemical waste stored at the Hanford Site, which is a byproduct of plutonium production during World War II and the Cold War era. This position is not located near any dangerous material.Interested individuals should submit their resume by 4:00 PM PST on Monday, December 2, 2019.US citizenship requiredPOSITION BACKGROUNDThe Senior Software Engineer/Database Developer will provide support to the MSA Information Management (IM) Information Systems Software Engineering Services (SES) workgroup. The work will entail database and software application support and specialization for custom and Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) systems utilized by the Hanford Site Occupational medical services provider.All work will be done at an MSA worksite. Remote work arrangements are not authorized. RESPONSIBILITIES, TASKS AND ESSENTIAL JOB FUNCTIONSThis position will create, develop, operate and maintain software programs at the Hanford site. Support provided will also include the assessment, maintenance, documentation, modernization, testing and implementation functions.Regular tasks and functions will include, but might not be limited to the following:Support legacy software systemsParticipate in the production of new software systemsTroubleshoot software production issuesDesign databasesWrite and maintain complex database queriesDevelop reportsMigrate data between systemsGather requirements from customers and provide estimatesDevelop technical documentationsAct as a liaison with external vendors for hardware/software supportWork with other Software Engineers, Project Managers and Subject Matter ExpertsMINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS AND REQUIREMENTSBachelor's degree in Computer Science, IT or a related discipline OR 10+ years of equivalent experience in software application development OR a combination of education and work experience (2 years of work experience is considered equivalent to 1 year of formal education)Eight (8) years of work experience in a multi-platform environment including, but not limited to, application development or database developmentEight (8) years of work experience in Oracle design and developmentTwo (2) years of work experience in SQL design and developmentOne (1) year of work experience in MariaDB design and developmentTwo (2) years of work experience with the implementation and administration of Enterprise COTS applicationsAbility to work in a multi-task, multi-project development environmentPossess excellent interpersonal skillsSuccessful past experience working in a team-oriented, collaborative environmentBe highly self-motivated and self-directedPossess strong customer relationship skillsAbility to work non-standard business hoursDESIRED QUALIFICATIONSExperience in supporting Hanford occupational medical services and related applications and web sitesExperience in the implementation and support of Hanford work management applicationsExperience in the development of Hanford Site applications, systems and infrastructureUS Citizenship required.----Visa status (Green Card, H1-B) does not substitute for citizenship requirement.The standard weekly work schedule for this position is (Four) 10-hour work days: Monday - Thursday, 6:00 am to 4:30 pm.Primary Work Location:--2261 Stevens Dr., Richland, WA. Occasional visits to the Hanford Site, located 35 miles north of Richland, WAGMail Users: Please monitor your Spam/Junk folders for our response. ()
          

Fine-tuning gene expression during stress recovery

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Credit: Hokkaido University Scientists have discovered non-coding RNA has a novel role to fine-tune gene expressions during stress recovery, getting closer to uncovering a 30-year-old nuclear mystery. Hokkaido University researchers are beginning to uncover the functions of mysterious organelles in the nucleus and their relation to stress, 30 years after their discovery. The organelles, called […]
          

European Security in Crisis: What to Expect if the United States Withdraws from NATO

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It is February 2021. A few months after his re-election as president of the United States, Donald Trump declares that NATO has become obsolete and the United States withdraws from the alliance. All U.S. forces — military personnel and equipment — including nuclear and missile defense assets will be withdrawn from Europe as soon as […]

The post European Security in Crisis: What to Expect if the United States Withdraws from NATO appeared first on War on the Rocks.


          

America's troubled alliance with Ukraine

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How did the U.S. become so involved with this former Soviet republic? Here's everything you need to know:

How did modern Ukraine emerge?
Ukraine's history is intertwined with Russia's. Both cultures descend from the medieval Slavic empire Kievan Rus, founded by Vikings in the 9th century with a capital where Kyiv stands today. After the empire was overrun by Mongol invaders in the 13th century, the Rus leadership moved northeastward, to a small trading outpost called Moscow. The lands around Kyiv were carved up by competing powers, who prized the fertile plains and rich, dark soil that later earned Ukraine the nickname "the breadbasket of Europe." Poland and Lithuania dominated the country for hundreds of years, but by the end of the 18th century, the Russian Empire had taken the eastern lands, while the western were controlled by the Austro-Hungarian Empire — a division that resonates to this day. Both empires collapsed at the end of World War I, and in 1917 a Ukrainian state was declared, but it was quickly swallowed by the communist Soviet Union. It was only in 1991, after the Soviet Union dissolved, that the modern borders of Ukraine were established. Russia has never really accepted Ukraine's independence, and Ukraine has been careening between pro-Western and pro-Russian leaders ever since.

Why do Russians still see it as theirs?
The cultural and Orthodox religious ties between the two peoples go back centuries. But perhaps more importantly, Russia has no natural mountain or river borders to protect its western front, and it has long seen Ukraine as a vital strategic buffer. "Russia without Ukraine is a country," explains Daniel Drezner, an international politics professor at Tufts University. "Russia with Ukraine is an empire." Russian President Vladimir Putin wants at all costs to keep Ukraine out of the European Union and NATO, and he has used Ukraine's dependence on Russian natural gas as a weapon — cutting off supplies in 2006 as Ukrainians froze in the winter cold. Ukraine is bitterly divided between Ukrainian speakers in the west, who mostly want to align their country with the West, and Russian speakers in the east.

Why did the U.S. get involved?
Since 1991, the U.S. has sought to guarantee Ukraine's independence and security, seeing it as a key bridge between East and West. When the USSR dissolved, Ukraine inherited the third-largest nuclear arsenal in the world, with some 1,900 strategic nuclear weapons pointed at the United States. Keen to avoid a proliferation of nuclear powers, the U.S., U.K., and Russia in 1994 signed the Budapest Memorandum, which transferred the weapons to Russia in exchange for a commitment by Washington, Moscow, and London to "respect the independence and sovereignty and existing borders of Ukraine" and to "refrain from the threat or use of force" against it. Russia continued meddling in Ukrainian politics, though, and overtly broke the treaty in 2014.

What did Russia do?
Ukraine's 2004 election was a showdown between pro-Western Viktor Yushchenko and pro-Russian Viktor Yanukovych. During the campaign, Yushchenko was disfigured by dioxin poisoning widely attributed to Russia, and after the vote was rigged for Yanukovych, Ukrainians rose up in the Orange Revolution, which culminated in a revote and a victory for Yushchenko. In the 2010 election, though, Yanukovych came roaring back to win the presidency with the help of both Russia and American political consultant Paul Manafort. In 2013, Moscow forced Yanukovych to cancel the country's bid to move closer to the EU, leading to an uprising that forced Yanukovych out. In the tumult that ensued, Russia invaded and annexed Crimea and later sent troops into Ukraine's eastern regions to start a separatist war. The Obama administration punished Russia with sanctions, but chose not to send weapons to Ukraine out of fear of triggering a larger war.

How is the war going?
Armed by Russia and supported by Russian paramilitaries, two ­Russian-­speaking Ukrain­ian regions collectively called the Donbass declared independence in 2014 and have been fighting with Ukraine ever since. An estimated 13,000 people have been killed and some 1.5 million displaced. In 2018, then–­national security adviser H.R. McMaster and other aides persuaded a reluctant Pres­i­dent Trump to send $400 million in military aid to Kyiv, including counter-artillery radar systems and Javelin anti-tank missiles. Without that aid, Mariya Omelicheva of the Pen­ta­gon's Nation­al De­fense Uni­ver­si­ty told The Atlan­tic, the 300-mile-long front line in the eastern Don­bass region "would have been moved further west into Ukraine, and ­Russia-backed rebels would have controlled more Ukrain­ian territory." That's why the possibility of U.S. aid being held up — the subject of the impeachment ­inquiry — is so important to Ukraine. Ukraine's new president, Volody­myr Zelen­sky, finds himself caught in a struggle between Democrats and Trump — who has reportedly been echoing Vladimir Putin's claim that Ukraine is corrupt and "not a real country."

Americans cash in
As Ukraine emerged from communism and struggled to build a rule-of-law economy, politically connected Amer­i­cans saw ways to make money. Paul Mana­fort, President Trump's former campaign manager, earned at least $13 million — and possibly much more — ­working for pro-­Russian Ukrainian oligarchs. His consultancy for a pro-Russian party that tried to undermine the U.S. alliance with Ukraine was crucial to the triumph of Yanu­ko­vych in the 2010 election. Mana­fort is now serving 7½ years in prison for tax fraud over those earnings. Joe Biden's son Hunter joined the board of Buris­ma, a Ukrain­ian gas company, in 2014 at a reported salary of tens of thousands of dollars a month, although there is no indication that either Biden broke any laws. Rudy Giu­li­ani, meanwhile, the president's personal lawyer, had a 2017 ­security-­consulting contract with the Ukrain­ian city of Kharkiv, and in 2018 he began working with two Soviet-born Amer­i­can executives, Lev Parnas and Igor Fruman, Repub­li­can donors who wanted to sell gas to Ukraine. Federal prosecutors have indicted Par­nas and Fru­man for illegal campaign contributions and are now reportedly investigating whether Giu­li­ani "stood to profit personally from a Ukrain­ian natural-gas business" pushed by those two men.


          

God's gift to America?

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On Sunday, outgoing Secretary of Energy Rick Perry told Fox News viewers about a recent conversation he'd had with Donald Trump in which he told the president he was "the chosen one" placed by God in the White House. Perry made sure to add that he had given Trump a "one pager" on the imperfect Old Testament kings who God had appointed to carry out his plans. "Don't get confused here, sir," Perry claims he said to the president. "This is not a reflection that you're perfect, but that God's using you."

As liberals predictably freaked out over Perry's words, other Trump backers quickly confirmed that, yes, Trump has been selected by God for the presidency, and Fox put replays of the discussion in heavy rotation. In an interview for the Christian Broadcasting Network, Nikki Haley also weighed in. "I think God sometimes places people for lessons and sometimes places people for change," she told CBN's David Brody.

On the one hand, the comments from Perry and others aren't that surprising. Invoking God's ordination has become boilerplate language for how many white evangelicals talk about the presidency. As the religious right activist Gary Bauer explained back during George W. Bush's administration, "Evangelicals believe that no leader rises without God allowing that leader to rise." In his Fox News interview, Perry contended that God's divine appointments to the White House are bipartisan. "You know, Barack Obama doesn't get to be the president of the United States without being ordained by God," he said.

On the other hand, what's happening now is far more than a generic theological statement about God's sovereignty over American politics. As with everything related to Trump, the religious rationalization of his presidency is hyperbolic and overblown. And it's operating on overdrive, repeated constantly since Trump's 2016 victory.

While many Americans rightly chalked up Trump's unlikely election to the technicalities of the Electoral College, Trump's religious backers saw the hand of Providence at work. By imagining Trump's win as miraculous, white evangelicals could self-justify their controversial support for the thrice-married casino magnate who openly bragged about sexual assault and once declared he'd never needed to ask for God's forgiveness. God picks imperfect people, after all — even those who don't realize their own imperfection.

That self-rationalization for voting for Trump, however, has given way to a sort of self-absolution for continuing to support him in light of his myriad imperfections in office, not least his debased character and rampant illegalities. That's why we're likely to hear a whole lot more of the "chosen by God" talk as the 2020 election nears. If God chose Trump, who are we to turn from him now?

Beyond the election, the divine defense of Trump shapes GOP politics more broadly, characterizing Trump not as a moral actor, but instead as a divinely-sanctioned despot who can do whatever he wants. Republicans' stunning abnegation of the law and the Constitution during the Trump presidency makes sense if that's the understanding of how he got into office and what he can do while there. Promoting Trump as God's choice to lead America helps normalize the outrageous insistence that Trump is above the law.

No question, Republican leaders will say anything to get Trump re-elected. And Trump's white evangelical base has shown they'll bend reality however they must to stay loyal to the cause. But it's also worth considering how the "chosen by God" message affects Trump's sense of himself and his actions as president.

In the right mind — and heart — the idea that one had been chosen by God for something like the presidency would prompt a state of sober self-reflection and a sense of humble obligation. But Trump is not in his right mind. And his heart is a twisted thicket of perceived slights, raging bigotries, and unquenchable narcissism. For a man as delusional and depraved as Trump, the idea that he has been chosen by God, at best, fuels his already strong impulse to think he can get away with anything. At worst, it could have potentially catastrophic, even apocalyptic, ends.

During the previous administration, conservatives loved to scoff that Democrats had a messiah complex when it came to Barack Obama. The Trump years, though, have demonstrated time and again that much of the conservative charges against liberals were really projections of their own inclinations. Last spring, for example, Trump's 2020 campaign manager Brad Parscale rapturously tweeted about the president, "Only God could deliver such a savior to our nation."

If that's the kind of thing being said in public, one can only imagine the sort of nonsense Trump hears from the sycophants he's encircled around him in the White House. Many Americans may think this is all just crazy talk. But heaven help the nation whose madman president thinks he's God's gift to us all.

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10 things you need to know today: November 29, 2019

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1.

President Trump made a surprise visit to Afghanistan on Thursday to spend part of Thanksgiving with U.S. troops. During the visit, Trump's first to Afghanistan, he announced that the U.S. and the Taliban have reopened peace talks. He said he believes the Taliban want a truce in America's longest war. "We're meeting with them," Trump said. "And we're saying it has to be a ceasefire." Trump had cut off talks with the Taliban in September and canceled a secret meeting between Taliban and Afghan leaders after a flurry of violence. During Trump's 3 1/2 hours at Bagram Air Field, Trump also served turkey to U.S. soldiers, who cheered him when he entered the dining hall. About 12,000 American troops remain in Afghanistan. [The Associated Press]

2.

Police restored school administrators' control of Hong Kong Polytechnic University on Friday, declaring that there were no pro-democracy protesters left on the wrecked campus after a two-week siege. Police arrested hundreds of protesters during the showdown. On Thursday, a team of about 400 officers conducted a sweep of the university, and found nearly 4,000 firebombs, 921 gas canisters, and 588 containers of chemicals, including acid and other corrosive liquids. The transfer of control back to school officials marked the end of one of the most intense clashes between protesters and police in a month of escalating unrest following the death of a student who fell from a parking structure during a police operation. [The New York Times, South China Morning Post]

3.

North Korea on Thursday launched two short-range projectiles into the waters off its east coast, South Korea's military said. "Our military expresses its strong regret over (the launches) and urges (North Korea) to immediately stop acts that escalate military tensions," said Maj. Gen. Jeon Dong Jin, a senior operations officer at Seoul's Joint Chiefs of Staff. The missile test came three days after North Korea said its soldiers had held artillery drills near a disputed sea boundary. The latest missile launches were the 13th public weapons test conducted by North Korea this year as Pyongyang pushes for a new U.S. proposal to resume stalled talks on trading nuclear concessions for sanctions relief. [The Associated Press, The Washington Post]

4.

The European Parliament on Thursday passed a symbolic measure declaring a "climate emergency." The move raises pressure on member states to take action to curb emissions blamed for climate change ahead of a United Nations climate summit starting Dec. 2 in Spain. In recent months, hundreds of regional and local administrations have approved similar declarations, but Thursday's vote was significant because the European lawmakers who passed the measure represent 500 million people. "Five years ago, no one would have expected the European Parliament to declare a climate emergency, so there's some progress," said Sebastian Mang of Greenpeace. Dissenters in the 429-225 vote objected to the use of the word "emergency," suggesting the use of "urgency" instead. [The Washington Post, Reuters]

5.

The holiday shopping season kicks off on Friday with traditional Black Friday sales. Many retailers got a jump on the competition by getting started with deep discounts on Thanksgiving Day, and analysts forecast data to show that online shoppers spent a record $4 billion on Thanksgiving. The total had already reached $2.1 billion as of 5 p.m. Thursday, a 20.2 percent increase compared to the same point last year. Demand was so high on Thursday that Costco's website and app were briefly hampered by heavy traffic. Black Friday is continuing to evolve, as many stores try to snag a bigger share of holiday sales by cutting prices days or even weeks before what used to be a one-day shopping frenzy. Shoppers are expected to spend up to $731 billion in November and December, roughly 4 percent more than in the same period last year. [USA Today, MarketWatch]

6.

Powerful winter storms hammered parts of the country on Thursday, complicating Thanksgiving travel. Heavy snow forced the closure of Interstate 5, a major highway in Southern California, leaving dozens of vehicles stuck with snow still falling. The highway, which joins Southern California with the rest of the state, was reopened later in the day, but forecasters warned more snow and rain could fall in the area. A so-called bomb cyclone, with a rapid drop in atmospheric pressure, brought up to four feet of snow in some mountainous areas in the Pacific Northwest. The winter storm was expected to move east, bringing snow and high winds across much of the West before continuing toward the Great Plains late on Friday. [Reuters]

7.

Gordon Sondland, the U.S. ambassador to the European Union and a key witness in the impeachment inquiry against President Trump, on Thursday reiterated his denial of sexual misconduct allegations made by three women in an article jointly published Wednesday by ProPublica and Portland Monthly magazine. In the article, Sondland said the claims were "concocted" for "political purposes." One of the women said Sondland backtracked on plans to invest in her business after she rejected his advances during a tour of a hotel he owns. Another accuser, a work associate, said Sondland exposed himself to her. The third, who is 27 years younger than Sondland, said he forcibly kissed her when they met to discuss a possible job. One of the accusers, Nicole Vogel, owns Portland Monthly. The alleged incidents took place years ago, before Sondland was named as Trump's E.U. ambassador. [The Wall Street Journal, ProPublica]

8.

Thousands of demonstrators rallied in Hong Kong on Thursday to express appreciation for two U.S. laws supporting human rights in the Chinese-ruled semi-autonomous city. President Trump signed the Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act on Wednesday. It requires an annual review to confirm that the former British colony still has enough autonomy to justify its special trade status. "I guess Trump wanted to give us a Thanksgiving present, and we're glad to accept," said Wong Yiu-chung, a Lingnan University politics professor who attended the rally. Chinese officials on Thursday angrily condemned the U.S. measures as "an epitome of gangster violence," and an act of foreign meddling intended to hurt China's economic growth. [Los Angeles Times]

9.

Prime Minister Boris Johnson on Thursday urged President Trump to avoid commenting on Britain's upcoming election during next week's NATO summit in London. "The best (thing) when you have close friends and allies like the U.S. and the UK is for neither side to get involved in each other's election," Johnson told LBC radio. Johnson pushed for the early election hoping to break a stalemate over Britain's planned exit from the European Union. Trump has already made controversial comments in the vote, saying in October that Johnson should join forces with Brexit Party leader Nigel Farage and that the opposition Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn would be "so bad" for the country. [Reuters]

10.

Acclaimed American free-solo rock climber Brad Gobright died in a fall while on a well-known path on a rock known as El Sendero Luminoso, or the Shining Path, in northern Mexico's Potrero Chico national park, Mexican authorities said. His body was recovered Thursday. Gobright and a climbing partner, Aidan Jacobson, fell about 20 feet to a ledge after their rope got stuck, but Jacobson landed in a bush, which broke his fall. "It was basically a blur," Jacobson, 26, told Outside magazine. "He screamed. I screamed. I went through some vegetation, and then all I remember is seeing his blue Gramicci shirt bounce over the edge." Gobright fell nearly 985 feet to his death, which the State Department confirmed in a statement, saying, "We offer our sincerest condolences to his family on their loss." [CNN, The New York Times]


          

Trees informing networks explaining trees

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Working at the coalface of evolution, one phenomenon always intrigued me: How does the signal in the data build up a tree? Especially since we have to assume some sort of reticulation happened at some point — evolution is rarely a strictly dichotomous process, which we would model by a tree. In earlier posts, we have covered the difference between clades and grades in a tree, and Hennig's concepts of monophyly and paraphyly. Clearly, in the light of actual evolutionary processes, the cladistic approach synonymizing clades with monophyly is a simplification at best, and naive at worst.

In this post, I will discuss a real-world example using molecular data put together for a (probably) recently evolved plant genus, Drosanthemum, as discussed in this paper:

Liede-Schumann S, Grimm GW, Nürk NM, Potts AJ, Meve U, Hartmann HEK. 2019. Phylogenetic relationships in the southern African genus Drosanthemum (Ruschioideae, Aizoaceae). bioRxiv preprint.
These days, next-generation sequencing (NGS) and phylogenomic data may provide what you need to resolve everything from the beginning of life to the very tips of the Tree of Life (ToL; which, at the root and tips is probably more of a Network of Life). However, this has two shortcomings: You need a lot of money, and a lot of DNA. Given the number of modern-day plant species, including not a few that are in flux, it's pretty safe to assume that I won't live long enough to have all of the ToL leaves resolved by NGS data.

On the hand, there are a countless numbers of scientists with taxonomic expertise struggling for funding; and classic Sanger sequencing has become very cheap. Thus, Oligogene (fossil) data sets will remain in use for quite some time. We do, however, have to deal with their shortcomings, such as not giving us a fully resolved phylogenetic tree, but instead providing partially diffuse signals. Nevertheless, we can get a lot of insights by combining traditional tree and network inferences.

The tree

To test systematic concepts and construct a species phylogeny for Drosanthemum, we tapped into four non-coding plastid gene regions, which, following earlier research, were the most divergent within the larger group:
  • the close intergenic plastid spacers trnK-rps16 and rps16-trnQ,
  • the trnS-trnG intergenic spacer, and
  • the rpl16 intron.
Following popular demand, we also sequenced the nuclear-encoded ITS region used in earlier phylogenetic studies (despite being quite useless for tree inference in the larger lineage, being much too conserved).

We did a full analysis, a single-gene tree inference, and bootstrapping vs. combined analysis, with or without data partitioning. We concluded that the combined plastid (not including ITS data) tree does provide a good phylogenetic-systematic framework for the genus.

Our Drosanthemum tree, rooted using the most probable rooting scenario (following an outgroup-EPA analysis; see Liede-Schumann et al., fig. 4 and Supplement file S4). Major clades and subclades are annotated, on the left the morphological subgenera associated with each major clade.

Why consider it to be good? Well, it fits amazingly well with the morphology-based systematics. Evolution doesn't follow a straight path: (i) reticulation will happen at least during the formation of species; (ii) there will always be some incomplete lineage sorting of geno- and phenotypes; and (iii) morphologies have substantially different evolutionary constraints from noncoding plastid gene regions. If it ends up in a good match, it won't be by coincidence but more likely because our inferred phylogeny captures well the true tree (coalescent).

Regarding monophyly, the tree is hence well suited to construct a framework: most of our major clades are linked to a specific, clade-unique morphology. (Don't hope to find too many autapomorphies, in plants common origin manifests typically in diagnostic character suites rather than individual aut-/synapomorphies.) The exception is subgenus Drosanthemum, which is apparently diphyletic — this term is meant literally, not just because its members form two molecular clades. Furthermore, although not visible on the tree, Clade IV / Vespertina may well be evolved from Clade III / Drosanthemum. The III-IV grade represents a monophyletic group, and Clade III may be paraphyletic.

At this point, you may be thinking: Guido has lost it; but bear with me.

Ancestral and derived haplotypes

The point is, I know our data. When we look at the sequence patterns in the gene regions, we can readily see that Clade III (subgenus Drosanthemum) and IV (subgenus Speciosa) likely had a (genetic) common ancestor different of that from the more evolved clades I (subgenus Drosanthemum) and II, and hence the high support and increased branch length of the corresponding branches — I + II and III + IV could well be reciprocally monophyletic. Realizing that clades III and IV are part of the same evolutionary lineage, we can take a closer look at them using, for example, Median networks. Parsimony is generally inferior to probabilistic methods when dealing with (mostly) neutral but stochastic mutation patterns. However, since we are very close to the coalface of evolution, we are dealing with rather minute changes — too minute for ML to make a well-informed call (also, there is no ML counterpart to haplotype networks).

To not miss something in our data (or overweight indels and linked mutation patterns), we do not just use the nucleotide sequences but we tabulate and code each mutational pattern — simple ones like single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and duplications, but also complex ones, sequence patterns in length-polymorphic, sequentially diverse parts. The next figure shows an example:

"Export" refers to the unaltered export of (parsimony-informative) variable sites of the aligned nucleotide matrix; "recoded" the correction for excess mutations (when treating gaps as 5th base) in order to ensure the coding matches the number of steps in the theory of Median networks (see Liede-Schumann et al., supplement file S2).

Now, we are operating above the species level, which is outside the comfort zone of Median networks, which were originally designed for investigating within-species population structure. We are dealing with signals from phylogenetically sorting (eg. evolution of complex sequence patterns, see example above) mixed with (partly) convergent/ homoiologous patterns (eg. duplications, which are very rarely lineage-specific in plant plastomes). The resulting Median networks are quite complex, as shown next.

The output from NETWORK for Clade III + IV and the trnG-trnS intergenic spacer. In total, the matrix codes for 14 mutational patterns (10 SNPs, 3 indels, 1 length-polymorphic region involving a SNP; see sheet Clade3&4.trnGS in f_Haplotyping.xlsx in folder 1_main_data_and_results the online supporting archive @ DataDryad); the red edge numbers indicate which pattern changed, the bubble colors refer to the group: Cyan, Subgrade IIIa; blue, Subclade IIIb; yellow, Clade IV (note: Clade III and IV differ from other major clades by uniquely shared patterns)

One option would be to weight the characters. However, it is pretty difficult to come up with a weighting scheme given that we deal with very different mutation patterns, which include everything from simple transitions to reorganization of length-polymorphic regions. When looking at the SNPs, AG transitions appear to be more probable than AC transversions, but some AG transitions are highly diagnostic for clades, while some AC transversions seem random. Instead of getting lost in weighting (and self-enforcing bias), we compare them across the four gene regions by collapsing haplotype groups and their (diffuse) subnets, as shown next.

'Condensed' Median networks for the Clade III + IV lineage, parts of the graphs collecting sequentially similiar members of one group are replaced by bubbles (cf. Liede-Schumann et al., fig. 6).

Note that, in contrast to traditional haplotype networks, the bubbles in the figure don't represent the number of accessions of the haplotype, but instead are the sequential diversity of the collapsed haplotype group. From the graphs superimposed on the background of the combined tree, it is straightforward to see which haplotype maybe ancestral within a lineage and which haplotype is derived and how they relate to each other.

Paraphyletic "clades"

We now know how the haplotypes of each covered gene region are related to each other, and which species have substantially derived sequences, and which species have putatively ancestral sequences. Using the networks and by comparison with the sequence patterns in the sister group(s), we could even reconstruct an hypothetical haplotype of the common ancestor. But just by comparing the median networks for each gene regions with the corresponding subtrees in the combined tree we can (try to) interpret our clades and grades as monophyletic or paraphyletic.

Fig. 5 from Liede-Schumann et al. (2019) showing the 'condensed' Median networks for Clade I/ Drosanthemum (s.str.)

Members of Subclade Ib, the subtree with the worst support within Clade I / Drosanthemum (s.str.), may represent the survivors of the initial radiation, and hence are a paraphyletic group. They are resolved as a clade in the tree because of the signal from the trnS-trnG region producing a clear split between the three groups. However, this is also the most-conserved gene region, and when compared with the mutational patterns in the other clades (especially the sister clade, Clade II), it would not be far fetched to conclude that the trnS-trnG haplotype B is the original haplotype of the entire lineage.

The distinctive feature of Subclade Ib in the trnS-trnG is a complex duplication pattern not found in the otherwise genetically more coherent subclades Ia and Ib, as shown next.


This looks like a simple evolutionary sequence, with Clade Ia and Ic having retained the original pattern, with the complex pattern being a derived, clade-unique feature of Clade Ib (an autapormorphy for the corresponding monophyletic group).

But when we add the patterns of Clade II, the reciprocally monophyletic sister clade, it's not that simple anymore, as shown next.

Why one should be careful with gap-coding: even complex plastid duplication patterns evolve in parallel (or convergently). No matter whether X-Y or X-Y'-X-Y is the ancestral pattern, we have one/two convergent mutations in parts of Clades I and II; either duplication of X and insertion of Y' or (subsequent) deletion of X-Y'.

Realizing that a few clades in our tree may be paraphyletic gives us a new edge on our data and phylogenetic framework that can be further elaborated. Because they directly point towards a first, quick radiation that predates the formation of the monophyletic molecular clades (this is only a tautonym in cladistics, not in phylogenetics) — the members of paraphyletic molecular clades are genetically distinct (long terminal branches, typically low and/or ambiguous support for the clade root) or little evolved survivors (short root and terminal branches, but relatively high root branch support).

Furthermore, we can now see why some species act a bit roguish, are difficult to resolve, or inflict internal data conflict.

'Condensed' Medium networks for the sister clades V and VI (modified after Liede-Schumann et al., fig. 7)

Drosanthemum gracillimum is the only species our tree that doesn't resolve as a member of one of the two main (definitely monophyletic) subclades within Clade V: Subclade Va / Speciosa and Vb / Ossicula, genetically close but morphologically distinct sisters. We had no material of this species for our analysis, and instead used available GenBank data (out of curiosity). Its trnS-trnG and rps16-trnQ haplotypes are unique but rather ancestral within Clade V, and hence the tree cannot resolve where to place it.

Another example for how ancestry of sequences contribute to topological conflict or ambiguity in intrageneric phylogenies, but also illustrating the limitation of our approach, is one individual of D. striatum. It's the only member of Subclade Vb / Ossicula with a Subclade Va / Speciosa-type rps16-trnQ. With respect to my last blog post, the simplest explanation is that it just retained a less derived rps16-trnQ haplotype. However, this spacer includes a high-divergent, genotaxomomically valuable region that we had to exclude from all analyses (but included in our spreadsheet haplotyping.xlsx). In this, it shows a very unique, complex, apparently derived pattern shared with a few other members of the sister Clade Va. Maybe there was some reticulation and plastome-recombination at work here (contamination can be ruled out, as the material was processed twice).

