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New Culture Commissioner to visit Galway


The incoming EU Commissioner for Culture will visit Galway in the new year for Capital of Culture celebrations.

Mariya Gabriel officially takes up her new job this weekend.

The Bulgarian’s portfolio also includes research, innovation, youth and education.

Fine Gael MEP for Midlands-North-West Maria Walsh met with her during the week

Out: next year

Dur: 00:38


Bellport High School Business Department Prepares Students for the Workplace

Bellport High School Virtual Enterprise students, along with teachers, Mrs. Sheila Smith and Mrs. Camille Masem traveled to Manhattan to participate in the Virtual Enterprise International Youth Business Summit and Trade Show. In this class, which is in its third year at Bellport High School, students report to “work” daily, simulating a real internet based business. Since September they have operated a virtual business; Savor the Flavor Specialty Foods, Inc., created a website, , as well as invoices, brochures, a catalog, and more to assist them in making sales over the internet and at our trade show booth. Students interacted with “workers” from around the world including Austria, Bulgaria and Indonesia as well as many states across the country. Bellport High School placed 6th out of hundreds in the website competition! At the trade show, our “customers” enjoyed product samples provided by Mrs. Masem’s Culinary Arts classes. Many thanks to the South Country Education Foundation for their support with this event. The International Trade Show is the culminating activity for Virtual Enterprise; a new work- based learning Business Class preparing students for college and the workplace. Pictured left to right, front row Alyssa Kiernan, Kristina English, Stephanie Buckley, back row Jack MacLellan, Donald Miller, Jonathan Hopper, Jamie Giorgi, Mrs. Smith

MLS Innovation enters into market of North Macedonia

(Telecompaper) MLS Innovation announced its entry into the market of North Macedonia, the fifth largest foreign market it enters after Cyprus, Serbia, Bulgaria and Albania...
   Conferinţa ZF/BT Hello, Bucureşti! Antreprenori români, ieşiţi să faceţi businessuri în regiune, nu e deloc greu! Românilor le este greu să iasă cu businessurile în afară pen­tru că istoric am fost ocupaţi, nu am ocupat

Antreprenorii români trebuie să aibă curaj să îşi multiplice businessul la nivel regional, bariera lingvistică nemaifiind un motiv pentru oamenii de afaceri locali să se extindă în ţări precum Bulgaria, Ungaria sau Polonia în condiţiile în care obiceiurile de consum sunt asemănătoare.

Club Worlds legend Sokolov stoked to return with new team Zenit

Lausanne, Switzerland, November 30, 2019 – He already knew he would play for Zenit Kazan in the coming season. Yet in his last match for Cucine Lube Civitanova, the final of the 2019 CEV Champions League, Tsvetan Sokolov top scored 17 points against Zenit to triumph with the trophy. With the 2019 FIVB Club World Championship, coming up from December 3 through 8, the 206-cm-tall Bulgarian is getting ready for another emotional encounter between these two teams in Betim. This time he will be hammering away for the Russian club.

Turkey: Antalya exports prickly cucumbers

Producers in Antalya, a major city located in southern Turkey, grow prickly cucumbers and export them to Russia, Moldova, Ukraine, Georgia and Bulgaria. Farmers in Kumluca district harvest cucumbers in greenhouses and sell them for 3 to 3.50 Turkish Lira (0.47 to 0.55 Euro) per kilo. Producer Suleyman…

Billion fraud with false cryptocurrency "Onecoin" flown


The Bulgarian "OneCoin" inventor Ruja Ignatova has probably brought investors around 4 billion US dollars. From the "crypto-queen", however, lacks any trace and the FBI determined.

The alleged cryptocurrency "Onecoin" is at the center of the largest crypto fraud case yet, but the machinations have been discovered. According to investigators hundreds of thousands of investors could have lost more than $ 4 billion through the alleged cryptocurrency, which promised investors quick riches. Where the money has remained is currently unknown.

The main offender is the Bulgarian Ruja Ignatova. In London and elsewhere, she promoted Onecoin as an elegant inventor and made great promises to investors. Onecoin was touted as a "Bitcoin killer". Media gave her the title of "crypto-queen". She allegedly brought hundreds of thousands of people for her money.

Entrepreneur with mafia relationships

Her brother, Konstantin Ignatov, has according to the investigative site Inner City Press at least confessed to American FBI investigators and admitted several offenses in New York, including money laundering and fraud. Many investors are coming from the UK. The BBC has released a major podcast series about the machinations of the alleged cryptocoin inventor, who also allegedly has connections to the Bulgarian mafia.

Despite all this, there is still a website on which Onecoin stirs the advertising drum. It is advertised with slogans like: "Be part of the financial revolution." and Onecoin is "the first transparent, global cryptocurrency for everyone". The advertised digital money promised high returns for investors. It also announced that millions of people in underdeveloped countries in Africa and Asia will have access to financial services.

Onecoin is a pyramid system

Onecoin was and still is not a cryptocurrency, based on the blockchain technology, but a rather simple pyramid scheme: The first investors could make high profits, as more and more investors put money in the system, but in the end are high losses. Although Onecoin denies any illegal activity on the site, such methods are fraudulent.

In 2017, Onecoin is said to have raised more than $ 4 billion from investors worldwide, including some £ 100 million from British citizens. In October 2017 Ruja Ignatova disappeared suddenly, since then she is wanted by the FBI.

Onecoin in the BBC news:



The Yield Growth Corp. Keeps Growing Like a Weed or a Mushroom -- CFN Media

Seattle, WA - (NewMediaWire) - November 26, 2019 - CFN Media (OTCQB: CNFN), the leading agency and financial media network dedicated to the North American cannabis industry announces publication of an article discussing The Yield Growth Corp. (CSE: BOSS) (OTCQB: BOSQF), its new products, and new distribution agreements to add to its already impressive global reach.While some companies are scratching their heads about what to make of the brutal treatment cannabis stocks have felt this year,The Yield Growth Corp. (CSE: BOSS) (OTCQB: BOSQF) seems undaunted, expanding its cannabis business while rapidly emerging as a leading public company in the mushroom space. The upstart has assembled a management team rich with branding experience earned at companies like Procter & Gamble, Johnson & Johnson, Skechers, Best Buy and M·A·C Cosmetics to build new brands employing old world therapeutics for modern-day ailments.Click here to receive an investor deck and corporate updatesA Global Hemp BrandYield Growth owns the cannabis wellness brands Urban Juve, Wright & Well and Jack n Jane. As hemp-based CBD-based beauty products make their way into the mainstream, Urban Juve, has been featured in popular publications globally, including UK Vogue, Vanity Fair UK and Elle Canada. The timing of the media exposure couldn't be better with Urban Juve products spreading across more than 8,000 retail locations in Canada, Colombia, Brazil, Greece and Cyprus.To the point of Greece, a distribution agreement with Melorganics kicked off this month, sending about 2,500 Urban Juve products to the cradle of Western civilization. Melorganics is responsible for distribution in Greece and Cyprus and with the pact freshly amended, Romania, Bulgaria and Serbia have been added to the list.Urban Juve and Melorganics have moved swiftly to now have 11 Urban Juve products registered in the European Union. With the addition of Romania, Bulgaria and Serbia, Melorganics has committed to place the first purchase order for Urban Juve products for these territories by the end of the year.Click here to receive an investor deck and corporate updatesAt this time, Urban Juve is the primary revenue driver for Yield Growth, so these new sales regions will be important to continue the steep growth trajectory the company is on. During the third quarter, revenue was $1.9 million, a big leap from about $400,000 a year earlier.Trendy Mushrooms, Magic and NotMushrooms are being called by some "the new cannabis," evoking memories of where the cannabis space was a decade ago before the so-called pot stock boom. Yield Growth has moved with a purpose in this field lately, establishing Flourish Mushroom Labs as a subsidiary and making acquisitions that stockpiled the new company with over 130 mushroom recipes for a variety of consumer goods, such as teas, soups and coffees.Flourish Labs intends to initially focus on mushroom coffee, with intentions for the first coffee mix product to be launched in the coming months. It's important to recognize that while "magic" mushrooms, those that contain the psychedelic psilocybin, are certainly part of the equation, they are a smaller part of the strategy right now. Many experts have opined that psilocybin has great potential to treat a number of difficult diseases and conditions, such as depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder, but being a Schedule I drug at the federal level has severely limited clinical research to validate the anecdotal evidence.Recently, Denver and Oakland decriminalized magic mushrooms and reports are that Santa Cruz and Chicago are strongly considering changing their laws as well, perhaps signaling the start of the shift towards legal magic mushrooms much in the same way cannabis and its derivatives have been steadily legalized. Flourish will explore the psychedelic mushroom opportunity as it goes headlong into the functional mushroom space, as many of the product formulas could simply replace one type of functional mushroom with one containing psilocybin as a therapeutic.Click here to receive an investor ...

Briefing - European Capitals of Culture: In search of the perfect cultural event - 28-11-2019

Between 1985 and 2019, 60 cities have held the title of European Capital of Culture – most recently Matera in Italy and Plovdiv in Bulgaria in 2019. Initiated in 1983, by Greece's then Minister of Culture, Melina Mercouri, the concept took shape two years later as an inter-governmental initiative under the name of the 'European City of Culture'. The success of the event was such that in 1999, the Council of the EU transformed it into a Community action, and created a more transparent rotational system for the designation of the titleholder. The selection procedure – last modified in 2014 – places particular focus on the monitoring of proposals, the enhanced European dimension of projects, improved competition between candidate cities, and the redefinition of the selection panel role. As more and more cities enter the European Capitals of Culture race, substantial sums of money are being spent, including on the bidding process. While in the early years of the programme (1985 1994) the average operating budget was around €25 million per city, this amount has more than doubled to reach some €60 million per city for the period 2007-2017. With rising budgets, there is also increased scrutiny of cities, national governments and the EU, as to the wider benefits in terms of the cultural development, social cohesion and city image that most bids promise. This, in turn, has led to more frequent and sophisticated monitoring and evaluation of the whole process, both by the European Commission and by the host cities themselves. The symbolic celebration of European cultural identities is however closely tied to the economic success of the operation. According to experts, over time a number of conflicts and tensions have become apparent due to the multiple and sometimes contradictory objectives of the event, e.g. economic and cultural, to name just two. Additional criticism includes failure to enable local ownership, difficulty in overcoming social divides and exhaustion of local resources. Notwithstanding that, ex-post evaluations of the event show that in general it boosts economic growth and tourism, helps build a sense of community and contributes to urban regeneration.

Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP

Europei 2020, l'Italia nel girone con Galles, Svizzera e Turchia. Mancini: "Non ci sentiamo favoriti"


Il sorteggio dei gironi delle fasi finali degli Europei 2020 sorride all’Italia di Roberto Mancini. Gli Azzurri scenderanno in campo all’Olimpico di Roma contro la Turchia per poi sfidare anche la Svizzera e il Galles. “Le squadre sono tutte competitive. siamo comunque alla fase finale. Certo poteva capitare anche la Francia, ma il nostro è un gruppo equilibrato. Noi stiamo facendo le cose per bene ma c’è da lavorare tanto e migliorare molto da qui all’inizio del torneo, ha detto il ct. Quanto alle previsioni non si sbilancia: “Siamo favoriti? Le partite sono da giocare, e le squadre che affrontiamo sono tutte competitive. Ci aiuta il fatto di giocare in Italia”.

 Le 12 città che ospiteranno la manifestazione sono: Copenaghen, Bucarest, Amsterdam, Dublino, Bilbao, Budapest, Glasgow, Baku, Roma, Monaco di Baviera, San Pietroburgo e Londra. La competizione si concluderà allo stadio Wembley di Londra con le 2 semifinali (in programma 7-8 luglio) e la finalissima il 12 luglio.

Ecco l’elenco completo dei gironi:

- Gruppo A (città ospitanti, Roma e Baku): Italia, Svizzera, Turchia, Galles;

- Gruppo B (San Pietroburgo e Copenaghen), Belgio, Russia, Danimarca, Finlandia;

- Gruppo C (Amsterdam e Bucarest): Ucraina, Olanda, Austria e la vincente degli spareggi del percorso ‘A’ (solo se Romania) o ‘D’ (Georgia, Macedonia del Nord, Kosovo, Bielorussia);

- Gruppo D (Londra e Glasgow): Inghilterra, Croazia, Repubblica Ceca e una proveniente dagli spareggi di marzo (Scozia, Norvegia, Serbia, Israele);

- Gruppo E (Bilbao e Dublino): Spagna, Polonia, Svezia, e una proveniente dagli spareggi di marzo (Bosnia, Slovacchia, Irlanda, Irlanda del Nord);

- Gruppo F (Monaco e Budapest): Germania, Francia, Portogallo e la vincente degli spareggi del percorso ‘A’ (Islanda, Bulgaria, Ungheria) o ‘D’ (Georgia, Macedonia del Nord, Kosovo, Bielorussia).


Balkan dil birliği ve türkçe

Balkan dil birliği ve türkçe Boyacıoğlu, Aycan 19. yüzyılda Ferdinand de Saussere’nin yazılarına dayanarak Avrupa’da yapısal dilbilim ortaya çıktı. 20.yy.da bu akım, çağdaş dilbilimin gelişiminde belirleyici bir rol oynayarak 20li ve 30lu yıllarda Prag dilbilim ekollü yapısal dilbilimin esas olarak alındığı “dil birliği” teorisini ortaya attı (Trubetskoy). Bu teori; çeşitli dil gruplarının veya ailelerinin tarih boyunca çok fazla temasta bulunmasıyla ilkel yapısının değişerek ortak yapısal benzerlikler oluşturabileceği görüşündeydi. Dil birlikleri de bu şekilde oluştu. Bu teorinin en önemli örneklerinden biri de Balkan Dil Birliği’dir. İçerdiği diller Bulgarca/Makedonca, Rumence, Arumence, Arnavutça ve Yunancadır. Bu diller yapısal bakımdan birçok benzerliği paylaşmaktadır. Bu tezde Balkan Dil Birliği’ni inceleyen Balkanolojinin bölgesel dilbilimin ayrı bir kolu olarak ortaya çıkmasını ve gelişimini inceleyeceğiz. Balkan coğrafyası içerisinde yer alan Türkiye’nin dili Türkçe Balkanoloji’den dışlanmıştır. Dışlanma sebepleri ise yapısal dilbilime göre zengin ekleşme ve oldukça gelişmiş hal sistemine sahip olan Türkçe, yapısı bakımından bükümlü ve analitik diller olduğundan Balkan dillerine taban tabana zıt bir dildir. Bu sebeple Balkan Dil Birliği ile uğraşan dilbilimciler Türkçeyi Balkan dili olarak görmemişler ve fiilen dilbilimsel Balkanoloji’den dışlamışlardır. Yani Türkçe yalnızca coğrafi açıdan Balkan dilleri arasında yerini alırken dilbilim açısından Balkan dili olarak kabul edilmemiştir. Türkçenin Balkan dilleri üzerine etkisi, yalnızca leksikoloji alanında sınırlanmıştır, oysa ki Türk dili yapısal dilbilimde de karşımıza çıkmaktadır.; In the 19th century, a structural linguistics emerged in Europe based on the writings of Ferdinand de Saussere. In the twentieth century, this movement played a decisive role in the development of contemporary linguistics and introduced the theory of ğı language unity bir (Trubetskoy), in which, in the 20s and 30s, Prague linguistics was based on structural linguistics. This theory; The fact that various language groups or their families had too much contact throughout history, could change their primitive structure and create common structural similarities. This is the way the language associations. One of the most important examples of this theory is the Balkan Language Association. The languages included are Bulgarian / Macedonian, Romanian, Arumence, Albanian and Greek. These languages share many similarities in structural terms. In this thesis, we will examine the emergence and development of Balkanology as a separate branch of regional linguistics. Located language of Turkey in the Balkans were excluded from the Turkish Balkanology. The reasons for exclusion are Turkish language, which is rich in terms of structural linguistics and has a highly developed state system, and is diametrically opposed to Balkan languages because it is twisted and analytical languages in terms of structure. For this reason, the linguists dealing with the Balkan Language Association did not consider Turkish as Balkan language and de facto excluded it from linguistic Balkanology. In other words, Turkish is not only accepted as a Balkan language in terms of linguistics while it is one of the Balkan languages. The influence of Turkish on Balkan languages is limited not only in lexicology but also in structural linguistics.

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Amazon Translate Now Adds Support for Twenty-two More Languages and Variants - Afrikaans, Albanian, Amharic, Azerbaijani, Bengali, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Dari, Estonian, Canadian French, Georgian, Hausa, Latvian, Pashto, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian, Somali, Swahili, Tagalog, and Tamil


Amazon Translate is a fully managed neural machine translation service that delivers real-time, high-quality, and affordable language translation. Today, we are announcing that Amazon Translate now supports the following more languages and dialects - Afrikaans, Albanian, Amharic, Azerbaijani, Bengali, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Dari, Estonian, Canadian French, Georgian, Hausa, Latvian, Pashto, Serbian, Slovak, Slovenian, Somali, Swahili, Tagalog, and Tamil.


Comparing the Virginia Right to Bear Arms with the Federal

Both the US Constitution and the Virginia Constitution have the right to bear arms baked in.

That a well regulated militia, composed of the body of the people, trained to arms, is the proper, natural, and safe defense of a free state, therefore, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed; that standing armies, in time of peace, should be avoided as dangerous to liberty; and that in all cases the military should be under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power.
Art. I, Sec. 13.
 The highlighted section was added in 1971. Prior to that, it was a reflection of the belief of our founding leaders that a standing army is dangerous and that the citizens could and should stand to the defense of their nation as a militia instead. This belief is also reflected in the preamble section of the right recognized in the Federal Constitution.
A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.
Amend. II.
Inherent in the militia concept is the idea that each person in the militia will possess and bring with him a firearm. In fact, it was a requirement under law. Don't believe it? Here are a few muster notices for various militias.

Notice that they all require the militiaman to report with his weapon. The last one even specifically lays out what weapon and accoutrements the militiaman is required to bring with him.

The federal amendment is notorious for its vagueness. Is the part left of the second comma a condition that controls the language right of that comma? Does it refer to the National Guard and limit the right to guardsmen? Or, does the language right of the second comma recognize a pre-existing right and perhaps specifically, by reference to militia, give a sense of what sorts of "arms" a citizenry has the right keep and bear? Does it guarantee that citizens have a right to weapons which could make them an effective military force if mustered? Or perhaps the language right of the second comma recognizes a right and the language before that comma is just surplusage not relevant in the modern world? It's a quagmire.

The Virginia Declaration of Rights, as modified and included as Article I section 13 of the Virginia Constitution, is in some ways much clearer. There is no doubt that it is referring to everyone in Virginia. It defines "militia" as "the body of the people." That's me, you, and every other permanent resident of Virginia. More specifically, most of us are in the unorganized militia which is a legalistic way of saying that the Commonwealth of Virginia has been failing to train us to arms as it seems required to per this constitutional provision.  BTW, for those of you who don't know, if you're between the ages of 16 to 55 you are subject to activation at the behest of the governor. Of course, the statutes are an overlay and limitations they place on "the body of the people" reflect choices in using the militia; they don't actually limit the composition. In other words, the fact that a statute limits ages of those serving within the militia doesn't mean that the age is actually limited - it just means the Commonwealth will only use those within the given age range.

The conscious decision to place the right to keep and bear arms in the militia section of the Virginia Constitution and adding "therefore" as a connector makes this far less ambiguous than the federal amendment. It applies to members of the militia. However, it makes it clear that we are all members of the militia so that's not a limitation.

The ambiguity is what "arms" means. As this right is specifically tied to militia service it seems to be those types of weapons which would be used by a militia. Note the third call to muster above. The arms for a militia are those which are minimally acceptable for military usage. In other words, if the governor were to call up companies from the unorganized militia and every person showed up with their pistols that unit would be almost completely useless. So, pistols wouldn't be covered by "arms" under the Virginia constitution. On the other hand, were the entire company show up with "assault" rifles the "arms" would be appropriate. This seems to indicate that under the Virginia Constitution pistols would have few protections while assault style rifles would have much more.


Caveat: Yes, we all know the militia concept is outdated and exists now only as a vestige of an unrealistic - one might even say quaint and romanticized - belief of our forefathers that our country could be adequately defended by citizen militias. Nobody believes in this system anymore except for some folks out there forming independent militias which are not what our forefathers meant when they wrote militias into our constitutions. "Who are the militia? They consist now of the whole people, except a few public officers." George Mason (debating Virginia's acceptance of the Federal Constitution). The militias foreseen by our constitutions consist of you and me and everybody in our county called together to serve under an officer or two appointed by the government.

And yet, the militia section is still in the Virginia Constitution and the militia statutes are still on the books. This means that the militia still exists constitutionally and legally  and the constitutional protection pursuant it is still extant.


Caveat 2:  OMG. I'm still subject to recall for military service. Hopefully, the governor of Virginia won't need to call me into militia service for just a couple more years so that I can age out. Of course, the level of desperation that a governor would need to call a overly rotund, terribly out of shape, old guy like me into militia service would probably require a simultaneous invasion by Canada, Mexico, China, Bulgaria, and Species 8472. Even then, a guy whose main job when he was in the Army was to speak Arabic probably wouldn't be of much use. Let's all keep our fingers crossed that it never comes to that.


