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Where to find mini-nonnettes?

There are some soft heart -shaped Austrian lebkuchen filled with apricot or plum filling, in a pink bag, that do not have the strong flavour of pfeffernüsse. The ones I buy are Manner Lebkuchen Hearts. Other brands make a similar product. Maybe they will do in a pinch. They actually have a milder taste than French gingerbread I've had, but I haven't had the brand you mention. Starsky's probably has them. I get them at Remark Market in London. Douce France on the Danforth has a small selection of imported French biscuits but they don't mention the brand you are looking for. Maybe call to ask if they have any or something similar?

Open Postdoc Fellowships at the Erwin Schrödinger Centre for Quantum Science and Technology (ESQ): Erwin Schrödinger Center for Quantum Science and Technology (ESQ) / Austrian Academy of Sciences

€Attractive: Erwin Schrödinger Center for Quantum Science and Technology (ESQ) / Austrian Academy of Sciences
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Bellport High School Business Department Prepares Students for the Workplace

Bellport High School Virtual Enterprise students, along with teachers, Mrs. Sheila Smith and Mrs. Camille Masem traveled to Manhattan to participate in the Virtual Enterprise International Youth Business Summit and Trade Show. In this class, which is in its third year at Bellport High School, students report to “work” daily, simulating a real internet based business. Since September they have operated a virtual business; Savor the Flavor Specialty Foods, Inc., created a website, , as well as invoices, brochures, a catalog, and more to assist them in making sales over the internet and at our trade show booth. Students interacted with “workers” from around the world including Austria, Bulgaria and Indonesia as well as many states across the country. Bellport High School placed 6th out of hundreds in the website competition! At the trade show, our “customers” enjoyed product samples provided by Mrs. Masem’s Culinary Arts classes. Many thanks to the South Country Education Foundation for their support with this event. The International Trade Show is the culminating activity for Virtual Enterprise; a new work- based learning Business Class preparing students for college and the workplace. Pictured left to right, front row Alyssa Kiernan, Kristina English, Stephanie Buckley, back row Jack MacLellan, Donald Miller, Jonathan Hopper, Jamie Giorgi, Mrs. Smith

What Happened in the Halle Synagogue Attack?, by Esther Dischereit

Current Events
Esther Dischereit
Numerous uniformly cube shaped objects serving as memorials in a field bathed in the colors of sunset
Photo by mini_malist / Flickr

After every right-wing act of violence we hear once more that it was a “lone wolf” attack. Esther Dischereit argues that this is an implausible cover-up of attitudes sympathetic to Nazism.

On October 9, 2019, an assassin in Halle, Germany, shot two people and killed them, and he also shot several others, wounding them. He wanted to kill those who had come together in the synagogue on Yom Kippur, the highest Jewish Holy Day, and he put an incendiary device in the Jewish cemetery nearby. He didn’t succeed. When he realized he had failed to kill Jews, he killed Kevin S., who was in a snack bar for döner, a Turkish fast food. For the perpetrator, Kevin S. was, as it were, someone who associated with Turks, migrants, presumably also Muslims. He was shot for and instead of someone else. Jana L., a non-Jewish resident of Halle whom the perpetrator shot when he meant to kill the people inside the synagogue, also certainly died instead of Jewish people.

Katrina Turner, a representative of the African-American community in Charlottesville, broke out in tears when in 2017—after the Ku Klux Klan invaded her city—she recounted her memories of Heather Heyer, a counterdemonstrator who was killed, and of the many more were injured. Turner repeated this sentence twice: “. . . that a white woman died for us.” As the Ku Klux Klan supporters marched into town, they chanted this slogan: “The Jew will not replace us.” In this context, the figure of the “Jew” signifies that white domination of the world is under threat. In this sense, being Jewish is elevated to being simply “the other” and becomes a shorthand for all efforts and aspirations that could disturb the image of a healthy, pure “Aryan” people.

In such milieus the “Jew” also represents left-wing political positions and queer, feminist, and diverse worldviews, including ways of being human that supposedly bring decay, including taking in refugees and wanting to live as peaceful neighbors to Muslims. Each of these concepts is well known. Historically, this has not stopped these people from seeing Jews as a “red danger” while at the same time denouncing them as “capitalist bloodsuckers.”