Just try it with your own data

We cannot all afford perfect, often seemingly trivial, NGS / phylogenomic data. Combined trees can inform us about groups sharing a likely (mostly inclusive) common origin, such as molecular clades with fair support and distinctly long root branches and/or shared unique morphologies (ie. "monophyla" in a strict Hennigian sense). Clade-restricted haplotype networks can help us to understand the molecular evolution in these groups, free from the assumption of dichotomy and time equality.

By definition, all tip sequences represent the same time (today) in a tree, so they can only be sisters not ancestors and descendants. In reality, when we approach the coalface, we have some sequence patterns or actual sequences that are ancestral to others, because the species carrying them didn't evolve as much and as fast as their sibling(s). At some time, different parts evolved at different speeds within one lineage (see the examples above).

The networks hence fill a gap that the tree can't possibly resolve. They allow to understand why the tree may make more sense in certain parts than in others; and where it is probably 100% reliable and where we may want to have a closer look. Furthermore, only the networks can tell us if there is some real conflict in the data: different gene regions reflecting different histories.



Epilogue

As a careful reader ,you may have noticed that we skipped the ITS sequence entirely. The reason is shown in the following two graphs.

The first one shows a statistical parsimony network of all of our ITS data compiled for the species included in the plastid combined tree.

A statistical parsimony network based on the ITS data. Colors give the main cp clades (see Liede-Schumann et al., Supplement file S3)

The network approaches a spider-web, as shown above. The reason for this is that there are only a limited number of ITS positions where Drosanthemum fixes mutations (notably nearly exclusively SNPs, with no length-polymorphism). So, the genus is likely a young one, much like its sister clade the Ruschideae, which also mostly shows randomly distribution ITS mutation patterns.

Inferring an ITS tree is possible but useless, in that the data don't provide a clear signal. Furthermore, when we map the observed mutational patterns onto the plastid tree, we see a lot of messing up towards the leaves; but, in principle, it's all just sorting along the shared coalescent. We can identify those ITS mutation that a (plastid-)clade specific and lineage-diagnostic, including ITS-"synapormophies" for plastid-inferred clades that are likely monophyletic (being correlated to a distinct morphology and supported by derived, uniquely shared sequence patterns).

ITS genotypes mapped on the plastid tree, pointing to a largely congruent history with incomplete (ITS) lineage sorting. CU = clade-unique sequence pattern; Sh = shared, not unique, sequence pattern.
This opens the door to quickly screen for individuals / species that don't fall in line of the coalescent but are the product of (deep) reticulation (either using bulk sequencing and NGS genotyping or traditional cheap methods such as PCR-RFLP).
          

Healthcare: Physician / Radiology / California / Assignment / General Radiologist - Rancho Cucamonga, California

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Job Description & Requirements General Radiologist StartDate: ASAP Available Shifts: Regular 8 Pay Rate: $.00 Immediate General Radiologist needs in Rancho Cucamonga.The area is close to the downtown district of Los Angeles, so with that in mind, you can easily visit this city for a day trip, or spend a little longer if you prefer. This area is perfect for nature lovers, and there are a range of parks to explore as well as a plethora of hiking trails. Many of these end with scenic views across this majestic part of the United States, and there are also several beautiful waterfalls in Rancho Cucamonga. In the evenings, you also wont be bored, as there is a great sense of nightlife here that includes breweries and wineries, as well as live music venues, eateries, and malls. Monday-Friday 8 am- 5 pm Imaging Services: CT, Fluoroscopy, MRI, Nuclear Medicine, Ultrasound,X-ray Procedures:5-8 fluoroscopyper day, 30-45 US per day, 70-80 X-rays per day Facility Location Ideally situated within the Los Angeles metropolitan area, this region is home to world-class shopping, top-rate entertainment and easy access to the nearby mountains, lakes, desert and beach areas. With tree-lined boulevards, beautiful parklands and gardens, and a year-round mild climate, this region of Southern California is filled with an abundance of opportunities. Job Benefits Staff Care typically arranges medical or dental malpractice insurance for the contractor providers we match to client opportunities. In addition, our locum tenens typically receive highly competitive pay and a dedicated team that handles all travel, lodging, rentals and transportation needs. Additionally, our Physician Mobility initiative decreases the amount of time you must wait to work at a facility where you are presented or have worked from 24 months to 6 months. About the Company Staff Care, an AMN Healthcare company, is the nation's leader in locum tenens staffing. We provide flexible, temporary employment options for physicians, clinicians, and other allied health professionals in all specialties with a variety of healthcare organizations, typically with interim contracts lasting from one week to one year. AMN Healthcare is an EEO/AA/Disability/Protected Veteran Employer. We encourage minority and female applicants to apply. Radiology Physician, Radiologist, Radiology Doctor, Radiology Specialist, Imaging Radiologist, Diagnostic Radiologist, radiology,, radiology, radiologist ()
          

Energía Nuclear y Cambio Climático

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Energía Nuclear y Cambio Climático

Este material presenta los contenidos en  tres niveles de profundidad:

1.- Láminas. Material de apoyo que permite al docente explicar el tema en el aula.

2.- Realidad aumentada. Se podrán ampliar los contenidos a través de una app (HP Reveal) descargada en el móvil o tablet donde al recorrer la lámina se podrá acceder a vídeos y/o links de otras fuentes. También están disponibles a través del código QR situado al lado de cada imagen. 

3.- Experiencia Accediendo mediante el código QR denominado experiencia. 

Image: 
Origen: 
Idioma - Buscador: 

          

Turkey's Burgeoning Nuclear Ambitions Raise Concerns

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President Recep Tayyip Erdogan of Turkey, in an address on September 4 this year to his ruling Justice and Development Party's governing body, spoke openly of his country's nuclear ambitions. "Some countries have missiles with nuclear warheads, not one
          

New broom at UN nuclear watchdog as Iran tensions rise

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New broom at UN nuclear watchdog as Iran tensions riseArgentine diplomat Rafael Grossi will be confirmed as the new director general of the UN's nuclear watchdog the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on Monday, with the growing crisis over Iran's nuclear programme at the top of his in-tray. - Who is Rafael Grossi? The veteran diplomat, who has been serving as Argentina's ambassador to the IAEA, will be the agency's first leader from Latin America.



          

President Trump speaks with Israel's Netanyahu about Iran, other issues

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President Trump speaks with Israel's Netanyahu about Iran, other issuesU.S. President Donald Trump spoke on Sunday with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu about Iran and other issues, the White House said in a brief statement. "The leaders discussed the threat from Iran, as well as other critical bilateral and regional issues," the White House said in an email statement. Relations between Iran and the United States have worsened since last year when Trump pulled out of Tehran's 2015 nuclear deal with world powers and reimposed sanctions on the country.



          

Unraveling the Linkage between Retrograde Signaling and RNA Metabolism in Plants

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Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019

Source: Trends in Plant Science

Author(s): Xiaobo Zhao, Jianyan Huang, Joanne Chory

Retrograde signals are signals that originate in organelles to regulate nuclear gene expression. In plant cells, retrograde signaling from both chloroplasts and mitochondria is essential for plant development and growth. Over the past few years, substantial progress has been made in unraveling the linkages between chloroplast retrograde signaling and nuclear RNA metabolism processes or plastidial RNA editing. These findings add to the complexity of the regulation of organelle-to-nucleus communication. Chloroplast development and function rely on the coordinated regulation of chloroplast and nuclear gene expression, especially under stress conditions. A better understanding of retrograde signaling and RNA metabolism, as well as their connection, is essential for breeding stress-tolerant plants to cope with the dynamic and rapidly changing environment.


          

Fun, physics and the God particle: a tour of Cern, Switzerland

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Science and art meet on a mind-blowing visit to the European Organization for Nuclear Research, while the fairytale streets of the Swiss capital are a wonder, too

There is something retro and subterranean about the maze of narrow corridors ahead of us. Exposed steel pipes run along the ceilings, the floors are shiny linoleum and the doors are moulded wood. It looks as if it has barely changed since it was built back in the 1950s.

Welcome to the European Organization for Nuclear Research, better known as Cern, home to the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. Beyond the design, what is more retro, liable to make you misty-eyed for a bygone era, is how it all came into being.

Continue reading...
          

New broom at UN nuclear watchdog as Iran tensions rise

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New broom at UN nuclear watchdog as Iran tensions riseArgentine diplomat Rafael Grossi will be confirmed as the new director general of the UN's nuclear watchdog the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on Monday, with the growing crisis over Iran's nuclear programme at the top of his in-tray. - Who is Rafael Grossi? - The veteran diplomat, who has been serving as Argentina's ambassador to the IAEA, will be the agency's first leader from Latin America.



          

Harry Kazianis: North Korea-US nuclear showdown coming – unless Kim takes these steps

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Visit our website to read more www.InsideWorld.com.

Or if you are already subscribed hit this Story Link.
          

Nuclear-capable missile Prithvi-2 test-fired at night

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Prithvi-2 is capable of carrying 500-1,000 kg of warheads and is powered by liquid propulsion twin engines, the sources said.
          

Govt admits to cyber-attack on Kudankulam nuke plant

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There is a secured system to tackle cyber attacks and there is a segregation of nuclear generation from the administrative segment, There is a secured system to tackle cyber attacks and there is a segregation of nuclear generation from the administrative segment, he said.
          

WATCHMEN: DOOMSDAY CLOCK PART 1 By Geoff Johns and Gary Frank. Review.

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WATCHMEN: DOOMSDAY CLOCK PART 1 By Geoff Johns and Gary Frank DC Comics, h/b, $24.99 Reviewed by Matthew Johns Set seven years after the events of the original Watchmen, Adrian Veidt, aka Ozymandias, is a pariah. His erstwhile colleagues are dead or missing, and the world is rapidly descending into chaos as nations threaten each other with nuclear strikes and begin to make good on their threats. A new Rorschach breaks the psychotic Mime and Marionette out of their prisons, and the four leave on an upgraded Owlship that can now travel dimensionally. Seeking the vanished Dr Manhattan, they arrive in Gotham City in search of redemption for their own Earth but find themselves in a world that too is tearing itself apart. Here, Batman is the pariah, and Joker rules the roost in Gotham. Geoff Johns’ (sadly no relation to this reviewer) superb storyline is brought to life through Gary Frank’s excellent inking. The violent world of the Watchmen crosses into the DC Universe, where it intersects with the increasingly vicious and chaotic world of Batman and Joker. Filled with tragic character backstories, ultraviolence (Mime and Marionette give Joker a real run for his money in the psycho-killer stakes) [...]
          

Supplier Quality Engineer

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The Opportunity | Supplier Quality Engineer / Liaison


This position will play a key role in the Quality Assurance and Sourcing organizations to ensure both customer and company quality requirements are met.



Location: Bethlehem, PA (greater Philadelphia area)



The Challenge:
* Develop and evaluate supplier performance metrics to facilitate supplier improvement.
* Perform capability and capacity assessments of potential suppliers
* Lead joint technical reviews of complex purchases following purchase order award
* Improve current suppliers' delivery, reliability, and consistency of supply performance
* Identify improvement opportunities in the manufacturing & design processes for new/revised product designs
* Perform management system and process audits at suppliers.
* Establish and maintain relations with suppliers, inspectors, auditors, and customers
* Must be willing to travel locally and out of state. Total travel approximately 40% of your time.
* Assist other departments as necessary in establishing standards relative to ensuring product quality.



Your Expertise:


* BS Engineering or equivalent
* Experience in planning and implementing supplier oversight programs
* Strong attention to details
* Excellent communication skills
* Prefer experience in:
* Manufacturing environment
* ASNT Level II or III certification in NDT
* Regulated Industries (e.g., military, nuclear power, aerospace)
* Six Sigma Green Belt / Black Belt / Master Black Belt certifications
* ASQ Certifications
* Auditor certification
* Must be US citizen and be able to obtain and maintain DOD security clearance




This position may require exposure to information which is subject to US export control regulations, i.e. the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) or the Export Administration Regulations (EAR). All applicants must be U.S. persons within the meaning of U.S. regulations.


Curtiss-Wright values diversity in the workplace. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability or protected veteran status. If you require accommodation due to a disability at any time during the recruitment and/or assessment process, please contact Talent Acquisition and we will make all reasonable efforts to accommodate your request.




          

Trapped in the Archives

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Did the United States have a hand in assassinating Congolese and Dominican leaders in 1961? What did President Richard Nixon’s White House know about a successful plot to kill the head of the Chilean army in 1970? After the Cold War ended, did top U.S. military commanders retain the authority to strike back if a surprise nuclear attack put the president out of commission? The answers to these and other historical mysteries are likely knowable—but they are locked in presidential libraries and government archives and inaccessible to researchers. The reason: the U.S. government’s system for declassifying and processing historical records has reached a state of crisis. Congress has failed to adequately fund the parts of the government charged with processing records, resulting in understaffed offices and years-long backlogs. At the same time, some agencies responsible for declassifying documents have deliberately dragged their feet and erred on the side of needless secrecy. Declassification is vital to a thriving democracy. Not only does it help the public hold leaders accountable; it also allows for a more accurate and comprehensive accounting of the past. Without declassification,...
          

Nissan faz nova parceria para desenvolver carros elétricos com etanol no Brasil

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Montadora está criando sistema em que esse combustível serve para produzir hidrogênio e, posteriormente, energia elétrica, para mover veículos. Nissan testou furgão elétrico movido a etanol no Brasil em 2016 Divulgação A Nissan e o Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (Ipen) assinaram nesta segunda-feira (18) uma parceria para o desenvolvimento de veículos elétricos com etanol no Brasil. No caso, o combustível seria usado para uma reação química que separa o hidrogênio que, posteriormente, vira a eletricidade que vai recarregar a bateria e chegar aos motores. É diferente do carro híbrido porque não existe combustão (queima). E a vantagem para os elétricos "clássicos" é que esse veículo não precisa ser abastecido na tomada. Segundo a montadora o sistema funciona 100% com etanol ou água misturada ao etanol. "Suas emissões são tão limpas quanto a atmosfera, se inserindo como parte do ciclo natural do carbono e sendo absorvido durante a plantação da cana-de-açúcar", afirma a Nissan. A montadora diz que a tecnologia permite que o carro rode mais de 600 km com 30 litros de etanol. Já existem carros elétricos movidos a hidrogênio no exterior, mas ele é fornecido em cilindros que também são pesados e encontrados em poucos locais. E essa tecnologia ainda é mais cara do que a dos elétricos "comuns". A parceria com o Ipen tem a missão de avaliar e viabilizar diferentes componentes para a introdução deste sistema. "A vantagem é transformar diretamente em eletricidade a energia de um combustível renovável e estratégico para o país, para viabilizar o carro elétrico“, afirmou Fabio Coral Fonseca, pesquisador do Ipen responsável pelo projeto. O instituto é uma autarquia da Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), ligada ao Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia, e fica no campus da Universidade de São Paulo (USP). A montadora já tinha feito uma parceria com a Unicamp, a Universidade Estadual de Campinas, para estudos sobre o mesmo tema. Testes A Nissan é a primeira empresa a desenvolver um protótipo de veículo onde a energia elétrica é gerada a partir da utilização do bioetanol. É a chamada Célula de Combustível de Óxido Sólido (SOFC). Foram feitos testes no Brasil entre 2016 e 2017 com dois furgões e-NV200, que não são vendidos no país. De acordo com a marca, a experiência mostrou que "a tecnologia se adapta perfeitamente ao uso cotidiano e ao combustível brasileiro, ainda mais pelo fato de o país ter infraestrutura já existente para abastecimento com etanol em todo o seu território". Na época, a Nissan disse que a tecnologia poderia ser adaptada para o compacto Leaf, que estreou este ano no Brasil, ou a minivan Note e-Power. Ambos são modelos elétricos "clássicos". E que a expectativa era de que a tecnologia chegasse às ruas em 2020.
          

The Motif of 76KRKCSK in Bm65 Is an Efficient Nuclear Localization Signal Involved in Production of Infectious Virions

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orf65 (Bm65) of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) codes for a putative 104-amino-acid protein containing three cysteine residues with a putative molecular mass of 12.2 kDa. Previous studies have showed that Bm65 accumulates mainly in nucleus and involved in the repair of UV-damaged DNA. However, the mechanism of nuclear import of Bm65 remains unclear. In this study, a SDS-stable Bm65 tetramer was found in BmNPV-infected BmN cells, and alanine substitutions for the three cysteine residues did not affect the formation of Bm65 tetramer. Additionally, a basic amino acid cluster of the Bm65 protein was identified as an efficient nuclear localization signal (NLS). Firstly, transient expression of GFP-fused truncated Bm65 variants revealed that the 76KRKCSK motif functions as the NLS. This was also confirmed by alanine substitution in the 76KRKCSK motif, which caused attenuated nuclear localization of Bm65. Next, the 76KRKCSK motif-mutated bacmid was generated and the 76KRKCSK motif was also found to be important for nuclear localization of Bm65 in BmNPV-infected conditions. Lastly, analyses of flag-tagged Bm65 expressing bacmids revealed that the mutations in 76KRKCSK motif did not affect the synthesis of Bm65 tetramer, but severely impaired production levels of infectious virions. In conclusion, Bm65 exists in mainly a tetrameric form in virus-infected cells, which may be involved with production levels of infectious virions.


          

NUCLEAR MEDICINE TECHNOLOGIST - West Park Hospital - Cody, WY

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Alter routine protocols to provide quality care to pediatric, adolescent, and geriatric patients. Cody Regional Health seeks to hire a Full Time.
From West Park Hospital - Tue, 08 Oct 2019 16:00:06 GMT - View all Cody, WY jobs
          

B Plant

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  One of Hanford’s earliest plutonium processing facilities was the B Plant located in the 200 East Area. The fuel rods which had been irradiated in the nuclear reactors at Hanford were taken to the B Plant where the rods went through a series of chemical baths to remove the plutonium from the rods. Because chemicals were needed to separate the plutonium from the fuel rod, facilities like the B Plant were also called chemical separations plants. Once the
          

Macron says EU must be part of any future US-Russia nuclear missile treaty

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Paris (AFP) Nov 28, 2019
French President Emmanuel Macron said Thursday that European nations should be involved in any talks to forge a new pact limiting mid-range nuclear missiles held by the US and Russia, after a landmark Cold War-era accord fell apart this year. "We cannot just content ourselves with bilateral treaties," Macron said after talks with NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg in Paris. Washingt
          

Iran: Europeans cannot invoke nuclear deal dispute mechanism

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Tehran (AFP) Nov 28, 2019
Iran said Thursday European parties to the 2015 nuclear deal such as France could not trigger a dispute mechanism in the agreement that could lead to UN sanctions being reimposed. French Foreign Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian raised the possibility Wednesday of invoking the mechanism, but Iran's foreign ministry said this would not be permissible. The deal "does not allow the European parti
          

North Korea fires two 'unidentified projectiles' on Thanksgiving

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Seoul (AFP) Nov 28, 2019
North Korea fired two "unidentified projectiles" on Thursday - the Thanksgiving holiday in the US - Seoul said, as nuclear talks between Pyongyang and Washington remain deadlocked. The projectiles were fired eastwards from South Hamgyong province and came down in the Sea of Japan, also known as the East Sea, South Korea's Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) said. They added that the launch, th
          

Nuclear reactors with a newly proposed barrier could've withstood Chernobyl and Fukushima

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Washington DC (SPX) Nov 27, 2019
In the aftermath of the notorious accidents in the history of nuclear energy at Three Mile Island (1979), Chernobyl (1986) and Fukushima (2011), where all three have turned into devastating disasters due to meltdown in the core of a reactor, leading in turn to the release of radiation into the environment, many countries around the world have already pledged to a nuclear power phase-out. H
          

Russian Military conducts Nuclear ICBM Missile test

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Military Veterans WorldwideThe military, also called the armed forces, are forces authorized to use deadly force, and weapons, to support the interests of the state and some or all of its …
          

Slayer: The Repentless Killogy / 2019 / HDRip от Лумина

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Категория: Музыка
Размер: 2.13 GB
Траффик: Раздают (отдают): 13, Скачивают (качают): 0
Добавлен: 2019-11-26 12:14:54
Описание: Оригинальное название: Slayer: The Repentless Killogy
Год выпуска: 2019
Жанр: Thrash metal
Выпущено: США, Trafalgar Releasing, Nuclear Blast Records, Prime Zero Productions
Исполнитель: Slayer

Описание: На протяжении последних четырех десятилетий статус главной трэш-метал группы планеты принадлежит Slayer. Их саунд, их внешний облик, их легенда – все это не вызывает вопросов.6 ноября 2019 года легендарные американские рокеры Том Арайа, Керри Кинг, Гэри Холт и Пол Бостаф – без боя взяли кинотеатры по всему миру. Именно в этот день состоялся эксклюзивный показ «Slayer: The Repentless Killogy» – двухчасовой ленты, в которой уместились кровавая короткометражка и фильм-концерт, который запечатлел выступление группы 5 августа 2017 года в лос-анджелесском «Форуме».

Режиссёр: Би Джей МакДоннелл, Уэйн Айшем
В ролях: Джейсон Трост, Дэнни Трехо, Ричард Спейт, Дерек Мирс, Джессика Пиментел, Тайлер Мейн, Билл Мосли, Кэролин Уильямс, Шон Уэйлен
Жанр: Фильм-концерт

Сюжет: Короткометражный фильм «Slayer: The Repentless Killogy» рассказывает трагическую историю бывшего неонациста Уайатта (Джейсон Трост), который решил покинуть преступную группировку «Братство руки» и столкнулся с кровавыми последствиями своего выбора. Автором сценария и режиссером картины выступил Би Джей Макдоннелл, ответственный за брутальные клипы на треки «You Against You», «Repentless» и «Pride in Prejudice» с пластинки «Repentless» (2015). Это последняя на сегодняшний день пластинка Slayer.

В центре повествования – любовь Уайатта к чернокожей Регине (Эшли Осборн) и последствия их совместного бегства от кровожадной банды неонацистов. Название группировки отсылает к печально известному «Арийскому братству».

Попытка героев скрыться от прошлого приводит к жестокой расправе – беременную девушку зверски убивают на глазах у ее возлюбленного, а оставшийся в живых герой, за которым теперь гонятся и нацисты, и полиция, посвящает свою жизнь возмездию.

01. Delusions Of Saviour
02. Repentless
03. The Antichrist
04. Disciple
05. Postmortem
06. Hate Worldwide
07. War Ensemble
08. When The Stillness Comes
09. You Against You
10. Mandatory Suicide
11. Hallowed Point
12. Dead Skin Mask
13. Born Of Fire
14. Cast The First Stone
15. Bloodline
16. Seasons In The Abyss
17. Hell Awaits
18. South Of Heaven
19. Raining Blood
20. Chemical Warfare
21. Angel Of Death

Качество: HDRip
Видео: XviD, 2040 Кбит/с, 720x400, 24.000 fps
Аудио: Английский (AC3, 2 ch, 256 Кбит/с)
Продолжительность:  01:30:03+00:40:02
Перевод: Не требуется

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La anomalía española

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Cristian Campos es un periodista con ideas propias que las ordena para sus columnas. Una exhibición como otra cualquiera, que a Campos, en concreto, le obliga constrastar lo que le ronda por la cabeza para desnudarse en público gracias al espacio que en internet le brinda El Español. Campos ha dejado Cataluña por Cádiz y, como despedida no definitiva, acaba de publicar La anomalía catalana (Deusto, 2019), una radiografía de la política atrofiada por culpa de una demanda, la del nacionalismo, que está cargada de mitología y falsedades, una necesaria reiteración, pues es gracias al -imprescindible- engaño como hemos llegado hasta el punto en el que nos encontramos hoy. Las 270 páginas de la obra se resumen en la recurrente frase de Josep Pla, pronunciada en una entrevista para TVE en 1976, y que describe toda una época de la historia de Cataluña: «Un catalán es alguien que se ha pasado la vida siendo ciento por ciento español y le han dicho que tendría que ser otra cosa». Esa «otra cosa» es la que detalla Campos con precisión. Anomalías, las llama -de ahí el título del libro-, que derivan todas de la obsesión del nacionalismo por convertir a los ciudadanos en algo que no son. Odio. Autoodio. Y cuya única solución, a varias generaciones vista, es más España. La España de la Constitución y la convivencia. La España que se sitúa en el top de «todos los baremos internacionales sobre calidad democrática» (páginas 16 y 17) y muchas otras clasificaciones (donación de órganos, esperanza de vida, menos violencia doméstica, sanidad pública, tolerancia, patrimonio universal, bajos suicidios, historia, deporte...). Es decir, defender e insistir en que «libre del yugo español, Cataluña conseguirá ser todo aquello que España ya es desde hace décadas». Porque, para desgracia de los detractores, España «es una nación tediosamente asimilable en lo malo a cualquiera de las de su entorno, pero no tanto en lo bueno, donde puntuamos bastante más alto de lo que creemos». Tanto es así que la revolución nacionalista en Cataluña -ahora independentista violenta- no podrá triunfar, porque es el único lugar del mundo en el que los que se dicen oprimidos son las clases altas, la burguesía y los políticos que controlan las instituciones públicas desde hace casi cuarenta años y viven gracias a la democracia del supuesto Estado opresor. Una anomalía más, como la que hace referencia a la lengua catalana. El idioma catalán es la única lengua que tiene el estatus de lengua amenazada y lengua con millones de hablantes. Una idea que cala y tiene miles de seguidores, que no se han parado a pensar que o se es una lengua en extinción o es la «novena lengua europea» (pág. 44), pero que las dos cosas, a la vez, es imposible. Similar a la de comparar Cataluña con la situación que se vive en Israel y en Palestina, como hizo Artur Mas en 2011 y 2016 (pág. 230). Campos define estas paradojas, en declaraciones a ABC, como algo «enfermizo», pues «combinan el complejo de inferioridad con el complejo de superioridad». Por el teclado del periodista también transitan otros asuntos nucleares del nacionalismo: el F. C. Barcelona, el catalanismo, TV3, la escuela, los medios de comunicación catalanes («Su fe en la causa siempre ha sido muy superior a su fe en la realidad», pág. 90), Enric Juliana, las transferencias que tiene la Generalitat, los 39.692 votos a ETA de 1987, Jordi Pujol, el moderado Oriol Junqueras («Ningún producto catalán ha tenido mayor éxito de ventas que el catalanismo moderado, ese animalito mitológico de la política española del que se dice que existen cientos de miles de ejemplares, pero que en realidad cuenta su población con los dedos de una mano», pág. 136), el PSC, la historia (manipulada), la CUP como «motor» del procés, el lenguaje (decir negociación cuando se refieren a «exigencia de cesiones»)... Visto así, del tirón, parece lógico ver en el libro a un periodista pesimista. «El nacionalismo es muy goloso. Desde pequeño te dicen que eres mejor que tu vecino, que eres la bomba, y que los españoles llevan años robándote. En Cataluña existe un populismo derivado en totalitarismo, disfrazado de democracia, una democracia con apellidos y, por lo tanto, disminuida. No hay puentes entre bloques, porque se habla para convencidos», confiesa Campos, a este diario, mientras nos remite a su último capítulo del libro: «Una pésima idea aplicada a la especie correcta». Estas últimas páginas son un grito de auxilio porque quizás ya no estamos a tiempo de «recomponer todo lo que se ha roto en Cataluña», quizás ni podamos, ya, «conllevarlo». Por lo tanto, habrá que empezar por los inicios, con tranquilidad y con buena letra. «Cuarenta años de democracia no han bastado para que PP y PSOE hayan sido capaces de explicarles, no ya a los catalanes nacionalistas sino también al resto de los españoles, que Cataluña no pertenece a los catalanes más de lo que pertenece a los gaditanos, a los madrileños o a los valencianos. Es decir, de explicarles qué quiere decir, y qué implica, la expresión soberanía nacional» (pág. 142). La anomalía catalana es la anomalía española.
          

Turkey’s first nuclear plant delayed by funding problems – energy expert

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Turkey’s first nuclear plant delayed by funding problems – energy expert

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Completion of Turkey’s first nuclear power station is likely to be delayed as the Russian company building it is struggling to secure funding, former diplomat and Bosphorus Energy Club head Mehmet Öğütçü told Turkish daily Sözcü.

A small part of the plant in Akkuyu, southern Turkey, may be opened for political reasons in 2023, the centenary of the founding of the Turkish Republic, Öğütçü said.

But Russian state-owned Rosatom is having difficulties financing the project, which is expected to cost between $20 billion and $25 billion, he said, adding that Western companies were avoiding Akkuyu over concerns about nuclear armament.

A Turkish consortium pulled out of the project last year, citing a failure to reach commercial terms with Rosatom, which owns a 51 percent stake in the project.

A report by the main opposition Republican People’s Party this month criticised the terms of the government’s deal with Rosatom, which has been guaranteed a price of 12.35 U.S. cents per kilowatt hour in a 15-year power purchase agreement.

 

https://www.sozcu.com.tr/2019/ekonomi/akkuyuda-gecikme-riski-artiyor-5481313/

          

Turkey’s ties with Pakistan may bring it nuclear weapons

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Turkey’s ties with Pakistan may bring it nuclear weapons

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Turkey’s burgeoning strategic relationship with Pakistan raises nuclear concerns since Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan spoke openly in September about Ankara’s ambitions to pursue its own nuclear weapons programme, the Jerusalem Post said on Thursday.  

Turkey already has the major elements for acquiring a nuclear capability – rich uranium deposits and the TR-1 and TR-2 Research Reactors maintained by the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority – the daily said, adding that obtaining fuel remains as the greatest challenge. But Turkey’s first nuclear power plant is now being built in partnership with Russia’s Rosatom.

Meanwhile, Turkey has over decades shown great interest in learning the formidable skills needed to purify uranium and turn it into plutonium, the two main fuels needed for a nuclear weapons programme, the Jerusalem Post said. Now, strengthening ties with Pakistan may allow Ankara to access further knowledge it lacks, it said. 

Turkey’s defence ties with Pakistan have been burgeoning, the Jerusalem Post said. Two Pakistani naval ships this year participated in a multinational exercise in south Turkey, while in October the Pakistan Navy commissioned a 17,000-ton fleet tanker that it has built in collaboration with a Turkish defence contractor. Islamabad has also agreed to buy 30 Turkish-built combat helicopters in a deal struck in 2018. Ankara, on the other hand, is buying MFI-17 Super Mushshak aircraft from Pakistan.