Local event update: LibreOffice at OpenFest in Sofia, Bulgaria

LibreOffice community members attend many events around the world to spread the word about the software, encourage people to get involved, and have fun! We’re really grateful for all their efforts. On November 2 and 3, the OpenFest 2019 took place in Sofia, Bulgaria, and Gabriele Ponzo was there. Here’s his report: What was the […]

Istoria scrisului pe teritoriul României


„Istoria începe la Sumer” – aceasta era până nu demult ideea general acceptată. Și totuși pe teritoriul României s-au găsit urme de scriere poate și mai vechi, încă din neolitic: tăblițele de la Tărtăria. Sunt trei tăblițe de lut înscrise cu diferite simboluri, găsite în județul Alba. Inscripții asemănătoare, aparținând unei civilizații neolitice comune, au mai fost găsite și în Ungaria, Serbia și Bulgaria, dar cele de la Tărtăria par să fie cele mai vechi, datând de prin 5300 î.e.n., deci ar fi cea mai veche scriere a omenirii, cu 1000 de ani înaintea celei sumeriene! Toate aceste inscripții sunt foarte scurte și datorită numărului redus de semne, ele încă nu au putut fi descifrate. Nici măcar nu se știe dacă este scriere propriu-zisă sau proto-scriere. Din păcate atât autenticitatea cât și datarea tăblițelor de la Tărtăria au fost contestate. Nefiind specialistă în domeniu, nu pot să-mi dau cu părerea. În orice caz dacă primele tăblițe sumeriene au marcat începutul unei civilizații care s-a dezvoltat timp de milenii, lăsând nenumărate mărturii scrise, aici este vorba doar de câteva inscripții izolate. Societatea locală a cunoscut cu adevărat scrisul abia în epoca romană.Read more...

The post Istoria scrisului pe teritoriul României appeared first on BAABEL .


Întâlnirea Donald Trump – Boiko Borisov / Bulgaria, pregătită să creeze la Varna un centru de coordonare NATO

Boiko Borisov a declarat după întâlnirea de două ore avută…

EUROHOLD BULGARIA AD: Eurohold continues to expand sustainably its operations in Southeast Europe in the third quarter




Amatic introduces a large number of new games at BEGE

All the new Amatic games in the Multi Game portfolio are now available to the Bulgarian market. The company also introduced an update kit for the PGA’s already in the market, which can be upgraded to Multi Liner format with wide-screen, high definition monitors and the latest Amatic games.

Albania’s search for quake victims ends; death toll up to 51

TIRANA, Albania – The search and rescue operation for earthquake survivors in Albania has ended, the prime minister said Saturday, with the death toll at 51 and no more bodies believed to be in the ruins.

Prime Minister Edi Rama said preliminary figures showed more than 1,465 buildings in the capital, Tirana, and about 900 in nearby Durres were seriously damaged in Tuesday’s 6.4-magnitude pre-dawn quake.

About 2,000 people were injured.

A woman in Tirana who had been in a coma died, the health ministry said Saturday. Local media reported the 20-year old was injured by a falling brick while leaving her apartment.

In Durres, hundreds of residents as well as Rama and President Ilir Meta attended the funeral of nine members of a single extended family who were killed when a four-story villa collapsed. One young man survived and has been sent to Italy for medical treatment.

Preliminary figures estimate at least 4,000 people are homeless. About 2,500 people from damaged homes have been sheltered in hotels. Others have been taken to neighboring Kosovo or have moved to eastern areas of Albania.

The prime minister has pledged all homeless will be in “stronger homes” in 2020.

The first seriously damaged building has been demolished, and a dozen others are expected to follow. Assessment experts from Greece, France, Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, Lithuania and Latvia are involved.

A new draft law will sentence all investors, architects and supervisors to seven to 15 years in prison for violating construction norms. That and corruption in Albania’s burgeoning building industry have been blamed for much of the quake’s effects.

The government has set up financial compensations for families of the dead, including 1 million Lek ($9,000) per family, special pensions for elders and scholarships for children.

Government and private calls for donations have collected about 15 million euros ($16 million) in three days.

Global pop stars of Albanian origin Dua Lipa, Rita Ora and Bebe Rexha also have made appeals via their social media sites.

Ora said she would help build a home for a homeless family and “myself directly help these families as much as I can!”


6 book recommendations from Joseph Kanon


Joseph Kanon is the Edgar Award–winning author of nine thrillers and spy novels, including The Good German and Defectors. In his latest, The Accomplice, the nephew of a Holocaust survivor tracks an infamous concentration camp doctor to Argentina.

Tinker Tailor Soldier Spy by John le Carré (1974).

The gold standard. The Spy Who Came in From the Cold may have been more influential, but this is le Carré at his peak, and George Smiley's finest hour.

Night Soldiers by Alan Furst (1988).

Readers familiar only with Furst's popular between-the-wars Paris novels will be pleasantly surprised by this lesser-known but even richer work, set in the Balkans on the brink of war and featuring a young Bulgarian who's recruited by Moscow after he witnesses his brother's murder by local fascists. Full of the author's signature smoky atmosphere and conflicted loyalties, it's early but already vintage Furst.

The Quiet American by Graham Greene (1955).

The best of Greene's 1950s novels is the story of an idealistic CIA agent whose naïveté precipitates a tragedy, told by the morally compromised British journalist who sets out to stop him. A lesson in good intentions leading to unexpected consequences, and a preview of the Vietnam disaster about to come.

My Silent War by Kim Philby (1968).

All right, this is a memoir, not a novel, but since its author is a notorious Soviet mole, it's not strictly the truth, either. And it's fascinating in any case. Philby is self-serving, wily, given to playing games with the reader. But he give us an unparalleled look at an agent burrowing into a complacent bureaucracy.

The Company and The Defection of A.J. Lewinter by Robert Littell.

Both of these novels, one published in 2002, the other in 1973, show Robert Littell at his best. Here we see the predigital CIA, aspiring to be an English gentlemen's club but finding itself in the gutters of moral ambiguity instead.

Our Man in Havana by Graham Greene (1958).

Here's a second, but very different, listing for Greene. In a genre where humor is as rare as hope, this is a one-of-a-kind work, a sparkling high comedy that's still funny after all these years, set in pre-Castro Cuba but recognizably Greeneland. Film version bonus: Noël Coward's witty cameo.


Which footballers have restaurants named after them? | The Knowledge


Plus: record wins in unlikely places, successful bunches of amateurs and lowly mascots

Mail us your questions or tweet @TheKnowledge_GU

“In Paris, there’s a restaurant called Joe Allen. Apparently it’s the oldest American restaurant in Paris. This got me wondering, are there any other restaurants that have the same name as footballers?” asked Opta Fred.

There are also the original in New York, plus one in London too. Meanwhile, Robert Lewis gives us another example. “There is a hotel (not a restaurant, but close) in the Bansko ski station in Bulgaria, which goes by the name of Hadji Georgi. This always strikes me as being very similar to the name of Gheorghe Hagi, the great Romanian star. Incidentally, hadji is Bulgarian for ‘saint’, so it is actually the Saint George Hotel. No dragons I’m afraid.” Incidentally, Hagi does own a hotel in his native Romania, named Hotel Iaki.

Continue reading...

Miss Tourism International 2019 - Final Result

Hello ma kabagayan.... Yari ku piyos in result sin Miss Tourism International 2019 amun piya aun kabieh sin pitca 8 november 2019 ha Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Ini in result niya.

Philippines Philippines - Cyrille Payumo

Indonesia Indonesia - Gabriella Patricia Mandolang
1st Runner Up 

Ukraine Ukraine - Katernya Kachashvili
2nd Runner Up

Poland Poland - Joanna Babynko
3rd Runner Up

Cambodia Cambodia - Chan Sotima 
4th Runner Up 

TOP 10
Thailand Thailand - Chompoonut Phungphon

India India -  Rhythm Singh Randhawa

Malaysia Malaysia - Cheryl Loo

Uganda Uganda - Kyeru Phiona
Estonia Estonia - Karolin Kippasto

Thailand Thailand - Chompoonut Phungphon
Miss South East Asia Tourism Ambassadress 2019/2020

Thailand Thailand - Chompoonut Phungphon

Thailand Thailand - Chompoonut Phungphon
Miss SOGO Trendsetter  

Indonesia Indonesia - Gabriella Patricia Mandolang
Miss AGAPE Wellness Beauty

Indonesia Indonesia - Gabriella Patricia Mandolang
Miss Popularity

Indonesia Indonesia - Gabriella Patricia Mandolang
Perak Tourism Ambassadress

Malaysia Malaysia - Cheryl Loo
Miss GINTELL Wellness

Malaysia Malaysia - Cheryl Loo
Miss Glamorous Carlo Rino

Malaysia Malaysia - Cheryl Loo
Miss Glorious Beautyful 

India India -  Rhythm Singh Randhawa
Best In Social Media 

India India -  Rhythm Singh Randhawa
Miss Legend Age Fascinating Lips 

Japan Japan - Kana Matsumura
Miss XMA Charm    

Philippines Philippines - Cyrille Payumo
Best National Costume

Bulgaria Bulgaria - Dzhenifar Ohanes Koyunian
Best In Talent

Australia Australia - Charli Kiarra Wookey
Miss Photogenic

Finland Finland - Daneila Kalvilainen
Miss Friendship

Ukraine Ukraine - Katernya Kachashvili
Miss Focus Point Dazzling


Dec 26, Bulgaria: Second Day of Christmas

Several countries and regions around the world extend their public holidays for Christmas beyond 25th December. For more information on this holiday, visit the link.

Jan 01, Bulgaria: New Year's Day

New Year's Day is a public holiday in all countries that observe the Gregorian calendar, with the exception of Israel. For more information on this holiday, visit the link.

Bulgaria - the surprise choice for ski holidays

AFFORDABLE luxury – the dream ticket for many holidaymakers. However, you seldom find those two words in the same sentence, especially when booking a winter break.

Chi è Baba Vanga?


Chi è Baba Vanga? Le profezie di una donna cieca dalla Bulgaria sono state usate dai teorici della cospirazione come prova che era in grado di prevedere il futuro. Le affermazioni di Baba Vanga sono state collegate ad eventi come gli attacchi dell’11 settembre e gli attacchi chimici siriani. Ecco tutto ciò che devi sapere. Chi è la mistica cieca Baba Vanga? Baba Vanga, nata Vangelia Pandeva Dimitrova, è cresciuta a Strumica, un villaggio situato ai piedi di una catena montuosa vulcanica in quello che all’epoca era l’Impero Ottomano. Morì nel 1995, all’età di 85 anni, e fu soprannominata “Nostradamus

L'articolo Chi è Baba Vanga? proviene da Nuovo Universo.


Carte Blanche for Political Abuse

Bulgaria has established one of the most aggressive confiscation regimes in Europe, allowing seizure of assets without a criminal conviction and putting the burden of proof in the procedure on the owner. Bulgarian law, as it stands, has no specific safeguards to prevent misuse, and has been criticized by the European Court of Human Rights in cases like Dimitrovi v Bulgaria. Furthermore, questions have been raised as government opponents and critics seem to be prime targets of these confiscation measures. In a preliminary reference to the Court of Justice of the European Union from Sofia’s City Court on that issue, Advocate General Eleanor Sharpston has recently delivered her opinion which leaves the door wide open for political abuse by Bulgarian authorities.

