Next Page: 10000

          

Erleben Sie mit EAST ASIA TOURS die Glanzlichter Myanmars

 Cache   

75264788 1350406205125525 1473973020107210752 oAuf der Reise "Glanzlichter Myanmars" – einer ausführlichen Variante der Burma-Rundreisen von EAST ASIA TOURS – lernen Sie das Beste kennen, das Myanmar seinen Besuchern zu bieten hat! Erleben Sie den strahlenden Glanz vergoldeter Pagoden in Yangon, die einmalige Atmosphäre der Tempel- und Pagodenstadt Bagan, die „Einbeinruderer“ auf dem Inle-See und das Panorama des „Mandalay-Hill“. Zum Programm dieser 12-Tage-Privatrundreise gehört auch ein Ausflug zur „Goldfelsenpagode“ Kyaikhtiyo, einem der heiligsten buddhistischen Orte des Landes.


          

The Burmese frontier of Bengal

 Cache   
I am reading Thant Myint-U’s The Hidden History of Burma: Race, Capitalism, and the Crisis of Democracy in the 21st Century. In it, he mentions the legends and oral history of some Burmese that much of Bengal was once inhabited by people like the modern Burmese: Buddhist, and East Asian in appearance. I don’t know …
          

YPG/PKK - BUDİST İTTİFAKI

 Cache   
SONSAAT Suriyeden haber akışına devam ediyor. Terör Örgütü YPG/PKK'ya Budist terörist desteği.! Terör örgütü YPG/PKK İşgali altındaki bölgelere sözde insani yardım kuruluşu adı altında giren Free Burma Rangers adlı örgüte bağlı 20 teröristin örgüt safları
          

Bob Stannard: The mysterious land of Burma

 Cache   

There is little that is modern about Burma. That’s not a bad thing.

Read the story on VTDigger here: Bob Stannard: The mysterious land of Burma.


          

Nathalia Burmann

 Cache   

Pinned onto Nathalia Burmann


          

Kinderschuhe NA! Arkady blau - Stiefeletten & Boots 305005 aJMHVsBC

 Cache   
Kinderschuhe NA! Arkady blau - Stiefeletten & Boots 305005 aJMHVsBCKinderschuhe NA! Arkady blau - Stiefeletten & Boots 305005 aJMHVsBC
Typ Stiefeletten & Boots
Ref. 160294
Saison Herbst/Winter
Futter Textil
Farbe blau
Referenz-Schuhgröße 21
Aufbau geklebt
Herkunft Burma
Obermaterial/Schaft Synthetisch
Innensohle Textil



Jetzt kaufen
          

High arachis hypogaea allergen 2 immunoglobulin E levels predict responses to exposure to a small amount of peanut protein.

 Cache   
Related Articles

High arachis hypogaea allergen 2 immunoglobulin E levels predict responses to exposure to a small amount of peanut protein.

Acta Paediatr. 2018 12;107(12):2216

Authors: Burman J, Kukkonen AK, Pelkonen AS, Mäkelä MJ

PMID: 30043419 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


          

ГААГА ТАК ГААГА

 Cache   


Myanmar State Counselor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi will appear before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) to contest a case filed by Gambia accusing Myanmar of genocide against its Rohingya Muslim minority, her government said...

Добрый приятель, спец по Юго-Восточной Азии, прислал мне эту ссылку, зная мой интерес к Мьянме, зародившийся очень много лет назад, ибо Игорь Можейко, более известный, как Кир Булычев (мы долго и близко дружили), умел "заражать" симпатией к стране, которую он знал от и до, и в которую был влюблен без памяти.



Итак, мне прислали ссылку, а сутьв том, что г-жа Аун Сан Су Чжи заявила о готовности лично ехать в Гаагу, и там "отстаивать в Международном суде интересы, честь и достоинство страны", по иску Гамбии обвиняемой международным сообществом в т.н. "геноциде рохинджа", который в Мьянме геноцидом не считают.