“Happy about Every Synagogue”

The attack in Halle is different from what happened in Pittsburgh, Christchurch, and France not because of the ideological fanaticism, not because of the cold-bloodedness, but because the attack took place in a country where the “Final Solution” happened under Nazi rule. The image of people trapped in a synagogue is superimposed upon the image of people driven into a synagogue. The exits were blocked, and German Einsatzkommandos set the synagogue on fire. After millions of Jewish people had been killed or driven out, every political establishment after 1945 at first had to tolerate the few who remained and later on court them from time to time. After the October attack, Germany’s federal chancellor, Angela Merkel, declared that “we are happy about every synagogue, every Jewish community, and all Jewish life in our country.”

Up to now the Islamic community, with its roughly 4.5 million members in Germany, has not experienced such a public validation. Such attentiveness to mosques that have been set on fire or headscarves that have been spat on is still waiting to appear on the political stage. A few days ago at the event celebrating the ten-year existence of the only existing Jewish scholarship, the Ernst Ludwig Ehrlich Scholarship Fund (ELES), it was Hakan Tosuner, director of Avicenna, the Islamic Scholarship Foundation established five years ago, who said: “Precisely in light of yesterday’s tragic incident, Jewish-Muslim solidarity is more important than ever. . . . Whether synagogues or mosques are attacked, we must be united in solidarity.”

Perhaps it is inappropriate to express these thoughts publicly at this time. But it remains a fact that this threat has not just become evident now for the first time and that other citizens are also affected. The Roma and the Sinti peoples are continually exposed to an endless stream of threats that has made it necessary for this minority, too, to erect a special protective wall at the entrance to their center in Baden-Württemberg. Four days after Halle, Daniel Strauß, chairman of their association, received this threat of an attack on his cell phone: “After Halle, your cultural center is up next.” In Germany, Austria, and the Balkans, this minority was also a victim of Nazi racial fanaticism.

“Try to speak: I am glad you exist, that you exist here, among us.” It may strike one that perhaps this sentence sounds untruthful. It hardly seems right, and I must confess that I personally don’t demand such a statement. Absolutely no one has to be happy or not happy that I exist. I am here, all the same, whether someone else is happy about that or not. Is it the responsibility of government representatives to welcome me as a ward? Is this attitude legitimate simply because someone is a member of the majority?


“A Foreign Race”

It is basically a question of reversing an attitude of being unhappy about someone and wanting to send her or him “back home.” Donald Trump exemplifies this when he denies that the Democratic Congresswomen Ilhan Omar, Rashida Tlaib, and Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez are “real Americans.” The AfD (Alternative für Deutschland) politician Alexander Gauland recommended that the former German minister for integration Aydan Özoğuz should be “disposed of like waste material.” With reference to the same person, a party member said that she should care about “over there, where she belonged.” The opponent is said to be base, branded as “another race,” stigmatized as “the other” and foreign.

This use of the language by the legal political arm of the right-wing terrorist milieu continues in the struggle over public space, the struggle for the political opinion of others. Antifascist projects and initiatives on the left, booksellers, and others are overrun with incendiary devices and death threats. But it was only in June 2019 after the Christian Democratic Union district president of the city of Kassel, Walter Lübke, was murdered by the neo-Nazi Stephan Ernst that an outcry broke out in the political establishment.

Lübke fulfilled his obligation to take care of people who entered the country seeking protection as they fled dictatorship and civil war. He clearly injured the feelings of the right-wing extremists when he said that whoever did not agree with such values was at liberty to leave Germany. This murder followed a series of murders by the National Socialist Underground (NSU). Preceding this one, nine people, all of them migrants, were killed as well as a female German police officer, and a bomb attack injured more than twenty people in Cologne. The existence of the NSU was discovered in 2011. In the trial in Munich, which ended in 2018, Beate Zschäpe was sentenced to life in prison. In the eyes of those who were family members of the victims, the sentence exonerated the other accomplices who were accused. It was evident that the court had wanted to limit the group of culprits to a core of three and to the most immediate environment. Additional investigations were not done (e.g., in connection with a list of the right-wing extremists’ targets that was discovered). Two hundred and thirty-three goals referring to Jewish life were identified on this list. A greater number of targets referred to migrant communities, and others specified politicians and parties.


Ideological Incendiary Devices

Crimes motivated by anti-Semitism have taken place since 1980, with the murder of the rabbi and publisher Shlomo Lewin and his partner, Frida Poeschke, since the arson attack on the synagogue in Erfurt, those injured in Düsseldorf-Wehrhahn and in other places: 1980, 1992, 2000, 2003. . . . Nevertheless, after every right-wing terrorist act of violence we hear, repeated like a mantra, that this was an attack by a single individual. At first the danger from these networks assembled by neo-Nazis ready to do violence was perceived little by little. In August, the German Federal Office of Criminal Investigation counted those who posed a threat to public safety at forty-one, although the number of right-wing extremists ready to engage in violence has been identified as over twelve thousand. Their sympathizers are said to be as many as twice that. More than five hundred arrest warrants for neo-Nazis have not been served. Where were they sought?