“The flourishing defence relationship – with its possible nuclear connection – in turn takes place within a broader context,” The Jerusalem Post said. Erdoğan has turned Turkey away from the West towards East, and has now turned its face toward the Islamic world and the path of political Islam, it said. 

https://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Behind-the-Lines-Mr-Erdogan-has-settled-your-bill-609346

          

Turkey becoming captive to Russia as Western sanctions loom

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Turkey becoming captive to Russia as Western sanctions loom

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Turkey is still struggling through an economic downturn which the government’s foreign policy could make worse by risking sanctions from the West while making the country extremely reliant on Russia.

Repeating a call he made when Turkey was in the depths of a currency crisis sparked by limited U.S. sanctions last year, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan told citizens this week to deal in the Turkish lira and not foreign currencies – a sure sign of economic trouble ahead.

When the currency crisis hit after Washington sanctioned Turkish ministers over the imprisonment of a U.S. pastor in August 2018, Erdoğan described support for the lira as a national duty. Yet central bank figures announced on Nov. 15 show that foreign currency savings in Turkey had increased by $36 billion to $225.5 billion in the past year.

Despite the ongoing economic worries, Turkey risked further U.S. sanctions this week by testing its S-400 missile defence systems, which were purchased from Russia in defiance of Washington.

The Ankara Governorate announced that F-16 fighter jets from the Turkish air force would fly over the capital for two days to test the Russian systems, which have been deployed to an air base near the city. This rubbished previous claims that Turkey would avoid sanctions from the United States by leaving the S-400s inactive.

U.S. and NATO officials say the presence of the Russian systems on NATO-allied territory could leave the alliance’s military hardware open to subterfuge, but Foreign Minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu confirmed that the tests had been conducted on the F-16s.

Moreover, he said, there was no way Turkey would leave the S-400s in storage since its NATO allies had failed to provide it with the air defence systems it sorely needed.

The missiles are likely to become fully operational next spring, according to the timeline previously discussed by Turkish officials. The head of Russia’s state arms exporter Rosoboronexport said this month that negotiations were nearly complete for Turkey to buy a second consignment of the S-400s around the time that the first systems go online.

The estimated $4 billion deal to buy more S-400s could also pave the way for Turkey to buy Russian Su-35 fighter jets to fill its need for new-generation aircraft. The United States suspended Turkey from the F-35 fighter jet production programme after it received the S-400s in July and has withheld Ankara’s order for 100 of the jets.

Meanwhile, the economic ties binding Ankara to Moscow continue to grow tighter. Turkey’s tourism sector is buoyed by the 6 million Russian tourists who flock to the country each year and it exports large amounts of agricultural products to Russia, where Turkish contractors have signed up for construction projects worth billions.

These bonds are just as tight from a strategic perspective, since Turkey relies on Russian gas to meet its energy needs, and a Russian company is contracted to build and operate Turkey’s first nuclear power plant. The new defence deals only deepen this dependence.

Ankara has discussed its aim of increasing trade volume with both the United States and Russia to $100 billion. Yet in Russia’s case, this could work against Turkey’s interests: In 2018, the share of Turkish exports in the $25.5 billion trade volume with Russia came to just $4.2 billion, with Russia making $21.3 billion.

Turkey’s main opposition Republican People’s Party (CHP) drew attention to the country’s growing financial and energy dependence on Russia in a report it presented to parliament during discussions on the 2020 budget, stating that this could lead to grave dangers in the years to come. Of particular concern for the CHP was the deal with Russia’s state nuclear energy corporation Rosatom to build the nuclear plant in Akkuyu, southern Turkey.

When the deal was signed in 2010, it stipulated that the Russian side would secure financing and investment for the plant. But in 2015, the Turkish military shot down a Russian fighter jet that had strayed across its border, sparking a diplomatic crisis between the countries. Moscow imposed sanctions on Turkey that reduced the flow of tourists to the country, restricted imports and placed limits on Turkish companies doing business in Russia.

The price Erdoğan paid to repair relations included “super incentives” for the Akkuyu project, granting Rosatom a wide range of subsidies including tax, VAT and licencing exemptions. The president also agreed to provide $10 billion of investment in the project from the treasury.

As part of the agreement, Turkey has also guaranteed a price per kilowatt hour of power produced at the plant for the next 15 years. And, the CHP’s report says, the agreement also states that the nuclear plant and the energy it produces belong to Russia, that Rosatom’s share in it will not fall below 51 percent, and that Turkey will buy all of the energy it produces.

Since the plant is due to go into commission in 2023, these terms will be in force until 2038.

The CHP’s report says that, with the kilowatt hour price guaranteed at $0.1235 kWh and the plant expected to produce an annual 19 billion kilowatt hours, Russia stands to treble its initial investment.

This means Turkey will be paying the Russian state-owned company over $2.3 billion for the energy produced at the plant per year, and more that $35 billion over the 15-year period.

At this rate, the CHP says, Turkey will be vastly overpaying for the energy from Rosatom’s plant, since the kilowatt hour price set by Turkey’s Energy Market Regulation Authority is just $0.029. At that rate, the price of energy from the nuclear plant would come to just $551 million per year, nearly $1.8 billion less than the Turkish government has agreed to pay Rosatom.

That amounts to neary $27 billion above the market price over 15 years – an amount that even inflation and favourable changes in currency markets will not mitigate. And on top of that is the $10 billion contribution to the project, plus other subsidies and exemptions offered as super incentives.

In other words, the data presented in the CHP’s report marks out the Akkuyu plant as a $37 billion bung to Russia, paid at an extremely heavy cost to the Turkish economy. Energy and Natural Resources Minister Fatih Dönmez has not responded to the CHP’s findings or to questions raised by the party’s members of parliament.

It is clear, though, that with Turkey’s economic and strategic dependence on Russia deepening, any future disagreement that draws sanctions will be even more damaging.  


          

Um grande debate sobre a humanidade

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O biólogo americano Jared Diamond e o historiador israelense Yuval Harari no evento Cidadão Global (Foto: Leo Orestes)

 

Juntos, eles já venderam mais de 50 milhões de livros em todo o planeta. Mas jamais haviam se reunido no mesmo evento. Até que o banco Santander, em parceria com o jornal Valor Econômico, alcançou esse feito inédito: o historiador israelense Yuval Noah Harari e o biólogo americano Jared Diamond foram as principais estrelas da segunda edição do evento Cidadão Global, o mesmo que, em 2017, havia trazido o ex­presidente americano Barack Obama.

“Este evento nos desafia a pensar, a questionar certezas. É uma atitude fundamental, porque o que existia há dez anos não necessariamente funciona mais. Mais do que nunca, as pessoas precisam encontrar suas redes, suas conexões, para definitivamente criar valor”, afirmou, na sequência, Sérgio Rial, desde 2016 presidente do Santander Brasil. “Vivemos um processo de transformação brutal; vários agentes que estavam calados agora são ouvidos. Nunca houve tanta democracia. O resto está nas nossas mãos”, completou.

Mudança global

O primeiro a se apresentar, Harari comentou que seu colega foi uma grande inspiração: “Jared, minha maior inspiração foi você. Eu li seu livro e pensei: ‘nossa, as pessoas podem escrever obras assim!’”. A conexão entre os dois ficaria mais clara no encadeamento de informações e análises.

Harari abordou o nacionalismo, suas origens e os mitos que o cercam. Explicou que a conexão entre cidadãos de um mesmo país, por si só, é bastante positiva. “Vamos derrubar alguns mitos sobre nacionalismo”, anunciou, para encadear o seguinte raciocínio: há 2 milhões de anos, os humanos viviam em agrupamentos muito pequenos. Posteriormente, passaram a se reunir em tribos, em que todos ainda se conheciam.

Já as nações são muito mais recentes. Surgiram há 5 mil anos como agrupamentos organizados, em que as pessoas não necessariamente se conhecem, mas aceitam um mesmo governo, vivem sob as mesmas regras e se diferenciam, em termos conceituais.

"Muitos líderes que se dizem nacionalistas, como o presidente americano, não o são", disse Yuval Harari (Foto: Leo Orestes)

 

 

O autor, conhecido pelos best­sellers “Sapiens: Uma breve história da humanidade”, “Homo Deus: Uma breve história do amanhã” e “21 lições para o século 21”, explicou que o nacionalismo se baseia no respeito e na admiração pelos cocidadãos, e no ódio pelos estrangeiros. “Muitos líderes que se dizem nacionalistas, como o presidente americano [Donald Trump], não o são”, explicou.

“Para ser nacionalista de fato não é necessário construir muros, muito pelo contrário”, prosseguiu o autor, para quem o foco de uma nação está em defender seus interesses, mas respeitando as regras gerais que regem o jogo diplomático. É como uma Copa do Mundo de futebol, ele comparou. “Em muitos outros momentos da história, seria impensável enviar as seleções da França e do Brasil para disputar um torneio esportivo na Rússia”, comentou. “Mas só dá certo porque todos seguem as regras previamente combinadas.” E assim as nações podem agir em conjunto, respeitando suas especificidades, como uma orquestra.

As regras que regem a relação entre nações, diz ele, vão se mostrar fundamentais para garantir que a humanidade supere três desafios que nenhum país, sozinho, seria capaz de encarar: a aniquilação nuclear, o aquecimento global e o desenvolvimento de tecnologias inovadoras. Esse terceiro fenômeno, afirma o historiador, está prestes a gerar, pela primeira vez na história do planeta, uma raça de seres artificiais e inteligentes. “Estamos criando seres muito diferentes de nós, humanos, mais do que nós somos diferentes dos macacos”, alertou. “Todos esses desafios só podem ser administrados e superados pelas nações em parceria.”

Países em crise

Na sequência, Jared Diamond focou no tema de seu mais novo livro, publicado em 2019: “Reviravolta: Como indivíduos e nações bem­sucedidas se recuperam de crises”. O autor de “Colapso: Como as sociedades escolhem o fracasso ou o sucesso” e ganhador do Prêmio Pulitzer pelo livro “Armas, germes e aço” comparou o Japão aos Estados Unidos.

"As forças destrutivas estão crescendo em todo o mundo", alertou Jared Diamond (Foto: Leo Orestes)

 

Quando foi atacado pelos americanos em 1853, o Japão se viu forçado a se abrir para o ocidente. Foi uma crise que o país solucionou mudando algumas estruturas sociais e modernizando suas indústrias. Em 1910, já era uma nação completamente diferente. Foi um caso muito bem­sucedido de nação que soube lidar com um período de grave questionamento sobre si mesma e sobre suas motivações.

Já os Estados Unidos contemporâneos, diz ele, se comportam exatamente como uma pessoa em negação. “Os americanos não admitem que exista uma crise. Diante de qualquer problema, colocam a culpa nos outros, sejam os canadenses ou os chineses. Mas não são nem os canadenses nem os chineses que estão colocando em risco a democracia do país. Essa atitude não é saudável.” Diamond concorda que, à parte as crises específicas de cada nação, o mundo está diante de desafios que colocam a humanidade em risco. “As forças destrutivas estão crescendo em todo o mundo. Mas o reconhecimento dos problemas também está crescendo”, comentou.

Ao final do evento, Jared Diamond e Yuval Harari conversaram com o advogado, professor e pesquisador brasileiro Ronaldo Lemos, diretor do Instituto de Tecnologia e Sociedade do Rio de Janeiro. Harari comentou por que não usa smartphones: “preciso de tempo sem essa sobrecarga de informações”. Diamond, por sua vez, mostrou seu celular, amarrado com elásticos, e contou que só o utiliza para fazer ligações e ver e­mails. “Minha esposa me fez comprar esse aparelho, mas ele fica desligado quase todo o tempo.”


          

TRAD :

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Thai critics of the project also believe it will devastate tourism earnings from resort towns along the Andaman Sea.

Uncertainty over economic viability

Experts remain divided on the economic viability of the Kra Canal, with some sceptical that it will ever pay for itself. Earlier this year, energy specialist Gary Norman had estimated that the canal would need to generate $4.57 million each day to pay for itself. Based on the assumption that 40 ships will transit the canal each day, he noted, that would mean a user fee of $1,15,000 per transit.

But, Norman pointed out, the typical additional fuel costs for the longer routes through the Malacca, Sunda or Lombok straits range from $40,000 to $1,20,000 per trip — not enough to justify the fee to use the canal.

The Suez Canal and the Panama Canal, bypassing entire continents, are able to charge large ships fees of around $2,50,000 and $1,25,000, respectively, because of the far larger savings in time they enable.

However, advocates said the Kra Canal project would handle a far higher numbers of ships and also draw investments from businesses linked to shipping, which range from engineering, supplies and legal services. The Thai Canal Association's plans also envisages building two large free trade zones and a new international airport.

The proposal put forward by Longhao, an Indian government source said, involved building two offshore islands for ships to berth, warehouses and even entertainment hubs. The company also proposed bringing in over 30,000 Chinese workers to build the canal.

Lyu Jian, Beijing's envoy to Bangkok, has privately told the Thai government that his country sees the Kra Canal as a strategic investment, part of the One-Belt- One-Road plan that envisages pushing new networks of rail, road and maritime links from Asia to Europe and Africa.

The Kra Canal has haunted East Asia's strategic imagination since 1677, when King Narai, the Great, asked the French engineer M de Lamar to explore linking the Andaman Sea with the Gulf of Thailand. King Rama I revived the idea in 1793, thinking it might provide a line of defence for the capital. And in 1858, Imperial Britain secured permission to begin digging but ran out of funds before work could start.

Fearing Japan might build the canal and thus bypass Britain's naval base in Singapore, Thailand later signed signed a treaty to not build the canal at all.

But the idea was revived in the last century — with both Soviet and US engineers at one point suggesting using nuclear bombs to cut through Thailand's intractable mountain ranges.
          

La guerre nucléaire est déjà en marche… L’AIEA confirme l’utilisation d’armes nucléaires tactiques (VT)

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Arme Nucléaire Tactique Yémen   Histoire nucléaire : L’AIEA confirme l’utilisation continuelle d’armes nucléaires contre la Syrie (et les Etats-Unis)   Ian Greenhalgh et James Smith (ex-inspecteur de l’AIEA)   27 novembre 2019   url de l’article original (avec vidéos, photos et graphiques): https://www.veteranstoday.com/2019/11/27/nuclear-history-iaea-confirms-israels-continual-use-of-nukes-against-syria-and-the-us/   ~ Traduit de l’anglais par Résistance 71 ~   Tard […]
          

Sunday Fun: The "Re-Branding" of Global Warming

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Big Climate making a mockery of science
Evidently, Big Climate's focus groups have not produced scary enough terms for some. So Ad Age has decided to lend a hand in needlessly scaring people. 
My single favorite sentence in the article is:
They both also use alliteration -- using the same letter or sound at the beginning of connected words -- a naming trick proven to enhance memorability.
A "trick"related to global warming? Obviously, the author has been talking to global warming extremist Michael Mann.

Anyway, the branding people came up with these new names for global warming:
"The earth will be uninhabitable -- an irreversible barren wasteland." That is so removed from reality and so absurd I don't have words to describe it.

The entire point of their renaming is to scare people so we will "take action."

The next time people tell you the global warming controversy is about science, you can laugh like the people in the photo: it is now about capturing power and money and little else.

ADDITION: What the global warming controversy is really about,
Nuclear power "only produces clean energy." Can't have that! [sarc] 

Kanter is a big-wig in global warming alarmist circles. His remarks reaffirm the global warming controversy is about power and money. These people are too dangerous to let anywhere near the seats of power. 
          

LETTER: Support bill on emergency response expenses

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I write to express the strongest possible support for the bill H.3492, which requires the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station licensee to fully fund offsite radiological emergency response expenses.
          

Nuclear News Roundup Dec 01, 2019

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Nuclear News Roundup Nov 30, 2019

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Bechtel’s Peggy Mccullough to Receive the 2019 ASME Henry Laurence Gantt Medal

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Bechtel senior vice president Peggy McCullough has been awarded the 2019 American Society of Mechanical Engineering (ASME) Henry Laurence Gantt Medal, the organization has announced. McCullough oversees a multi-billion-dollar per-year portfolio of projects that are helping solve some of the most complex challenges faced by government and commercial customers anywhere.

The projects include management and operation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California, two nuclear security plants in Texas and Tennessee, and Bechtel’s commercial nuclear power business worldwide. Those projects employ more than 15,000 scientists, engineers, technicians, and other professionals.

The Henry Laurence Gantt Medal was established in 1929 and recognizes contributions to society through achievements in management as well as demonstrating understanding and skill in the field of human relations and engineering.

“This recognition is really a testament to the service Peggy has delivered to Bechtel customers for decades,” said Barbara Rusinko, president of Bechtel’s Nuclear, Security & Environmental global business unit. “She exemplifies that dedication we all strive for: to make a customer’s mission our own, and to partner with them for lasting positive impact.”

McCullough was selected based on her leadership of thousands of engineers and scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository, the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant, and the stabilization and design of the New Safe Confinement structure now over the destroyed reactor at Chernobyl. McCullough will accept the award at the ASME Honors Gala during the 2019 ASME Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition in November.

McCullough has more than three decades of engineering, procurement, construction, startup and commissioning, and operations experience. She was elected a Bechtel senior vice president in 2014 and was named general manager of the Nuclear Security and Operations business line in December 2017. She is also president of Bechtel Power Company, Bechtel’s commercial nuclear power subsidiary.

She joined Bechtel in 1988 and has successfully taken on leadership roles on a number of complex megaprojects covering environmental remediation, demilitarization, nonproliferation, and global security.

McCullough holds a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from San Francisco State University.

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Comentario en Francisco recuerda su reciente viaje a Tailandia y Japón en la audiencia general por rosamagarcia

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RESUMEN CATEQUESIS EN ESPAÑOL: Queridos hermanos: Ayer regresé del viaje apostólico en Tailandia y Japón. Un don que agradezco al Señor, y a todos los que lo han hecho posible. En Tailandia quise rendir homenaje a la rica tradición espiritual y cultural del pueblo Thai, y animar el compromiso por la armonía entre los diferentes componentes de la nación. Visité al Patriarca supremo de los budistas, siendo la religión budista parte integrante de la historia y de la vida de ese pueblo. Además, participé en el encuentro ecuménico e interreligioso. Posteriormente visité el Hospital Saint Louis, y tuve un tiempo con sacerdotes, religiosos y obispos, como también con los jóvenes en la catedral. Después fui a Japón: El lema de mi visita a aquel país fue: “Proteger todo tipo de vida”. Este mensaje es significativo en aquella tierra que lleva las heridas del bombardeo atómico y del triple desastre de 2011; pero es una nación que se ha hecho portavoz del derecho fundamental por la vida y la paz. En Nagasaki y en Hiroshima condené nuevamente las armas nucleares y la hipocresía de hablar de paz cuando se construye y se vende material bélico. Pude además recordar en aquellos lugares la memoria de los mártires san Paolo Miki y los 25 compañeros, el beato Justo Takayama y tantos hombres y mujeres que han conservado la fe en los momentos de persecución. En Tokio tuve encuentros con los jóvenes, con la comunidad académica de la Universidad de “Sophia”, y terminé mi estadía con la visita al Emperador Naruhito y a las autoridades del país, ante los que pude manifestar mi deseo de promover una cultura de encuentro y diálogo, caracterizada por la amplitud de miradas y la sabiduría. Saludo cordialmente a los peregrinos de lengua española, venidos de España y Latinoamérica. A todos los invito a rezar por los dos países que he visitado, Tailandia y Japón, para que sigan progresando en sendas de paz y justicia, y a los católicos les conceda el don de la perseverancia, siguiendo el ejemplo de los santos mártires. Que Dios los bendiga.
          

Comentario en Conferencia de prensa del Papa: escándalos vaticanos, protestas en América Latina y amenaza nuclear por rosamagarcia

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POR SU INTERES OS LO PONGO ENTERO. El Papa respondió a las preguntas de los periodistas que lo acompañaron en su viaje a Tailandia y Japón. Fue una comparecencia larga en la que Francisco habló de distintos temas. Fue de nuevo contundente con la cuestión de las armas y la energía nuclear al rememorar su visita a Hiroshima y Nagasaki. FRANCISCO “Y allí reiteré que el uso de armas nucleares es inmoral, por eso debe incluirse en el Catecismo de la Iglesia católica. Y no solo el uso, sino también la posesión”. “Es una opinión personal, yo no usaría la energía nuclear hasta que no haya una seguridad total sobre su uso”. Francisco confesó que le gustaría escribir una encíclica sobre la paz, pero que es un proyecto que deberá afrontar el próximo Pontífice. Criticó una vez más la fabricación y compra de armas. FRANCISCO “Algo malo es la hipocresía ‘armamentística’. Países cristianos, -al menos de cultura cristiana-, países europeos que hablan de paz y viven de las armas. Esto se llama hipocresía”. “Que un país tenga el valor de decir:‘No puedo hablar de paz, porque mi economía gana mucho con la fabricación de armas’”. Otro de los asuntos que el Papa no quiso pasar por alto relacionado con la paz y la justicia fue la situación de las cárceles y los condenados. FRANCISCO “La pena de muerte se ha dicho claramente que no es moral y que no se puede aplicar”. “En tantos lugares del mundo las cárceles están superpobladas. Son depósitos de carne humana que, en lugar de crecer saludablemente, se corrompen. Hemos de combatir esta pena de muerte que se produce lentamente, lentamente”. Sobre los recientes escándalos financieros en el Vaticano que apuntan a una malversación de fondos, Francisco se mostró satisfecho de que los casos se hayan descubierto desde dentro, gracias a mecanismos de control propios. FRANCISCO “Han hecho cosas que no parecen limpias. Pero la denuncia no ha venido de fuera. Aquella reforma de la metodología económica, que ya comenzó Benedicto XVI, ha ido adelante y ha sido el Revisor interno de las cuentas el que ha dicho: 'Aquí hay algo mal, aquí hay algo que no está bien'”. “Es la primera vez que en el Vaticano se destapa la olla desde dentro, no desde fuera”. Por último, Francisco habló de las protestas que recorren América Latina. Se mostró prudente. Confesó que no puede hacer un análisis en profundidad pero recordó que, en el camino para resolver cualquier conflicto, siempre ha de primar el diálogo. FRANCISCO “¿Qué hace la Santa Sede? Llama al diálogo y a la paz”. “Pero está en llamas, como usted dice, y debemos buscar el diálogo y también el análisis. Todavía no he encontrado un análisis bien hecho de la situación en América Latina y también hay gobiernos débiles, muy débiles, que no han logrado poner orden y paz, y por eso llegamos a esta situación”. Francisco además aseguró a los periodistas que le gustaría viajar a pekín porque siente un profundo afecto por China. Ángeles Conde
          

Nuclear News Roundup Dec 01, 2019

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Nuclear News Roundup Nov 30, 2019

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The Skeptics Guide #751 - Nov 30 2019

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Special Guest - Richard Saunders; News Items: Sex Robots, Acupuncture Points Don't Exist, Nuclear Rockets, Fake News and False Memory; Psychic Detectives in Australia; Science or Fiction
          

Semblanzas entre hermanos: El Papa Francisco estuvo en Nagasaki

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*Con Florentina, en comunidad hacia los hermanos*




PASTORAL DE LA COMUNICACIÓN CATEDRAL SANTA FLORENTINA
Todos podemos y estamos convocados a exteriorizan pequeños pero relevantes recuerdos y experiencias de nuestra iglesia de Campana. Envíe... 125 ANIVERSARIO CREACIÓN PARROQUIA SANTA FLORENTINA - 1º de Diciembre de 2019 - Año II - Edición Nº 56 El Papa Francisco estuvo en Nagasaki Desde el epicentro donde cayó la bomba atómica en 1945 el Papa Francisco nos exhorta: "Nuestra respuesta a la amenaza de las armas nucleares debe ser colectiva y ...
          

El accidente de Chernobyl. Partes I, II y III

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Europa fue escenario de las Guerras Napoleonicas* desde inicios del siglo XIX, las cuales concluyeron en 1815 con la derrota de Napoleon, en Waterloo y dejaron un costo en vidas humanas, entre civiles y militares, de 3-7 millones de personas.
*Combates entre Napoleon I y diversos Estados europeos. No existe consenso sobre su inicio pues algunos consideran que se inicio cuando Napoleon se hizo con el poder en Francia, en 1799, mientras que otros consideran que tuvo lugar en 1803, cuando el Reino Unido le declaro la guerra a Francia. Como fuera concluyo en 1815 con su derrota en Waterloo, una localidad situada en la actual Belgica.

Pero el continente no alcanzo ni siquiera a recuperarse de las calamidades de mas de una decada bajo la guerra cuando comenzo a ser azotados por un nuevo embate, esta vez de parte de los elementos naturales y cuyo origen ni siquiera tuvo lugar en Europa.

En los años 1814 y 1815 el sudeste asiatico fue sacudido por 2 grandes explosiones volcanicas, la del volcan Mayon, en Filipinas, en 1814 y otra aun mas intensa y devastadora, la del monte Tambora, en Indonesia, al año siguiente. Ambos fenomenos permitieron verter a la atmosfera una cantidad inmensa de cenizas que ayudaron no solo a generar una mayor cantidad de nubosidad sino que tambien de lluvias en amplios sectores del Hemisferio norte durante 1816, año que seria calificado como The Year without a Summer (el año sin verano) en Europa occidental y America del Norte por la gran cantidad de dias frios, nubosos y con lluvia presentes esa temporada, lo que implico que el planeta entero sufriera una disminucion de su temperatura anual algo menor a 1°C.

Anomalias de temperatura en 1816 en comparacion con la media de temperaturas para el periodo 1971-2000. Pueden ver que a pesar de que amplios sectores de Europa, e incluso del norte de Africa, presentaron temperaturas bajo la media de comparacion, el Este del continente, y sobre todo el Imperio ruso, presentaron condiciones mas calidas.

Pero el mal tiempo, que en verdad no solo abarco 1816, sino que se extendio hasta 1818, dejaria su huella no solo en los registros de los especialistas sino que tambien provoco importantes deficits en la produccion de alimentos en el Hemisferio norte, en una epoca en que existia una agricultura de subsistencia por lo que se vivia con lo que la tierra daba de cosecha a cosecha. Al mismo tiempo, la anomalia climatica favorecio la aparicion de diversas enfermedades, como una epidemia de colera, que se extendio desde la India hasta Moscu, y otra de tifus que asolo Irlanda.

El fenomeno dejo sus huellas en una gran variedad de actividades humanas modificando incluso el arte de la epoca pues la abundancia de cenizas en la atmosfera cambio los atardeceres, que adquirieron un tono distinto como pueden apreciar en la siguiente pintura del ingles William Turner en que se observa como el tono amarillento de la ceniza -presente en ese momento en los cielos de Europa- tiñe el crepusculo pintado por el autor en su tela, a pesar de representar una situacion de principios del siglo IX antes de nuestra Era.

"Dido erigiendo Cartago, o el ascenso del Imperio cartagines", obra de 1815

Y si bien la produccion literaria del periodo fue escasa, parte de ella adquirio sus caracteristicas gracias a las particulares condiciones de la epoca pudiendo, ademas, trascender con vigor hasta el presente.

Junto al fuego de la chimenea

En la vispera del verano de 1816 una joven pareja de ingleses, Mary Godwin y su novio y futuro esposo, el poeta Percy Shelley, partieron a visitar a otro poeta, otro ingles, el cual habia decidido dejar su patria y se encontraba entonces residiendo en Suiza. Se trataba del celebre Lord Byron. La joven Mary de 18 años escribia: "El verano fue crudo y frio. La lluvia incesante, durante dias enteros, no nos dejaba salir de casa".

Lord Byron, poeta ingles nacido en 1788, en Londres y muerto en 1824, a sus 36 años, en la Grecia bajo dominio de los Otomanos que Byron trato de liberar, nacion aquella que lo considera un heroe nacional. Es considerado uno de los mas grandes poetas ingleses de todos los tiempos, habiendose constituido ademas en toda una celebridad en su epoca. Tanto su obra, como su misma figura, han inspirado hasta el presente a celebres compositores, pintores, escritores y tambien al cine. 

Las conversaciones extensas junto al calor de la chimenea, donde participaban la jovencita junto a su pareja y padre de su hijo, nacido unos pocos meses atras, ademas de Byron y su medico personal, y tambien escritor, John Polidori, incluyeron la lectura de una compilacion en frances de relatos de fantasmas de autores alemanes, denominada Fantasmagoriana, lo que seguramente los inspiro a comenzar a hablar sobre el galvanismo, una linea de investigacion cientifica fundada por el italiano Luigi Galvani que se habia ido popularizando en la epoca, ante el avance de las investigaciones en electricidad, entonces una nueva forma de energia a la cual se le buscaban aplicaciones practicas.

En 1816 la electricidad no era precisamente una energia de uso masivo, sino que apenas de uso experimental conociendose solo casi 20 años despues su primera gran aplicacion practica, con la creacion del telegrafo en 1833, en la version del estadounidense Samuel Morse, ingenio que permitia la transmision de mensajes codificados. 

En efecto, la hoy conocida como electrofisiologia habia dado sus primeros pasos con el italiano, quien descubrio en las ultimas decadas del siglo XVIII los efectos de una corriente electrica aplicada sobre muestras de tejido muscular. Sin embargo, un sobrino suyo, Giovanni Aldini, decidio ir aun mas lejos e investigar los efectos de la corriente electrica sobre seres humanos, valiendose para ello de criminales recientemente ejecutados. Muchas de esas experiencias las realizaria frente a publico.