В скобках. Мусульмане-рохинджа – потомки бенгальцев, переселившихся в буддистскую Бирму при англичанах в поисках лучшей жизни. Принятые дружелюбно, с местными жили мирно аж до 1942, когда учинили т.н. «райкханскую бойню» с целью очистить регион от «чужих», то есть, бирманцев. Тогда им удалось убить ок. 50 тыс. буддистов,

но добиться своего они не сумели, зато отношение к ним бирманцев перестало быть дружелюбным.Тем не менее, бенгальцы продолжали бежать в Бирму, оседая там, где уже были свои. Бежали от нищеты, от пакистанских репрессий, естественно, без всяких виз, и власти Бирмы из «гуманистических соображений» нелегалов не выгоняли,

хотя они начисто отказывались хоть как-то интегрироваться и были постоянным источником всякого рода неприятностей. В период военных диктатур (конец прошлого века) властям удалось свести конфликт, по крайней мере, его горячую фазу почти к нулю, но как только (в 2015) военные сдали власть гражданским, все началось по-новой,

причем уже не так традиционно, как раньше. Теперь на повестку дня вышли исламистские лозунги, появилось несколько ответвлений «Аль-Каиды» («Харака аль-Якин» и другие), объединившиеся в «Армию спасения рохинджа Аракана», за которой очень ясно светились уши Саудии («командир» этой «армии», некто Ата Улла,

проходил военную подготовку в Рияде, и он же контролировал «спонсоркую помощь»). И в октябре 2016 «армия»,  перейдя границу, начала убивать. И военных, и (целыми семьями)  гражданских, буддистов и индуистов. А также и мусульман, не желавших их поддержать. Дабы, как сообщили их командиры, «вызвать ответные зачистки

и таким образом заострить внимание мирового сообщества на преследованиях рохинджа со стороны властей». Власти, однако, заявили, что видят только два варианта: выступить гарантом безопасности жертв  или раздать оружие всем не-рохинджа, чтобы сами решили вопрос, но выбирают первое. Дальнейшее понятно: повстанцы побежали

в Бангладеш, угоняя с собой всех рохинджа, до которых дотянулись, - а многие и сами бежали, опасаясь мести военных за поддержку
«армии», - и десятки тысяч беженцев осели в бангладешских фильтрационных лагерях, где им живется очень плохо. При этом, что интересно, вся правозащитная рать мира, - «Международная амнистия»,

ООН и так далее, - с первых же дней горячей фазы встала на сторону
«милого этнического меньшинства», потребовав от Аун Сан Су Чжи запретить военным подавлять «мирные протесты молодежи рохинджа грубой силой», на что известная правозищитница и демократка (к слову, лауреат Нобелевской премии мира) ответила в том духе,

что права человека существуют для тех, кто уважает права человека, и с тех пор ее поливают грязью не только в СМИ исламских стран, но и в пр<ессе США, тоже однозначно выступающих в поддержку рохинджа. Что, впрочем, и понятно: Мьянма очень плотно и последовательно сотрудничает с Китаем, пренебрегая интересам Штатов в регионе,

а коль скоро так, мировой общественности плевать на то, что из 18 «актов геноцида», вменяемых мьянмарским военным, 12 ныне официально признаны признаны «неточными» 5 «бездоказательными», а военные, виновные в одном-единственном доказанном эксцессе, арестован властями Мьянмы, отданы под суд и наказаны
.


Вот такая длинная предыстория, в чем-то неуловимо похожая на события в Чемодановке,  а чем-то на киевский путч 2014 года, - естественно, с поправкой на масштаб и тот факт, что власти Мьянмы повели себя так, как следует вести себя в таких ситуациях уважающим себя властям, даже если лютуют анижедети, -

и я пересказал только факты, всячески избегая оценок. А теперь, возвращаясь к теме, зададимся вопросом: почему Аун Сан Су Чжи, несмотря на категорическое "Нет!" мьянмарской общественности, все же сочла возможным согласиться ехать в Нидерланды, зная, как легко там превращают свидетелей в обвиняемых?