After every right-wing terrorist act of violence we hear, repeated like a mantra, that this was an attack by a single individual.

It is about time that independent commissions investigate the security forces that not only refrain from proceeding against right-wing extremism but may themselves be involved. Many incidents involving police in Hesse, Thuringia, and in the army suggest this possibility.

The criminals of the National Socialist regime were largely left unpunished. This culture of immunity from punishment has continued and spread with regard to right-wing extremism in our democratic system. This is the real problem. The antifascist initiatives and archives have an extensive amount of research material at their disposal. It is thanks to them that not everything can be swept under the rug.

This culture of immunity from punishment has continued and spread with regard to right-wing extremism in our democratic system.

As the political arm of the culprits, the AfD denies that it had anything to do with these crimes. But they are the ones who for a long time have been planting ideological fire accelerants. Remarks against Jews are heard again and again from members of the FPÖ (Freedom Party of Austria); denial that an ideological system is at work here follows close on the heels of such statements. These are implausible cover-ups of an attitude sympathetic to Nazism.

Initiatives like “Indivisible” or “We are the many” make clear that they oppose the ethnically tinged “You are the stranger” with a “we.” In August of this year thirty-five thousand people demonstrated in Dresden in favor of this stance; thousands are once more in the streets. Citizens can demand that the right-wing extremists who commit arson, their spiritual mentors, and networks be investigated. Flirtation with such a body of thought is not only tasteless but, given the brutality of the milieu, it is the beginning of the end.

Translation from the German


15 (+1) apetecibles hoteles en la montaña para pasar un fin de semana este otoño


15 (+1) apetecibles hoteles en la montaña para pasar un fin de semana este otoño

Si eres de los que disfrutan de la nieve, la montaña o la naturaleza en su estado más puro, estás de enhorabuena, porque el final del otoño es un momento ideal para hacer una escapada.

Estos hoteles situados en la montaña, en increíbles valles en la ladera de la sierra o en mitad de una estación de esquí son el destino perfecto para disfrutar de la paz que solo un entorno natural es capaz de ofrecerte.

Parador de Bielsa, en Huesca

Parador De Biersa

Si buscas un sitio en el que puedas estar en pleno contacto con la naturaleza, este parador es ideal para ti. Ubicado en un valle junto al río Cinca, en la vertiente oriental del Parque Nacional de Ordesa y Monte Perdido, el hotel está rodeado por una zona declarada Patrimonio de la Humanidad por la Unesco en 1997.

Barranquismo, esquí o rafting son algunas de las actividades que puedes hacer en su entorno, sin contar con que cerca hay una visita imprescindible a la villa medieval más grande de España, L’Ainsa.

Terraza Parador De Biersa

Hotel Mas de la Serra, en Fuentespalda (Teruel)

Mas De La Serra

Ya sabemos que Teruel existe, y este hotel rústico en Fuentespalda es una muestra de ello. No solo tiene unas habitaciones maravillosamente bonitas, también podrás disfrutar de sus vistas únicas a las montañas de la costa entre Barcelona y Valencia.

Está situado entre campos de almendros, pinos y robles y es una masía fortificada y reconstruida que lo convierten en uno de los hoteles más remotos de Europa. Además tienen una experiencia de “caza de trufas” para disfrutar aún más de la montaña.

Hotel Val de Neu, en Baqueira (Lleida)

Hotel Val Del Neu

Este hotel de montaña a pie de pista, es el primer hotel de montaña de Europa reconocido con la categoría 5 estrellas Gran Lujo. Sus habitaciones tienen vistas a la montaña y podrás disfrutar de su circuito termal en su exclusivo spa. Una estancia de lujo rodeados de nieve y con todos los detalles que imagines.

Hotel Santa Cristina, en Canfranc (Huesca)

Hotel Santa Cristina

Este lugar único en el Pirineo aragonés es perfecto para disfrutar de la montaña. El edificio fue construido a finales del siglo XIX como Aduana del Cuerpo de Carabineros en Canfranc, y se sitúa en el Camino de Santiago junto al Parque Nacional de los Pirineos y las estaciones de esquí de Candanchú y Astún. Su terraza da al río Aragón y tiene vistas al bosque de boj. Un paraíso pirenaico donde se celebran hasta bodas.