En una de ellas, realizada en Londres, en 1803 los asistentes reaccionaron con sorpresa y pavor ante los espamos que sufria el cadaver, que pertenecia a un asesino recientemente ajusticiado en la horca. Un testigo de los hechos escribio: "Aparecio en el cadaver una respiracion convulsiva forzada, sus ojos volvieron a abrirse, los labios comenzaron a moverse mientras que el rostro del asesino, que ya no obedecia a ningun instinto rector, comenzo a retorcerse mostrando tan extrañas expresiones que uno de los asistentes resulto apesadumbrado por el espanto y unos pocos dias despues perdio la razon".


Esa capacidad aparente de revivir tejidos muertos llevaria a algunos a probar los efectos de la electricidad tambien en lisiados para intentar hacerlos caminar nuevamente, pero en el caso de ese verano junto al lago Ginebra, sirvio de inspiracion a la joven Mary para escribir un relato luego de que Lord Byron propusiera a cada uno de los presentes escribir una historia sobrenatural. El relato, que adquiriria su forma final poco tiempo despues, se denomino "Frankenstein, o un Prometeo moderno" siendo publicado en 1818, de forma anonima pero con dedicatoria de Mary a su padre, un filosofo de ideas liberales, ademas de ateo y anarquista, pero que a pesar de sus ideas libertarias se oponia fervientemente a la relacion entre ella y su novio.

Esa noche de julio de 1816, en que Lord Byron propuso a los presentes escribir una obra inspirada en un tema sobrenatural, sirvio a dicho poeta como ocasion para escribir el fragmento de una historia que luego abandono pero que sirvio de inspiracion para que su medico personal y tambien escritor, John Polidori, que lo acompañaba entonces en Suiza, escribiera una novela llamada The Vampyre, que seria publicada en 1819 pero no apareceria inicialmente bajo autoria de Polidori sino de Lord Byron para aprovecharse de la fama de este ultimo.
La obra es considerada como la que inaugura el genero del vampirismo como tema literario, que sabemos daria pie a toda una serie de producciones cinematograficas de fama mundial. La obra de Polidori, en si, daria origen a adaptaciones teatrales y peliculas, la ultima de las cuales se estreno en octubre de 2019. 

En la obra, su protagonista, Viktor Frankenstein, es un hombre que apoyado en la alquimia y en el desarrollo de la quimica de la epoca logra dar con el secreto para dar vida a lo inerte lo que le permitira crear un ser que luego intentara, en vano, destruir. Al reflexionar sobre su creacion afirmara en el texto lo siguiente:

"No exagero al decir que no se podia mirar a esta criatura sin sentir un estremecimiento... Miraba a mi creacion inmovil, todavia sin concluir, mientras yacia en la mesa del laboratorio pero aun asi su deformidad sorprendia mis ojos. Cuando sus musculos y articulaciones comenzaron a moverse fue tan espantoso que incluso la fantasia de los artistas medievales que habian representado las fuerzas del infierno lucia palida y forzada delante de mi creacion ... Aquello con lo cual habia soñado con tanta pasion se habia transformado para mi en un tormento infinito, frente a lo cual ya no podia hacer nada".

Si bien no hay una alusion directa a la electricidad como la fuerza motriz que da vida en la obra a esa criatura, el contexto de la epoca y de las conversaciones de su creadora en aquel frio verano de 1816 llevaron al cine a hacer precisamente de la electricidad la fuerza creadora del monstruo creado por  Viktor Frankenstein y cuya primera version filmica aparecio en 1910, en los Estados Unidos, en una pelicula muda de 16 minutos de extension.

Esa percepcion de las fuerzas de la naturaleza como una capacidad todopoderosa y marcada por el sino de Prometeo*, es decir, como una virtud incapaz de ser dominada por el arbitrio humano, probablemente reflejaba no solo las esperanzas y temores de la epoca frente a la novel electricidad, de la cual era su expresion el galvanismo, sino que tal vez eran tambien una reaccion frente a la vastedad de las transformaciones provocadas por la I revolucion industrial, periodo en que el trabajo manual comenzo a ser reemplazado por la operacion de maquinarias que producian ya no a partir de fuerza animal bruta sino que de las transformaciones de la energia, sobre todo de la liberada a partir del carbon.
*Figura mitologica de la Antigua Grecia quien se hace de manera furtiva con el fuego del templo de Hefestos para entregarselo como don a la Humanidad, accion por la cual fue castigado por los dioses que lo encadenaron a lo alto de un monte donde un aguila le horadaba las entrañas.

Esa revolucion se habia iniciado a mediados del siglo XVIII y se seguiria desarrollando en el siglo XIX, permitiendo transformar sociedades agrarias en sociedades industriales y urbanas. Al mismo tiempo, sirvio tambien de preludio para una II revolucion industrial que tuvo lugar entre el ultimo tercio del siglo XIX e inicios del siglo XX llevando el desarrollo industrial hasta la produccion en serie y permitiendo, ademas, el desarrollo de medios de transporte de manera vertiginosa, tanto terrestres, como maritimos y aereos, junto con promover una aun mayor expansion y profundizacion de la urbanizacion.
Asi como la maquina a vapor y el carbon estuvieron tras la I revolucion industrial, la II fue de la mano de la fundicion del acero y del desarrollo de las ciencias quimicas y la electricidad. 1897 veria nacer el motor Diesel, que seria utilizado a principios de siglo en buques y desde 1914 en locomotoras para despues ser usado en los recientemente creados tractores agricolas, en  vehiculos de carga y en tanques. En tanto la electricidad llevaria al desarrollo de la radiocomunicacion y la generacion electrica que condujo, entre otras cosas, a la aparicion del tranvia y la iluminacion de las ciudades.

En ese vertiginosa transformacion de la vida cotidiana a cuenta de desarrollos cientificos y tecnologicos crecientes, que no se detiene hasta el presente, la energia nuclear asomaria por primera vez en las postrimerias del siglo XIX con el descubrimiento de los llamados rayos X en 1895 por el aleman Wilhelm Roentgen, lo que le valio recibir en 1901 el primer Premio Nobel de fisica de la historia.

Los rayos X son radiacion electromagnetica de alta energia que fueron llamados rayos X por su descubridor para designar una radiacion por el desconocida. Fue precisamente Roentgen el primero en realizar una fotografia con radiacion X, lo que hoy constituye un procedimiento medico comun, y que pueden ver arriba, cuando el 22 de diciembre de 1895 el fisico aleman fotografio la mano de su esposa, en uno de cuyos dedos se puede apreciar un anillo. 

La radioactividad (literalmente, emision de rayos), a saber, la emision de particulas y energia por el nucleo del atomo*, seria descubierta en 1896 por el fisico frances, Antoine Henri Becquerel, quien descubrio la radioactividad del uranio, mientras que en 1898 los esposos Curie, Pierre y Marie, descubrieron la radioactividad del torio y tiempo despues la de otros 2 elementos, que bautizaron como Radio y Polonio (por Polonia, la Patria de Marie Curie, llamada realmente Maria Salomea Sklodowska, quien aunque nacio en Varsovia lo fue cuando la ciudad era parte del Imperio ruso). Al mismo tiempo, tanto Becquerel como Pierre Curie descubririan en si mismos los efectos biologicos de la radioactividad sobre la piel humana mientras que la misma Marie Curie, fruto de su trabajo, moriria de sindrome de radiacion. De hecho, sus apuntes siguen hasta el dia de hoy emitiendo radioactividad.
*Transformaciones que permiten que los nucleos atomicos se transformen en nucleos distintos, creando, a partir de ello, otros elementos quimicos. No existen practicamente nucleos estables (que no emitan radioactividad) cuando el peso atomico (numero de protones) de los mismos es mayor de 83 y su masa atomica (suma de protones y neutrones) supera los 209.

En 1897 se descubrio el electron, considerado como la unidad de carga electrica negativa fundamental de la materia. Uno de sus descubridores, el fisico ingles Joseph Thomson, plantearia en 1904 un modelo del atomo, particula fundamental de la materia, que se conoce hasta el dia de hoy como el modelo del plum pudding (un platillo ingles de Navidad). Partiendo de la neutralidad electrica del atomo asumio a este ultimo como una masa en la cual los electrones, las plum* o pasas del pudding, se encuentran insertos en una masa positiva**, el pudding.
*Si bien plum se puede traducir como ciruela, en la epoca la palabra era usada tambien como sinonimo de pasas cuando formaban parte de un pastel. 
**Entonces aun no se habia descubierto el proton ni menos el neutron mientras que lo que conocemos hoy como electron era llamado por Thomson como "corpusculo negativo".

Pero el modelo de Thomson, que suponia al atomo como una masa continua y compacta, seria pronto reemplazado por un nuevo modelo, planteado en 1911 por el neozelandes Ernest Rutherford y en el cual el atomo se transformo en un pequeñisimo nucleo rodeado por electrones que giraban a gran distancia, es decir, el atomo dejo de tener la consistencia de un pudding y se transformo en un espacio mayormente vacio.

La base del modelo de Rutherford surgio en un experimento realizado por el y sus discipulos en 1899, donde sometio la radiacion emitida por sales de uranio a un campo magnetico. Esto le permitio discernir, al menos, 3 tipos de particulas que se comportaban de manera muy distinta al ser expuestas al campo magnetico y que llamo rayos Alfa, Beta y Gamma, siendo las primeros particulas positivas (equivalentes a atomos de Helio que han perdido sus unicos 2 electrones), las segundas unidades de carga electrica negativa, es decir, electrones y la radiacion Gamma rayos electromagneticos, siendo todos estas particulas producto de la desintegracion del atomo.

La radioactividad es un proceso mediante el cual el nucleo de un atomo inestable pierde energia emitiendo radiacion en forma de rayos alfa, beta y gamma. La emision de los 2 primeros provoca una transmutacion  nuclear al generarse nucleos con diferentes numeros de protones y/o neutrones, y que puede llevar a la transformacion del atomo original en un elemento quimico diferente. Este ultimo concepto podria recordar a algunos la idea del Lapis philosophorum (Piedra filosofal o Quinto elemento), que en las leyendas de los alquimistas medievales representaba un reactivo capaz de transformar los metales en oro y tambien de crear el llamado Elixir de la vida (Es decir, de la inmortalidad y la juventud)

En 1932 James Chadwick descubrio el neutron y casi de inmediato, tras su descubrimiento, comenzaron las investigaciones para estudiar las interrelaciones entre el neutron y el nucleo del atomo. Ese año se construiria, en Inglaterra, el primer acelerador de neutrones capaz de escindir nucleos atomicos.

Pero a pesar de los vertiginosos avances en la ciencia del atomo durante las primeras decadas del siglo XX muchos ni siquiera sospechaban como el atomo acabaria determinando el futuro de la Humanidad en las decadas venideras. De hecho, Ernest Rutherford, considerado hoy como uno de los padres de la fisica nuclear, al dirigirse en 1933 a la Asociacion britanica para el avance de la ciencia, durante una conferencia sobre la energia, afirmo que sus trabajos sobre la division del atomo mostraban que no habia futuro alguno para la energia nuclear, sin importar si pasaran 200 o 300 años mas. Lo sorprendente es que dicha afirmacion la realizo cuando apenas restaban 9 años para la puesta en operacion del primer reactor nuclear de la historia y 12 para la explosion de 2 bombas atomicas sobre Japon.

En 1934 el italiano Enrico Fermi junto a un grupo de colaboradores sometieron distintos elementos al impacto de neutrones. Entre esos elementos trabajo con el Uranio, el elemento mas pesado existente en la naturaleza, producto de lo cual pudo generar elementos artificiales aun mas pesados que el uranio, los transuranidos*.
*Sus numeros atomicos (numeros de protones) van desde el 93 al 105. En el caso del Uranio-238, cuando absorbe un neutron, se transforma en U-239, el cual es inestable y lleva a que un neutron de su nucleo se transforme en 1 electron+1 proton, lo que lo transforma en un nuevo elemento, Neptunio-239 (de numero atomico 93). Este tambien es inestable y por el mismo proceso anterior se transforma en Plutonio-239 (numero atomico 94). Si bien este ultimo se puede encontrar de forma natural en las minas de uranio solo lo esta en cantidades extremadamente pequeñas. 

El descubrimiento en 1939 de la division del atomo, que denominaron fision, por el aleman Otto Hahn, junto a los austriacos Lise Meitner y Otto Frisch, permitio comprender que Rutherford estaba equivocado sobre el futuro de la energia del nucleo pues se habia abierto la puerta a una nueva forma de produccion de energia, la energia del nucleo del atomo, la cual multiplicaba en 50 millones de veces la energia que producia la quema del carbon.

C + O2 ----- CO2 + 4,2 eV

Neutron + Uranio ----- Productos de fision + 200 MeV*
*De esa energia un 80% es energia cinetica (asociada a la velocidad) de los fragmentos de fision, mientras que el restante 20% se divide entre radiacion generada por esos fragmentos y la energia cinetica de los neutrones liberados inmediatamente.

La razon era la transformacion de la masa en energia segun la conocida formula de Einstein: E=mc2, pues la fision de la masa de un nucleo genera una disminucion de su masa, equivalente en terminos de energia a esa reduccion de masa multiplicada por la velocidad de la luz al cuadrado. Se trataba, de hecho, de la primera confirmacion experimental de esa ecuacion, seguramente la mas famosa ecuacion de la historia, la cual habia sido hecha publica por primera vez el 21 de noviembre de 1905 en el "Annalen der Physik", revista cientifica alemana de publicacion mensual. 

Esto implicaba que si deseasemos hacer operar durante 1 año una planta de produccion de energia electrica a base de energia atomica y con una potencia de 1 GW* se requeriria utilizar apenas 1 tonelada de uranio mientras que hacerlo con carbon requeriria 3 millones de toneladas de este ultimo.
*1 GigaWatt equivale a 10 elevado a 9 Watt, es decir, 1.000.000.000, un mil millones de Watt.

Adicionalmente, ese mismo año se descubrio que la fision del uranio no solo generaba una enorme cantidad de energia sino que tambien liberaba 2-3 neutrones adicionales, lo cual planteo la idea de generar una reaccion en cadena, en caso de que esos neutrones pudieran ser utilizados para dividir otros nucleos de uranio de modo de hacer crecer el numero de neutrones disponibles para fision de manera exponencial.

Neutrones como producto de fision

De los neutrones liberados por fision casi su totalidad son los llamados Мгновенные нейтроны (Neutrones instantaneos) que surgen casi de inmediato tras la fision nuclear. Una cantidad menor a 1% la constituyen otro tipo de neutrones, los llamados Запаздывающие нейтроы, neutrones termicos o ralentizados en español, que son aquellos liberados entre algunos milisegundos y hasta varios minutos despues de que tiene lugar la fision.

Ese mismo año 1939 se descubrio, ademas, que a pesar de que los neutrones termicos constituian apenas el 1% de los neutrones liberados en una fision nuclear tenian un rol muy relevante en una reaccion en cadena pues permitian la posibilidad de crear una reaccion en cadena bajo control, que es la base de operacion de un reactor nuclear, o una bomba atomica.

La fision nuclear

Solo se pueden someter a fision los nucleos de los atomos mas pesados. De hecho, ellos mismos pueden sufrir tambien fision espontanea aunque se trata de un fenomeno muy aislado*.
*En 1 gramo de uranio tienen lugar cerca de 20 fisiones espontaneas por hora.

En el caso del uranio-235, al recibir un neutron adicional comienza a estirarse hasta que las fuerzas electricas de repulsion entre protones (de carga positiva) superan las fuerzas nucleares de atraccion (que solo operan a muy cortas distancias) lo que divide al nucleo en 2 partes. Estos subproductos de la fision nuclear salen eyectados a 1/30 de la velocidad de la luz.

Para establecer una reaccion en cadena no se puede tampoco utilizar cualquier elemento capaz de ser sometido a fision de sus nucleos. El elemento comunmente utilizado es el uranio.

Este tiene varios isotopos*, siendo el mas abundante en la naturaleza el U-238 (99,3%) mientras que en segundo lugar en abundancia se encuentra el U-235 (con 0,7%). Cuando estos isotopos son bombardeos por neutrones ambos pueden ser fisionados, pero la fision del U-235 es mucho mas intensa con neutrones termicos al tiempo que los nucleos de U-238 solo entran en fision con neutrones instantaneos con energias del orden de 1 MeV**.
*En griego significa misma posicion pues se refiere a derivados de un mismo elemento quimico, y que por lo tanto tienen identica posicion en la Tabla periodica de los elementos, sin distinguirse en su numero atomico, Z (numero de protones) pero si por su masa atomica, A (numero de protones y neutrones), por lo que tienen identicas propiedades electricas pero distinto peso atomico. Existen isotopos estables y radioactivos.
**Concepto que se usa en fisica nuclear y que equivale a la energia necesaria para desplazar una particula cargada en un campo electrico y cuya diferencia de potencial electrico sea igual a 1 millon de Volt.

En caso de menor energia el U-238 no fisiona sino que se va transformando en otros elementos, primero en Neptunio (vida media* de unos 2 dias) y luego en Plutonio. Este ultimo tiene una vida media de 24 mil años, es decir, es bastante estable, sin embargo, tambien puede ser fisionado con neutrones termicos, al igual que el U-235, por lo que tambien puede ser utilizado para generar reacciones en cadena controladas.
*Tiempo necesario para que una sustancia radioactiva se convierta, debido a las transformaciones de sus nucleos, en la mitad de su cantidad original.

Si bien en la fision del U-235 se libera una nueva generacion de neutrones la mayoria de ellos se pierde al escapar del recinto del reactor o al ser absorbidos por la mayoria prevaleciente de nucleos de U-238 (que al absorberlos se transforman, como ya vimos, en Plutonio-239). Por tanto, la solucion es enriquecer la "mezcla" aumentando el porcentaje de U-235, siendo el porcentaje minimo de este ultimo isotopo para mantener una reaccion en cadena de 3%*.
*En la actualidad, se utilizan mezclas con entre 2 a 5% de U-235 para reactores de produccion de energia electrica, mientras que porcentajes de hasta 20% se usan en reactores experimentales y de investigacion. Cuando el porcentaje supera el 20% se trata de reactores para uso militar o en tecnologia espacial. Por otra parte, mezclas empobrecidas en uranio, con valores entre 0,1-0,3%, se utilizan en armaduras de piezas de artilleria.

En general, las condiciones para crear una reaccion en cadena son las siguientes:

1-Una cantidad minima de combustible (la llamada masa critica) pues, como ya se menciono, si la cantidad de uranio es muy pequeña los neutrones escaparan sin provocar fision. En el caso del U-235 esa masa critica es de 50 kg, que dada la densidad del uranio representa una esfera de 9 cm de diametro. Sin embargo, la presencia de superficies reflectantes de neutrones o de ralentizadores de los mismos puede disminuir significativamente esa cifra.

2-Velocidad adecuada de los neutrones.

3-Ausencia de otras sustancias al interior del reactor nuclear, que es donde se lleva a cabo la reaccion en cadena, que puedan absorber neutrones.

En 1941 se descubriria que el plutonio-239 bajo accion de neutrones termicos resultaba aun mas facil de fisionar que el U-235 pues en promedio la fision de un nucleo de Pu-239 libera entre 2,8-3,0 neutrones mientras que el U-235 entre 2,4 y 2,6. En tanto, la masa critica de Pu-239 es menor, siendo de 11 kg, conformada como una esfera que alcanza 10 cm de diametro. 

El primer reactor

Dada la relevancia de los neutrones en el proceso de fision en cadena no sorprende que en la creacion del primer reactor* tomara parte el mayor especialista en esa particula atomica de la epoca, el italiano Enrico Fermi (imagen superior), quien habia huido de la Italia de la II Guerra hacia los Estados Unidos. Los trabajos comenzaron en 1941 escogiendose como ralentizador de los neutrones un material disponible en abundancia, carbono en forma de grafito. Sin embargo, el primer modelo de reactor, compuesto de oxido de uranio y unas 30 toneladas de grafito, no produjo los resultados deseados ante la falta de neutrones necesarios para iniciar una reaccion en cadena.
*En buenas cuentas, es un recinto donde se lleva a cabo una reaccion nuclear controlada.

En 1942 Fermi partio a trabajar a Chicago donde se construyo un nuevo modelo de reactor, constituido por 384 toneladas de grafito y 46 toneladas de uranio. Alli, el dia 2 de diciembre de 1942 se pudo constatar la primera reaccion en cadena, en una experiencia que tomo 28 minutos y donde la reaccion en cadena era moderada por varillas de cadmio, lo que impedia hacerla crecer de manera incontrolada, algo imprescindible no solo para evitar una explosion sino porque ninguno de los 40 testigos del experimento contaba con proteccion contra la radiacion.

Ampliando el uso de la energia nuclear

Los primeros reactores industriales se destinaron a la produccion de Plutonio-239*, luego de lo cual fue el turno de los reactores de menor magnitud para su uso en submarinos atomicos.
*El plutonio es el principal elemento de fision usado para elaborar armas nucleares, dejando rezagado en un segundo lugar al U-235 gracias, entre otras cosas, a que es mas barato de producir que el segundo. Ademas, el plutonio es un combustible nuclear que requiere de una masa critica mas pequeña (para llevar a una reaccion en cadena), requiriendo cerca de 11 kg que, gracias a la elevada densidad del plutonio, pueden contenerse en una esfera de no mas de 10 cm de diametro. El plutonio se genera en un reactor nuclear que opera con uranio natural o empobrecido, el cual contiene mayormente U-238.

Pero si bien los primeros proyectos en el area de la energia atomica, de principios de la decada del ´40, estaban destinados a su uso militar a fines de la misma decada comenzo a plantearse ya su uso pacifico como fuente de produccion de energia.

La primera bomba atomica, Triny bomb, fue probada en el Desierto de Nuevo Mexico, el 16 de julio de 1945, en los Estados Unidos. La explosion de una esfera de plutonio del tamaño de una pelota de tenia, alcanzo 20 kilotones, es decir, fue equivalente a la explosion de 20 toneladas de TNT. 
Si bien solo las bombas arrojadas sobre Hiroshima (conformada por uranio) y Nagasaki (hecha de plutonio) se han utilizado en un escenario belico cerca de 20 mil bombas atomicas se han hecho explotar sobre nuestro planeta.

En el caso especifico de la URSS, el inicio de su industria atomica tuvo lugar bajo condiciones muy complejas debido a las consecuencias de la Guerra, tanto humanas y financieras como en su infraestructura. Sin embargo, sus esfuerzos humanos y economicos les permitieron en un breve plazo construir y poner a operar el primer reactor nuclear nacional, el F-1, lo cual tuvo lugar a fines de diciembre de 1946, en Moscu. En tanto, en agosto de 1949, en el Poligono de Semipalatinsk (actual Kazaxstan) los sovieticos probaron su primera bomba atomica. Los rusos afirmarian con orgullo que desde la puesta en operacion de su primer reactor nuclear hasta la explosion de su primera bomba requirieron 2 años y 8 meses, un tiempo practicamente equivalente al que le tomo a los Estados Unidos, que habian sufrido significativamente menos las consecuencias de la guerra, en terminos de perdidas humanas, economicas y de infraestructura y porque no se habia combatido al interior de sus fronteras. 
El bombardeo de Japon con bombas atomicas dio inicio a una carrera armamentistica en el mundo, en el contexto de la llamada Guerra Fria. La URSS probaria su primera bomba atomica en 1949 y luego lo haria el Reino Unido, en 1952, seguido por Francia en 1960 y China, en 1964. En 1998 tanto la India como Pakistan harian explotar su primera bomba atomica. 
Segun cifras de inicios de 2014 el arsenal nuclear global comprendia 16.300 bombas atomicas. Se considera que hasta 9 paises poseerian armas nucleares (aunque solo 5 lo tienen oficialmente permitido: China, Estados Unidos, Francia, Reino Unido, Rusia) mientras que otros 40 contarian con la tecnologia y los materiales para construirlas.  

Produccion de electricidad a partir de energia nuclear

El primer intento por crear electricidad se realizo en 1951 en Idaho, Estados Unidos en un reactor experimental que logro producir una cantidad infima de electricidad. En tanto, el primer reactor nuclear en ser integrado a la red electrica comenzo a operar en Calder Hall, Inglaterra, en 1956.

Uno de los problemas de la epoca para crear instalaciones adecuadas para producir electricidad era que en la zona activa del reactor* debia aprovecharse el calor generado por medio de materiales que fueran capaces de soportar altisimas temperaturas y elevados niveles de radiacion.
*El lugar donde tiene lugar la fision nuclear.

Este trabajo comenzo a ser estudiado tambien en la URSS, en 1950, con la construccion de un reactor experimental, denominado AM, Атом Мирный (Atomo pacifico).

Tras analizarse diversas variantes el proyecto escogido, aprobado por los academicos Igor Kurchatov y Nikolay Dollezhal, consideraba un reactor que usaria uranio (dispuesto en unos elementos tubulares que los rusos llaman TVEL) y grafito mientras que en calidad de refrigerante, para retirar el calor generado en la reaccion, se usaria agua bajo presion de 100 atmosferas*.
*El punto de ebullicion de un liquido crece con el aumento de la presion mientras que se reduce con la disminucion de presion. A 100 atmosferas el punto de ebullicion del agua alcanza los 310°C.

La potencia proyectada era de 30 MW pero no a partir de consideraciones teoricas sino que de consideraciones muy concretas dadas las restricciones impuestas por los deficits financieros y la destruccion propias de los años posteriores a la Guerra. De hecho, para la unidad de turbina que utilizarian se valieron de una turbina fuera de uso de baja potencia, del orden de 6 MW, y que resultaba adecuada para un reactor experimental, y que limito la potencia de ese primer reactor.


Los llamados en ruso elementos generadores de calor, ТВЭЛ (TVEL Arriba, visibles como varillas cilindricas al interior de un ensamble denominado en ruso ТВС, es decir, TVS) los cuales contienen el combustible nuclear y se situan en el sector mas agresivo del reactor, se crearon inicialmente a partir de tubos de acero en los cuales se instalaban casquillos con uranio. Sin embargo, las pruebas mostraron que los tubos eran inservibles porque su tiempo de operacion en condiciones de altas temperaturas era solo de unas cuantas horas. Los resultados mejoraron cuando el uranio puro fue reemplazado por una mezcla con un 9% de molibdeno, lo que extendio su tiempo de operacion a varios cientos de horas. Pero aun mejores resultados tuvieron lugar al instalar la mezcla uranio-molibdeno al interior de una matriz de magnesio.

En mayo de 1954 se inicio la carga de combustible del reactor, el cual contenia 546 kg de uranio con un 5% de enriquecimiento de U-235, y que comenzo a generar electricidad el dia 26 de junio. La potencia electrica del reactor experimental alcanzo 1,5 MW.

El reactor, proyectado para generar hasta 5 MW, se mantendria operando de manera experimental hasta abril de 2002, cuando fue detenido definitivamente.

El ritmo de desarrollo de la energia nuclear en la URSS no fue inicialmente elevado dado que en la epoca se le daba preferencia al desarrollo de la energia termica y la hidraulica.

Entre 1948 y 1957 se pondrian en operacion 9 reactores industriales que producian plutonio (para uso militar) y solo 1 reactor, ademas experimental, para produccion de energia electrica (cuya historia acabamos de ver). Al mismo tiempo, se trabajaba activamente en producir reactores con la posibilidad de producir tanto energia electrica como plutonio (derivado, como hemos visto, de bombardear U-238 con neutrones instantaneos) de modo de darles un uso simultaneo, tanto civil como militar.

A partir de 1957 los sovieticos iniciaron la construccion de centrales de produccion de energia electrica a partir de energia nuclear, construyendo no solo reactores con grafito y agua corriente, como moderador y refrigerante*, respectivamente, sino que tambien usando agua corriente para ambas operaciones (los llamados ВВЭР, водо-водяной реактор, VVER).
*El flujo de neutrones que se genera en una reaccion nuclear implica la generacion de calor, el cual debe ser retirado por medio de algun elemento refrigerante. En tanto el ritmo de la reaccion nuclear es regulado, entre otras cosas, por medio de elementos moderadores, cuya labor es absorber neutrones libres, dejando menos de ellos disponibles para fisionar otros atomos de U-235.


En 1964 comenzo a operar el primer reactor VVER, el ВВЭР-1, con una potencia de 210 MW en la AES* de Novovoronezh (imagen superior actual). En 1973 fue puesto en operacion el primer reactor del mundo con neutrones rapidos, el БН-350 (BN-350, en la ciudad de Shevchenko, actual Kazaxstan). En tanto en 1974 comenzo a operar el primer reactor RBMK, celebre por el accidente de Chernobyl, con una potencia de 1000 MW, en la AES de Leningrado y se inicio, ademas,  la construccion de AES en Europa oriental.
*De aqui en adelante se hablara de AES como acronimo de Planta nuclear para produccion de energia electrica.

En el periodo 1957-1967, en los paises de Europa oriental, Asia y Africa, la URSS construyo 25 instalaciones atomicas, lo que incluyo 10 reactores para AES, 7 aceleradores* y 8 laboratorios de fisica e isotopos.
*Son instalaciones que aceleran particulas cargadas electricamente para que alcancen elevadas velocidades e impacten otras particulas. En la actualidad existen unos 30 mil en el mundo. En el futuro se espera poder desarrollar aceleradores capaces de crear incluso agujeros negros.

En 1964 la energia total de las AES del mundo alcanzaba los 5 millones de kW. A partir de entonces comenzaria un rapido crecimiento de la energia atomica que fue aportando cada vez mas a la produccion de energia electrica en el mundo. Se iniciaria un boom de construccion de AES en los Estados Unidos, luego en Europa occidental, Japon y la URSS. Los niveles de crecimiento de la energia atomica alcanzarian cerca de un 30% anual.

En 1972 los cientificos del llamado Club de Roma* publican un documento que se volvio legendario, llamado The Limits to Growth (Los limites del crecimiento), que a partir de modelaciones por computador afirmaba que el crecimiento economico no continuaria indefinidamente debido a la progresiva extincion de los recursos naturales, incluido el petroleo. 
*Organizacion internacional fundada en Roma, en 1968 para analizar la evolucion de la vida en la Tierra a consecuencia de las acciones humanas. El mencionado informe de 1972 daria pie a una serie de movimientos sociales que estan marcando el desarrollo de la Humanidad en el siglo XXI, como el ecofeminismo y el ambientalismo. 