Это ни для кого не секрет, и очень многих как бы сильных мира сего начинает трясти при легчайшем намеке на приглашение в Гаагу. А вот пожилая хрупкая дама, дочь легендарного  отца, не трясется. Она уверена в своей правоте,  готова отстаивать ее, - и в чем залог ее уверенности? Безусловно,

китайская "крыша" - сильная карта. Пекин очень ценит надежного, не виляющего союзника, и обидеть мьянмарского лидера означает сильно огорчить Китай, на что Нидерланды вряд ли решатся даже под давлением из-за океана. Но, думаю, дело не только в этом. Как рассказывал мне в свое время Игорь, для любого бирманца,

кем бы он ни был, мужчина или женщина, богач или бедняк, крестьянин или вельможа, - очень важно понятие sikhkar, обозначающее сразу все, что по тамошним понятиям делает человека человеком: достоинство, честь, гордость за свою историю истрану. Короче, верность принципам. "Это ощущение базируется

на внутреннем единстве с собственной тысячелетней культурно-исторической и духовной традицией", и оно не предполагает не только прогибов, достатка и комфорта ради, но и малейших компромиссов, без оглядки на последствия. А принципиальность  г-жи Су Чжи известна. Да и вообще, как бы  там ни было, -

согласитесь: решение лично, на  территоррии врага отстаивать достоинство государства, не позволив мазать его грязью, - это сильно. Есть все-таки еще на Земле страны, и есть еще на Земле народы, и есть еще на Земле лидеры, для которых сакраментальное "за державу обидно", - не пустой звук...




          

Akron Church Increases Refugee Awareness

 Cache   
Terri Saelee, North American Division coordinator for Adventist Refugee and Immigrant Ministries, shares a "Loss Simulation' exercise with the Junior/Earliteen class.

Story by Heidi Shoemaker

For several years, Ohio Conference's Akron First church has actively served refugees from Burma, Thailand, Rwanda, the Congo, Uganda and Kenya who have settled in the community.

Members help these families obtain household furnishings, assist them in filling out forms and provide driving lessons. Many refugees have become a part of church life, enrolling their children in the Mayfair Christian School in Uniontown and participating in Adventurer and Pathfinder programs. The congregation hosts social gatherings, baby and wedding showers and conducts hospital visits and baptisms. This year they financially supported two refugee students attending Great Lakes Adventist Academy (Mich.).

Bill Levin, pastor of Akron First, shared details about this growing ministry with Terri Saelee, North American Division coordinator for Adventist Refugee and Immigrant Ministries. “She suggested a ‘Refugee Awareness Sabbath’ to help more of our church family become aware of the unique challenges and needs refugees have as they transition into a new land and culture. Utilizing her idea, we extended an invitation for our refugee brothers and sisters to help us get to know them and their plight a little better,” Levin says.

During Sabbath School, refugee children told young people what life was like in a refugee camp and the changes that took place upon arriving to the U.S. Saelee went to the Junior/Earliteen class and shared a “Loss Simulation” exercise to help young people wrestle with the idea of the very real loss most refugees face—the loss of family members, possessions and homes.

“[Saelee] had my students pretend that war broke out and bombs were falling. She gave them three minutes to write down four people they would take with them, four documents they would take, four favorite things and four favorite places [each on a separate piece of paper],” shares Sabbath School teacher Susan Kirschbaum. “After the three minutes, she asked them to delete one item from each category, and while they were doing that, she quietly asked me to go around and randomly remove a few papers from each kid’s stacks.”

She continues, “They were really upset—‘You took my mom!’ or ‘You took my grandma!’” and added, “I was the ‘government,’ and though they had done their best at making decisions with what they had, they had now lost control. That’s what a refugee’s life is like. It was an eye opener for everyone.”

Worship was filled with refugee friends sharing music from their native homeland, while three adults gave personal testimonies about families being detained in refugee camps. As they shared stories, the congregation was visibly moved and heartbroken for them and their struggle.

After the service, church members completed commitment sheets addressing specific things each person could do to assist and bless refugees in the community.