Cortijo El Carligto, en Canillas de Aceituno (Málaga)

Esta villa boutique situada entre montañas es una antigua casa de campo rehabilitada siguiendo la tradición árabe, con villas privadas y jardines malagueños. Sus vistas van del Mediterráneo a la costa africana, pero está situada entre las montañas, en la ruta andaluza de los pueblos blancos.

Hotel Nabia, en Candeleda (Ávila)

Hotel Nabia Candeleda

Este hotel, a los pies de la vertiente sur de la Sierra de Gredos, se encuentra en la ladera de la montaña y rodeado de ondeantes valles y bosques de almendros y castaños. Sus vistas son espectaculares e invitan a disfrutar de horas contemplándolas desde su terraza y jardín, desde donde se pueden ver el pico Almanzor y el pintoresco Valle del Tiétar. Ideal para quienes buscan la naturaleza más pura.

Palacio de Rubianes, en Cereceda (Asturias)

Este antiguo palacio asturiano rehabilitado, se encuentra en la falda del macizo del Monte Suave, en un bosque milenario de tejos. Si buscas una escapada romántica, elige la suite del torreón, abuhardillada y con jacuzzi. Lo mejor del hotel son sus vistas al valle y a los Picos de Europa.

Parador de Cruz de Tejeda, en Cruz de Tejeda (Gran Canaria)

Parador De Cruz De Tejeda 2

Situado a 1.560 metros de altitud sobre el nivel del mar, entre el Parque Rural del Nublo y el Paisaje Protegido de Cumbres, este parador tiene unas vistas espectaculares lo mires por donde lo mires. Está rodeado de la abrumadora naturaleza de la isla, y sus mejores vistas son desde el mirador de su terraza, desde donde se ven los roques Nublo, Fraile y Bentayga.

Hotel Rural Resguard dels Vents, en Ribes de Freser (Girona)

Está situado a 1.100 metros de altitud, y lo mejor que tiene es que su spa tiene vistas al exterior, al Vall de Ribes. Después de un masaje y una hora disfrutando de su spa, puedes darte un capricho en su restaurante, que trabaja con productos naturales de la zona. Ideal para una escapada romántica en pareja.

La Almunia del Valle, en Monachil (Granada)

La Almunia Del Valle

Este pequeño hotel boutique muy cerca de Sierra Nevada está a tan solo diez minutos de La Alhambra. Es un antiguo cortijo granadino construido en diferentes alturas sobre una colina. Rodeado de altas cumbres y sus habitaciones miran al Parque Natural de Sierra Nevada, y su jardín es perfecto para un merecido descanso otoñal.

Arantza Hotela, en Arantza (Navarra)

Arantza Hotela

Este maravilloso hotel de cinco estrellas solo para adultos se encuentra en un maravilloso entorno natural, y es todo lo que necesitas para tener una escapada dedicada al relax y el descanso. Sus maravillosas vistas al Monte Izu no son la única belleza que encontrarás, ya que fue concebido como arthotel y cada habitación cuenta con una obra del escultor José Pablo Arriaga.

Además tienen un pack gastronómico que incluye tres días de alojamiento en la categoría Attic Room, y una comida en el restaurante Arzak, uno de los 19 restaurantes con estrella Michelín que se encuentran a menos de una hora del hotel.

Hotel Consolación, en Matarraña (Teruel)

La comarca del Matarraña es un bello y apenas conocido entorno en Teruel, que esconde esta joya, un hotel de lujo en mitad de la naturaleza. Un hotel para reencontrarnos y para conectar con la naturaleza, con un diseño muy vanguardista.

Las habitaciones del hotel son cubos de madera de tres lados con una pared de cristal que hace que sientas que duermes en mitad del bosque.

Hotel y apartamentos rurales Tierra del Agua, en Caleao (Asturias)

Tierra Del Agua

Asturias acoge este alojamiento de ecoturismo que cuida de forma activa todo el entorno que le rodea. Al amparo de montañas asturianas y con un diseño muy nórdico, este hotel rural es íntimo e ideal para descansar. Cuenta con 11 suites y varias casitas, además de un spa, una sauna panorámica con vistas al valle y una increíble terraza chill out con vistas a las montañas.

Tres hoteles fuera de España para disfrutar de la montaña

Hotel Mama Thresl, en Leogang (Austria)

Hotel Mama Thresl

Este maravilloso hotel en mitad de los Alpes es ideal para las más deportistas. Su fachada es una pared para hacer escalada, y además podrás esquiar, hacer snowboard, practicar yoga o ciclismo. Todo en un paraje tan espectacular que parece de cuento.