VA - The Taste Of Gold / 2019 / МР3


Категория: Музыка
Размер: 1.55 GB
Траффик: Раздают (отдают): 6, Скачивают (качают): 3
Добавлен: 2019-11-29 14:19:42
Описание: Исполнитель: VA
Название альбома: The Taste Of Gold
Год выпуска: 2019
Жанр: House, Techno

001. Jclarke1880 - Mekhong (Original Mix)
002. Chiqito - Get Funky (Original Mix)
003. Traumfabrik - Jack To Jack (Original Mix)
004. Hokasa Toro - Build Up (A.I. Beats Mix)
005. Morpei - Not Your Business
006. Jero Likchay - Minimal Illusion (Ian Mart Remix)
007. Risc - Magform (Original Mix)
008. Julio Leal - Macumba (Original Mix)
009. Tacky Land - Future Spring (Original Mix)
010. Simone De Biasio - My Frequency (Original Mix)
011. Ulun - Digital Sand (Original Mix)
012. Techno Mama - Chatterbox
013. Kenji Cako - Check This Out (Tech Voice Mix)
014. Joaco - La Grave (Ilya Gushin Remix)
015. Arctic White - Dispatcher (Original Mix)
016. Sam Sky - The Mission (Original Mix)
017. Roger White - Missing Groove (Original Mix)
018. Antonio Manero Spaziani - Why (Original Mix)
019. Epic Hunters - How's It Going
020. Marco Corcella - Let's Dance (Original Mix)
021. Buchecha - Clockwork Bomb (Original Mix)
022. Enrico Chirchiello - Get It Back (Original Mix)
023. Sebastian Fleischer - Feel The Room
024. Black V Neck - Listen To My Flute
025. Alfrenk - p It
026. Souphuriko - Bunker Of Love
027. Tempus Domina - Invoice Tempo (Tech Mix)
028. Mandragora - Classic Vee (Kabalistic Mix)
029. Dj Csemak - Funk From Blood (Original Mix)
030. Big Bunny - Rains (Techno Red Dub Remix)
031. The Soul Elephant - Fizz (Original Mix)
032. Gidronique - Compozith
033. Jona Davis - Cosmic Void (Original Mix)
034. Moviero - Good Bye
035. Jordi Svit - Big Daddy
036. Last System - Mysterious Times (Tech Mix)
037. Island Starr - Malaga Sun (Beach Mix)
038. Jibbeat - Bass Up (Original Mix)
039. Fiutz - La Balada
040. The Advent - Kombination 100 (Original Mix)
041. Ian Rans - Orchestra Of Minimal
042. Micky La Freak - Drugs (Original Mix)
043. Order 212 - Emergency On Planet (Siren Mix)
044. The Sloppy 5th's - Flygirl Got Dissed
045. Alberto Herrera - Yankra (Original Mix)
046. Hsu - The River (Original Mix)
047. Tech 4 - Prepare (Basic Mix)
048. B.3.K. - Distorted Poetry (Original Mix)
049. Heavenchord - The Taste Of Rain
050. Sander Dee - Fox Town (Cool Mix)
051. Frost Man - Xuxa (Extended Mix)
052. Dany Cohiba - The Iluminati (Original Mix)
053. Dive Craft - Sentiment (Original Mix)
054. Galo Di Ami - It's Called Rumba
055. Bozoo Romle - Forever (Original Mix)
056. R.V.O - Merlin 500
057. Alessio Ferrari - Spalletta (Original Mix)
058. Cid Mentz - Faded
059. Stanui - Dekotoled (Original Mix)
060. Luchiiano Vegas - Holmes Was Here
061. Pedro Mercado - Natural Smile (Original Mix)
062. Maurizio Basilotta - Twisted Groove (Original Mix)
063. Jason Rivas - Change
064. Ian Mart - Notorio Urkel (Original Mix)
065. Fivep - Ration
066. Julian Smith - Blonde Pleasures (Original Mix)
067. Andre Pulse - Parusia (Darko De Jan Remix)
068. Cosmonov - Let's Start The Game
069. Ickly - Voices In My Head (Minitronik Remix)
070. Vyral - Microdot (Original Mix)
071. Dillon Tap - Shunner
072. Alex Delgado - African Song (Original Mix)
073. Gorin - Click
074. Jordy Mac - Mental Game (Original Mix)
075. Kambooja - Crime Of Passion (Tech Metric Mix)
076. Resident Alpha - Desert In My Mind (Progression Mix)
077. Underground Massive - Deo Fog (U Mix)
078. R.Hz - Another Side (Original Mix)
079. Junemix - Man Inside Bass (Original Mix)
080. Dema B - Suburban
081. Martin Frank - Africana (Original Mix)
082. Kamion B - Light A Rainbow
083. Skylab - Keep It Going (Original Mix)
084. Domenico Mastandrea - Like This
085. Sander Klepper - Baseroller
086. Fab Stellar - Party On The Beach
087. Denny Kay - Stranno (Original Mix)
088. Robin Dee Jay - Midnight Love (Original Mix)
089. Nick Warm - Keep It Up (Original Mix)
090. Jhon L - Jazz Minimal (Original Mix)
091. Modular Phaze - Battalion Unchained
092. Mr. Bassline - My Bassline (Tech Republic Mix)
093. Mr. Ectectic - Kaspaka (Tech Organ Mix)
094. Andrea Casula - Trompettes Du Jugement
095. Automaki - Futomaki (Artificial Mix)
096. Casini Grooves - Love In Casini (Dance Train Mix)
097. Benja Molina - In My Head
098. Dubsco - Good Inside (Original Mix)
099. Julien Lambies - Las Gaviotas (Original Mix)
100. Wrighty - Static (Original Mix)
101. Nuendo - This Groove (Original Mix)
102. Soultech - Arecybo (Drumular Beats)
103. Dann Handers - Deep Tecnology (Dreamtronik Mix)
104. Paggi & Costanzi - Funkamerica (Original Mix)
105. Røcca - Body Control
106. Luca Lento - Earrings At The Club (Original Mix)
107. A-Drex - From The Dust (Original Mix)
108. Johnes - The Beat (Original Mix)
109. Benny Camaro - Boogie (Original Mix)
110. Boiler K - Techno Drama (Boiler Ibiza Mix)
111. Bvssics - The House (Original Mix)
112. Abro - Return
113. Nathan Mots - Sun Trail
114. Raul Desid - Funcky Mont
115. Travel - Bulgarian (Incisions Remix)

Аудио: MP3, 320 Кбит/с
Продолжительность: 11:27:17

Șase medalii: palmaresul echipelor României la Turneul Internaţional de Informatică Shumen 2019

27 Noi 2019

Echipele României (juniori și seniori) au obținut șase premii la a XI-a ediție a Turneului Internaţional de Informatică Shumendouă medalii de argint și patru medalii de bronz.

Medaliile de argint au fost cucerite de Cezar Trişcă - Vicol (clasa a XI-a/Colegiul Naţional Mihai Eminescu” din Botoşani) - seniori, respectiv Andrei Moldovan (clasa a VIII-a/Şcoala Gimnaziala nr. 79 din Bucureşti) - juniori.

Medaliile de bronz, la seniori, au intrat în posesia elevilor Maria-Alexa Tudose (clasa a XI-a/Colegiul Național „Ion Luca Caragiale” din Ploieşti) și Şerban-Ion Cercelescu (clasa a XI-a/Liceul Teoretic Internaţional de Informatică din Bucureşti). La juniori, au obţinut medalii de bronz Alexandru Dobleagă (clasa a VII-a/Colegiul Naţional „I.L. Caragiale” din Ploiești) și Ştefan Ţaga (clasa a VIII-a/Colegiul Naţional „Mihai Viteazul” din Ploiești).

Cele două loturi au fost coordonate de profesorii Marcel Drăgan (Colegiul Naţional „Samuel von Brukenthal” din Sibiu) și Dan-Octavian Dumitrașcu (Colegiul  Naţional „Dinicu Golescu” din Câmpulung, jud. Argeş) și de studenții Livia Măgureanu (Universitatea din București și Denis-Andrei Banu (Universitatea „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” din Iaşi).

Competiţia s-a desfăşurat în Bulgaria (Shumen), în perioada 20-24 noiembrie, cu participarea a peste 60 de concurenți (seniori și juniori) din Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Kazahstan, Moldova, România, Rusia, Ucraina şi Serbia.



Wedding Glasses,Crystal Wine Glasses, Blue White Wedding, Beach Wedding, Toasting Glasses, Hand Painted Set of 2 by NevenaArtGlass


50.00 EUR

Wedding Glasses,Crystal Wine Glasses, Blue White Wedding, Beach Wedding, Toasting Glasses, Hand Painted Set of 2
Elegant Crystal wine glasses, hand painted and decorated. Blue and White color combination, floral pattern, pearls. Soft white frost effect on the glass surface.

Great addition to a blue and white wedding reception. Unique wedding or anniversary gift.
One of a kind free hand painted glasses. Author's design.

Height 21cm
15cl / 5 oz
Gift pack and Ready to ship!

To Personalized these glasses:
I can paint your names on the base of the glasses.
When you purchase, please leave names and date in "message/note to the seller"

Only hand washing with mild soap and soft sponge. Do not soak in water.
Please contact me for detailed information.

Please, note that I'm in Bulgaria, Europe and airmail delivery for countries outside Europe can take between 2 to 4 weeks, even longer at busier times such as Christmas.


Ireland, 4th highest in Europe for electricity costs

Ireland is the now the fourth most expensive country in the European Union for household electricity.

New figures from Eurostat show we trail just behind Belgium and Denmark, with Germany being the most expensive.

Grace Bolton of the European Commission office in Dublin says the cheapest electricity in Europe is supplied in Bulgaria and Hungary.

​Financial report A fost scos sistemul de sănătate britanic la vânzare? "Criza capitalismului" nu este cea pe care o cred europenii. Stratfor: Ar putea reporni războiul rece în America Latină?

Financial Times: A fost scos sistemul de sănătate la vânzare? Depinde de cât de multă încredere ai în Boris Johnson. ● The Guardian: "Criza capitalismului" nu este cea pe care o cred europenii.● Dnevnik: De unde vin turiştii străini în Bulgaria ● Stratfor: Ar putea reporni războiul rece în America Latină?

OECD releases peer review reports on dispute resolution

The reports of Brazil; Bulgaria; China (People's Republic of); Hong Kong, China; Indonesia; Russian Federation and Saudi Arabia published contain around 190 targeted recommendations that will be followed up in stage 2 of the peer review process.