          

UGEM 18k Yellow Gold 8 Ruby and 7 Diamond Necklace (16+")

 Cache   
S l1600 thumb155 cropPrice: $665.00
Category: Genuine Diamond
One UGEM (c), 18k Yellow Gold, "Custom" 8 Burma Ruby and 7 Diamond Pendant Necklace. There are 8 Brilliant Cut Burma Rubies (8-R/BR-.37ct/- tcw) and 7 Brilliant Round Diamonds (7-BR-.28ct/- tcw; G, VS). The Pendant is 1 3/4" Across and a 16" Ch...

          

Art Deco Style (ca. 1940's) 14K White Gold Diamond and Ruby Broach Pin

 Cache   
S l1600 thumb155 cropPrice: $630.00
Category: Pins, Brooches
One Art Deco Style (ca.1940's), 14K White Gold, Diamond and Natural "Burma" Ruby Circle Pin. There are 15 Round Cut Rubies (15-R/BR-.65ct/- tcw) and 15 Brilliant Round Cut Diamonds (15-BR-.60ct/- tcw, F/G-VVS/VS). This Pin is 1 1/8" in Diameter...

          

Art Deco Style 14K White Gold 13 Ruby and 12 Diamond Eternity Band (Size 6 5/8)

 Cache   
S l1600 thumb155 cropPrice: $535.00
Category: Diamonds & Gemstones
One Art Deco Style ECI (c), 14K White Gold, 13 Ruby and 12 Diamond 96% Eternity Band. The Band measures 2.75mm in Width and 1.9mm Thick. There are 13-2mm Burma Rubies (13-R/BR-.32ct/- tcw; The Rubies were probably Heated) and 12-2mm Brilliant R...

          

Residenza Burmaria Tropea Italy

 Cache   
Residenza Burmaria Tropea Italy
          

preeti Burman

 Cache   

I really impressed after read this because of some quality work and informative thoughts . 
I just wanna say thanks for the writer and wish you all the best. <a href="https://www.sattakingdarbar.com"><b>Satta king</b></a>  <a href="https://www.sattakingdarbar.com"><b>Satta king</a>
 


          

The First-Timer’s Travel Guide to Yangon, Myanmar (Burma, 2019)

 Cache   
Yangon, formerly known as Rangoon, is Myanmar's former capital and its center of commerce. It's one of the most visited destinations in Myanmar and where you'll find the country's most sacred Buddhist temple – Shwedagon Pagoda.

Source


          

New Books on the History Shelf

 Cache   

          

Burma L Integrale Des 28 Romans Leo

 Cache   
Burma L Integrale Des 28 Romans Leo
          

Tamburmajorkurs 2020 på Verdal

 Cache   

Det er snart klart for marsjsesong igjen, og NMF Trøndelag inviterer også i 2020 til vårt populære tamburmajorkurs som denne gang arrangeres på Verdal.  Kurset passer for de som skal fungere som korpsets tamburmajor, og som tidligere har liten eller ingen erfaring fra denne funksjonen.

Påmeldingsfrist: 1.mars 2020


          

Soma Roy Burman takes charge as new Controller General of Accounts #TaxLaws #News

 Cache   
News and Press Release - Dated - 2-12-2019 - Smt. Soma Roy Burman, a 1986-batch Indian Civil Accounts Service (ICAS) Officer, took charge as the new Controller General of Accounts here today. Smt. Burman is... #TaxLaws #News
          

This Revolutionary System Can Help Stop Global Warming

 Cache   

“Unsustainable land use and greenhouse gas emissions are delivering a one-two punch to natural ecosystems that are key to the fight against global climate change.

And without sweeping emissions cuts and transformations to food production and land management, the world stands no chance of staving off catastrophic planetary warming,” HuffPost reported, citing the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report.1

Agave plants (the best known of which are blue agave, used to produce tequila), along with nitrogen-fixing, companion trees such as mesquite, huizache, desert ironwood, wattle and varieties of acacia that readily grow alongside agave, are among the most common and prolific, yet routinely denigrated or ignored plants in the world. As India climate scientist Promode Kant points out:

“Agave is to the drier parts of the world what bamboo is to its wetter zones. Capturing atmospheric CO2 in vegetation is severely limited by the availability of land and water. The best choice would be species that can utilize lands unfit for food production and yet make the dynamics of carbon sequestration faster.