La crisis del petroleo de 1973* le daria una publicidad sin precedentes al informe del Club de Roma, de 1972 y pondria a la energia nuclear como una opcion mas que oportuna debido a que la crisis energetica, que provoco un brusco aumento de los precios del petroleo, forzo a muchos paises a revisar sus programas energeticos privilegiando un mayor interes en energias renovables, la energia nuclear y la explotacion de combustibles fosiles al interior de las fronteras de cada pais.
*Se inicio en octubre de 1973 cuando los paises arabes exportadores de petroleo establecieron un embargo petrolero a las naciones que ellos consideraban habian apoyado a Israel durante la Guerra del Yom Kippur (6-25 octubre, en que una coalicion de paises arabes inicio un conflicto belico contra Israel resultando los arabes derrotados. El conflicto dio pie al inicio de un extenso proceso de paz entre Israel y las naciones arabes). El embargo cuadruplico el precio del barril de petroleo pero tambien condujo a otros cambios. Asi, en la industria automotriz comenzaron a construirse automoviles con motores mas eficientes en consumo de combustible y tambien de menores dimensiones.

En el contexto de esta crisis del petroleo el Presidente norteamericano Richard Nixon establecio un proyecto para construir mil reactores nucleares en territorio norteamericano hasta el año 2000 pero su salida del gobierno antes de cumplir su mandato por el escandalo Watergate* y la llegada a los gobiernos norteamericanos de personas contrarias a la energia nuclear** cambiaron la posicion de este pais hacia la energia nuclear.
*Escandalo politico que tuvo lugar en los Estados Unidos, entre 1972-1974 y que termino con la destitucion del Presidente Richard Nixon, el unico caso de un hecho asi en la historia de este pais. Este tuvo relacion con acciones de espionaje en las oficinas, ubicadas en el complejo Watergate, en Washington, de George McGovern, candidato del Partido democrata a la Presidencia de los Estados Unidos para las elecciones de 1972, en que triunfo Nixon.
**Estamos hablando aqui de energia nuclear no para uso militar sino que para produccion de energia electrica.

La institucionalidad adecuada para comenzar una nueva posicion contraria a la energia nuclear se dio en los Estados Unidos a partir de la administracion del Presidente Jimmy Carter*. Su gobierno estuvo dominado por miembros de la Trilateral Commission, organismo creado por la familia Rockefeller, que se opuso a la energia nuclear y se inclino por el uso de energias renovables. Ademas, la Comision de Energia atomica fue reemplazada por el Departamento de Energia, que quedo a cargo de James Schlesinger, quien a comienzos de la decada de 1970 habia apoyado a representantes de las firmas mas importantes de Wall Street para iniciar acciones legales que finalmente impidieron la construccion de la central nuclear de Calvert Cliffs, en el sur de Maryland. Esta accion daria inicio a una serie de acciones judiciales por parte de ambientalistas para detener o postergar la construccion de muchas otras centrales en los Estados Unidos en las decadas por venir.
*39 Presidente de los Estados Unidos. Solo goberno por un unico periodo, entre 1977-1981, luego de lo cual fue sucedido por Ronald Reagan. 



Una circunstancia que reforzo la campaña contra la energia nuclear en los Estados Unidos la provoco el accidente de Three mile Island*, en 1979 en los Estados Unidos lo que, sumado a otros incidentes en Europa, llevo a una revision radical de las exigencias de seguridad, a un endurecimiento de la normativa vigente y a una revision de los programas de desarrollo de las AES en todo el mundo, lo que provoco un inmenso daño material y de prestigio a la industria nuclear. Asi, los Estados Unidos, que eran lideres en energia nuclear, dejaron de plantearse, a partir de 1979, la necesidad de construir nuevas centrales.
*Tuvo lugar el 28 de marzo de 1979 provocando la liberacion al entorno de gases radioactivos y yodo radiactivo en un total estimado en 2,5 millones de Curie. El accidente tuvo categoria V en una escala internacional que alcanza como valor maximo VII, que fue el valor que alcanzarian los accidente de Chernobyl y Fukushima. El accidente en Estados Unidos tuvo lugar, coincidentemente, pocos dias despues del estreno de la pelicula The China Syndrome que describe una situacion, en diversos aspectos, similar a la de la central nuclear. A consecuencia del accidente, entre 1979-2012 no se entregaria ninguna licencia para construir AES mientras que se cancelaron los planes ya acordados para construir 71 nuevas AES, todo ello en suelo norteamericano.

Sin embargo, no todos los incidentes con centrales nucleares serian conocidos por el publico dado el contexto de la Guerra fria que requeria, entre otras cosas, la necesidad de mantener una intachable imagen internacional. Uno de ellos fue el que tuvo lugar en la AES de Leningrado, en 1975.

ЛАЭС, AES de Leningrado


Situada a 80 km al oeste de la actual San Petersburgo, comenzo a ser construida en septiembre de 1967 y debia constituirse en la principal de las centrales construidas en la URSS con reactores RBMK-1000*. Su primer bloque de produccion de energia electrica estuvo listo para operar en 1973 mientras que el segundo en 1975, agregandose un 3er y un 4to bloques en 1979 y 1980, respectivamente. En agosto de 1981 su capacidad de generacion electrica alcanzo los 4 mil MW, lo que la constituyo en la central mas poderosa en Europa de su tipo.
*En el curso de 10 años, tras la puesta en operacion del bloque de energia de la AES de Leningrado se pusieron en operacion 12 bloques de energia con reactores RBMK-1000 en la URSS, en las plantas de generacion electrica de Chernobyl, Kursk y Smolensk. Para 1986, año del accidente de Chernobyl, el total de bloques de energia en operacion con esos reactores era de 14.

En la construccion de la AES de Leningrado se establecio que el costo del kiloWatt/hora no debia superar los 180 rublos de la epoca, lo que forzo a reducciones de costo en el proyecto que afectaron directamente sus sistemas de seguridad. Asi este proyecto, como todos los demas que utilizaron reactores RBMK-1000, no consideraron una cubierta de seguridad de la instalacion del reactor, lo que implicaba que 200 toneladas de uranio y mas de 1 mil toneladas de elementos radioactivos se encontraban practicamente en contacto directo con el exterior pues la cubierta de la seccion del reactor era en solidez equivalente a la de un edificio residencial.

El accidente de 1975

El 30 de noviembre de 1975 se produjo un serio accidente en la AES de Leningrado que para algunos pudo haber adelantado el accidente de Chernobyl en 11 años.

Por largo tiempo los detalles del accidente en el I bloque de la AES de Leningrado (En adelante me referire a ella, a veces, como LAES) fueron inaccesibles al publico dado que en epoca sovietica todo lo relacionado con la industria nuclear era considerado secreto absoluto, salvo para un muy estrecho circulo de especialistas.

Y no solo ningun medio de comunicacion informaria sobre el accidente sino que ni siquiera los residentes de la localidad en que se encontraba la planta nuclear sabrian algo al respecto al contrario del accidente de Chernobyl que no solo no se pudo ocultar por haber tenido una escala espacial mucho mayor sino porque sucedio cuando en la URSS se daba inicio al periodo conocido como Гластность*.
*Glastnost, politica de apertura en las acciones de los organismos de gobierno y de libertad de prensa establecida por el Presidente de la URSS, Mixail Gorbachev en la segunda mitad de la decada de los ´80 en la URSS y que permitio, por primera vez, la existencia legal de una oposicion al regimen imperante (recordemos que las constituciones de los paises comunistas prohiben la existencia de oposicion politica). El concepto de Glastnost, sin embargo, es muy anterior pues surgio en Rusia a fines de la decada de 1850 con un sentido similar a aquel de la decada de 1980.

Como la AES de Leningrado se encontraba bajo administracion del Minsredmash* el accidente se investigo como un hecho absolutamente interno de esta dependencia. Incluso se impidio que los representantes del Ministerio de energia sovietico, que se preparaban para poner en operacion las centrales nucleares de Kursk y de Chermobyl, tuvieran participacion en la investigacion del accidente de Leningrado o que pudieran tener acceso a los materiales de la investigacion.
*Ministerio de construccion de maquinaria intermedia, el organo de gobierno en la URSS a cargo de la industria atomica. Se creo en 1953. En 1989 se unio al Ministerio de energia atomica para conformar el Ministerio de energia e industria atomica. 

Los hechos

En la mañana del 30 de noviembre de 1975 el personal de turno de LAES recibio una llamada telefonica desde un Instituto de investigacion cientifico-tecnologica situado a 3 km de la planta nuclear dado que tenian mediciones de radiacion que superaban la escala maxima de medicion de sus dosimetros y no tenian informacion de alguna anomalia en el recinto del Instituto de investigacion.

Esa misma mañana, en el panel de control de la central nuclear, habian surgido varias señales de alarma que daban cuenta de la destruccion de varios canales tecnologicos*.
*Tuberia de un reactor nuclear que tiene posicion vertical u horizontal y que en los reactores RBMK alcanza un total de 1693. Alberga las varillas con combustible nuclear y permite el paso de un refrigerante, agua corriente en el caso de esos reactores. Las tuberias tienen un largo de 18,36 metros. 

Cuando llego el personal de turno del 1° de diciembre se encontro con que el reactor se habia detenido y que habia una fuga de radiacion que afectaba a la planta nuclear y que se habia extendido tambien fuera del perimetro de la misma.

Que habia sucedido?

A partir del 1° de noviembre de 1974 se habia comenzado a realizar una serie de pruebas con el primer modelo de reactor RBMK-1000 de modo que despues de concluirlas se transformara en modelo para una serie de reactores futuros de la misma clase. En la vispera del accidente se habia iniciado una prueba de gran escala luego de la cual el reactor comenzaria a operar como modelo para otras AES sovieticas.

En la noche del dia 29 al 30 se debia descargar uno de los 2 turbogeneradores del bloque* I de la planta nuclear para realizar labores de mantencion, sin embargo, por error del operador este saco de operacion no el turbogenerador que se habia descargado sino que otro en funcionamiento, lo que llevo a que se pusiera en operacion el sistema de emergencia del reactor nuclear lo que lo llevaria a su detencion.
*Bloque energetico de una central nuclear destinado a la produccion de energia electrica. Considera diverso equipamiento como el reactor nuclear, la turbina, un turbogenerador, un transformador, etc. 

Cuando el jefe de turno se dio cuenta del error ordeno poner en operacion lo antes posible el turbogenerador que se saco erroneamente de operacion.

La situacion debia resolverse lo antes posible ante el riesgo de que el reactor cayera en lo que se conoce como Foso de Yodo y se bloqueara la operacion del reactor.

Foso de yodo

Lo primero que debemos tener presente es que en un reactor la fision del combustible nuclear va generando deshechos, algunos de los cuales pueden ser intensivos en absorcion de neutrones*, como el Xenon-135 o el Samario-149, por lo que pueden disminuir la reactividad del reactor, es decir, su capacidad, de mantener una reaccion en cadena.
*Recordemos que sin neutrones no puede haber fision de nucleos atomicos. Son ellos el detonante permanente de la reaccion.

Cuando el U-235 impactado por neutrones entra en fision, ademas de generar neutrones adicionales, forma distintos subproductos. En contadas ocasiones se puede formar Xe-135* directamente, algo que ocurre en un 0,3% de las ocasiones y por lo tanto resulta irrelevante, sin embargo, en un 6,3% de las veces se forma Yodo-135, el cual es radioactivo** y se va transformando en Xe-135, mas 1 electron.
*El Xenon-135 es un muy buen absorbedor de neutrones, por lo que si su cantidad aumenta la reactividad en el reactor (la capacidad del reactor de mantener una reaccion nuclear en cadena) disminuye drasticamente.
**El que sea radioactivo supone que es una sustancia inestable, por lo que se transforma en otra despues de un tiempo, segun una tasa o ritmo que se denomina Vida media.  

Es decir, un reactor esta creando todo el tiempo Yodo 135, pero la mitad de el se transforma despues de 6,6 horas en Xe-135. Este ultimo elemento es tambien radioactivo, con una vida media de 9,1 horas, tiem
          

El accidente de Chernobyl. II parte

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El accidente de Chernobyl

El 26 de abril de 1986 se produjo un accidente en la AES de Chernobyl como resultado del cual se destruyo la zona activa del reactor y parte del edificio que albergaba el IV bloque de energia, produciendose ademas la liberacion de productos radioactivos que se encontraban al interior del reactor a la atmosfera. El hecho tuvo lugar durante la realizacion de un experimento en que se queria estudiar la capacidad del rotor del turbogenerador* para producir alguna cantidad de electricidad a cuenta de sus propios giros en caso de que se detuviera el flujo de vapor del reactor que lo hacia operar.
*Permite transformar energia cinetica en energia electrica por medio del vapor que surge a consecuencia del paso del refrigerante a traves de la zona activa del reactor, el cual impulsa sus turbinas. 

La ejecucion del experimento se habia establecido originalmente para el dia 25 puesto que coincidia con la detencion, por programa, del reactor para una revision preventiva de rutina, circunstancia esta ultima que se utilizaba regularmente para revisar equipos y hacer reparaciones, en caso de que fuera necesario.

Mediante el experimento se queria ver si esa electricidad generada por la propia inercia* del turbogenerador seria capaz de poner en operacion las bombas de circulacion principales del reactor, las cuales alimentan con agua, es decir, con un refrigerante, el interior del reactor para retirar el calor que genera la reaccion nuclear.
*Es decir, de sus giros previos hasta su total detencion al no contar con energia que lo impulsara. 

En caso de que, en una circunstancia real, el turbogenerador dejara de hacer funcionar las bombas de circulacion principales se les daria energia por medio de motores diesel. Sin embargo, su puesta en operacion requiere de unos 40 segundos, por lo cual se queria ver si los giros del turbogenerador, antes de detenerse por completo, eran capaces de suplir con energia esos 40 segundos antes de que los motores diesel de emergencia comenzaran a operar.

Debemos considerar que si se interrumpe la alimentacion electrica por una situacion imprevista e incluso si se detiene el reactor este debe continuar siendo enfriado porque la generacion de calor, producto de la fision nuclear, no se detiene de inmediato. Se trata de elementos radioactivos que deben seguir siendo enfriados por medio de la inyeccion de agua a alta presion por las mencionadas bombas de circulacion principales de modo de que el calor generado no provoque la destruccion de los llamados canales tecnologicos de los reactores RBMK, en uso en Chernobyl, que recordemos son las instalaciones en las cuales, ademas de albergar otros sistemas del reactor, se produce la fision nuclear al interior de los TVEL (elementos liberadores de calor, en su traduccion literal)

Esta era la cuarta vez que se intentaba realizar este experimento, pues en ocasiones anteriores o no habia entregado los resultados que se esperaban, porque la inercia de la turbina no habia aportado con energia suficiente para generar electricidad para las motores diesel, o porque se presentaron errores de procedimientos que no permitieron ejecutar la experiencia como se habia estipulado.

El primer intento se realizo en 1982 y la verdad es que no se trataba de un mero capricho pues tenia relacion con el ataque que habia sufrido en 1981 una instalacion nuclear en Irak, nacion entonces aliada de la URSS, por la aviacion israeli y en que el reactor nuclear fue completamente destruido por lo que las autoridades querian buscar alternativas en caso de un ataque contra la central nuclear que interrumpiera la alimentacion electrica principal.

Se debe agregar que lo que se buscaba era incrementar la seguridad en la operacion del reactor porque no es que las bombas diesel tuviesen la opcion de estar 40 segundos sin operar sin ningun sistema de respaldo anteriormente previsto pues existian acumuladores que permitian ante cualquier caso proveer el enfriamiento necesario del reactor todo el tiempo.

Operacion Opera

En septiembre de 1975 Saddam Hussein* vuela a Paris a encontrarse con el Premier frances, Jacques Chirac** con el proposito de solicitar colaboracion tecnologica para construir un reactor nuclear en suelo iraqui lo que se plasmaria en un acuerdo de colaboracion tecnico-militar que se firmo al año siguiente.
*Politico iraqui nacido en 1937 y muerto en la horca en 2006. Fue Presidente de su pais entre 1979 y 2003, aunque se constituyo en lider de facto mucho antes de llegar a ser Presidente. 
**Politico frances nacido en 1932 y muerto en 2019, que fue Presidente de Francia en 2 periodos sucesivos, entre 1995 y 2007. En el encuentro con Hussein era Primer Ministro, cargo que ocupo desde 1974 por orden del recien electo Presidente Valery Giscard d´Estaing.

En la URSS estaban bien informados de las ambiciones nucleares de Irak ademas de que en Bagdad ya funcionaba un reactor nuclear experimental construido por especialistas rusos al tiempo que miles de consejeros militares sovieticos apoyaban no solo la direccion del ejercito iraqui sino que tambien la operacion de armamento de origen ruso, que Irak habia adquirido de la URSS por miles de millones de dolares.

Los sovieticos consideraban que la posesion por Irak de un arma nuclear provocaria en Israel y los Estados Unidos no pocos problemas y llevaria a una agudizacion significativa de las partes en el Medio oriente lo que les garantizaria un aumento en sus ingresos por venta de petroleo y de envios militares a paises arabes a la vez que un fortalecimiento del rol de la URSS en la region.

Si bien en Israel existia previamente inquietud por las ambiciones nucleares de Irak, pues este pais habia declarado publicamente su deseo de destruir a Israel, su posicion se volvio mucho mas activa cuando vieron que Irak, con el apoyo de especialistas franceses, estaba construyendo un reactor de 500 MW, que planeaba ponerse en operacion para julio de 1981. Segun analistas sovieticos si el reactor hubiese sido puesto en operacion para 1985 hubiera estado en capacidad de producir hasta 10 kg de plutonio militar, suficiente para crear 5 bombas atomicas*.
*Hay otros especialistas que consideran que el reactor fue diseñado de manera tal que no estaba en condiciones de producir combustible para una bomba atomica.

Sin haber logrado nada por vias diplomaticas o politicas con los franceses Israel decidio llevar a cabo una operacion militar con el proposito de destruir directamente el reactor. El iniciador de tal medida fue el primer ministro del pais, Menaxem Begin*, quien deseaba realizar un ataque aereo antes de que el regimen iraqui pudiese obtener un arma atomica.
*Septimo Primer Ministro de Israel, cargo que ocupo entre 1977 y 1983. Nacio en 1913, en territorios del Imperio ruso que hoy pertenecen a Bielorrusia, y se situan en la actual frontera con Polonia. Murio en 1992, en Israel. Realizo sus estudios universitarios en Varsovia. Toda su familia murio a manos de los nazis en 1941 cuando estos ocuparon suelo polaco. 

A principios de junio de 1981 el grupo de aviones de la llamada operacion Opera se reunio en la base aerea de Etsion, en la Peninsula del Sinai, lugar escogido como comienzo de la operacion porque permitia llevar a cabo una incursion sobre espacio aereo iraqui desde la direccion menos esperada para los iraquies, utilizando para el vuelo regiones deserticas, primero de Jordania, y luego de Arabia Saudita. Cada uno de los aviones del grupo de ataque estaba armado con 2 bombas antihormigon Mk84, con un peso de 925 kg cada una.

La ruta de vuelo se extenderia en total por 2800 km por lo que los aviones fueron equipados con estanques adicionales que les permitirian realizar su mision sin necesidad de reabastecimiento aereo.

En su rumbo hacia el reactor nuclear los pilotos israelies deberian superar el poderoso sistema ruso de artilleria desplegado sobre Irak. A mediados de 1981 Irak contaba con 14 brigadas antiaereas, 1 grupo de misiles antiaereos y 2 divisiones separadas de misiles antiaereos junto con 100 aviones interceptores, la mayoria de fabricacion rusa.

A las 16:01 horas del 7 de junio despegaron los aviones del grupos de ataque y del grupo de escolta. Primeros iban 4 F-16 mientras que unos 3600 m mas atras iban otros 4 aviones F-16. Los F-15 de cobertura volaban en pares a la derecha, a la izquierda y detras del grupo de ataque. Con el proposito de camuflar los aviones estos volaban en regimen de completo silencio radial, a una altura relativamente baja, 40-100 metros, y en agrupacion compacta para que en caso de ser hallados por los radares parecieran ser un gran avion comercial, un solo gran punto. Al aproximarse a la capital iraqui el grupo escolta se elevo hasta 5 km mientras que los jets F-16 bombardearon el reactor a intervalos de 15 segundos.


A las 17:35 los bombarderos se lanzaron en picada contra el reactor iraqui y en menos de 1 minuto y medio arrojaron con toda precision a la zona activa del reactor 16 bombas, 2 de las cuales no explotaron. El ataque, desde que el primer avion tomo altura hasta el ultimo lanzamiento de bombas por el octavo avion, tomo 50 segundos.

El oficial ruso Valeri Yaremenko se encontraba en ese momento a unos 300 metros del centro nuclear:

"En algun momento cerca de las 18 horas del dia 7 de junio aparecio en el monitor de rastreo y orientacion de nuestra base una gran indicacion. Ante la solicitud de si eran nuestros o extraños no hubo respuesta. Un par de minutos mas tarde la pantalla del radar se volvio blanca. Era una interferencia? Era actividad? Ante mis ojos, literalmente tocando la parte superior de unas palmeras, aparecio ese mismo objeto desconocido, eran 6 F-15 que a toda velocidad penetraron en direccion del centro nuclear. Su paso fue seguido por un primer estruendo que sacudio todo alrededor. Luego, en el curso de 1 minuto, las explosiones continuaron. Los aviones, despues de haber realizado un brusco giro en una distancia de hasta 6 km, partieron en fila en direccion contraria. Nuestra base detecto 10 objetivos enemigos. Despues se lanzaron varios misiles pero fue en vano pues los jets estaban fuera de alcance. Tambien dispararon desde otras divisiones vecinas pero sin ningun resultado. Los jets iraquies tampoco lograron dar alcance a los agresores. Unos 10 minutos mas tarde se establecio un silencio absoluto. Solo mucho despues pudimos saber que el ataque lo habian realizado los israelies".

A las 19:06 todos los aviones israelies que tomaron parte en el ataque contra el reactor regresaron a sus bases sin bajas ni daños.

La reaccion de Saddam no tomo mucho tiempo, ordenando ejecutar a todos los oficiales iraquies de las secciones antiaereas que protegian el espacio aereo del reactor nuclear.

El experimento

El reactor del bloque de energia numero 4 operaba normalmente a 3200 MW de potencia pero se establecio realizar el experimento a una potencia entre 700-1000 MW, por lo que el turno de noche del dia 25 de abril comenzo a la 01:06 de la madrugada con la reduccion de potencia llegando a 1600 MW a las 03:47. Ocupados en otras actividades dejaron para el turno de dia, como estaba estipulado, la realizacion del experimento, accion que debia tomar apenas 1 minuto y medio.

Sin embargo, cuando se esperaba continuar con la reduccion de potencia los operadores del turno de dia recibieron en la mañana del dia 25 una llamada de un operador de Kievenergo, la red de energia electrica que alimentaba la Ucrania sovietica, quien les ordeno interrumpir el descenso de potencia por una falla que se habia producido en otra AES situada al sur de Ucrania.

Segun el operador podrian continuar con la reduccion de potencia del reactor a las 14:00, pero a esa hora se les informo que la accion se debia postergar por un tiempo indeterminado. Finalmente, la orden para seguir reduciendo la potencia llego a las 23:10 horas, pues solo entonces se logro superar la situacion con la falla de la otra AES de la red electrica de la Ucrania sovietica. Para ese momento el personal de dia debia prepararse para entregar el turno al personal que entraba a las 00:00 horas, por lo que la realizacion del experimento quedo en manos del turno de noche, que no estaba previamente preparado para realizarlo.

Hay que destacar que las opiniones en torno al papel del personal del turno de noche en su responsabilidad por el accidente, el cual tuvo lugar poco antes de la 01:30 de la madrugada, es decir, apenas comenzado el turno, son hasta hoy muy divergentes. Algunos califican su actuar de improvisado e incluso de irresponsable, atribuyendoles toda la culpa, mientras que otros lo exculpan por completo afirmando que operaron correctamente, en el sentido, de no violar el Reglamento de operacion del reactor ni tampoco el programa del experimento por lo que el accidente habria dejado al descubierto no otra cosa que los problemas de seguridad con que se operaba hasta antes del accidente en las centrales nucleares de la URSS.

Habiamos dicho que a las 23:10 se continuo con la reduccion de la potencia de modo que a las 00:05, con el turno de noche a cargo, se alcanzaron los 700 MW, nivel adecuado para la realizacion del experimento.


Al tomar el turno en un momento en que se reducia rapidamente la potencia del reactor, de 1600 a 700 MW, el operador Leonid Toptunov* (arriba) no fue capaz de estabilizar la potencia, en momentos en que el reactor cambiaba sus sistemas de regulacion automatica (LAR a AR**) para operar con una potencia mas baja, de modo que a las 00:28 se redujo practicamente a cero.
*Quien moriria producto de la radiacion escasas semanas despues del accidente, el 14 de mayo de 1981, contando con 25 años de edad.
**Regulacion automatica local a regulacion automatica de potencia general.

En este nivel el reactor se encontraba en posicion compleja para volver al valor previo de su potencia pues el Xe-135 estaba aumentando porque no habian suficientes neutrones dado que los que podian estar disponibles se estaban usando para consumir el nuevo Xenon que se formaba. Ademas, cuando la potencia del reactor baja tan drasticamente el agua no hierve por lo que, contando con una mayor densidad, estaba absorbiendo mas neutrones de lo normal, lo que frenaba aun mas la reaccion nuclear.

Entonces, bajo presion del suplente del ingeniero principal, Anatoli Dyatlov, los operadores intentarian restablecer la potencia a un nivel donde pudiera realizarse el experimento, lo que significaba que tenian que reducir la absorcion de neutrones, es decir, debian retirar varillas de control de la zona activa.

Anatoli Dyatlov (1931-1995). Ingeniero en equipos automaticos y electronica quien trabajo toda su vida con distintos tipos de reactores nucleares. Estuvo a cargo del turno en el cual en la madrugada del 26 de abril exploto el reactor nuclear RBMK-1000 del bloque 4. Fue condenado a 10 años de prision por el hecho pero seria liberado luego de cumplir 4 años. Siempre culpo al diseño del reactor del accidente. Murio de un infarto a los 64 años. 

En general, en cualquier reactor en el mundo, en esas condiciones, se detiene el reactor por unas 48 horas y luego se vuelve a encender, sin embargo, la detencion del IV bloque amenazaba con un nuevo fracaso en el programa de pruebas.

Entre quienes culpan a los operadores por el accidente, se afirma que para volver a activar el reactor estos retiraron una cantidad excesiva de varillas de control del reactor por el deseo del responsable del turno de esa noche, el suplente del ingeniero principal en el bloque IV de Chernobyl, Anatoli Dyatlov, de recibir un ascenso o una condecoracion por la realizacion del experimento por lo que en vez de apagar el reactor, como debia hacerse, decidio acelerar su operacion quitando todas las protecciones de seguridad a fin de subir la potencia del reactor, pues el experimento debia hacerse a un nivel de potencia de 700 MW.

Normalmente, habia mas de 200 varillas utilizadas para controlar la zona activa del reactor pero con el xenon aun apropiandose de neutrones los operadores siguieron retirando varillas dejando finalmente en torno a una decena controlando la reaccion. Suena riesgoso pero ellos tenian presente que aun podian usar el apagado de emergencia en caso de cualquier problema, lo que reinsertaria rapidamente todas las barras de control de vuelta al reactor.

Se afirma que se retiraron de la zona activa del reactor no menos de 198 barras de control de un total de 211 por lo que las restantes 13 barras de control que permanecieron, 2-7 segun otras fuentes, no fueron capaces de otorgar seguridad a la operacion del reactor. Para ello era necesario que hubieran permanecido no menos de 32 por lo que la catastrofe era inevitable.

Ademas, los reactores RBMK eran complejos de manejar a potencias muy bajas y, de hecho, se habian encendido varias señales de alarma que los operadores apagaron para no poner en riesgo el nivel de potencia de 200 MW que habian alcanzado poco despues de la 01:00.

Bombas de circulacion adicionales en operacion

Es en este momento que a las 6 bombas de circulacion en operacion se agregan 2 adicionales para incrementar el enfriamiento del reactor durante la realizacion del experimento mientras que se apaga tambien el sistema de emergencia para la entrega de vapor al turbogenerador de modo de poder ponerlo a girar poco despues a cuenta de su inercia.

Inicio del experimento

A la 01:23:04 se inicia el experimento luego de que la valvula que controla la entrega a de vapor al turbogenerador es apagada. A partir de este momento, la turbina continua girando solo a cuenta de su inercia mientras que las bombas de circulacion principales comienzan a girar con mayor lentitud por lo que el enfriamiento del reactor se reduce de manera significativa. Comienza a formarse vapor y, dada su reactividad positiva*, comienza tambien a aumentar la potencia del reactor.
*Aceleraba la reaccion nuclear.

Se afirma que entonces se produjo un nuevo error de los operadores dado que, segun el programa del experimento, debian apagar el reactor cuando se desconectara el turbogenerador. Sin embargo, el reactor se apago no a las 01:23:04 sino que a las 01:23:40, es decir, no al inicio sino que al final del experimento.

Presion del boton АЗ-5 (AZ-5)


Con cada segundo la presion del vapor fue creciendo, siendo tan elevada que comenzo a levantar los 350 kg de peso de las varillas de control del reactor.

A la 01:23:40 el programa de registro de operacion del reactor registro la activacion de la proteccion de emergencia AZ-5 tras una accion del operador, por lo que 187 varillas absorbedoras de neutrones comenzaron su desplazamiento hacia la zona activa. Pero no alcanzaron a cruzar ni siquiera la mitad de su recorrido cuando se produjo una explosion, seguida, segun algunos testigos, de otra adicional.

Es decir, en vez de apagar el reactor la activacion de la proteccion de emergencia lo acelero.