Iraqi/ bulgarian trophy helmet

Hello everyone. I bought this helmet on a trip to the states about 10 years ago. It was purchased privately along with an ACH ( they're a lot...

Diez años del caso De Miguel: el escándalo de corrupción de dirigentes del PNV, ante su sentencia


Miércoles, 2 de diciembre de 2009. El reloj marcaba exactamente las 11.30 horas cuando una joven abogada urbanista y empresaria vizcaína, Ainhoa Alberdi, accedió a los despachos de la Fiscalía en el Palacio de Justicia de Vitoria con una grabadora y un portafolios. Algo le decía que aquel paso que llevaba sopesando un año entero iba a cambiarlo todo, incluida su vida. "Siento temor por las consecuencias que se pudieran derivar de mi comparecencia", le llegó a confesar a quien le recibió, el fiscal jefe de Álava, Josu Izaguirre. Aquel era el año de la Gürtel en el PP y la corrupción empezaba a estar en la agenda política en España. Y Alberdi almacenaba en una Olympus VN-5500 24 grabaciones en las que se escucha que el pago de comisiones por la obtención de contratos públicos entraba "dentro de lo normal".

Ella misma –según lleva narrando sin variaciones en esta década– había sido invitada a 'pasar por caja' en el despacho del entonces 'número dos' del PNV de Álava y diputado de Urbanismo, Alfredo de Miguel, a quien todo el mundo conocía y conoce como Txitxo. ¿Cuánto? 100.000 euros. La resolución de aquello y de todo lo que ha venido después llegará en unos días, el 17 de diciembre, cuando se hará pública la sentencia de más de 1.000 páginas del mayor juicio de esta naturaleza que se ha conocido en Euskadi justamente un año después de que acabaran las vistas.

Lea aquí toda la cobertura del 'caso De Miguel'

Txitxo, que cumpliría 38 años al día siguiente de la denuncia, lo tenía todo para liderar el PNV de Álava: juventud, poder y, sobre todo, influencia política. Implicado desde muy joven en la fontanería de EGI y del partido mientras cobraba de sociedades públicas a las que accedía como cargo de confianza, en 2000 se convirtió en secretario del Araba Buru Batzar (ABB) bajo la protección de José María Gerenabarrena primero y de su sobrino Iñaki después. Y en 2007 en diputado foral, un cargo en el que era conocido como "el hombre del maletín". De Miguel compartía con otros dos compañeros de la Ejecutiva 'jeltzale', Aitor Tellería y Koldo Ochandiano, una sociedad a nombre de las esposas de los tres llamada Kataia Consulting, ubicada en el almacén de la empresa de bebidas del cuñado del político, Miguel Ángel Díaz Arana, un local luego reconvertido en 'txoko' o sociedad gastronómica. Alberdi señaló esa sociedad como la aparente tapadera para el cobro de las mordidas, ya que apenas tenía actividad pero sí abultados ingresos. Su hermana Aintzane ejercía de contable.

La empresaria compartía con un constructor afiliado al PNV y contratista habitual de instituciones de este partido, Jon Iñaki Echaburu, una asesoría llamada Urbanorma Consulting que había recibido 'a dedo' el contrato para gestionar la ampliación del parque tecnológico de Álava, una sociedad pública dirigida por otro cargo peneuvista, Alfonso Arriola, exdirectivo del Deportivo Alavés. Echaburu se encargaba de las relaciones públicas y Alberdi del trabajo de campo. Pero el constructor se vio sumido en una gran crisis y su socia le compró el 100% de las acciones. Ahí es cuando descubrió –según ha explicado– que el contrato de Miñano incluía el pago de una mordida al conseguidor, a un De Miguel que aparentemente no tenía cargo alguno en el parque tecnológico pero a quien Arriola –según ha admitido– le pidió nombres antes de la adjudicación.

"No se trataba de una loca", explicó Izaguirre sobre su primera impresión de Alberdi durante el juicio de este caso, que nunca ha tenido más nombre que el código alfanumérico de los sucesivos expedientes judiciales pero que ha sido bautizado como 'caso De Miguel' por el apellido de su principal protagonista. Al fiscal le produjo "gran vértigo" el asunto que tenía entre manos, pero inició una investigación secreta aquel diciembre de 2009. En algunos momentos Izaguirre ha hablado de "prácticas propias de Sicilia" al describir acciones como los encuentros de Tellería y De Miguel con el padre de la empresaria para recordarle que su hija tenía una "deuda". "Mi denuncia no gustó a nadie. Existen venganzas desde el principio hasta casi el día de hoy", ha llegado a decir la denunciante, que lo hizo por "convencimiento de justicia" pero que cree que "quizás debería haber reflexionado más las consecuencias".

"Vamos a pagar una comisión"

En marzo de 2010, Izaguirre puso el asunto en manos de un juez de instrucción, Roberto Ramos, quien ordenó las primeras ocho detenciones y gestionó la macroinvestigación hasta su final en 2015. El trabajo de Ramos, que nunca tuvo refuerzo y que ha sido atacado por tierra, mar y aire por las defensas de los políticos y empresarios imputados, mostró que detrás de Txitxo y de Kataia Consulting había una trama mucho mayor. Apareció, por ejemplo, una recalificación de 65 millones de euros en la minúscula localidad alavesa de Zambrana. Tanto los promotores catalanes como un socio de De Miguel, el también 'jeltzale' Josu Arruti, han confesado que en aquella operación se le pagaron comisiones a Txitxo y que podían haber sido muchas más si el proyecto hubiese cristalizado. El político se implicó para ello desde su cargo en la Diputación.

"Resulta ser que no te extrañas de que te pidan estas cosas. Mire, hemos abierto empresas en Rumanía, Bulgaria, Ecuador, Panamá… El primer día te esperan para lo que quieren cobrar. Esto era para dinamizar el proyecto, para poder mejorar o sacar los obstáculos que pueda haber en un proyecto de tanta importancia. Me dijo: 'Para la fluidez en las relaciones con la Administración sería conveniente tener alguien que ya conozco y tiene influencia'. Al final vas esperando a que se delate. 'Más o menos unos 160.000 euros para mí y 160.000 para otro señor'. Yo aún no sabía el nombre. Lo supe después. Lo pensé… Al final, cuando haces una inversión de tanto dinero... 160.000 es mucho dinero pero quizás es poco si te puede estropear todo. ¿Me la juego o no me la juego? Es una mancha en mi vida que yo haya pagado una comisión. Esto es muy grave, el estar sentado aquí hay que superarlo mentalmente. En fin, lo pensamos y dijimos '¡nos tiramos a la piscina!' Vamos a pagar comisión y pagamos comisión", detalló el que fuera gerente de Construcciones Riera, Francesc Fernández Joval.

En la misma época, otro constructor, Prudencio Hierro, se hizo cargo de la factura de la reforma de una vivienda de la esposa del político en Gorliz, en la costa vizcaína. Igualmente, hay constancia de otros pagos de Echaburu a la red de empresas controlada por De Miguel. Porque Txitxo, en efecto, gestionaba un puñado de mercantiles con movimientos cruzados y a veces opacos. Negocios reales algunos y extrañísimos otros, como una promoción de viviendas en la Costa del Sol o la importación de miel y vino de Argentina. Otro de los acusados, Sergio Fernández Oleaga, lo llamaba "padrino". La mujer de Ochandiano, Iratxe Gaztelu-Urrutia, le entregó 30.000 euros en billetes de 500 en plena calle.

Algunas de esas sociedades, como Errexal y Ortzi Muga, además de la propia Kataia Consulting, recibieron contratos 'a dedo' del entonces director de Juventud del Gobierno vasco, Xabier Sánchez Robles, y no consta que en la mayoría de los casos los trabajos encomendados se realizaran. Sánchez Robles, que se enfrenta también a una importante pena de prisión, presentó en el juicio los documentos sellados que acreditarían la falsedad de esas acusaciones, pero lo que se sospecha es que en verdad lo falso sean esas supuestas pruebas de descargo.

Txitxo, a punto de declararse culpable

Si la investigación se completó en 2015 después de años de trabajo intenso por parte del juez Ramos –no hubo un solo mes sin diligencias en cinco años salvo el parón final para redactar el auto de cierre de la instrucción–, hasta enero de 2018 no se inició el macrojuicio. En el banquillo se sentaron 26 imputados. Salvo excepciones, la estrategia de defensa pasó, simultáneamente, por negar cualquier credibilidad a las acusaciones de corrupción y por asegurar que las pruebas o estaban ilícitamente aprehendidas o directamente manipuladas. Singularmente ha dado mucho que hablar un cuaderno manuscrito hallado en el camarote de la vivienda de Ochandiano en el que hay alusiones directas a porcentajes, facturas y dinero negro que coinciden con movimientos reales.

El juicio se alargó todo el año. Y en verano pudo dar un giro de 180 grados ya que De Miguel, Tellería, Ochandiano, Echaburu y otros acusados estuvieron a punto de declararse culpables a cambio de una rebaja en las elevadas peticiones de penas de la Fiscalía. Txitxo incluso tenía decidido admitir que la denuncia de Alberdi, a la que tanto se ha denostado, era cierta. Pero se negó en el último momento. Sin embargo, no todos le siguieron esta vez. La unidad se rompió y otros acusados interpretaron que una vez abierta esa puerta era imposible cerrarla. Arruti y los empresarios catalanes sí pactaron con el Ministerio Fiscal y admitieron los hechos y la existencia de comisiones ilegales. Arruti y sus familiares incluso devolvieron 130.000 euros como asunción de responsabilidades antes de que terminara el proceso. Hierro también admitió que pagó la reforma de la vivienda de Gorliz, aunque se quedó en que para ahorrarle un pico de IVA.

Todo ello puso a De Miguel contra las cuerdas. Primero atacó a los que habían colaborado con la Fiscalía por ver "sospechosas" sus confesiones –no hicieron nada distinto a lo que él exploró– y luego tomó la palabra el último día del juicio para realizar una extraña alocución final: "Ha habido cosas que he hecho mal y me arrepiento, pero no me he enriquecido".

Consulte aquí las penas solicitadas para los 26 acusados

Tras meses de deliberaciones por parte del tribunal de la Audiencia Provincial de Álava compuesto por Jaime Tapia (presidente), Elena Cabero (ponente) y Raúl Aztiria (que ya ha abandonado este puesto), el fallo del 'caso De Miguel' se conocerá el 17 de diciembre. Será en una vista pública a la que los acusados podrán asistir o no. La fecha se ha ido retrasando y se conoció de manera definitiva al día siguiente de las elecciones generales de noviembre. Del contenido nada se sabe. El hermetismo es absoluto. Sí que es notorio que el fallo será extenso y detallado, de más de 1.000 páginas, y que se entregará en memorias USB y no en papel.