As much as 40% of the land on earth is arid and semi-arid, largely in the tropics but also in the cool temperate zones up north. And on almost half of these lands, with a minimum annual rainfall of about 250 mm and soils that are slightly refractory, the very valuable species of agave grows reasonably well.”2

Agave plants and nitrogen-fixing trees densely intercropped and cultivated together have the capacity to draw down massive amounts of CO2 from the atmosphere and produce more above ground and below ground biomass (and animal fodder) on a continuous year-to-year basis than any other desert and semi-desert species. 

Ideal for arid and hot climates, agaves and their companion trees, once established, require little or no irrigation to survive and thrive, and are basically impervious to rising global temperatures and drought. Agaves alone can draw down and store above ground the dry weight equivalent of 30 to 60 tons of CO2 per hectare (12 to 24 tons per acre) per year. One hectare equals 10,000 square meters or 2.47 acres.

Now, a new, agave-based agroforestry and livestock feeding model developed in Guanajuato, Mexico, promises to revitalize campesino/small farmer livestock production while storing massive amounts of atmospheric carbon above and below ground.

Scaled up on millions of currently degraded and overgrazed rangelands, these agave/agroforestry systems have the potential to not only improve soil and pasture health, but to help mitigate and potentially reverse global warming, aka climate change.

Climate Emergency

As international scientists, activists and our own everyday experience tell us, we are facing a Climate Emergency. A “profit at any cost,” fossil fuel-supercharged economy, coupled with industrial agriculture and factory farms, destructive land use and mindless consumption have pumped a dangerous load of CO2 and greenhouse gas pollution into the sky, bringing on global warming and violent climate change.

Degenerative food, farming, livestock and land use practices have decarbonized and killed off much of the biological life and natural carbon-sequestering capacity of our soils, forests and ecosystems.

This degradation and desertification of global landscapes has oxidized and released billions of tons of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, and eliminated much of the above ground carbon biomass once stored in our forests and landscapes.

This global degeneration has depleted so much of the carbon and biological life in our soils, trees and plants that these natural systems can no longer draw down and sequester (through natural photosynthesis) enough of the excess CO2 and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere to maintain the necessary balance between CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the carbon stored in our soils, trees and plants.

The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) estimates that arid and semi-arid lands make up 41.3% of the earth's land surface, including 15% of Latin America (most of Mexico), 66% of Africa, 40% of Asia and 24% of Europe.

Farmers and herders in these areas face tremendous challenges because of increasing droughts, erratic rainfall, degraded soils, overgrazed pastures and water scarcity. Many areas are in danger of degenerating even further into desert, unable to sustain any crops or livestock whatsoever. 

Most of the world’s drylands are located in the economically underdeveloped regions of the Global South, although there are millions of acres of drylands in the U.S., Australia and Southern Europe as well. Farming, ranching and ecosystem conservation are becoming increasingly problematic in these drylands, especially given the fact that the majority of the farms and ranches in these areas do not have irrigation wells or year-round access to surface water.

Crop and livestock production levels are deteriorating, trees and perennials have typically been removed or seasonally burned, and pastures and rangelands have been overgrazed. Poverty, unemployment and malnutrition in these degraded landscapes are rampant, giving rise to violence, organized crime and forced migration

The good news, however, coming out of Mexico, applicable to many other regions, is that if farmers and ranchers can stop overgrazing pastures and rangelands and eliminate slash and burn practices, and instead reforest, revegetate, rehydrate and recarbonize depleted soils, integrating traditional and indigenous water catchment, agroforestry, livestock and land management practices with agave-based agroforestry, we may well be able to green the drylands and store and sequester massive amounts of carbon.

Via Organica, the ‘Organic Way’

After decades as a food, farm, anti-GMO and climate campaigner for the Organic Consumers Association in the U.S., I now spend a good part of my time managing an organic and regenerative farm and training center, Via Organica, in the high-desert drylands of North Central Mexico.