El calor generado en la zona activa del reactor llevo al grafito de los canales tecnologicos al rojo mientras que el agua se descompuso con el calor en sus moleculas integrantes, hidrogeno y oxigeno, lo que dio pie a una gran explosion de origen quimico, no nuclear, que volo la cubierta del reactor y destruyo parcialmente el edificio que lo albergaba exponiendo el interior del reactor en rojo a la atmosfera que, recordemos, no contaba con una estructura de seguridad adecuada.

Surgirian, ademas, varios focos de incendio.

Quienes culpan al personal del accidente afirman que el boton de seguridad AZ-5 se presiono cuando la explosion del reactor era inevitable o, incluso, despues de que el reactor ya habia hecho explosion.

Varillas de control

Cuando las varillas de control de los reactores RBMK (construidas con carburo de boro como absorbedor de neutrones) son retiradas de la zona activa el espacio que dejan detras contendra agua (el refrigerante del reactor) que es tambien, aunque en menor medida, un absorbedor de neutrones. Por ello, para acentuar la efectividad de las varillas en el diseño se inserto un trozo de grafito en el extremo inferior, el que actua como moderador de la velocidad de los neutrones y por lo tanto favorece la reaccion nuclear, es decir, aumenta la reactividad.


Ese dia 26 de abril con tantas varillas de control removidas, el agua se habia transformado en un significativo removedor de neutrones pero con un nivel de potencia tan bajo el sistema de enfriamiento operaba a una velocidad baja, acorde a ese nivel de potencia, por lo que el reactor se volvio muy sensible a la ebullicion del agua mientras que el agua comenzo a hervir y a generar "vacios" (espacios con menor densidad) y mucho menos neutrones comenzaron a ser absorbidos, por lo cual la reaccion se acelero y comenzo a calentar aun mas el agua. Esta mecanismo de retroalimentacion positiva es llamado "Coeficiente de vacio positivo" y es un concepto comun al describir las razones del accidente de Chernobyl.

El grafico muestra como una menor densidad del agua (por aumento de temperatura al interior del reactor) provocaba un brusco aumento de reactividad, como lo muestra la curva 2, mientras que la curva 1 muestra como estaba previsto por los diseñadores que se comportara la reactividad ante un aumento en la temperatura del refrigerante. En 3 se observa como quedo la relacion entre reactividad y densidad del refrigerante despues de las reparaciones realizadas a los reactores RBMK-1000 tras el accidente de Chernobyl.

En reactores donde el agua es a la vez refrigerante y moderador (rol que juega el grafito y no el agua en los reactores RBMK) un incremento en el vapor reduce el efecto de moderacion* y por lo tanto frena el reactor, lo que se llama "Coeficiente de vapor negativo" y tiende a hacer el reactor mas estable al contrario de un reactor RBMK, donde el incremento de vapor acentua la reactividad.
*De moderacion de la velocidad de los neutrones, circunstancia esta ultima que favorece que se fisionen mas nucleos de U-235.

De todos modos, el coeficiente positivo del vapor es solo uno de los varios coeficientes de reactividad que describen como el reactor va respondiendo a los cambios en las condiciones del reactor.

Con el reactor en un estado de baja potencia y de menor flujo de refrigerante, acorde al nivel de potencia, algunos cambios en el flujo de presion o de la temperatura comenzaron un poderoso ciclo de retroalimentacion y la potencia del reactor comenzo a incrementarse rapidamente. Y en la medida que la potencia comenzo a incrementarse el agua comenzo a hervir a niveles cada vez mas bajos en el espacio interior del reactor permitiendo una menor absorcion de neutrones y que la reaccion nuclear fuera tambien expandiendose, bajando por la zona activa.

En este momento, se presiono el boton de control de emergencia lo que, en teoria, llevaria la potencia del reactor a cero tan rapido como fuera posible por medio de insertar las varillas de control rapidamente.

Varillas de control descendiendo a traves de la zona activa del reactor, lo que va modificando la distribucion del campo de neutrones, como se observa en el trazado en lila, mas abajo. Como pueden ver en la medida que las varillas van bajando los neutrones disponibles para fision van aumentando de manera exponencial en la parte inferior de la zona activa del reactor por el efecto que provocan las terminaciones de las varillas que no solo expulsan el agua, que absorbe neutrones, sino que la reemplazan por grafito que no solo no los absorbe sino que ademas modera su velocidad dejandolos disponibles para acelerar la velocidad de fision, es decir, favorece la aceleracion del reactor.

Desafortunadamente, no se trataba de un proceso tan rapido porque las varillas tenian que entrar a cada canal y desplazar el agua en su interior y se movian a solo 40 cm por segundo y la zona activa del reactor tenia 7 metros de profundidad. Es decir, se requerian 18 segundos para insertarse por completo hasta abajo en la zona activa.

Pero las varillas de control primero insertan sus varillas de grafito. Esto tuvo el efecto de que cuando fueran empujadas al interior del reactor fueron reemplazando agua por grafito, lo que modera la velocidad de los neutrones y los hace mas proclives a generar fision. Eso quiere decir que la reaccion en el mismo fondo de la zona activa fue acentuada cuando se comenzo a apagar el reactor.

Asi que en el esfuerzo de tener la potencia suficiente para la prueba los operadores pusieron el reactor en una configuracion inestable y cuando la potencia comenzo a aumentar ellos intentaron apagar el reactor pero el proceso de apagado acelero temporalmente la reaccion durante unos cuantos segundos, periodo suficiente para que la potencia creciera exponencialmente superando los limites de diseño del reactor.


Reactividad

Ya habia mencionado en la I parte que la reactividad es la capacidad del reactor para mantener una reaccion nuclear. Mas precisamente, es un concepto que describe como varia el numero de neutrones disponibles para fision al interior de un reactor. Cuando crece su numero la reactividad es positiva y el reactor crece en potencia (es supra-critico), cuando se mantiene es nula y la potencia es estable (reactor critico) mientras que cuando disminuye se habla de reactividad negativa y la potencia del reactor decrece, se "va apagando" (es sub-critico).

La reactividad en el reactor cambia segun la introduccion o retiro de elementos al interior del reactor capaces de controlar la reaccion en cadena. Asi el retiro de varillas de control de la zona activa del reactor libera reactividad.

En el caso de un reactor critico, y como ya se menciono en la I parte, la operacion del reactor va generando sub-productos por la fision del U-235 algunos de los cuales tienen gran capacidad de absorcion de neutrones, como el Xe-135, lo que implica que un reactor critico tendra un numero de neutrones para fision que ira en disminucion, es decir, su reactividad ira disminuyendo. Por eso, para la operacion de un reactor con continuidad, suponiendo que no cambiaremos su combustible en ese periodo, se requiere que tenga algo que se conoce como Оперативный запас реактивности (ОЗР, OZR, reserva de reactividad) y que en el caso de los reactores RBMK se mide por el numero de varillas de control regulables manualmente (las llamadas СУЗ, SUZ) introducidas por completo al interior del reactor*, es decir, es una medida de la capacidad (de reserva) del personal en el panel de control del reactor para aumentar la potencia del reactor.
*Sin embargo, la reactividad de las varillas depende tambien de la profundidad a la que esten sumergidas en la zona activa como tambien de la distribucion de los neutrones para fision en la zona activa por lo que las varillas no aportan siempre de la misma manera a la reactividad.

En el caso del accidente vimos que se retiraron gran cantidad de ellas, es decir, habia una muy baja reserva de reactividad lo que implicaba que la posibilidad de controlar el reactor por el operador era baja.

Adicionalmente, los reactores RBMK tenian una reactividad positiva en bajas potencias, es decir, su potencia tendia a incrementarse en esas condiciones, que fue algo que se descubrio luego del accidente.

Ademas, la reactividad provocada por el vapor (este ultimo surge cuando el refrigerante ingresa a la zona activa del reactor a retirar el calor generado por la fision) era especialmente elevada cuando el reactor operaba con esa misma baja potencia y cuando, ademas, el combustible utilizado no era muy fresco. Tengamos presente que el combustible de un reactor no se reemplaza como en un automovil en terminos de horas sino que de años por lo que hay muchos sub-productos de la fision que se iran acumulando y, a consecuencia de esto, modificaran la conducta de la reaccion nuclear. En el diseño del reactor RBMK no estaba considerado un aporte sustancial del vapor a la reactividad del reactor porque se hicieron calculos para combustible fresco y sin considerar tampoco una situacion donde practicamente no existian varillas de control en la zona del reactor donde tiene lugar la fision nuclear, la zona activa.

Otro caracteristica del reactor era la velocidad a la cual las varillas de control ingresaban al interior del reactor. Estas, recordemos, absorben neutrones para moderar o impedir la fision nuclear, es decir, apagan o "frenan" el reactor. Su insercion se hacia a muy baja velocidad requiriendo casi 20 segundos para ingresar por completo al reactor. En una situacion de operacion normal era suficiente pero en una situacion de emergencia resulto ser otro factor que se agrego a los demas que llevaron a la tragedia.

Volviendo a la OZR, la reserva operativa de reactividad, es decir, la magnitud de sumersion de las varillas SUZ al interior del reactor, no depende solo del numero de ellas ingresadas por completo al reactor sino que tambien de su posicion dentro del mismo y del flujo de neutrones, que tiene una distribucion desigual, siendo, en general, minimo en la periferia del reactor y maximo junto a los TVEL. Por ello no basta con considerar el numero de varillas introducidas.

Adicionalmente, en el reactor RBMK el calculo de la reactividad asociada a las varillas SUZ no era un parametro que se obtuviera instantaneamente sino que lo generaba despues de 10-15 minutos un sistema de calculo situado a un costado del panel de control por lo que en terminos operativos no era muy util.

Hay otro elemento que se cita a menudo cuando se analiza el accidente de Chernobyl por parte del diseño del reactor, que ya mencione anteriormente, y que se conoce como Концевой эффект (efecto final) y que se cita a menudo como un defecto de diseño en las varillas de control que si bien estan constituidas por carburo de boro, un gran absorbedor de neutrones, en el extremo inferior tenian grafito, que tiene una baja absorcion neutronica y que habria ayudado a acelerar la reaccion nuclear en Chernobyl en los segundos inmediatamente previos a la explosion del reactor.

Y la verdad es que si bien las varillas SUZ tenian en su extremo inferior grafito el efecto en el aumento de reactividad que podrian provocar solo resultaba ser relevante con una OZR muy baja. Con 15 o mas varillas de control la puesta en operacion de la detencion de emergencia, el boton AZ, no provocaba un aumento de reactividad como si sucedia ante la presencia de una cantidad inferior, como sucedio la madrugada del accidente cuando al presionarse el boton AZ ingresaron masivamente las varillas SUZ al reactor.

Accion de los operadores

Si bien durante la preparacion del experimento los operadores desconectaron una serie de sistemas de emergencia del reactor, quienes responsabilizan del accidente al diseño del reactor afirman que las acciones de los operadores se realizaron en conformidad con las instrucciones del programa de la prueba. Ademas, agregan que otras acciones que llevaron a cabo y que hoy se califican como infracciones entonces no estaban previstas como tales por los reglamentos en uso, los cuales solo serian modificados despues del accidente.

Entre esas acciones se citan por ejemplo:

Desconeccion del sistema САОР (SAOR, Система авариийного охлаждения реактора, sistema de enfriamiento de emergencia del reactor). Este opera enfriando el reactor en caso de falla por destruccion de sus tuberias.

Operacion del reactor bajo 700 MW. La verdad es que solo despues del accidente el nuevo Reglamento comenzo a exigir el apagado del reactor si se alcanzaba una potencia menor a 700 MW. Entonces, en 1986, no estaban consideradas limitaciones de operacion por el nivel de potencia del reactor.

Bloqueo de la señal de proteccion de emergencia por detencion de los turbogeneradores. Lo exigia el programa de la prueba.

Numero de varillas minimo en la zona activa. Segun el Reglamento de la epoca un numero de varillas inferior a 15 exigia apagar el reactor. Aqui debemos recordar que la OZR era calculada por los sistemas del reactor con retraso significativo por lo que no era un valor al que los operadores pudieran acudir instantaneamente. Adicionalmente, solo 1 minuto antes del accidente la OZR calculada resulto ser de una decena o menor lo que era, sin duda, una violacion del Reglamento. De haberlo sabido el operador debia haber presionado el boton AZ-5, que fue precisamente lo que se realizo 1 minuto despues, aunque no a partir de esta consideracion por lo que las consecuencias hubiesen sido equivalentes.

Bloqueo de las señales de proteccion de emergencia de nivel de agua y de presion de vapor en las bombas separadoras. Fue una violacion del Reglamento pero no tuvo influencia en el accidente.

Operacion de 8 bombas de circulacion principales superando la entrega de agua requerida. Cuando se considero dejar el turbogenerador girando solo a partir de su inercia se determino que para enfriar el reactor se utilizarian 4 bombas de circulacion principales operando con normalidad y otras 4 lo harian a cuenta del giro decreciente del turbogenerador cuya alimentacion de vapor se habia desconectado. Es decir, en caso de que la prueba no diera resultado el reactor se mantendria suficientemente enfriado. Cuando para el experimento se conectaron las 8 bombas el sistema de registro de parametros indico un aumento del consumo de agua en las bombas por separado, sin embargo, estas variaciones en el gasto de agua de las bombas en el interior del reactor luego se normalizaron.

Variacion de la potencia durante el experimento, desde inicios del dia 25 hasta las primeras horas del dia 26. La linea vertical indica el momento de la explosion en el reactor mientras que en rojo se encuentra el nivel de 200 MW, en el cual se realizo el experimento.

Improvisaciones en relacion al programa de trabajo, dado que se realizo la prueba a 200 MW y no en el intervalo 700-1000 MW como lo establecio el programa de la prueba. Sin embargo, el Reglamento de la epoca no establecia una prohibicion para operar a esa potencia y el programa de pruebas consideraba tambien posible una reduccion mayor de la potencia.

El responsable del accidente

En terminos generales, se pueden observar hasta el presente 2 tendencias marcadas, los fisicos e ingenieros, al mismo tiempo que en su epoca las autoridades, han tendido a culpar a los operadores del reactor mientras que los empleados de estaciones nucleares han atribuido la responsabilidad del accidente al diseño del reactor.

Segun el informe presentado por las autoridades sovieticas a fines de agosto de 1986 a la Agencia internacional de energia atomica, en Viena el personal a cargo del bloque numero 4 de la planta de Chernobyl habria cometido 6 groseras violaciones al Reglamento de operacion del reactor, habiendo sido la mas grave el retiro de 204 de un total de 211 varillas de control* del interior del reactor en consideracion de que el Reglamento afirmaba: "Ante una reduccion de la reserva operativa de reactividad a menos de 15 varillas el reactor debe ser apagado cuanto antes". Al mismo tiempo, se habian desconectado premeditadamente casi todas las instancias de proteccion de emergencia mientras que el Reglamento afirmaba: "Bajo cualquier circunstancia se prohibe involucrarse con el trabajo de los mecanismos de bloqueo, de operacion automatica y de proteccion de emergencia salvo que ocurra alguna falla con ellos". A todo lo anterior, el informe agrego "la negligencia en el manejo del reactor", la falta de comprension por el personal "del flujo de procesos tecnicos al interior del reactor" y la perdida de su "sensacion de peligro".
*Las cifras de varillas al interior del reactor antes del accidente no se conocen con precision.

El informe menciono tambien una caracteristica en el diseño del reactor que jugo a favor de una catastrofe aunque su mencion no parece mas que reforzar, con cierta ironia, la acusacion contra los operadores:

"Los diseñadores del reactor no consideraron el desarrollo de sistemas de seguridad capaces de impedir un accidente en caso de que tuviera lugar un conjunto de acciones premeditadas contrarias a las normas de operacion y seguridad del reactor dado que lo consideraban imposible".

En la conclusion del informe se establecio que "La causa original del accidente fue una combinacion extremadamente improbable de infracciones del regimen de operacion y de seguridad del bloque de energia por el personal a cargo".

Sin embargo, en 1991 una segunda comision gubernamental, conformada mayormente por operadores de centrales nucleares, entrego una explicacion completamente distinta, centrandose en defectos de diseño del reactor como las circunstancias que llevaron al accidente, entre ellos, el coeficiente positivo de reactividad del vapor y la presencia de terminaciones de grafito, de hasta 1 metro de longitud, en los extremos de las varillas de control, que introdujo reactividad positiva que no fueron capaces de compensar las escasas varillas de control presente y que provoco un aumento de potencia que escapo de control.

La comision exculpo al personal en turno esa noche, conclusion que seria confirmada por una III comision gubernamental, creada en 1996, y constituida tambien mayormente por operadores de centrales nucleares.

Conjuncion de circunstancias

Sean el diseño o los operadores los responsables el accidente fue consecuencia de una secuencia de hechos, algunos de ellos meras casualidades, que desembocaron en el accidente, como:

Baja OZR. Es decir, escasas varillas de control al interior de la zona activa del reactor, lo que disminuye la capacidad de controlar la reaccion nuclear, mas bien dicho, de las reacciones nucleares porque la distribucion heterogenea del combustible en los reactores RBMK, al interior de depositos TVEL instalados en canales tecnologicos, crea cientos de reactores al interior del reactor. Ademas, el calculo de la OZR se realizaba con retraso y cuando quedo bajo la norma esto tuvo lugar casi justo antes del accidente cuando la unica opcion era presionar el boton AZ-5, que fue lo que si sucedio 1 minuto despues y con independencia del conocimiento de la OZR.

Operacion del reactor a muy baja potencia. Lo que incrementaba de manera relevante la reactividad del vapor, es decir, el efecto positivo en incrementar la potencia a consecuencia de la generacion de vapor de agua, fruto del paso del refrigerante por la zona activa. Seguramente, la experiencia en el trabajo en el reactor hacia que el personal si tuviera consciencia de que el reactor era inestable operando a baja potencia pero no conocia el valor de la reactividad del vapor a esa potencia. Ademas, que el Reglamento tampoco mencionaba esta situacion.

Se agrega tambien que con la puesta en operacion del turbogenerador a cuenta de su mera inercia al inicio del experimento se podria haber bajado el aporte de agua al reactor lo que habria incrementado la formacion de vapor en su interior aportando al aumento de su reactividad. Aqui, sin embargo, no existe uniformidad de opiniones, pues algunos consideran que unos segundos despues se presiono el boton AZ-5, de apagado de emergencia con total calma por parte del operador, y cuando la potencia no crecia aun de manera significativa en el reactor, simplemente porque se daba asi por terminada la prueba mientras que otros consideran que se hizo como una accion desesperada ante el incremento sin control de la potencia en los ultimos segundos de existencia del reactor. Adicionalmente, algunos creen que se presiono cuando ya el reactor se habia destruido y no tenia sentido alguno presionarlo.

Defectos en las varillas SUZ debido a que introducian reactividad positiva al ingresar al reactor. Y el efecto se multiplicaba cuando se introducian las varillas en gran cantidad con el reactor operando a baja potencia, que fue lo que sucedio cuando se presiono el boton AZ-5.

La explosion

Con la potencia del reactor fuera de control y creciendo a un ritmo cada vez mas vertiginoso el aumento de temperatura fundio la cubierta de circonio de los TVEL, los cuales contienen en su interior el combustible nuclear, en un pequeño sector de la zona activa situado en la parte inferior del reactor, a unos 1,5-2,5 metros de la base del reactor. La destruccion de los TVEL en ese sector rompio el circuito de enfriamiento del reactor lo que lanzo varias toneladas de agua a su interior, las que se transformaron de manera casi instantanea en vaporm cuya presion lanzo lanzo por el aire la cubierta de 2800 toneladas del reactor, hasta una altura de 10-14 metros lo que destruyo el techo del edificio del 4to bloque y ademas destruyo el resto de los canales tecnologicos del reactor (abajo en rojo).


Al crater que se formo se precipito una mezcla de vapor, escombros de la construccion, grafito,  combustible nuclear y otros elementos constructivos de la zona activa del reactor al tiempo que la cubierta del reactor giro en el aire y cayo hacia atras, aplastando la parte superior de la zona activa y provocando una emision adicional de sustancias radioactivas hacia la atmosfera.

Moririan 2 personas, el operador de las bombas de circulacion principales, Valeri Xodemchuk (su cuerpo no se encontro, al ser sepultado bajo los escombros de 2 tambores separadores de 130 toneladas) y el empleado de la seccion de puesta en marcha y ajuste del reactor, Vladimir Shashenok, quien fallecio producto de una fractura a la columna e innumerables quemaduras a las 06:00 horas de ese mismo dia en la ciudad de Pripyat. 

En distintos lugares, y ademas en el techo del IV bloque, se produjeron incendios.

Posteriormente, los restos de la zona activa se fundirian y la mezcla de metal fundido, arena, concreto y fragmentos de combustible se derramaria por las instalaciones bajo el reactor lo que hizo temer que ingresara a las aguas del subsuelo por lo que posteriormente se decidiria construir un tunel de enfriamiento bajo el reactor.

Como resultado del accidente se produjo una liberacion de sustancias radioactivas al ambiente, incluyendo isotopos de uranio (vida media de hasta 4,4 mil millones de años) y plutonio (24 mil años) ademas de yodo-131 (8 dias), de cesio-134 (2 años), cesio-137 (17-30 años) y estroncio-90 (28 años).

Versiones alternativas

Las razones del accidente en la planta de Chernobyl son imposibles de entender sin sumergirse en detalles de la fisica de los reactores nucleares y en la tecnologia de operacion de los bloques de energia de una planta electrica a energia nuclear operando con reactores RBMK-1000.

Considerando ademas que los datos iniciales sobre el accidente no estuvieron disponibles para un amplio circulo de especialistas muchos descartan de plano siquiera considerar el analisis de explicaciones alternativas pues son propuestas por especialistas de otras areas del conocimiento que plantean el accidente como resultado de la accion de procesos fisicos completamente distintos a los que se encuentran como base de la operacion de una estacion electrica a energia atomica.

Entrevista con el ingeniero Boris Stolyarchuk


-Yo me encontraba en el panel de control del bloque numero IV al momento del accidente. Al comenzar mi turno sabia que en el bloque se realizaria una prueba pero pensaba que el turno anterior al nuestro ya la habia realizado, sin embargo, la transfirieron a nuestro turno debido a limitaciones de los operadores y por otras razones.

Estas pruebas se realizaban usualmente en la noche porque en la ciudad bajaba el consumo de electricidad y si fallaba algun elemento tendria menos consecuencias. 

Se podia descartar realizar esa prueba? 

Yo solo debia realizar el programa, no estaba en mis manos descartar su realizacion. Pero la prueba era importante y estaba dirigida a determinar si la alimentacion del bloque de energia era posible con la inercia del turbogenerador. La prueba debia realizarse en algun momento. 

Que era lo que debian realizar en el turno?

En mi caso personal, cuando comence a trabajar se estaba reduciendo la potencia en el bloque como estaba previsto por el programa de prueba. Yo me ocupe de revisar el funcionamiento del reactor, que el consumo de refrigerante correspondiera a la potencia presente, que era lo que se hacia regularmente cuando se reducia la potencia del bloque de energia.

Hubo una disputa entre Dyatlov y los operadores en relacion a partir de que potencia era seguro realizar la prueba? Existia alguna tension en particular entre ustedes?

Despues del accidente supe que las personas discutieron porque la potencia se habia llevado casi a cero. Discutian si aumentarla o no, y de hacerlo entonces hasta que nivel. Sin embargo, los operadores del control central (yo mismo) y del lado derecho estabamos ocupados con nuestras propias funciones y no tomamos parte en esta discusion por lo que yo no puedo decir con precision mucho sobre ella pues tenia lugar a mis espaldas.

Donde considera Usted que se cometio un error fatal?

En este momento podria decir, y alguien podria tambien discutirmelo, que el error fatal tuvo lugar en el mismo diseño del reactor RBMK, pues era un proyecto con defectos. 

Es decir, el accidente hubiese tenido lugar de todos modos por las fallas propias del reactor?

Creo que sin las modernizaciones necesarias, si todo hubiese quedado tal como operaba en 1986, hubiese tenido lugar tarde o temprano.

La misma?

Exactamente la misma.

Accidentes en la planta nuclear de Chernobyl habian tenido lugar tambien antes de 1986, aunque no de esa escala. Los recuerda usted o tuvieron lugar de manera no notoria?

En cualquier proyecto de reactor nuclear esta previsto un listado de fallas, desde fallas en los equipos hasta ruptura de tuberias. Y ante ellas se consideran sistemas y metodos para resolverlas que no llevan a la liberacion de grandes cantidades de radioactividad al medio. La situacion que tuvo lugar en la planta IV no estaba considerada por el proyecto porque se llevo a cabo dejando pasar fallas relevantes.

En 1982 tuvo lugar una falla en la central que implico la liberacion de radioactividad. El resto no fueron fallas sino la puesta en operacion de sistemas de emergencia que solo implicaron una menor produccion de electricidad en el bloque energetico involucrado porque eran fallas consideradas por los proyectos y que, ademas, llevaron a una reinstruccion del personal.

Cuando se inicio el experimento era posible impedir o minimizar las consecuencias de lo que paso? 

Por supuesto que se podia detener cuando bajamos la potencia del reactor. Entonces se pudo haber detenido. 

Y no se detuvo por un factor humano?

No, porque la documentacion de operacion del reactor que existia en ese momento solo permitia al operador aumentar la potencia. Nada prohibia dejar de hacerlo.

Muchos dicen que el hecho de llevar el experimento hasta el final era solo una ambicion personal por parte de Anatoli Dyatlov. 

Sin duda que es muy probable pero le reitero que nada nos prohibia seguir con el experimento, ningun documento de operacion del reactor. Pero probablemente podia depender de el seguir y tambien detener el experimento.

Que impresion le dejo el como jefe?

Mi impresion es que era una persona exigente. Yo con el hablaba muy rara vez pero a pesar de parecerme muy exigente me parecia una persona muy competente.

Cuando comenzamos a la medianoche la operacion de disminucion de la potencia del reactor, creo que desde 700 MW, era una accion rutinaria. Solo senti una pequeña incomodidad por el funcionamiento de los reguladores alimentadores de agua, los cuales no operaban muy bien con potencias bajas del reactor. Tuve que empezar a operar manualmente pero todo fue relativamente normal hasta el momento mismo de la falla.

Cuando se dieron cuenta que habia pasado algo, como fue eso?

No quisiera parecer demasiado listo pero cuando sucedio entendi de inmediato, en los primeros segundos o minutos, que habia pasado algo terrible. Cuando mire los dispositivos no creia en lo que veian mis ojos porque entendia que el reactor se habia destruido.

Y que sucedio? Segun testigos, hubo un impacto muy fuerte, como un terremoto.

Hasta donde recuerdo, hubo 2 impactos. El primero fue muy fuerte, incluso pense que era un golpe hidraulico del deaerador, un elemento para limpieza del agua de impurezas gaseosas, que se encuentra precisamente en el control 26. Deareador son, por decirlo asi, unos tambores muy grandes con agua. Y cuando tiene lugar un golpe hidraulico se siente como si el techo se sacudiera.

Y un golpe hidraulico debido a que?

Cuando cae agua fria sobre un deareador recalentado, o al reves. Es como una tetera.

Pero yo cuando decidi realizar las acciones necesarias frente a lo que habia sucedido senti el crujido o el temblor del concreto que soportaba la construccion. No se con que compararlo, era un ruido espantoso, pero se entendia que la estructura del edificio estaba crujiendo. Despues de esto yo mire los dispositivos, vi el funcionamiento de todas las valvulas principales de seguridad, mire el nivel de KMPS, que no aparecia, mire tambien el nivel de las bombas SUZ, que tampoco aparecia, y entendi que habia pasado algo terrible y que el bloque de energia IV estaba destruido.

Los 2 impactos fueron sucesivos o hubo un intervalo entre ellos?

Fueron practicamente sucesivos pero, repito, que esa fue mi impresion. 

Y como se comportaron las personas que se encontraban en el panel junto con usted?

Mas o menos como yo. Miraban los dispositivos, entendieron que habia pasado algo terrible y estaban un tanto pasmados porque no creian que habia pasado algo tan terrible.

Teniamos preparacion para responder ante cualquier falla, segun lo previsto por quienes diseñaron el reactor, y como estaba prevista por el proyecto sabiamos como superarla pero aqui tuvo lugar algo no contemplado por el diseño por lo que la gente, al menos yo, estaba desconcertada. 

Que paso despues, como se desarrollaron los hechos?

Yo continue entregando agua al tambor separador y baje corriendo a la sala de maquinas y vi el cielo, las estrellas pues ya no estaba el techo. Habia un inmenso agujero. Entonces mire hacia abajo y vi las bombas de alimentacion, no recuerdo si habia una bomba de emergencia en funcionamiento. De ellas estaba saliendo agua, habian chispas producto de los cortocircuitos. Fui entonces a la zona de proteccion contra la radiacion, adonde empezaron a llegar despues tambien otras personas. Los niveles de radiacion estaban mas alla de lo que permitian establecer los instrumentos por lo que no podria decir de cuanto eran.

Que paso despues?

Llego el ingeniero senior de control del reactor, tenia vomitos. Tambien llegaron otras personas que estaban en la seccion del reactor para informar lo que habia sucedido. Tambien vomitaban violentamente debido a la fuerte dosis de radiacion recibida. Luego Dyatlov ordeno a todas las personas salir de ese lugar cuando, supongo, que quedo claro que habia un elevado nivel de radiacion, excepto yo y el jefe de turno del bloque IV porque teniamos trabajo por delante. Las bombas estaban todavia funcionando y podian alimentar pero sin que hubiera claridad de que. Estuvimos hasta las 04-05 de la madrugada hasta que llegaron otras personas en nuestro reemplazo.

En el turno eramos 3 personas mas el jefe de turno del bloque IV ademas de 2 jefes de turno del reactor y de turbinas. En el momento del accidente habia mas personas, unas 10-12 porque habian personas del turno anterior interesadas en observar como se realizaba la prueba. Despues del accidente solo quede yo y el jefe de turno del bloque IV, Akimov. 