Políticamente, el PNV defiende que, como partido, nada tiene que ver con el caso. La última vez este noviembre en La Sexta, cuando Aitor Esteban terció para dejarlo claro. Insiste en que está demostrado que no hubo financiación ilegal, aunque el juez Ramos nunca lo investigara en esos términos. Sostiene que los acusados fueron apartados de sus cargos institucionales y orgánicos nada más conocerse su implicación y, de hecho, De Miguel dimitió a las horas de ser detenido. La Ejecutiva actual del PNV alavés poco o nada tiene que ver con el anterior equipo de Gerenabarrena y Txitxo. Pero no es menos cierto que los acusados han seguido teniendo apoyos internos importantes, sobre todo el del portavoz parlamentario y presidente de Gipuzkoa, Joseba Egibar, que llegó a abrazar públicamente a De Miguel o a sentenciar, hace solo un año y en el Parlamento, que Txitxo nunca se había lucrado.

Y todo a pesar de que constan extracciones de dinero de Kataia Consulting tras el ingreso de los pagos por Zambrana para la adquisición de un Saab, para comprar joyas o para viajes a Benidorm o Extremadura. En los audios de Alberdi hay una frase del constructor Echaburu que deja sin respuesta cuando ella le pregunta por el destino final de la comisión: "¿Es para el partido o así?". "Pues no lo sé, ellos lo van a establecer".


Successo delle eccellenze calabresi in Bulgaria

La IV Settimana della Cucina Italiana nel Mondo, il tradizionale appuntamento patrocinato dal Ministero degli Affari Esteri e della Cooperazione Internazionale, dal Ministero delle Politiche Agricole alimentari e Forestali, dal Ministero dell'Istruz ...

FOOT : (mercredi) 27.11.2019 (GMT + 00) +

[size=19]UEFA Ligue des Champions[/size] [size=19]17:55 FC Valence - Chelsea FC[/size] [size=19]ARENA SPORT 2[/size] [size=19]-BulgariaSat 1.9 ° E- 12380 H 30000 -Tandberg[/size] [size=19]Varzish Sport HD[/size] [size=19]-NSS 57 ° E-11565 H 10750 -FTA[/size] [size=19]-Yahsat52,5 ° E-11785 H 27500-FTA[/size] [size=19]CBC SPORT HD[/size] [size=19]-AzerSpace 46 ° E-11135 H 27500 -FTA / BISS[/size] [size=19]Asr TV[/size] [size=19]-MonacoSat52 ° E-10845 V 27500-FTA[/size] [size=19]17:55 ...

FOOT : (mardi) 26.11.2019 (GMT + 00)

Nelmsat UEFA Ligue des Champions 17h55 Lokomotiv Moscou - Bayer 04 Leverkusen ARENA SPORT 2 -BulgariaSat 1.9 ° E- 12380 H 30000 -Tandberg Varzish Sport HD -NSS 57 ° E-11565 H 10750 -FTA -Yahsat52,5 ° E-11785 H 27500-FTA IRIB Varesh -Badr 26 ° E -12265 H 30000 -FTA / Biss -Badr 26 ° E -11881 H 27500 -FTA / Biss (DVB-S2) -Intelsat 62 ° E -11555 V 30000 -FTA / Biss Rencontre! la télé -Yamal 90 ° E -11471 V 11159 -FTA -Yamal 90 ° E-3645 L 28000 -Biss (bande C) -Express 140 ° E -3675 R ...

SUZOHAPP presenta sus últimos productos y un nuevo sitio web en BEGE

Hasta hoy a las 18.00, hora local en Sofía, Bulgaria, la compañía exhibirá su gama completa de productos incluyendo monitores, cerraduras, impresoras, escáneres, manejo de billetes y monedas, piezas de gabinetes y el nuevo sitio web Components, que está diseñado para conectar a los operadores y fabricantes de equipos originales con los recursos que necesitan rápidamente.

Climate Action Day: A Just Transition from Coal Where No One is Left Behind

Republic Thermal Power Plant, Bulgaria © WWF-BulgariaEvery region and every community is different. As EU countries wake up to the climate emergency and the need for a swift transition to a sustainable and carbon-neutral society, it is becoming increasingly clear that we need regional and community-level transition strategies to ensure that no one is left behind. Indeed, the UN Paris Climate Agreement itself recognises this. The countries in the Danube Basin, Green Heart of Europe are no exception.

Phasing out fossil fuel-based electricity generation, especially coal, is a prerequisite for fulfilling the European Union's commitment to the Paris Agreement and the leadership role the EU strives to have in global climate policy. Not all regions will automatically benefit from the transition to net-zero emissions. However, with proactive and inclusive management, the transition can be a driver for sustainable economic development and social progress everywhere. Such a major change must be accompanied by a comprehensive Just Transition strategy aiming at minimising hardships for workers and their communities in the associated industries through active political and financial support, as well as shifting local economies towards sustainable economic activities.
A Just Transition from Coal in Eastern and Southern Europe Project
The goal of this project is to develop tailor-made transition strategies away from coal and towards sustainable economic activities to economically transform specific regions in Bulgaria (Southwest Bulgaria), Greece (Western Macedonia), and Poland (Silesia). The work is being supported by best practice examples from Germany. A key message is to make the stakeholders from Bulgaria, Greece, Poland, as well as Germany and Brussels recognise "just transition" as a fully legitimate part of climate change policy.
WWF's call for a just transition to a sustainable and carbon-neutral society by 2050 and a New Deal for Nature and People requires action and engagement from all stakeholders to develop and implement bespoke economic diversification and transition plans. To ensure public acceptance and transparency, the project includes capacity-building workshops in Bulgaria, Greece and Poland to engage local stakeholders, trade unions, journalists and civil society organisations, as well as relevant regional, national, and EU decision-makers. Study trips for relevant stakeholders are organised in each of the four countries to learn about the regional challenges and experiences with transition so far, and to meet local stakeholders. The study trips catalyse cross-fertilisation of ideas amongst the stakeholders from the different regions. Moreover, a range of advocacy activities are being conducted towards national and EU institutions with the objective of raising awareness on just transition among policy makers so as to make it an appropriately funded, integral component of national and European climate policy.
Signs of Change
On October 16 in Brussels, a group of 41 mayors from 10 coal regions in 9 European countries launched  a statement supporting a just transition to the post-coal era, including mayors from Germany, Slovakia, Poland, Romania, Greece, Bulgaria and the Czech Republic. Two of the mayors presented this statement to the EU Commission's Deputy Director-General for Energy, Klaus-Dieter Borchardt at the meeting of the EU "Coal Regions in Transition Platform." The Platform aims to help regions overcome their dependence on coal by developing sustainable economic activities.
A recent study by WWF-Bulgaria in the southwest coal region in Bulgaria provides 3 scenarios for possible development of the region. The study will become the basis for an active public discussion that will catalyse solutions based on the region's advantages. They should overcome the gradual depopulation and depersonalization of the territory and should lead to the formation of prosperous and attractive areas for the development of sustainable economic activities. Decarbonisation policies and measures may in fact become the driving force for sustainable economic growth and social progress. This can be done with the active participation of the employees and workers who are most directly affected.

The analysis is an attempt to plan the future of coal regions in Bulgaria and to serve as a tool for policy planning and long-term strategic decision-making first in the districts of Pernik, Kyustendil, Blagoevgrad and Sofia (without the city of Sofia); mainly in the municipalities of Bobov Dol (Bobovdol field) and Pernik (Pernik field), as well as the already non-operational Simitli (Pirin field) and Gotse Delchev (Kanina mine)
The Energy Situation
The total coal reserves in Southwest Bulgaria are estimated to be small, consisting predominantly of lignite. Struma Province contains 85% of the lignite deposits and reserves in Bulgaria. The area includes the Bobovdol field, Pernik field and Pirin field. There are two operational thermal power plants (TPPs) in the region. Closing down TPP Bobov Dol (Bobov Dol municipality and TPP Republika (Pernik municipality) will leave an annual 903,781 MWh energy gap that will need to be filled by alternative sustainable sources.
Economic Alternatives
There are over 150 protected areas of all types in Southwest Bulgaria, including two of the country's three national parks: Rila NationalPark (the largest in Bulgaria) and Pirin National Park (also a UNESCO World Heritage Site). These conditions favour the development of various forms of tourism, organic farming, organic stock-breeding, sustainable forestry and fishing. Moving in this direction would also comply with the desire that economic activities should be compatible with the conservation of valuable species, habitats and nature in general. This fact should be a prerequisite for a sustainable future and be taken into account when deciding on alternative economic investments in the region.
Scenarios Outlined in the Study
  • Scenario 1: Maintaining the Status Quo is extremely insufficient to bring about changes in the socio-economic situation of the region, the demographic trends and the investment climate. It could ultimately lead to an unplanned closure of the energy and coal industry in its present form, a situation which does not meet the objectives of a just transition to a clean energy economy. Therefore Scenario 1 is not recommended.
  • Scenario 2: based on the Internal Opportunities and Advantages of the region provides for economic and territorial transformation. This transformation must overcome the extraction and burning of coal, but at the same time should preserve the regional economy. This comes close to the goals of just transition.
  • Scenario 3: A "Creative Upgrade" with the participation of foreign investors is the most favourable for the region. The scenario envisages complete economic and territorial transformation, overcoming the negative demographic trends and establishing a favourable investment climate  – factors that can lead to the achievement of a just transition.
The present analysis is not a panacea; it does not discuss all the possible solutions, nor does it propose all possible measures and actions that could be taken. Their number cannot be exhausted within a single document. Nevertheless, it is a necessary begin the process of transition to a clean energy economy in order to create new growth. Regardless of which route will be chosen, it will be long and will require the efforts not only of those directly employed in the coal mining and coal burning sector, but also of the state, business, trade unions, regions and the non-governmental sector.
Meanwhile, while not part of the WWF project, the CEE Bankwatch Network supported local residents in Slovakia to get a Just Transition plan for the Slovak Upper Nitra coal region approved in June, 2019. The local community had been working to prepare their inputs and scenarios for the transformation of the region since 2018. CEE Bankwatch says that while the plan rejects Hornonitrianske bane Prievidza's (HBP) scheme to open a new mine at the Novaky Coal Complex, and local input has resulted in a plan that aims for "developing economic activities in symbiosis with a clean environment," it fails to set a clear date for the phase-out of coal in Slovakia. If the Action Plan had contained clear commitments to put an end to coal, Slovakia could have become a true model of good practice for Central and Eastern Europe and show how other coal regions in neighbouring countries could transition away from coal in a participatory manner.  Without a coal phase-out, however, the plans for carbon neutrality are more difficult to implement. The organisation says that the Slovak Government should muster the courage to set a deadline for coal. This would be the definitive sign that the Action Plan is taken seriously and will be implemented. Even so, it is a true victory for local communities in the Upper Nitra.
Next Steps
In order to assist regional and national authorities develop strategies for, and implementing a just transition at the regional level, guidelines in the form of Seven Golden Rules were identified by the partners of the Europe Beyond Coal Network. The full implementation of these rules will ensure effective stakeholder participation in the process of selecting and implementing projects, without which the transition strategies will be much less effective, or could even be counterproductive. Applying these rules will be important to enable a speedy, socially-just regional transformation beyond coal in line with the EU's obligations under the UN Paris Climate Agreement. We call on the European Commission to adopt these guidelines to ensure a just and sustainable transition for all.
Just Transition in Eastern and Southern Europe contributes to local development in the target regions by having a positive in all the important aspects of the transition process – social, economic and environmental. The project is funded through the European Climate Initiative (EUKI) of the German Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety.
For more information:
Georgi Stefanov
Chief Climate and Energy Expert, WWF-Bulgaria
Tel: +359 889 517 976
Email: /  
Skype: zoro_stefano

Charity Begins at BSG


The whole school community at Bruton School for Girls has been enthusiastically involved in a series of charitable events throughout November raising over £500 for good causes.