Our semi-arid, temporal (seasonal rainfall) ecosystem and climate in the state of Guanajuato is similar to what you find in many parts of Mexico, and in fact in 40% of the world. In our valley, we typically get 20 inches or 500 millimeters of precipitation in the “rainy season” (July to October), greening the landscape, followed by eight months with little or no rain whatsoever.

At Rancho Via Organica, we’ve been trying to regenerate our high-desert (6,300 feet elevation) environment, developing farming, livestock and landscape management practices that produce healthy organic food and seeds, sequester carbon in the soil, preserve our monte or natural densely-vegetated areas, slow down and infiltrate rainwater (including runoff coming down the mountains and hillsides) to recharge our water table, and reforest and revegetate our still somewhat degraded corn fields and pasturelands.

Looking across our mountain valley, the most prominent flora are cactus and agave plants (some of which are quite large) along with hundreds of thorny, typically undersized, mesquite, huizache and acacia shrubs/trees.

In order to grow our vegetables and cover crops, maintain our olive, mulberry, citrus and pomegranate trees, and provide water and forage for our animals, we — like most small farmers and ranchers in Mexico — irrigate with only the rainfall that we can collect and store in cisterns, ponds and soils.

Eighty-six percent of Mexican farmers and herders have no source of water other than seasonal rainfall, and therefore have to struggle to maintain their milpas (corn, beans and squash) and raise their animals under increasingly adverse climate conditions.

Greening the Drylands: A New Agroforestry Model

Recently Juan Frias, a retired college professor and scientist, came up to me after attending a workshop at our farm. As we discussed regenerative agriculture practices and climate change, Juan told me about a new system of drylands agroforestry and livestock management (sheep and goats), based upon agave plants and mesquite trees in the nearby community of San Luis de la Paz. They call their agroforestry system Modelo Zamarripa.3

By densely planting, pruning and intercropping high-biomass, high-forage producing, fast-growing species of agaves (1,600 to 2,000 per hectare) amongst preexisting deep-rooted, nitrogen-fixing tree species such as mesquite, or among planted tree seedlings, these farmers are transforming their landscape and their livelihoods.

When the agaves are 3 years old, and for the following five to seven years, farmers can begin pruning the leaves or pencas, chopping them up finely with a machine, and then fermenting the agave in closed containers for 30 days, ideally combining the agave leaves with 20% or more of mesquite pods by volume to give them a higher protein level. In our region mesquite trees start to produce pods that can be harvested in five years.

By Year Seven the mesquite and agaves have grown into a fairly dense forest. In years eight to 10, the root stem or pina (weighing 100 to 200 pounds) of the agave is ready for harvesting to produce a distilled liquor called mescal. Meanwhile the hijuelos or pups put out by the mother agave plants are being continuously transplanted back into the agroforestry system, guaranteeing continuous biomass growth (and carbon storage).

In their agroforestry system, the Zamarripa farmers integrate rotational grazing of sheep and goats across their ranch, supplementing the pasture forage their animals consume with the fermented agave silage. Modelo Zamarippa has proven in practice to be ideal for sheep and goats, and we are now experimenting at Via Organica with feeding agave silage to our pastured pigs and poultry.

The revolutionary innovation of these Guanajuato farmers has been to turn a heretofore indigestible, but massive and accessible source of biomass — the agave leaves — into a valuable animal feed, using the natural process of fermentation to transform the plants’ indigestible saponin and lectin compounds into digestible carbohydrates and fiber.

To do this they have developed a relatively simple machine, hooked up to a tractor, that can finely chop up the tough leaves of the agave. After chopping the agave, the next step is to anaerobically ferment the biomass in a closed container (we use 5-gallon buckets with lids).

The fermented end-product, after 30 days, provides a nutritious but very inexpensive silage or animal fodder (in comparison to alfalfa, hay or cornstalks) that costs less than 1 Mexican peso (or approximately 5 cents USD) per kilo (2.2 pounds) to produce.