Entendiamos lo que sucedia pero nos quedamos cumpliendo nuestras obligaciones.

No les parecia terrible quedarse alli?

Sentiamos mas que nada contradicciones. Yo tenia consciencia de donde me encontraba y de los riesgos que corria, pero no tenia claridad de que dosis de radiacion podia recibir. Solo lo comence a entender cuando llegaron personas del departamento de seguridad de radiacion diciendo que el nivel de radiacion superaba los maximos de los dosimetros de que disponian. Los vomitos aparecerian despues, solo despues.

Pero cuando vio las estrellas no entendio que pasaba?

Yo, claro, que entendi de inmediato que habia tenido lugar un accidente pero no pense para nada en los riesgos por exposicion a la radiacion.

Ustedes entonces se quedaron en el turno hasta que llego el siguiente a reemplazarlos? En el juicio se acuso al jefe de la planta de que no advirtio de los riesgos por radiacion a los integrantes del nuevo turno.

Me resulta dificil hablar al respecto. Desde mi parecer, solo puedo decir que me alegre que llegara mi reemplazante en el turno.

Pero y Usted que le dijo?

No habia nada que decirle porque cuando llego ya habia visto todo al amanecer, toda la escala del accidente. 

Y el que le dijo a Usted? 

Yo le dije que no habia nada de agua en la zona activa del reactor, que estaba todo paralizado. Sin embargo, como las bombas aun funcionaban y enviaban agua a alguna parte habia que encargarse de eso. 

Donde debian entregar agua?

Al tambor separador y luego a la zona activa del reactor. Adonde se enviaba no podria decirlo pero la bomba estaba funcionando y el consumo que mostraba era nulo. Habia una ruptura, se habia roto la canalizacion y el agua era descargada en alguna parte. Pero mientras hubiera agua y la bomba funcionase yo, siguiendo mis instrucciones, debia entregar esa agua a la zona activa. 

Cuando entrego su turno le llego alguna orden de su jefe, alguna disposicion especial?

No, no habia ninguna orden. Yo regrese sin problemas hasta la ciudad de Pripyat, hasta mi apartamento. Bueno, cuando sali vi con mis propios ojos desde fuera lo que habia sucedido. De nuevo no creia en lo que veia. En Pripyat la gente paseaba en la calle. Con mi otro colega de turno bebimos un poco de cerveza y cada uno partio a su casa.

Su hija habia dado ya a luz?

No, aun no. Entonces, era soltero.

Cuanto tiempo despues de la explosion se comenzo a sentir mal?

Sentia nauseas, pero no tenia vomitos. Sentia calor en el cuerpo, se me enrojecieron los ojos y me lagrimeaban, me sentia incomodo. Pero, de todos modos, me estaba preparando para ir al siguiente turno cuando entonces me golpearon la puerta. Abri y una persona que se presento c
          

El accidente de Chernoby, III parte

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Despues de Chernobyl

El desarrollo de la energia nuclear como fuente de produccion de energia electrica recibio su primer golpe tras el accidente de 1979 en Three Mile Island, Estados Unidos pues provoco que la construccion de nuevas plantas nucleares cayera desde una media de 24 nuevos reactores anuales, en la decada previa al accidente, a solo 10 en la decada posterior.

El accidente llevo, ademas, a modificaciones en los diseños de nuevos reactores y tambien a que se incrementaran sus especificaciones de seguridad. Estos cambios se aplicaron tambien a reactores en construccion lo que genero inevitables retrasos en su construccion y aumentos tambien en sus costos.

Reactores nucleares que iniciaron su construccion en el mundo en cada año, entre 1955-2014

Sin embargo, las consecuencias del accidente en Chernobyl fueron mucho mas serias y de largo plazo para la industria pues socavo la confianza del mundo hacia la energia nuclear lo que llevo a muchos  paises a interrumpir ya sea planes de desarrollo futuro para instalar energia nuclear o la continuidad en la operacion de programas nucleares. Por ello, entre 1986 y 2002 no se construyo ninguna planta electrica a energia nuclear en los paises de America del Norte y de Europa occidental y no solo por la presion de la opinion publica sino tambien debido a que subieron de manera significativa los costos de los seguros y disminuyo la rentabilidad de la energia nuclear.

En la URSS, en tanto, se congelo la construccion de decenas de nuevos bloques de energia en las plantas electricas a energia nuclear en diferentes provincias y republicas.

El accidente de Chernobyl, ademas, se produjo en un momento mas que inoportuno para el mercado de la energia nuclear y las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero pues en los siguientes 25 años despues del accidente la demanda por electricidad se duplico a nivel global al tiempo que declino la construccion de centrales nucleares. Producto de lo anterior, la participacion de la energia nuclear en la produccion de energia electrica a nivel global paso de 18% en 1996 a solo 11% en 2014.

El grafico superior permite ver en trazado continuo azul la generacion de electricidad a partir de energia nuclear en el mundo en tanto que en rojo se observa el % que la energia nuclear representa dentro de las distintas fuentes de generacion de electricidad. Se puede observa que la produccion de energia electrica a partir de energia nuclear se estabiliza en el siglo XXI y cae despues del accidente de Fukushima. En tanto, su % a nivel global, dentro del total de las fuentes que producen electricidad, cae sostenidamente en el siglo XXI.

Energia nuclear hoy

Actualmente, existen en el mundo 444 reactores nucleares* en actividad en 31 paises, los cuales producen un porcentaje cada vez menor de la electricidad a nivel mundial, hoy de 11%**. En contraste, cerca del 80% de la produccion global de electricidad corre a cuenta de energias fosiles, como el gas, el petroleo o el carbon.
*La mayoria de los reactores actuales fueron construidos en las decadas de 1970 y 1980 lo que les da una edad promedio en torno a 30 años. Los reactores mas viejos se encuentran en los Estados Unidos, con una edad media entre 35-40 años. En tanto, en la Union Europea y las ex naciones sovieticas su edad alcanza una media en torno a 30 años.
**El 10,55% que aporta la energia nuclear la deja en segundo lugar tras la hidroelectricidad (16%) como fuente de energia que no utiliza combustibles fosiles para producir electricidad.


Hoy la capacidad de generacion de energia a partir de centrales nucleares es de 345 GW. Como pueden apreciar en el grafico superior el peak de generacion se alcanzo en 2005, con 378 GW, capacidad que ha ido mermando debido a los reactores que han ido saliendo del mercado despues del accidente de Fukushima, como es el caso de Alemania que cerro 8 reactores en 2011.

Dentro de la jibarizada industria nuclear hay un continente que ha ido recorriendo una direccion distinta: Asia, continente que se encuentra hoy liderando la industria nuclear a nivel global habiendo agregado 51 nuevos reactores entre 1996 y 2016, periodo en el cual el resto del mundo ha construido solo 30 de ellos. China, en particular, tiene los reactores mas nuevos en el mundo, con una edad promedio inferior a los 8 años.

Si miramos al resto del mundo podemos ver que Africa cuenta con solo una central nuclear en operacion para produccion de energia electrica, en Koeburg, Sudafrica. Sudamerica, en tanto, cuenta con 2, una en Argentina y otra en Brasil.

El grafico permite apreciar la generacion de GW a partir de energia nuclear entre 1955-2014 para distintas naciones. El predominio global lo mantienen los Estados Unidos y Francia mientras que Japon ha caido drasticamente. En tanto, distintos paises asiaticos, como China, Corea del Sur y Rusia (euro-asiatico), han ido subiendo significativamente su produccion de energia electrica.

En los 31 paises que utilizan energia nuclear esta constituye una parte significativa de su generacion de energia electrica. El primer lugar lo tiene Francia, con 72%, seguido de Ucrania, con 55%, Suecia, con 40% y Corea del Sur, con 27%, tras los cuales hay una serie de paises con cerca de un 20%: Estados Unidos, Reino Unido, Rusia.

En terminos de kW/hora anuales el primer lugar de la produccion global lo tiene Estados Unidos, con 804 mil millones, seguido por Francia, con 379 mil millones, China, con 210 mil millones y Rusia con 203 mil millones.

Futuro de la energia nuclear


Por mas de 30 años en paises desarrollados como los Estados Unidos, Canada, en paises miembros de la Union Europa o en Japon la energia atomica fue o ha seguido siendo la principal fuente de produccion de energia electrica sin relacion con hidrocarburos. Ademas, en algunos paises juega un rol fundamental en su seguridad energetica. Sin embargo, el futuro de esta energia es indefinido debido a cuestiones politicas, factores economicos y a la posicion de los reguladores en paises desarrollados, donde se comienzan a cerrar viejas AES.

En total en el mundo se encuentra en construccion 56 nuevos reactores y hasta 2030 se planean construir otros 153 lo que, a proposito, llevara a un aumento en la demanda por uranio natural hasta las 98 mil toneladas para 2030.

En el mercado del uranio casi un 90% de la produccion proviene de paises que practicamente no lo utilizan mientras que casi un 90% de la demanda es de paises que practicamente no lo producen. 
En 2017 casi 3/4 de su produccion era responsabilidad de 3 paises: Kazaxstan (39%), Canada (22%) y Australia (10%). En terminos de demanda esta proviene en los ultimos años principalmente de paises aisaticos.

Actualmente, operan 142 centrales nucleares en 30 paises y a pesar de su uso decreciente hay naciones que estan hoy apostando por su uso en el futuro.

Asi, en Bangladesh, donde no existe produccion de electricidad a partir de energia nuclear, su Ministro de ciencia y tecnologia, Yafesh Osman afirmo a fines de 2018 en una cumbre en Moscu que: "Bangladesh padece de manera relevante las consecuencias del cambio climatico por lo cual nosotros entendemos la importancia de utilizar ese modo de generar energia electrica que no provocara daños colaterales. Ademas de eso, el costo de la energia atomica es bajo".

Otro ejemplo destacable es el de Arabia Saudita, el mayor productor y consumidor de energia electrica entre los paises del Golfo persico, de la cual un 41% se produce a partir de petroleo y un 59% de gas, y que espera hacia 2040 producir un 15% de sus necesidades de energia electrica con energia nuclear. De todos modos, sus aspiraciones para diversificar su matriz parecen mas enfocadas a contrapesar a su archirrival en Medio Oriente: Iran, con el proposito de estar en condiciones de desarrollar armas nucleares en caso de que Iran diera ese primer paso. Y, de hecho, los saudies ya estan poniendo en operacion su primer reactor nuclear de investigacion.


En tanto, Hungria produce en la actualidad casi la mitad de su energia electrica a partir de energia nuclear a cuenta de su unica central nuclear, Paksh*(imagen superior), y esperan aumentar esa cuota hasta un 90% en 2030 luego de que se complete la construccion y puesta en operacion de 2 nuevos reactores.
*Puesta en operacion el 28 de diciembre de 1982. Cuenta con una potencia electrica de 1940 MW a partir de la operacion de 4 bloques energeticos. En diciembre de 2014 se firmaron los documentos para la construccion de un 5to y 6to bloques energeticos.


En paises como Rusia, China, India, Republica de Corea, Estados Unidos, Canada y Finlandia se elaboran y desarrollan programas para el desarrollo intensivo de energia nuclear. Para 2020, en la India se habran construido entre 20 y 30 nuevos bloques de energia, mientras que en China se considera incrementar la potencia total hasta 50 GW.

En Rusia existen 31 centrales nucleares para produccion de electricidad, lo que implica un 16% en el aporte a la produccion global de energia del pais mientras que para 2020 se espera subir ese porcentaje a 25-30%.

Sin embargo, en muchos paises aparecen perspectivas mas que confusas frente a la energia atomica debido a que en los paises desarrollados se puede producir una brusca disminucion en el numero de sus AES. Segun los partidarios de la energia atomica, ese hecho llevara a un aumento de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero* en miles de millones de toneladas. 
*Aumento de temperatura en las capas mas bajas de la atmosfera debido a la presencia sobretodo de vapor de agua, metano y CO2 en capas superiores de la misma, lo que permite la conservacion de calor sobre la superficie terrestre. Debemos tener presente que si no existiera la atmosfera la temperatura sobre la superficie terrestre seria de -18°C. 

Si se consideran las cifras a nivel global se puede observar que si no se toman nuevas decisiones politicas hacia 2025 las economias desarrolladas podrian perder 1/4 de su capacidad instalada en energia atomica y 2/3 para 2040.

Cantidad de reactores en operacion en el mundo hasta 2016 (en purpura) y luego proyeccion de los mismos. Estan marcados 3 accidentes de centrales nucleares para generacion de electricidad, el de 1979 en Three Mile Island, en Estados Unidos, el de Chernobyl en 1996 y el de Fukushima, en 2011. Puede verse que el primero de ellos no afecto mayormente la industria nuclear pero si lo hizo el de Chernobyl que estanco la puesta en operacion de nuevos reactores, hecho que solo se ha acentuado con los años.

Para los especialistas que apoyan el uso de la energia nuclear el punto clave en relacion a su uso en el futuro tiene que ver, en primer lugar, con el incremento de la poblacion humana, luego con los requirimientos per capita de energia de los seres humanos, pues se presentara una demanda creciente de energia y, finalmente, con las reservas de energia existentes en nuestro planeta.

Los partidarios de la energia nuclear afirman que ante la expectativas de agotamiento del petroleo en 50 años, del gas en 100 años y del carbon, dentro de 5 siglos, deberian abocarse todos los esfuerzos a generar reactores capaces de operar con U-238, el isotopo mas abundante de este mineral (cuyas existencias serian suficientes para varios cientos de miles de años) dado que las reservas de U-235, mineral que constituye apenas un 0,72% del uranio existente en la naturaleza se extinguiran en 100 años mas.

Aumento de poblacion a tasas crecientes

Entre 2000-2018 la poblacion crecio en un 20% en casi todos los continentes salvo en Europa donde practicamente se estanco y en Africa, donde crecio en un 50%

Si observamos la evolucion de poblacion en la Tierra, podemos ver que para alcanzar los primeros mil millones de habitantes tuvimos que recorrer practicamente toda la historia humana, pues se requirio el periodo que va desde la prehistoria hasta 1800. Sin embargo, para alcanzar los siguientes mil millones se requirio cada vez menos tiempo. Asi, los 2 mil millones se alcanzaron dentro de 130 años, los 3 mil millones tras 30 años y en la actualidad agregar un nuevo 1 mil millon de personas requiere apenas 13 años. A pesar de este ritmo exhorbitante de aumento de poblacion, desde 1990 su velocidad de aumento comenzo a reducirse estimandose que se estabilice en 12 mil millones hacia 2150.

El grafico superior permite apreciar que en America, Australia y Europa el crecimiento poblacional se encuentra detenido mientras que en Asia esta creciendo a tasas cada vez mas bajas, esperandose que a mediados de siglo se detenga o incluso disminuya. Un caso totalmente distinto es el de Africa, donde la poblacion crece sin control debido a sus creencias religiosas y ancestrales que relegan a la mujer a un rol de procreadora y donde los Estados no tienen gran representatividad e influencia entre los clanes que habitan los territorios que deberian mantener bajo su administracion, por lo que las perspectivas son de que Africa represente el 50% de la poblacion mundial hacia fines de siglo.

Si para entonces cada ser humano requerira en promedio 4 kW diario de energia (hoy esa cifra es de 2 kW) entonces la produccion de energia en la Tierra deberia aumentar a 5*10 elevado a 4 GW (siendo hoy de 1,76). La pregunta es, obviamente una sola: De donde se obtendra toda esa energia adicional requerida?

Los partidarios de la energia nuclear consideran como la opcion mas adecuada este tipo de energia, a partir de las siguientes ventajas:

1. El gran volumen energetico del combustible utilizado, pues 1 kg de uranio, enriquecido a un 4%, si se consume por completo, genera energia equivalente a la combustion de 100 toneladas de carbon de piedra de alta calidad o de 60 toneladas de petroleo.

2. Posibilidad de volver a utilizar el combustible (despues de su regeneracion), a diferencia de las cenizas y escorias de otros tipos de combustible.

3. La energia nuclear no favorece el efecto invernadero.

Anualmente las centrales nucleares en Europa permiten evitar la emision de 700 millones de toneladas de CO2. En tanto, las centrales en operacion en Rusia evitan la emision a la atmosfera de 210 millones de toneladas de CO2. De ese modo, el desarrollo intenso de la energia nuclear se puede considerar indirectamente como uno de los metodos para evitar el calentamiento global.

De hecho el uso industrial de la energia nuclear impide arrojar a la atmosfera 2 Gigatoneladas de CO2 al año, lo que equivale a las emisiones anuales de 400 millones de automoviles por lo que podria constituirse en un elemento central de los acuerdos de la Cumbre climatica de Paris* que pretenden llevar la produccion energetica mundial a una matriz que no utilice carbon. 
*Cumbre de las Naciones Unidas realizada en Paris, en 2015 en que se acordo reducir el calentamiento global a un maximo de +1,5°C a 2050 y contar con una emision nula de gases que generan efecto invernadero hacia la misma fecha.

4. Por otra parte, la energia atomica no tiene las deficiencias de las llamadas fuentes alternativas de energia. Asi, los gastos para la produccion de baterias solares superan todos los ingresos que se obtienen con la energia que generan. En tanto, los molinos de viento tienen poca potencia, un alto costo y restricciones ecologicas. Su instalacion modifica significativamente el paisaje mientras que el infrasonido que provocan es peligroso para las personas y los animales, por lo que no deben ser ubicados cerca de lugares poblados.

Sin embargo, sus adherentes tambien estan conscientes de otras desventajas con que cuenta hoy este tipo de generacion de energia, como son:

1. A pesar de ser muy poco probable, aun existe la posibilidad de accidentes serios en la operacion de los reactores, situaciones que tienen un alto costo en dinero, ambiental y tambien humano.

2. La operacion de un reactor permite el consumo de a lo sumo un 10% del combustible nuclear. Para poder usarlo por completo es necesario limpiarlo de productos de fision y preparar a partir de el nuevo combustible, tecnologia que aun no se crea y que tiene sin tratar unas 300 mil toneladas de combustible.

Un reactor con una capacidad de generacion de 1 GW anual genera 1 tonelada de productos de fision en ese mismo periodo, siendo unos 10 kg deshechos que mantienen un elevado nivel de radioactividad por cientos, miles o incluso millones de años. De hecho, tras 60 años de industria atomica se han acumulado mas de 300 toneladas de este tipo de deshechos.

3. El costo de construccion de una planta nuclear es muy elevado. Asi, la construccion de un reactor nuclear para producir energia electrica significa un desembolso de 5-15 mil millones de dolares por cada reactor de una potencia de 1200-1300 MW. Debemos considerar que una planta de generacion electrica ocupa 2-3 de ellos.

Pero sea o no la energia nuclear la alternativa a elegir, el ser humano tendra por delante un inmenso desafio en terminos de produccion de energia en los proximos decenios pues se estima que en el curso de los proximos 50 años la demanda de energia de la Humanidad sera equivalente a la utilizada en toda la historia humana precedente.

Al mismo tiempo, los pronosticos realizados con anterioridad en relacion al aumento del consumo de energia han quedado siempre cortos pues los niveles de consumo han superado las expectativas.

Actualmente, se espera que para 2030 el consumo global de energia se incremente en 1/3 en relacion a su valor para 2016, esperandose su mayor aumento en el continente asiatico donde deberia aumentar 1,5 veces.

Al mismo tiempo, tampoco han sido acertadas las previsiones de desarrollo de nuevas tecnologias de produccion de energia, escenario que ademas se encuentra con materias primas en disminucion y las consecuencias del uso de fuente tradicionales de energia. Asi, las emisiones de CO2 a la atmosfera producto de la combustion de petroleo y del carbon utilizado en plantas termicas alcanza 32 mil millones de toneladas anuales, valor que deberia alcanzar los 34 mil millones en 2030.

En esos terminos, el aporte de la energia nuclear impide que por medio de hidrocarburos se arrojen otros 2 mil millones de toneladas de CO2 a la atmosfera.

Energia nuclear en la UE

Despues del fin de la II Guerra Mundial y para resolver el tema del deficit de combustible y la explosiva industrializacion del continente entero los primeros 6 Estados fundadores de la ECSC*  decidieron enfocarse en la energia nuclear para alcanzar su independencia energetica. 
*European Coal and Steel Communitiy, Comunidad europea del carbon y el acero, de la cual emergeria mas tarde la UE.

En 1955 los ministros de relaciones exteriores de esos paises se reunieron en Messina, Italia para reflexionar sobre lo que se haria en Europa. Uno de las ideas principales era crear una comunidad europea de energia atomica que permitiria el desarrollo de energia atomica para producir energia para ayudar al desarrollo economico de Europa. En la epoca se decia que una Comunidad europea no podria desarrollarse sin contar con energia abundante y barata, algo que hoy sigue siendo valido.

Esa idea se concreto el 25 de marzo de 1957 cuando esas 6 naciones fundaron la Euratom (European Atomic Energy Community) para contribuir a la investigacion y desarrollo de plantas para la produccion de energia nuclear con fines pacificos, la cual ha ampliado sus Estados miembros de modo que hoy corresponden a los mismos 28 paises que integran la Union Europea.

Tras Fukushima

Despues del accidente de Fukuhima se revisaron los 132 reactores nucleares entonces en operacion en la UE de modo de establecer patrones de seguridad comunes. Los costos por las medidas de seguridad adicionales adoptadas alcanzaron en 2012 entre 30-200 millones de euros por reactor.

Pero el accidente tambien puso en cuestion en Europa el uso de la energia nuclear. Quienes han tomado mas en serio esto han sido Alemania y Suiza. Este ultimo pais deshecho sus planes para reemplazar sus viejas centrales nucleares de modo que la ultima en operar dejara de hacerlo en 2034.

De todos modos, la UE necesitara tener al menos un 25% de su electricidad producida por energia nuclear hasta 2050 para satisfacer sus requerimientos de emisiones de CO2. Los requisitos establecidos por la UE implican que en comparacion con los niveles de 1990 las emisiones deberan reducirse en un 40% hasta alcanzar 95% o cero en 2050. Una parte sustancial del plan es detener la quema de carbon, el combustible fosil que emite mas CO2, y que sigue siendo utilizado intensamente en paises como Alemania y Polonia. 

Debemos recordar que la energia nuclear no es un combustible fosil por lo que sus emisiones en terminos de CO2 son escasas, sin embargo, han sido las consideraciones de seguridad las que han condenado a la energia nuclear a su paulatina eliminacion. La decision de Angela Merkel para ir eliminado los reactores nucleares en su pais tras el desastre de Fukushima, en 2011 han provocado alli un aumento en el uso de carbon y, por consiguiente, de sus emisiones, a pesar del uso activo de energias renovables. Por eso si Europa realmente desea retirar al carbon de su matriz de produccion energetica debera mantener en torno a un 25% de su produccion de electricidad en manos de la energia nuclear.

El presente

60 años despues de la fundacion de la ECSC y Euratom es claro que el proposito de la independencia energetica de Europa no fue alcanzado ni por la energia nuclear ni por ninguna otra fuente de energia. Por el contrario, la UE se ha transformado en el mayor importador de energia en el mundo, gastando 400 mil millones de euros al año para adquirir un 53% de la energia que consume.

En el caso de la electricidad, en 2015 la energia nuclear, el carbon y las energias renovables aportaban cada uno con un 27% de la demanda de Europa mientras que el gas y el petroleo contribuian con un 17% y un 2%, respectivamente. Ademas, debe tenerse en consideracion que mas de la mitad de la energia renovable provenia de turbinas hidroelectricas mas que de energia solar o energia eolica.

En 2018 mas de un 25% de la produccion de energia de la UE seguia dependiendo de la energia nuclear a partir de 128 reactores operacionales instalados en 14 de los 28 paises de la Union, con 58 de ellos en Francia, el mayor aportante. Ademas, otras 56 centrales nucleares operaban en paises que no son miembros de la UE (Rusia, Ucrania y Suiza) los que proveian cerca de un 17% de los requerimientos de electricidad de la UE.

Europa estara lejos aun de su meta para el 2030 cuando la electricidad originada por fuentes renovables deberia alcanzar entre un 46-50% y llegaria a un 27% del total de consumo de energia. Ademas, en 2030 todos los paises de Europa necesitaran tener infraestructura adecuada para que puedan, si se requiere, exportar a otros paises europeos, no menos de un 15% de la electricidad producida en su territorio.

Con el Brexit por delante el Reino Unido sacara sus 15 centrales nucleares y un 7% de su poder nuclear en Europa fuera de la UE. Permanecera, sin embargo, Suecia, que produce lo mismo que el Reino Unido, y Alemania, que aporta con el 9%, pero que va en camino de dejar la energia nuclear a fines de 2022.

En el caso de Francia, Emmanuel Macron afirmo en su campaña presidencial que confirmaba los compromisos planteados por su predecesor, Francois Hollande*, de reducir el porcentaje de electricidad producida por energia nuclear de 75% a 50% en 2025, algo tecnicamente imposible pero que podria tener costos politicos por parte de sus adherentes ambientalistas.
*Presidente de Francia entre mayo de 2012 y mayo de 2017 tras su triunfo en segunda vuelta frente al Presidente saliente, Nicolas Sarkozy. Se constituyo en el segundo presidente socialista frances despues de Francois Miterrand. 

En tanto Italia, la unica nacion del G7* sin instalaciones nucleares, es el mayor importador de electricidad del mundo, al importar un 15% de sus requerimientos de electricidad que en su mayoria viene de centrales nucleares francesas, en tanto que un 10% de la electricidad que consume proviene de fuentes nucleares, pero no situadas en su territorio.
*Reunion anual, a partir de 1975, de las naciones mas desarrolladas del planeta y que comprende a Alemania, Canada, Estados Unidos, Francia, Italia, Japon, Reino Unido. Entre 1991-2002 incluyo tambien a la Federacion rusa pero tras la anexion de Crimea el G-8 volvio a transformarse en G-7.

Si Francia cierra instalaciones nucleares Italia tendria muchos problemas para reutilizar vieja infraestructura nuclear, pues todavia esta pagando dinero para su desmantelamiento y para manejar el combustible nuclear derivado de ella. Asi, la central de Caorso*, que opero apenas 3 años, deberia significarle un costo total de 450 millones de euros a lo cual deberian sumarse otros 300 millones para reprocesar el combustible nuclear de la central. Ademas, debe considerarse la diaspora de sus especialistas a otros paises luego de que optara por abandonar la energia nuclear.
*Central nuclear de Garigliano, situada en la localidad de Caorso en el norte de Italia. Se puso en operacion en 1978 y fue cerrada temporalmente en 1986, tras el accidente de Chernobyl, aunque usaba otro tipo de reactor, mucho mas estable que el de la Ucrania sovietica. Tras un referendum realizado el 8 de noviembre de 1987 y provocado por el accidente de Chernobyl la central fue cerrada en 1990, lo que puso punto final a la operacion de AES en Italia. Posteriormente, en 2011 el gobierno italiano llego a un acuerdo con la compañia franco-germana Areva para entregarle 190 toneladas de combustible nuclear de la AES ya clausurada para su tratamiento en Francia. 

El cambio energetico en Alemania

El apoyo de Alemania a la energia nuclear fue muy fuerte en la decada de los ´70 debido al shock de los precios del petroleo de 1974 lo que creo una sensacion de vulnerabilidad frente a la energia. Pero, por una parte, el accidente de Chernobyl en 1986 y por otra, un gobierno de coalicion entre social-democratas y los verdes en 1998* cambiaron la posicion del pais en relacion a la energia nuclear.
*Despues de la reunificacion de Alemania en 1990 la coalicion de centro-derecha en el gobierno no fue capaz de encabezar un proceso de reintegracion completamente exitoso, sobretodo en terminos de empleo, pues la cesantia alcanzaba en 1998 casi un 10% en la ex Alemania federal y un 20% en la ex Alemania oriental, por lo que ese año Helmut Kohl le entrego el poder al Partido social-democrata, aliado con los Verdes, en una coalicion encabezada por Gerhard Schroder.

Si bien en 2009 una nueva coalicion entre la Democracia cristiana alemana y los Liberal-democratas busco modificar la politica de rechazo hacia la energia nuclear el accidente de 2011, en Fukushima dio por el suelo con las intenciones de esa coalicion. Entonces, Alemania obtenia 1/4 de su generacion electrica gracias a la operaciones de 17 reactores nucleares.

Asi, en los meses siguientes al accidente el gobierno ordeno el cierre de 8 reactores de inmediato y determino el cierre de los restantes 9 para fines de 2022, como parte de un plan para satisfacer un 35% de sus necesidades energeticas por medio de energias renovables (energia solar y eolica) llamado Energiewende (Cambio energetico). Sin embargo, los cambios han elevado los precios de la electricidad en el pais, el cual paga una de las energias electricas domiciliarias mas caras de Europa (por los impuestos y sobrecargos asociados a su politica de cambio energetico que representan mas del 50 % del precio) , eso a pesar de las declaraciones del anterior Ministerio de Medioambiente Jurgen Tritten, del Partido verde, quien afirmo que los cambios hacia energia renovable costarian  a los consumidores "no mas que lo que vale un copo de helado".

En el punto de partida de una carrera por la revolucion energetica, el conductor de la locomotora a carbon le dice al conductor del pequeño vehiculo blanco que tiene escrito a un costado "Energia renovable": -Con ahorro de energia es trampa!

El plan aleman implica que en 2025 entre 40-45% de su energia electrica sera producida por energias renovables, subiendo esa cifra a 55-60% en 2035 y al menos a 80% en 2050. Ademas, se requerira un aumento de la eficiencia energetica de modo que, en comparacion con 2008, el consumo de energia electrica baje 10% en 2020 y 25% en 2050. Sin embargo, en 2015 ese descenso era de solo 3%.

En 2014 el pais habia alcanzado un 27,7% de reduccion de emisiones de CO2 en relacion a sus valores de 1990 pero desde entonces sus emisiones se han incrementado y el proposito de reducirlas en un 40% para 2020 (y de 80-95% para 2050) parece imposible.