The children in the Nursery and Prep kicked-off with a marvellous day of fun for Children in Need including a highly competitive teacher’s duck race, a teddy bear hunt, a cake sale and of course some dressing-up.  They raised a splendid total of £110.

Almost £150 was raised through the sale of Poppies, badges and other branded items for the annual Royal British Legion Poppy Appeal, contributing to the £5000+ raised in the Bruton area.

Girls in the senior school have enjoyed wearing their own clothes instead of uniform, with mufti-days for charities specifically chosen by the students – the environmental charity, Just One Tree* and mental health charity, Young Minds** raising in excess of £250.

A special mention must go to Charlotte B, in Lower Sixth, who has packed her 1000th box of goodies for children experiencing poverty in Bulgaria and Serbia.  Charlotte began organising shoe boxes of gifts for the charity Foundation for Social Change and Inclusion back in 2013 and her amazing achievement has made the national press.

To round off this month of giving, Head of the student’s charity committee, Eloise N, masterminded a collection of food and toiletry items for a local food bank and turned it into a competition between the four school Halls.    Each Hall was keen to out-do the other with the amount donated leading to an amazing 1143 items which will now go to families who need some extra help over the Christmas period.

Headmistress, Nicky Botterill, says: “The girls here have a wonderful generosity of spirit, and are keen to help those less fortunate than themselves and support organisations which represent issues that are particularly important to young people.”


Database Administrator в SBTech, Киев


Необходимые навыки

3+ years of relevant professional experience

Proven experience in PostgreSQL10 and above

Good understanding of Linux operating systems

Experience in PosgreSQL migrations/upgrades

Experience in database performance tuning and query optimizations

Experience in replications, database clones, and backup/recovery

Fluent in English

Будет плюсом

Technical experience in additional database technologies: MS SQL Server, MongoDB is an advantage


Being a part of an international team focused on excellence in product development
Comprehensive health insurance + gym
Team building and fun activities
High end modern office facilities
Dynamic and friendly work environment
Open and transparent communication
Long term career growth opportunities
Professional growth, extra education opportunities and cross-locations knowledge sharing
English classes


You will work closely with PostgreSQL in different versions. Manage and maintain replications, backups, and performance tuning. Set-up users and permissions. You will need to write scripts and improve query performance. You will work closely with Bulgarian team, with some business trips opportunity.

О проекте

SBTech is an award-winning leading provider of sports betting solutions and a full range of management services to over 90 partners worldwide. SBTech is committed to providing the most innovating products, as constantly pushing technical boundaries.

What are we looking for?

The System DBA will be a part of the sys DBAs group in data management department, he will be responsible for all the tasks of the databases maintenance, monitoring, development and operational support of live DB. The DBA will report to the system team leader.

If you are a skilled and ambitious individual that is looking to make a real difference, then we want you to apply and become part of our winning team.


Bulgaria: Family Festival

By Zsolcsak-Dimitrova, FFWPU Bulgaria On 24 November 2019, we held a Family Festival in the Peace Embassy of Sofia. First Mariana Tincheva-Eklesia, our VIP guest for the Southeast European Summit gave a moving testimony about her experiences in Tirana. After that, we heard a lecture from Mihaela Sergeeva „The Family As the School...

Kashkaval Cheese - Bulgarian Kashkaval

Kashkaval is the Balkan proportional to Greek Kasseri normally alluded to as The Cheddar of the Balkans This cheddar is semifirm with a smooth surface It is somewhat tart with a nutty taste and is inc

Comment on Basic Economy: What is Basic Economy? The Ultimate Guide by Suzanne Fluhr

Useful information for non-frequent fliers. Airfares can be sooo confusing these days. Sometimes they don't seem to make sense. On our recent round the world trip, round trip airline tickets to some destinations were cheaper than buying a 1 way ticket. And, for 1 flight on Bulgaria Airways, business class was cheaper than economy. Go figure.

Briefing - European Capitals of Culture: In search of the perfect cultural event - 28-11-2019

Between 1985 and 2019, 60 cities have held the title of European Capital of Culture – most recently Matera in Italy and Plovdiv in Bulgaria in 2019. Initiated in 1983, by Greece's then Minister of Culture, Melina Mercouri, the concept took shape two years later as an inter-governmental initiative under the name of the 'European City of Culture'. The success of the event was such that in 1999, the Council of the EU transformed it into a Community action, and created a more transparent rotational system for the designation of the titleholder. The selection procedure – last modified in 2014 – places particular focus on the monitoring of proposals, the enhanced European dimension of projects, improved competition between candidate cities, and the redefinition of the selection panel role. As more and more cities enter the European Capitals of Culture race, substantial sums of money are being spent, including on the bidding process. While in the early years of the programme (1985 1994) the average operating budget was around €25 million per city, this amount has more than doubled to reach some €60 million per city for the period 2007-2017. With rising budgets, there is also increased scrutiny of cities, national governments and the EU, as to the wider benefits in terms of the cultural development, social cohesion and city image that most bids promise. This, in turn, has led to more frequent and sophisticated monitoring and evaluation of the whole process, both by the European Commission and by the host cities themselves. The symbolic celebration of European cultural identities is however closely tied to the economic success of the operation. According to experts, over time a number of conflicts and tensions have become apparent due to the multiple and sometimes contradictory objectives of the event, e.g. economic and cultural, to name just two. Additional criticism includes failure to enable local ownership, difficulty in overcoming social divides and exhaustion of local resources. Notwithstanding that, ex-post evaluations of the event show that in general it boosts economic growth and tourism, helps build a sense of community and contributes to urban regeneration.

Šaltinis : © Europos Sąjunga, 2019 - EP

Karin Dom Building – International Architecture Competition

Karin Dom Foundation, with the support of VELUX Foundations, Varna Municipality, the Chamber of Architects and the Union of Architects in Bulgaria is hosting an international architecture competition. All architects from all over the world who are willing to work on, and are interested in social projects, are invited to participate in the competition for a new Karin Dom building. A total of 10,000 Euro will be awarded to the best three projects — First prize is 5,000 Euro + contract + publications; Second prize is 3,000 Euro + publications and Third prize is 2,000 Euro + publications.

11/30/2019: TV & RADIO: Radio choice


SATURDAY Daniel Barenboim directs a performance of Luigi Cherubini’s Médée at the Staatsoper, Berlin. Bulgarian soprana Sonya Yoncheva ( right) takes the title role. Opera Night with Paul Herriott ( RTÉ Lyric FM, 7pm) SUNDAY Two albums by the...



Bulgaria, tot mai aproape de Zona Euro

Agenţia de evaluare financiară Standard and Poor and #39;s (S and P) a revizuit în creştere, cu o treaptă, ratingul pentru datoria pe termen lung în valută atribuit Bulgariei, datorită performanţei fiscale solide a statului balcanic şi a progreselor înregistrate în vederea aderării la zona euro, transmite Bloomberg, citat de Agerpres.

Codaşi la achiziţiile online

Achiziţiile online nu reprezintă un punct forte pentru cumpărătorii autohtoni. Doar o cincime dintre compatrioţii noştri au făcut cumpărături online în 2018, faţă de o medie de 60% înregistrată în Uniunea Europeană (UE), arată datele publicate de Oficiul European de Statistică (Eurostat). Campionii achiziţiilor online din UE au fost, anul trecut, locuitorii din Danemarca (84%), Marea Britanie (83%), Olanda (80%), Suedia (78%) şi Germania (77%). La polul opus, cu cel mai redus procent, s-au situat: Croaţia (35%), Cipru (32%), Bulgaria (21%) şi România (20%). La nivelul UE, 60% dintre persoanele cu vârste între 16 şi 74 de ani au făcut achiziţii online în 2018, faţă de 32% în 2008.

State aid: Commission approves close to €94 million support for waste-to-energy high-efficient cogeneration plant in Bulgaria

This article is brought to you in association with the European Commission. The European Commission has approved, under EU State aid rules, Bulgarian plans to support the construction and operation of a high-efficient cogeneration plant to produce heat and electricity using fuel derived from unrecyclable municipal waste to be in line with EU State aid rules. […]

70 Años de la OTAN: historia de la cooperación transatlántica


Rosa Jiménez

Bruselas, 2 dic (EFE).- El Tratado del Atlántico Norte, firmado en Washington hace 70 años, impulsó la OTAN, la organización política con brazo militar que ha servido de plataforma para la cooperación entre países de Europa y Norteamérica con la defensa colectiva frente a la Unión Soviética como piedra angular.

Para conmemorar el 70 aniversario de su fundación se celebrará este martes y miércoles una cumbre de sus líderes en Londres.


1949: Estados Unidos, Canadá, el Reino Unido, Francia, Italia, Dinamarca, Islandia, Bélgica, Luxemburgo, Holanda, Portugal y Noruega firman el 6 de abril el Tratado de Washington y se convierten en los doce miembros fundacionales de la OTAN.

Ese mismo año se proclaman la República Popular de China y la República Democrática Alemana y, un año después, la guerra en Corea incrementa el temor internacional a la expansión comunista.

1951: Abre el cuartel general de la Alianza cerca de París.

1952: Grecia y Turquía se unen a la OTAN.

1955: La República Federal de Alemania entra en la OTAN.

Ese año la Unión Soviética, Albania, Bulgaria, Checoslovaquia, Hungría, Polonia, Rumanía y la República Democrática Alemana firman el Pacto de Varsovia, como se conoció al Tratado de Amistad, Colaboración y Asistencia Mutua del bloque del Este para contrarrestar a la OTAN.


1956: La crisis a raíz de la nacionalización del canal de Suez enfrenta a dos aliados, Francia y el Reino Unido, que envían tropas a la zona contra la opinión de EEUU, lo que aboca a la OTAN a desarrollar más su papel como plataforma política.

1957-1958: Los aliados observan cómo la Unión Soviética pone en órbita el Sputnik, el primer satélite artificial, lo que a sus ojos demuestra su capacidad de desarrollar misiles balísticos intercontinentales.