According to Frias, lambs readily convert 10 kilos of this silage into 1 kilo of body weight. At less than 5 cents per kilo (2 cents per pound) agave silage could potentially make the difference between survival and bankruptcy for millions of the world’s small farmers and herders.

Agaves and Carbon Storage and Sequestration

The Zamarripa system of drylands afforestation and silvopasture draws down and stores in the plants large quantities of CO2 from the atmosphere. Agronomists have observed that certain varieties of agave can produce up to 43 tons per hectare of dry weight biomass per year, on a continuous basis.4

These high biomass varieties of agave will likely thrive in many of the world’s arid ecosystems, wherever any type of agave and nitrogen-fixing trees are already growing.

Nitrogen-fixing trees such as mesquite can be found in most arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Mesquite grows readily not only in Texas and the Southwestern U.S., Mexico, Central America, Argentina, Chile and other Latin American nations, but also “thrives in arid and semi-arid regions of North America, Africa, the Middle East, Tunisia, Algeria, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Myanmar (Burma), Russia, Hawaii, West Indies, Puerto Rico and Australia.”5

At Via Organica, outside San Miguel de Allende, Guanajuato,6 we are utilizing moveable, solar-fenced paddocks for our grazing sheep and goats in order to protect our mesquite tree seedlings, to prevent overgrazing or undergrazing, to eliminate dead grasses and invasive species, and to concentrate animal feces and urine across the landscape in a controlled manner.

At the same time that we are rotating and moving our livestock on a daily basis, we are transplanting, pruning, finely chopping and fermenting the heavy biomass leaves or pencas of agave salmiana plants. Some individual agave pencas or leaves can weigh (wet) as much as 20 kilos or 44 pounds.

The bountiful harvest of this regenerative, high-biomass, high carbon-sequestering system will eventually include not only extremely low-cost, nutritious animal silage, but also high-quality organic lamb, mutton, cheese, milk, aquamiel (agave sap), pulque (a mildly alcoholic beverage) and distilled agave liquor (mescal), all produced organically and biodynamically with no synthetic chemicals or pesticides whatsoever, at affordable prices, with excess agave biomass and fiber available for textiles, compost, biochar and construction materials.

Massive Potential Carbon Drawdown

From a climate crisis perspective, the Modelo Zamarripa is a potential game-changer. Forty-three tons of above-ground dry weight biomass production on a continuing basis per hectare per year ranks among the highest rates of drawing down and storing atmospheric carbon in plants in the world, apart from healthy forests.

Imagine the carbon sequestration potential if rural farmers and pastoralists can establish agave-based agroforestry systems over the next decade on just 10% of the worlds 5 billion degraded acres (500 million acres), areas unsuited for crop production, but areas where agave plants and suitable native nitrogen-fixing companion tress (such as acacia varieties in Africa) are already growing.

Conservatively estimating an above-ground biomass carbon storage rate of 10 tons of carbon per acre per year on these 500 million acres, (counting both agave and companion trees, aboveground and below ground biomass) we would then be able to cumulatively sequester 5 billion tons of carbon (18 billion gigatons of CO2e) from the atmosphere every year.

Five billion tons of additional carbon sequestered in the Earth’s soils and biota equals nearly 50% of all human greenhouse gas emissions in 2018.

More Background on Agaves

To better understand the potential of this agroforestry/holistic grazing system, a little more background information on agave plants, and nitrogen-fixing or trees such as mesquite, huizache or other fodder and food producing trees such as inga or moringa may be useful.

Various varieties of agave plants (along with their cactus relatives and companion nitrogen-fixing trees) are found growing on approximately 20% of the earth’s lands, essentially on the half of the world’s drylands where there is a minimum annual rainfall of approximately 10 inches or 250 mm, where the temperature never drops below 14 degrees Fahrenheit.

Kant has described the tremendous biomass production and carbon-storage potential of agaves in dry areas:

“Agave can … be used for carbon sequestration projects under CDM [the Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Climate Protocol] even though by itself it does not constitute a tree crop and cannot provide the minimum required tree crown cover to create a forest as required under CDM rules.