La evolucion de los precios producto de los subsidios a la energia renovable llevara a que las cuentas de luz residencial en Alemania alcancen pronto 90 euros mensuales, el doble de lo que se pagaba en 2000, donde 2/3 del incremento de precio es por sobrecargos e impuestos.En tanto, a pesar de estas alzas de precios, las pensiones de gobierno y los pagos de la seguridad social no han sido reajustados por lo que cada nueva alza de tarifas se transforma en una amenaza para los consumidores de bajo ingresos*.
*En 2013 300 mil consumidores en Alemania vieron sus servicios de electricidad interrumpidos por las autoridades debido a sus cuentas impagas.

Entrevista con el ecologista Michael Shellenberger, defensor de la energia nuclear como solucion al cambio climatico.


Que lo ha llevado a criticar a los ambientalistas y a defender las innovaciones tecnologicas desde la decada de 2000?

Cuando joven era un hombre de izquierda que partio a Nicaragua a aprender español durante la Revolucion sandinista* porque me sentida atraido por este movimiento. Al mismo tiempo, estaba muy preocupado por el medio ambiente y la naturaleza porque mis padres me llevaban a menudo a acampar. Ellos eran muy progresistas. Pero yo nunca he sido malthusiano. En mi relacion con las personas pobres, primero en Nicaragua y luego en Brasil, siempre he pensado que aquellos que temen una explosion demografica estan en una condicion mental pequeño-burguesa y racista. Yo, ademas, era vegetariano pero he comenzado a comer carne despues del nacimiento de mi hijo. Estaba a favor de las soluciones tecnologicas para los problemas del medioambiente y esa es una diferencia significativa con la mayoria de los ecologistas que no estan tanto a favor de las soluciones tecnologicas sino de una disminucion de nuestro nivel de vida a partir de un menor consumo de energia. Muchos de ellos consideran a la especie humana como un cancer sobre la Tierra, algo en lo que disiento. Por otra parte, no sabia nada sobre tecnologias energeticas y, como militante democratico y de izquierda, pensaba que las energias renovables serian la solucion porque toda la gente en mi trinchera politica asi lo pensaba. Sin embargo, cuando tome consciencia de  que la energia nuclear no era aquello que se decia todo se volvio mas claro. 
*Circunstancia politica que tuvo lugar a partir de 1979, y que se extendio hasta 1990, en Nicaragua a partir del derrocamiento del Presidente Anastasio Somoza. Su lider mas reconocido fue Daniel Ortega mientras que la principal agrupacion vinculada con el cambio de gobierno fue el llamado Frente sandinista de liberacion nacional, nombrado en honor del revolucionario nicaraguense de inicios del siglo XX, Augusto Sandino. 

La energia nuclear representa una fuente de energia infinita, abundante. Es la energia mas limpia y segura, segun todos los criterios! Al pensar asi claro que iba a ser condenado al ostracismo por la comunidad ecologica a causa de mis criticas a su discurso apocaliptico. Pero ponerme del lado de la energia nuclear no eran tan complicado como ganarme la vida sin aceptar dinero de la industria. Yo amo ser libre para decir lo que pienso. 

Entonces, usted no ha recibido dinero de la industria nuclear?

Para nada! Las personas que han leido lo que he escrito durante estos ultimos años conocen la manera en que critico a la industria nuclear. Lamento su arrogancia, que los lleva a tomar decisiones condenadas al fracaso. 

Por ejemplo?

La industria esta proponiendo soluciones extremadamente costosas a los problemas existentes. Las centrales antiguas como la de Fessenheim funcionan muy bien ya por 3 generaciones pero los empresarios nos quieren hacer creer que los problemas de seguridad se pueden resolver con nuevos tipos de bombas de agua o moviendo algun tanque de agua. Eso es ridiculo pues se sabe que los accidentes nucleares provienen siempre de errores humanos. Los cambios de planes y de modelos de las centrales las hacen mas caras de construir y mas de caras de operar. Si bien la estandarizacion permitiria bajar los costos y aumentar la seguridad se hace exactamente lo contrario. Es un poco como Boeing, con su modelo 737 MAX*.
*4ta generacion de aviones Boeing 737 que se construyo para reemplazar los Boeing 737 Next Generation a partir, sobretodo, del uso de motores mas grandes y mas potentes. Comenzo a fabricarse desde 2014 realizando su primer vuelo en 2016 y poniendose en operacion comercial desde el 22 de mayo de 2017. Si bien ha sido el modelo con mas ventas en la historia de la compañia Boeing ha sufrido 4 accidentes entre 2018 y 2019, 2 de los cuales significaron la muerte de personas, ademas de la totalidad de tripulantes y pasajeros.

Central nuclear de Fessenheim, ubicada en noreste de Francia. Comenzo a operar en 1977 contando con 2 reactores. Es la AES mas antigua en operacion en el pais. El Presidente Francois Hollande prometio en su campaña electoral cerrarla en 2016, lo que no se concreto mientras que el Presidente Macron afirmo en 2018 que seria cerrada en 2020.

Pero eso no explica la amplitud del desencanto hacia la energia nuclear...

La energia nuclear es revolucionaria en 3 sentidos: En primer lugar, en la medicina, luego en el area de la defensa y tercero en la energia. Este es un avance historico tan relevante que los humanos se nutriran de energia nuclear probablemente por miles de años. Es una pena que el principal impacto de este tecnologia revolucionaria haya sido tan traumatico en la sociedad con excepcion del area de la medicina. Se usa la radiacion para explorar el cuerpo humano y para ayudar a tratar el cancer y todo el mundo esta de acuerdo en afirmar que este es un avance formidable.

Por otra parte, las armas nucleares han traumatizado varias generaciones con esa imagen de apocalipsis y destruccion. Y esos traumas se han trasladado al sector de la energia y estamos viendo las centrales nucleares como pequeñas bombas y los incidentes nucleares como pequeñas explosiones y estamos viendo los deshechos como un arma... Toda esta tecnologia esta envuelta con esta idea de la muerte. Y lo mismo pasa con las personas que trabajan en el sector nuclear, tambien son complices de esta histeria antinuclear al decir esencialmente que "Si, se trata de una tecnologia extremadamente peligrosa pero nosotros, que somos ingenieros heroicos, los protegeremos de ella". En primer lugar, eso es falso porque no se puede proteger totalmente a la gente de la energia nuclear como de tantas otras cosas. Ademas, el uso pacifico de la energia nuclear ha provocado menos daño que otras fuentes de energia.

Segun un estudio de la Agencia internacional de energia atomica y Forbes, en relacion al numero de muertes a consecuencia de la produccion de cada billon de kW/h para distintos tipos de energia, las mas letales, en orden decreciente, son: Carbon, petroleo, biomasa, gas natural, energia solar, eolica, hidroelectricidad y energia nuclear.

Pero estan los casos de Chernobyl y Fukushima ...

Se estiman en 200 el numero de muertos por radiacion provocados por el accidente de Chernobyl. En el caso de Fukushima el numero de muertos es cero. Es decir, el uso de la energia nuclear en terminos civiles ha provocado 200 muertos en 24 años! Mientras que el numero de muertos provocados por el temor de la energia nuclear es numeroso. Un nuevo libro sobre Chernobyl muestra como los doctores en Ucrania y Bielorrusia han afirmado que la radiacion tuvo consecuencias sanitarias diversas y variadas sin poder vincularlas a la radiacion nuclear. Los niños nacen a veces con deformidades, al igual que las flores, pero no solo alrededor de Fukushima! Esa es una realidad que nadie quiere entender: La naturaleza comete errores sin ayuda nuestra, un 30% de las personas ha tenido o tendra cancer. Si bien nuestro mundo es hoy mas seguro que antes nosotros proyectamos nuestras ansiedades sobretodo hacia la energia nuclear. La brecha entre la percepcion de la energia nuclear y su realidad es mas grande que sobre cualquier otra forma de energia en el mundo.

La polucion atmosferica en Paris mata alrededor de 2500 personas por año...

La OMS estima en 3 millones anuales el numero de muertes provocadas por la combustion de biomasa y en 4 millones las provocadas por la quema de combustible fosiles cada año, al tiempo que las centrales nucleares no emiten ninguna contaminacion atmosferica en forma de humo. Si vas a la India la polucion es tan intensa que antes de matarte te agota, te provoca migrañas, asma... Los habitantes de Europa no comprenden la amplitud de la polucion atmosferica en Asia o Africa, en el presente. En contraste, la energia nuclear ha salvado la vida de unas 2 millones de personas al no quemar energias fosiles, segun 2 cientificos de la Universidad de Columbia, James E. Hansen y Pushker Kharecha. Pero no nos damos cuenta. La industria ha cometido errores de comunicacion pero tambien ha habido un intenso lobby de parte de la industria de las energias fosiles contra la energia nuclear.

Pero tambien esta este deseo de "volver a la naturaleza" a traves de las energias renovables, lo que favorece un lavado de imagen de los combustibles fosiles. Porque, de hecho, las energias renovables preservan de mejor manera la utilizacion de combustibles fosiles que el cuidado al medio ambiente! Siempre supimos que la energia solar o la energia eolica no eran capaces de reemplazar a los combustibles fosiles. Eso solo puede hacerlo la energia nuclear como lo demuestran Francia y Suecia que tienen la capacidad de reemplazar los combustibles fosiles de manera efectiva a la vez que des-carbonizan la produccion de energia. Basta con comparar a Francia con Alemania. Si un pais podia hacer funcionar las energias renovables como una solucion viable de reemplazo de los combustibles fosiles ese era Alemania. Ningun otro pais es capaz de invertir 500 mil millones de euros, con un aumento del 50% de su costo de producir electricidad, sin ser capaz de des-carbonizar mas de la mitad de su consumo de energia!

Esta previsto disminuir en Francia la participacion de la energia nuclear en la produccion de electricidad en un 50% de aqui a 2030. Como se puede explicar que un pais que se beneficia tanto de la energia nuclear pueda tomar una decision como esa?

Ese complejo psicologico existe en muchos paises. Solo en Rusia y en Corea del Sur las cosas son distintas porque tienen una industria nuclear firmemente controlada por un Estado nacionalista y disciplinado. Incluso en Francia, que es sin duda el mejor ejemplo de exito nuclear, esta industria ha sido victima de la arrogancia, la vanidad, la apatia y de una falta de inteligencia emocional y social.

Yo estuve en Belgica y en los Paises Bajos con sus responsables politicos. Me dijeron que jamas se habian reunido con alguien de Electricite de France (EDF). Les pregunte, "Si ustedes desean construir centrales nucleares preferirian reunirse con rusos, chinos o franceses?" Y me respondieron que obviamente lo harian con franceses. Pero resulta que EDF** no esta interesado en construir centrales electricas a energia nuclear para sus vecinos europeos! Es escandaloso! No estoy seguro que Emmanuel Macron este al tanto de esa incompetencia y falta de iniciativa de EDF.
*La verdad es que a EDF le gustaria construir EPR (reactores nucleares de 3era generacion) en la UE, que es lo que esta tratando de hacer en el Reino Unido (suponiendo que todavia seguira siendo parte de la UE). Un ejemplo es Hinkley Point C (proyecto de AES de 3200 MW, en suelo ingles actualmente en construccion y financiado por EDF y la estatal china CGN) a lo cual despues podria agregarse Sizewell C (Proyecto de futura AES, la cual junto a Hinkley Point C deberian producir un 13% de la demanda electrica del Reino Unido). Ademas, EDF no tiene tampoco los medios para invertir de manera masiva en Europa, por lo que los proyectos que construye o pueda construir en el futuro tendran participacion significativa de otros inversionistas extranjeros lo que limitara la participacion de la francesa que esta, ademas, sometida a una serie de regulaciones al interior de Francia que restringen su competitividad intenacional.


EDF, compañia francesa de electricidad bajo propiedad mayoritaria del Estado frances. Cuenta con proyectos en operacion en 4 continentes y produce cerca de 1/5 de las necesidades de energia electrica de la Union Europea, principalmente a partir de energia nuclear. 
En 2019 el Estado frances solicito de EDF la construccion de otras 3 centrales nucleares, eso a pesar de que en 2017 el Ministro de medioambiente frances afirmo que hasta 17 AES operadas por EDF podrian ser cerradas para 2025.

Pero, que propone hacer usted con deshechos nucleares que pueden ser radioactivos por millones de años?

Pero si son los mejores deshechos posibles! Representan una cantidad minima y no le han hecho mal a nadie. Nadie se preocupa por otros tipos de deshechos que se arrojan a la naturaleza de manera mucho mas abundante. Dejaremos que los paneles solares toxicos sean desmantelados por niños en Asia o Africa como sucede con nuestros viejos aparatos de television o con nuestra basura electronica, exponiendolos al polvo toxico de metales pesados? Porque se permite la formacion de islas de plastico en los oceanos? 

Porque nadie se conmueve con esos vertederos gigantes y no mira al hecho que todos los deshechos nucleares producidos por Suiza en 45 años caben en el espacio de una cancha de basquetbol?? Es insensato! La unica explicacion a tanta irracionalidad es el impacto psicologico de la bomba atomica.

La mayoria de los elementos que aparecen en la Tabla periodica son toxicos y estan presentes en la naturaleza pero las personas no tiene consciencia de ello.

No hay un vinculo entre el uso civil y el uso militar de la energia nuclear? Un pais con centrales nucleares para producir electricidad es a menudo un pais que posee o aspira a poseer armamento nuclear.

Pero, quienes somos nosotros o quienes son los franceses para decir que los iranies o los coreanos del norte no deberian tener una bomba nuclear?

Si el mundo fuera mas peligroso porque todos los paises tuviesen una bomba atomica porque Francia no se deshace, entonces, de su armamento nuclear? Imagine que su pais se este deshaciendo de todo su arsenal nuclear... Usted sabe que eso no es realista porque puede ocultar una ojiva nuclear en una piscina sin poder ser detectado.

Y si despues Francia se encuentra en guerra, que es lo primero que harian entonces los militares? Obviamente que relanzar un programa nuclear para obtener una bomba de nuevo! Todos los expertos saben eso desde 1946.

El movimiento antinuclear fue un movimiento ideologico financiado ampliamente por la Union Sovietica durante la Guerra fria. Pero en la historia no ha habido jamas la posibilidad para deshacernos de algun tipo de armamento. No hay posibilidad alguna de que esto suceda. Por otro lado, el verdadero riesgo es que los Estados Unidos hagan algo insensato como invadir Iran o Corea del Norte. Nosotros ya lo hicimos en Irak con el pretexto de evitar que obtuvieran armas de destruccion masiva, y se han visto las consecuencias que eso ha tenido en la poblacion civil.

Mire tambien el conflicto entre la India y Pakistan*, el cual se presenta como una amenaza para el planeta. Se trata realmente de una guerra? Las ultimas tensiones han provocado 10 muertos del lado de Pakistan y unos 40 del lado de la India tras un atentado suicida en Cachemira. Y despues de eso van a la guerra como si fuera el teatro kabuki**. Cada parte ha derribado 1 o 2 aviones del lado contrario, luego ambos paises se han dicho cosas horribles durante un par de semanas pero todos saben que no habra un verdadero conflicto belico entre ambos paises. La bomba nuclear ha sido la mas grande fuerza pacifista que el mundo haya jamas conocido. Es una revolucion tecnologica que esta en camino de poner fin a los grandes conflictos.
*Se refiere al conflicto fronterizo entre la India y Pakistan, en el territorio de Cachemira, que se inicio el 14 de febrero de 2019 tras el ataque por una agrupacion terrorista pakistani a un convoy de vehiculos de la India en que murieron 45 militares. A pesar de la escalada del conflicto ambos paises han hecho lo posible por no llevar a ambos Estados a una nueva guerra, pues ambos poseen armas nucleares (140 ojivas nucleares por parte de Pakistan contra 110 de la India) y como el conflicto tiene un base religiosa (en Cachemira viven hindues, musulmanes y budistas) podria involucrar a muchos mas paises con consecuencias insospechadas ya que 2 vecinos de la region son Afganistan y China. 
**Forma teatral tradicional de Japon surgida en el siglo XVII y que conjuga canto, musica, baile y drama. Contaba inicialmente solo con mujeres, las que en las piezas comicas interpretaban tambien a hombres. Debido al contenido mayormente vulgar de sus presentaciones posteriormente se le prohibiria a las mujeres tomar parte en las obras, aunque mas probablemente la prohibicion tuvo que ver con la popularidad de las presentaciones y el hecho de que se pusiera en escena la vida y escandalos de politicos contemporaneos. Las mujeres fueron reemplazadas por jovenes pero como no se modifico el contenido de las presentaciones luego se permitiria solo la participacion de hombres adultos, algunos de los cuales se especializarian en representar en las obras a mujeres. A partir del siglo XIX sufriria una fuerte occidentalizacion mientras que actualmente permite la participacion de mujeres.

Pero, y si los terroristas se apoderan de armamento nuclear?

No hay un especialista en armas nucleares creible en el mundo que piense que Iran podria entregarle una bomba a terroristas. Porque el regimen irani haria eso? Todos los paises del mundo tienen una suerte de complot entre ellos, sin importar sus enemistades, de modo que las armas nucleares no puedan pasar a la sociedad civil. Esa es tal vez la prioridad internacional mas importante desde 1945.

Pero consideremos la posibilidad de que Daesh* pudiera haberse hecho con una bomba. En ese caso, porque el Estado Islamico no la habria utilizado? Podrian, por ejemplo, haber hecho una prueba en el desierto para demostrar que poseian un arma nuclear y que eran, por tanto, un Estado soberano. Tenemos que superar una gran disonancia cognitiva para entender que el objeto mas peligroso, jamas concebido en la historia ha hecho, finalmente, del mundo un mejor lugar para vivir.
*Otra denominacion mas del Estado Islamico, grupo terrorista islamico sunita surgido en Irak en 1999 y que luego fue integrandose con otras agrupaciones terroristas islamicas pasando a denominarse en 2006 como Estado islamico de Irak. Sus acciones militares los llevaron a controlar un territorio que alcanzo su maxima extension en 2014, con unos 110 mil km2, y que albergaba una poblacion de unos 8 millones de personas. Sus derrotas militares los llevarian a fines de 2017 a controlar un territorio de no mas de 10 mil km2, en Siria e Irak. La agrupacion cuenta con celulas terroristas bajo su control en diversas naciones de Africa y Asia.

Pero volviendo al uso civil de la energia nuclear. La electricidad y la calefaccion no representan mas que 1/4 de las emisiones mundiales de gases efecto invernadero. Pero, si incluso seguimos sus argumentos la energia nuclear no puede tampoco constituirse en una solucion milagrosa...

Todos los combustible fosiles que deben ser reemplazados pueden ser reemplazados por energia nuclear, y pronto eso tendra lugar. Las energias renovables no son capaces de hacerlo. Habra seguramente una larga transicion energetica. La electricidad sera la primera en descarbonizarse gracias a la energia nuclear. Sucedio con los trenes, como es el caso de Francia o el de Japon, despues vendran los automoviles electricos. En Francia, como en Suecia, la calefaccion ya esta electrificada gracias a la energia nuclear. Y para los aviones, bien podriamos tener un carburante sin emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero por medio de la propulsion nuclear termica o de la misma electricidad.

No es mas simple cambiar nuestro estilo de vida?

Quien desearia seriamente vivir en una sociedad en decadencia? Emmanuel Macron intento aumentar ligeramente los precios del combustible con su impuesto al carbono, y hemos visto el resultado con los Gilet jaunes*. Nadie desea realmente menos crecimiento, excepto algunos academicos de la Sorbonne*. Es ridiculo! Es el discurso de los malthusianos***, ricos de paises ricos que promueven la pobreza para los otros, para que no los alcancen en su nivel de vida. Es la misma logica utilizada en los discursos sobre la sobrepoblacion con la idea de que otros paises deberian tener menos poblacion que el nuestro.
*Movimiento surgido en Francia el 17 de noviembre de 20
          

Governadora assina Protocolo de Intenções com empresa chinesa

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Em seu segundo dia de atividades na China, em Pequim, a Governadora Fátima Bezerra assinou, nesta quarta-feira (27), um protocolo de intenções com a diretoria da China General Nuclear e Power Corporation (CGN). O documento aponta a decisão da empresa em expandir seus investimentos em geração de energia no Rio Grande do Norte. “Após a […]
          

Ungaria vrea ca UE să îi aprobe relaxarea normelor privind securitatea nucleară pentru a urgenta extinderea centralei de la Paks, cu finanțare rusească

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Ungaria a trimis o propunere legislativă către Comisia Europeană conform căreia autorităţile de la Budapesta vor să modifice normele privind securitatea nucleară, astfel încât un contract cu o valoare de 12 miliarde euro semnat cu un consorţiu rus şi care vizează extinderea centralei nucleare de la Paks să poată fi urgentat, au declarat mai multe surse pentru Reuters, potrivit Agerpres.
          

макошь311: The Economist: мир в 2020-м году.

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В конце ноября 2019 года, как и всегда приблизительно в это время каждого года,  известный сегодня каждому конспирологу журнал The Economist выпустил очередной номер “Мир в 2020 году”:

Поскольку с анаграммами у мировых конспирологов последнее время было всё плохо и мы мало что угадали из прошлых обложек, на этот раз, как видим, The Economist пишет обо всем открытым текстом: 

Trump – Трамп;

Brexit – Брексит;

AI – Искусственный Интеллекст;

Tokyo – Токио;

Mars – Марс;

Climate – Климат;

Xi (Jinping) – Си Цзиньпин);

Recession – Рецессия;

Modi (Indian Prime Minister) – Моди (премьер-министр Индии);

Expo (??) – Экспо;

SDGs (Sustainable Development Goals) – Цели устойчивого развития;

Bond (??) – Бонд;

Beethoven – Бетховен;

Visions – Видения;

Biodiversity – Биоразнообразие;

Rat (??) – Крыса (Год Крысы?);

NPT (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty) – Договор о нераспространении ядерного оружия;

Warren (Elizabeth?) – Уоррен (Элизабет?);

Raphael (??) – Рафаэль;

Nightingale (Google’s Project Nightingale?) – Соловей (проект Google Соловей?)

Russia – Россия.

Выпуск журнала The World in 2020 продается с 22-го ноября, но обложка стала доступной несколько ранее, однако пока у конспирологов с расшифровками туго. 

Возможно, это происходит потому, что с расшифровками предыдущих обложек мало что получилось и люди потеряли веру в то, что The Economist как-то приобщен к мировым делам.

Так же причиной может быть видимое отсутствие интриги в картинке: когда все написано прямым текстом  разгадывать нечего и людям становится не интересно. Однако на самом деле мы думаем, что с буквами там далеко все не просто так. 

В не очень далеком прошлом, когда не было не просто компьютерных алгоритмов для шифрования, но даже электромеханических устройств для этого, люди с успехом пользовались так называемой решёткой  Кардано, представляющей собой картонку, в которой какая-то часть площади вырезана в виде окошек для текста. При наложении её на письмо в окошках появлялось нужное получателю секретное сообщение. 

В свете этого исторического опыта мы полагаем, что The Economist нужно расшифровывать именно так, причем необходимая для этого решетка Кардано  скорее всего показана в прошлых обложках журнала. Возможно, что кому-то из конспирологов удастся даже её найти. 

Однако сейчас мы хотели бы обратить внимание читателей на упоминание в обложке Крысы,что скорее всего является отсылкой к 2020-му году – году белой металлической крысы. В свою очередь белая металлическая  крыса,  то есть Крыса из нержавеющей стали (The Stainless Steel Rat) – это известнейший цикл романов Гарри Гаррисона, где он от души постебался над персонажами кукольного театра, который массы воображали политиками, которые чем-то там управляют.

Поэтому, учитывая сколько там рядом с Крысой знаменитых имен можно думать, что это намек на Гаррисона   и на планирующийся мировой закулисой демонтаж этого театра кукол, который и произойдет в 2020 году.  Не факт,что наша догадка самая верная ибо к 33-м градусам мы не приобщены, поэтому будем следить за развитием событий  поскольку только время окончательно расставит все на свои места. 

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If it’s not Sustainable, its Condition is Terminal.

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2,740 regular daily posts, linking 35,436 articles § The most recent reported status of US nuclear power plants can be found at the US Nuclear Power Report, a distressingly dull account of NRC news, posted on non-holiday weekdays and Saturdays. As of November 29, out of 97 US-licensed power reactors (including Three Mile Island, which has […]
          

2019 Road Warrior

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Airman 1st Class Kai Fears, 91st Security Support Squadron convoy response force member, finishes up training during the annual Road Warrior exercise at Camp Guernsey, Wyo., Sept. 18, 2019. Road Warrior enables security forces personnel to practice their tactics and procedures in a controlled environment, allowing convoy personnel to find and correct any vulnerabilities which could lessen the safety, security and effectiveness of the nuclear deterrence mission. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Nicole Reed)
2019 Road Warrior
          

Healthcare: Physician / Cardiology - Non Invasive / New York / Permanent / Physici - New York, New York

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Seeking a BC/BE Non-Invasive Cardiologist with excellent clinical skills and expertise in exhocardiography, TEE, stress echo and nuclear studies to provide patient care on an inpatient and outpatient basis. Full-time position joining an existing practice comprised of 1 Cardiologist and 3 PAs Competitive salary, full medical benefits, paid malpractice, CME, and more. Community/Facility Information: A regional health care system. The Hospital is a not for profit, 164 bed, full service community hospital. The Hospital is the primary health care facility in the County and has enjoyed over 20 years of financial stability and growth. This can be attributed to strong, progressive leadership and participation demonstrated by both the Hospital"s Medical Staff and its Administration. The most exciting accomplishment is the Hospital"s $30 million expansion that was completed in 2006 which included new, state-of-the-art OR suites, ICU/CCU, Ambulatory Surgery Unit and Labor & Delivery. The Hospital is proud to have a highly skilled, innovative Medical Staff. With more than 100 board certified physicians in over 30 disciplines, most of the community"s health concerns can be treated right in their own community. Contact: For more information please contact James Clements at [email protected] or call . ()
          

Di tutto un po', dalle armi alle centrali nucleari, dai polli agli ormoni alla gestione dell'obolo di S.Pietro

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https://www.vaticannews.va/it/papa/news/2019-11/papa-francesco-viaggio-apostolico-thailandia-giappone-conferenza.html
          

Turning from nuclear message, Pope urges youth to fight for the earth

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Pope Francis wrapped up a four-day trip to Japan on Tuesday by turning from the anti-nuclear message that was the backbone of his visit to other key campaigns of his, urging students to defend the...

          

Pope Francis leaves Japan after trip centred on anti-nuclear message

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Pope Francis departed from Japan on Tuesday after a four-day visit highlighted by pleas to world leaders to abandon nuclear weapons that were given extra weight because they were delivered from the...

          

Assistant, Associate or Full Professor (HS Clin, Clin X, Adjunct, In-Residence) Nuclear Medicine | University of California San Diego

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La Jolla, California, Assistant, Associate or Full Professor (HS Clin, Clin X, Adjunct, In-Residence) Nuclear Medicine University of California San Diego The Department of Radiology ( http://radiology.ucsd.edu
          

A conversation with Nile’s Karl Sanders on ‘Vile Nilotic Rites’

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Nile have been on tour in support of their new album Vile Nilotic Rites, which was released on November 1st via Nuclear Blast (order here). We recently caught up with frontman/guitarist Karl Sanders to discuss their latest effort, and more. What was the creative process for the new album, Vile Nilotic Rites? Well, we wrote […]
          

Alcest’s Neige on the emotional journey with ‘Spiritual Instinct’

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Alcest’s latest offering, Spiritual Instinct, is their most personal record to date as it captures the revolving emotions, many people experience. The group’s acclaimed 2016 album, Kodama, led the French duo to sign with Nuclear Blast and opened new doors for their latest effort, which was released on October 25th (order here). We caught up […]
          

NUCLEAR MEDICINE TECHNOLOGIST - West Park Hospital - Cody, WY

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There is no state income tax in Wyoming, and the real estate properties and educational systems are excellent. Cody Regional Health seeks to hire a Full Time.
From West Park Hospital - Tue, 08 Oct 2019 16:00:06 GMT - View all Cody, WY jobs
          

Ex-Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev warns Russia and US that ‘a hot war would destroy our entire civilisation’

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EX-SOVIET leader Mikhail Gorbachev is warning human civilisation could be wiped out if Russia and the US clash in a “hot war.” The Cold War politician leader believes the collapse of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF) he signed alongside Ronald Reagan in 1987 may have paved the way for an apocalypse.  Gorbachev, 88, slammed […]
          

Can we find a new meaning in the word evangelical?

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By Jason Byassee

(RNS) — Living in Canada, I expect on my trips home to the United States to overeat and have my relatives lampoon universal health care, gun control and other examples of Canadian-ness. For my part, I am always struck in recent years by the elongated election seasons in my native country: Compared to the mercifully brief campaigns of Canada’s parliamentary system, in the U.S. it is all campaigning, all the time.

I also notice that in that mania, “evangelical” has come to mean something bizarre: white, bigoted, angry, retrograde, idolatrously devoted to God and country, cozy with dictators and rude to historic friends.

So alien is the meaning of “evangelical” that Alan Jacobs and other luminaries wonder aloud whether the word is irretrievably lost. The faith that once inspired abolitionists and suffragists and civil rights martyrs has been reduced to web trolls and evangelicals, such as Robert Jeffries, Jerry Falwell Jr. and Franklin Graham, who support President Donald Trump.

But on a visit to several evangelical churches in the heart of Red America not long ago, I found hope to think “evangelical” can mean something else instead.

In St. Joseph, Missouri, in the far west of the Show-Me state, where even Democrats tout their gun-packing bona fides, I visited the Word of Life Church. Pastor Brian Zahnd was once a charismatic TV preacher, but he’s much more Mennonite now, learning from historic peace-loving communities that peacemaking is better than televangelism. On Twitter, Zahnd seeks to disentangle evangelicalism from President Trump. “I don’t believe in conservativism; I don’t believe in progressivism. I bel