También se firma el Tratado de Roma por el que se creó la Comunidad Económica Europea.

1961-1964: El mundo experimenta años convulsos con el levantamiento del muro de Berlín, la crisis de los misiles soviéticos en Cuba marca el punto de mayor tensión nuclear de la Guerra Fría, el presidente estadounidense John F. Kennedy es asesinado y EEUU inicia su intervención militar en Vietnam.

1966: La OTAN sufre un revés al decidir el presidente francés, Charles de Gaulle, retirar a su país del mando militar integrado de la organización para ganar autonomía, lo que conlleva el desmantelamiento de las bases estadounidenses en su territorio pero manteniendo el compromiso con la defensa colectiva.

1967: Como consecuencia de la salida de Francia del órgano de toma de decisiones de la OTAN, su cuartel general se traslada de París a Bruselas y, el cuartel general militar (SHAPE), se instala también en Bélgica, en Casteau (sur).

Además, la Alianza adopta una estrategia de 'respuesta flexible' que integra las armas atómicas en su estructura de fuerzas.


1970-1972: Los síntomas de la distensión entre Este y Oeste van cristalizando con la firma del Tratado de No Proliferación Nuclear, Estados Unidos inicia una política de deshielo con la URSS y China y se firman también los acuerdos entre EEUU y el bloque soviético sobre limitaciones de armas estratégicas (SALT I) y sistemas antimisiles balísticos.

1973: La OTAN y el Pacto de Varsovia negocian la reducción de fuerzas convencionales.

1974: La crisis del petróleo provoca una recesión mundial y la OTAN, por primera vez, incluye factores económicos en su concepto de seguridad.

Grecia abandona el brazo militar de la OTAN en protesta por la invasión turca de Chipre, para volver en 1980.

1979: Se firma el tratado SALT II pero no se ratifica por el despliegue de misiles balísticos Saber SS-20 y la invasión de Afganistán por parte de la URSS, mientras que la OTAN despliega misiles Pershing con capacidad nuclear y de crucero en Europa occidental al tiempo que continúa negociando con los soviéticos.

1981: EEUU y la URSS empiezan a negociar el tratado de reducción de misiles nucleares de corto y medio alcance (INF).

1982: España entra en la OTAN.

En los siguientes años EEUU y la URSS comienzan a negociar el tratado para la reducción de armas estratégicas (START) pero los soviéticos acaban abandonando todas las conversaciones sobre control armamentístico.

1985-1988: El presidente de la URSS, Mijaíl Gorbachov, inicia el proceso de reforma de la Unión Soviética. A continuación se firma el tratado INF, los países del Pacto de Varsovia anuncian grandes reducciones de fuerzas convencionales y las tropas soviéticas empiezan a retirarse de Afganistán.

1989: Cae el muro de Berlín.

1990: La OTAN adopta un plan para desarrollar la cooperación entre el Este y el Oeste, mientras Alemania es reunificada y la parte oriental del país entra en la Alianza.

1991: Se disuelve la Unión Soviética y también el Pacto de Varsovia, en tanto que la OTAN adapta su doctrina militar (concepto estratégico) y estructura de mando.


1992: La OTAN ofrece apoyo a la ONU en el conflicto de la antigua Yugoslavia mientras que la Unión Europea aprueba el Tratado de Maastricht, que contempla por primera vez una Política Común de Exteriores y Seguridad.

1994-1995: La OTAN bombardea a las fuerzas serbo-bosnias bajo mandato de la ONU y despliega fuerzas de mantenimiento de la paz en Bosnia-Herzegovina, donde los Acuerdos de Dayton ponen fin a la guerra tras cuatro años.

1996-1998: Países socios, entre ellos Rusia, empiezan a contribuir a las fuerzas de paz que lidera la OTAN en Bosnia-Herzegovina.

La Alianza firma un acuerdo especial con Rusia y firma la carta OTAN-Ucrania. Los talibanes inician su régimen en Afganistán.

1999: La República Checa, Hungría y Polonia entran en la OTAN, que lleva a cabo bombardeos para poner fin a la limpieza étnica en Kosovo, donde despliega y lidera una fuerza de mantenimiento de la paz (KFOR).

2000: Rusia ratifica el Tratado Integral de Prohibición de Pruebas y el SALT II.


2001: Estados Unidos invoca por primera vez en la historia de la OTAN el artículo 5 del Tratado de Washington, que indica que si un aliado es atacado todos los demás responderán en su defensa, tras los atentados yihadistas del 11 de septiembre, con unos 3.000 muertos.

Ello motiva el despliegue de aviones de vigilancia AWACS de la alianza en territorio estadounidense inmediatamente después del 11S y el inicio de la Operación Active Endeavour en el Mediterráneo.

La Alianza inicia operaciones antiterroristas en Afganistán y despliega fuerzas en la Antigua República Yugoslava de Macedonia (ARYM).

2002: La creación del Consejo OTAN-Rusia inaugura una nueva era de colaboración entre las dos partes. La Alianza también acuerda que operará cuando y donde sea necesario contra el terrorismo.

2003: La Alianza lidera la Fuerza Internacional de Asistencia a la Seguridad (ISAF) en Afganistán a instancias de la ONU contra los talibanes, mientras EEUU inicia una campaña militar contra el régimen de Sadam Husein en Irak.

La UE toma el relevo de la misión de la OTAN en ARYM.

2004: Madrid sufre los peores ataques terroristas en suelo europeo, mientras la OTAN se compromete a adiestrar a las fuerzas de seguridad iraquíes y a colaborar más con los países de Oriente Medio por medio de la Iniciativa de Cooperación de Estambul.

Bulgaria, Estonia, Letonia, Lituania, Eslovaquia, Eslovenia y Rumanía entran en la OTAN, que completa su misión en Bosnia-Herzegovina.

2005-2008: Londres también es escenario de atentados terroristas y Rusia ocupa Georgia.

2009: Francia regresa al mando integrado de la OTAN, en la que ingresan Albania y Croacia.

La Alianza comienza su operación Ocean Shield contra la piratería en el Cuerno de África y el golfo de Adén.


2011: Comienza la Primavera Árabe y la OTAN inicia y completa la operación Unified Protector bajo mandato de la ONU para imponer una zona de exención aérea en Libia, contra el régimen de Muamar el Gadafi.

La Alianza despliega baterías de misiles antiaéreos Patriot en Turquía ante la amenaza del conflicto en Siria.

2012: Concluye la misión de adiestramiento de la OTAN en Irak.

2014: Ante la anexión ilegal de la península ucraniana de Crimea por parte de Rusia, la OTAN decide suspender su cooperación práctica con Moscú.

Mientras, los terroristas del Estado Islámico aterrorizan a la población en Irak y Siria, donde empeora la crisis.

Este panorama impulsa nuevas medidas de seguridad de la Alianza para sus miembros y se firma en la cumbre de Gales un plan de acción de Preparación Aliada para actuar contra nuevas amenazas, además del compromiso de todos los aliados de invertir el 2 % de su PIB en Defensa para 2024.

2014-2015: La misión de combate ISAF da el relevo a la misión aliada Apoyo Decidido en Afganistán, centrada en la formación, asesoramiento y apoyo de las fuerzas de seguridad de ese país.

París, Copenhague, Bruselas y Ankara se ven sacudidas por brutales atentados terroristas perpetrados por el Estado Islámico, mientras que la crisis migratoria en Europa lleva a la OTAN a cooperar con la UE en el Mediterráneo.

2016: En la cumbre de Varsovia, la OTAN completa su 'mayor refuerzo desde la Guerra Fría' con la aprobación del envío de unos 4.000 efectivos en cuatro batallones en Polonia, Estonia, Letonia y Lituania, además de una brigada internacional en Rumanía. También acuerda medidas para estabilizar el flanco sur ante el auge de movimientos terroristas.

La Alianza también impulsa sus primeras medidas concretas de cooperación con la Unión Europea.

2017: Montenegro entra en la OTAN.

El presidente de EEUU, Donald Trump, escenifica su respaldo a la OTAN tras las críticas a la organización durante su campaña electoral en una cumbre en Bruselas, en la que hace ratificar a los aliados su compromiso con incrementar el gasto militar.

2019: Los aliados apoyan la decisión de EEUU de dejar el tratado INF tras constatar que Rusia llevaba un tiempo incumpliéndolo por el emplazamiento de nuevos misiles con capacidad nuclear en Europa.

Los aliados acuerdan que Macedonia del Norte se convierta en el trigésimo país de la OTAN.



Lower international prices doubled Bulgarian apple exports to 64,600 tons

In marketing year (MY) 2018/19, Bulgarian apple and pear production increased by 12 and 18 percent, respectively, due to favorable weather, higher yields, and an increased area harvested. In contrast, table grape production declined by 10 percent, due to a lower acreage harvested. Assuming favorable…

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Why was Cavalry Used in Warfare? | Animated History

The Armchair Historian Published 11 Jan 2018 Why was Cavalry used in warfare? Our Website: Our Twitter: @ArmchairHist Sources:………………… Music: Music: Antonio Salieri: “Twenty six variations on La Folia de Spagna“ From the comments: The Armchair Historian 1 year ago So two things…. 1. A lot of […]

Briefing - European Capitals of Culture: In search of the perfect cultural event - 28-11-2019

Between 1985 and 2019, 60 cities have held the title of European Capital of Culture – most recently Matera in Italy and Plovdiv in Bulgaria in 2019. Initiated in 1983, by Greece's then Minister of Culture, Melina Mercouri, the concept took shape two years later as an inter-governmental initiative under the name of the 'European City of Culture'. The success of the event was such that in 1999, the Council of the EU transformed it into a Community action, and created a more transparent rotational system for the designation of the titleholder. The selection procedure – last modified in 2014 – places particular focus on the monitoring of proposals, the enhanced European dimension of projects, improved competition between candidate cities, and the redefinition of the selection panel role. As more and more cities enter the European Capitals of Culture race, substantial sums of money are being spent, including on the bidding process. While in the early years of the programme (1985 1994) the average operating budget was around €25 million per city, this amount has more than doubled to reach some €60 million per city for the period 2007-2017. With rising budgets, there is also increased scrutiny of cities, national governments and the EU, as to the wider benefits in terms of the cultural development, social cohesion and city image that most bids promise. This, in turn, has led to more frequent and sophisticated monitoring and evaluation of the whole process, both by the European Commission and by the host cities themselves. The symbolic celebration of European cultural identities is however closely tied to the economic success of the operation. According to experts, over time a number of conflicts and tensions have become apparent due to the multiple and sometimes contradictory objectives of the event, e.g. economic and cultural, to name just two. Additional criticism includes failure to enable local ownership, difficulty in overcoming social divides and exhaustion of local resources. Notwithstanding that, ex-post evaluations of the event show that in general it boosts economic growth and tourism, helps build a sense of community and contributes to urban regeneration.

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