But if the minimum required crown cover is created by planting an adequate number of suitable tree species in agave plantations then the carbon sequestered in the agave plants will also be eligible for measurement as above ground dry biomass and provide handsome carbon credits …

It causes no threat to food security and places no demand for the scarce water and since it can be harvested annually after a short initial gestation period of establishment, and yields many products that have existing markets, it is also well suited for eradication of poverty …”7

Agaves, of which there are 200 or more varieties growing across the world, can thrive even in dry, degraded lands unsuitable for crop production because of their Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthetic pathway (cacti and other related desert plants also have a CAM pathway) that essentially enables these plants to draw down moisture from the air and store it in their thick tough leaves during the nighttime, while the opening in their leaves (the stomata) close up during daylight hours, drastically reducing evaporation.

Meanwhile, its relatively shallow mycorrhizal fungi-powered roots below the soil surface spread out horizontally, taking in available moisture and nutrients from the topsoil, especially during the rainy season.

In addition, its propagation of baby plants or pups, (up to 50 among some varieties) that grow out of its horizontal roots makes the plant a self-reproducing perennial, able to sustain high biomass growth, and carbon-storage and sequestration on a long-term basis.

Even as a maturing agave plant is pruned beginning in Year Three (to produce fermented silage) and the entire mature agave plant (the pina) is harvested at the end of its life span, in order to make mescal, in our case after eight to 10 years, it leaves behind a family of pups that are carrying out photosynthesis and producing biomass (leaves and stem) at an equal or greater rate than the parent plant.

In other words, a very high level of above-ground carbon storage and below-ground sequestration can be maintained year after year — all with no irrigation and no synthetic fertilizers or chemicals required, if intercropped in conjunction with nitrogen-fixing tree such as mesquite, huizache, inga, moringa or other dryland species such as the acacias that grow in arid or semi-arid areas.

Agaves and a number of their tree companions have been used as sources of food, beverage and fiber by indigenous societies for hundreds, in fact thousands of years. However, until recently farmers had not been able to figure out how to utilize the massive biomass of the agave plant leaves which, unless they are fermented, are basically indigestible and even harmful to livestock.

In fact, this is why, besides the thorns and thick skins of the leaves, animals typically will not, unless starving, eat them. But once their massive leaves (which contain significant amounts of sugar) are chopped up and fermented in closed containers, livestock, after a short period of adjustment, will gobble up this sweet, nutritious forage like candy.

Developing a native species/agroforestry/livestock system on 5 million to 10 million acres of land unsuitable for food crops in a large country like Mexico (which has 357 million acres of cropland and pastureland, much of which is degraded) could literally sequester 37% to 74% of the country’s net current fossil fuel emissions (current net emissions are 492m tons of CO2e).

And, of course, wherever these agave/agroforestry/holistic grazing systems are deployed, farmers and ranchers will also be restoring the fertility and moisture holding capacity of millions of acres of pasturelands and rangelands, thereby promoting rural food self-sufficiency and prosperity.

Scaling up best regenerative practices on the world’s billions of acres of croplands, pasturelands and forest lands — especially those degraded lands no longer suitable for crops or grazing — can play a major role, along with moving away from fossil fuels to renewable energy, in stopping and reversing climate change.

For more information on the global Regeneration Movement go to Regeneration International. Please sign up for our free newsletter and, if you can afford it, make a tax-deductible donation to help us spread the message of Regenerative Agriculture and Agave Power across the world. “Our house is on fire,” as teenage Swedish climate activist Greta Thunberg reminds us, but there is still time to turn things around.


          

Wisdom and Grace: Asia bound: Hong Kong and Myanmar

 Cache   
When you read this, I won’t be around. I am bound for Asia: Hong Kong and then onto Myanmar (Burma). It is probably the longest, scariest trip I have ever taken. If you are a praying person, please stop and say a prayer for me. It isn’t the first time I have been to Asia. In 1974, I was getting ready to graduate from Bible College when I was asked to join a mission team for the summer in Hong...


Next Page: 10000

© Googlier LLC, 2019