Yoga En Hotel Mama Thresl

Hôtel des Dromonts, en Avoriaz (Francia)

Hotel Des Dromonts

Este hotel es la combinación perfecta de vanguardismo, originalidad y modernidad, pero con un toque vintage. El edificio de 1964 ha sido restaurado pero se ha mantenido el diseño original de Jacques Labro. La decoración interior es espectacular, y al encontrarse en mitad de la zona de esquí Portes du Soleil, tiene acceso a 650 kilómetros de pistas.

Bücke 49, en Vals (Suiza)

Brucke 49

Este diminuto hotel solo cuenta con 4 habitaciones y 3 apartamentos pero su ubicación no puede ser mejor de lo que es. El pueblo de Vals está perdido en el precioso valle de Graubünden, y el esquí es de diez en sus pistas. Un B&B con tanto estilazo que te plantearás si salir o no del hotel. Sus techos altísimos y sus enormes ventanales consiguen que cada rincón sea una fantasía para los amantes de la decoración.

Foto | Instagram @jess.wandering

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La noticia 15 (+1) apetecibles hoteles en la montaña para pasar un fin de semana este otoño fue publicada originalmente en Trendencias por Anabel Palomares .


Nestlé to use Nutri-Score to “motivate and track” healthy option progress


27 Nov 2019 --- Nestlé will roll out Nutri-Score nutrition labeling on its products in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany and Switzerland, starting in the first half of 2020. The voluntary front-of-pack scheme classifies foods and beverages according to their nutritional profile. Cereal Partners Worldwide, the international breakfast venture between Nestlé and General Mills, will also implement Nutri-Score on its product packaging in the same countries. Nestlé hopes that Nutri-Score will support its goals of having one of the healthiest options in every product category it offers.


Orgonite ® Generators - 3M Adhesive - EMF Disks - Phone - Computer - Car - Ipad by CirculateEnergy


16.00 USD

These devices are built as harmonization tools. These cannot - in any way - be programmed for low vibrational thought forms. It’s existence can only assist the collective rise to new heights. ‼️ This is important to consider when buying energy tools from ANYONE. Be sure you CONNECT to the creator to feel if they AUTHENTICALLY resonate with you. Let your intuition guide you. I INVITE you to ask questions and connect with me before purchasing. 💗

✨ Special note about my work:
In my work - I am simply a facilitator of crystals. Everything is made fluidly, similar to channeling art. All crystal know who they will be going home to. I intuit my work as the crystals communicate to you before you even receive your device. Each device will resonate a frequency to you and if you feel called to it, that is not by mistake.


Crystal technology // Orgone generator designed with re-harmonizing frequencies, intentions and crystals to bring spiritual awareness, joy, creativity and protection in your field.

All devices can be programmed (but work regardless of your belief system) - I suggest programming them to your specific desires (love, joy, prosperity, protection etc) as they work 10 fold with intention. You create your own reality, so take it upon yourself to manifest all that you desire with focus, intention, feeling and action.

Each device is functional art sculptures. No two are alike! ♥ Each device can take anywhere from 1-3 days to make due to the layering involved. If you are called towards crystal technology and orgone devices, I recommend doing your own research. Try googling Wilhelm Reich, Orgone Generators, Orgone Energy and Crystal Consciousness. I find that self-education on metaphysical / quantum technology is the best way to re-member the power within and without.

Each piece is created with quality crystals that were cleansed with tensor rings, re-harmonized with crystal bowls/tuning forks, smudged with Palo Santo, re-programmed under a vogel crystal light rack and encoded with galactic codes.

♥ Made with love and cosmic light ♥

Orgonite® was invented by Austrian Karl Hans Welz. He improved on Wilhelm Reich’s Orgone Accumulator by creating a device made of metal particles cast in resin. Welz coined the term Orgonite® and trademarked the name.

/// healing crystal are spiritual allies to healing and are not meant as health care information or prescriptions ///

LICENSEE is a licensed distributor of Orgone Generator® and Orgonite® which are trademarks owned by Karl Hans Welz, the inventor of these devices and the brand Orgonite®, which is famous as one of the most high quality experimental energy substances available


Mueller wins luge World Cup #Golf in Placid; West gets silver


LAKE PLACID, N.Y. (AP) — Austria’s Jonas Mueller won his second consecutive World Cup men’s luge race of the season Sunday, narrowly holding off Tucker West of the U.S. for the gold. Mueller finished ...

Re: Стрелковое оружие / РПГ


5th SS Panzer Division, Waffen SS grenadiers (Dutch volunteers) are training with the German P08 "LUGER”, 1942, Klagenfurt-Lendorf (possibly the Khevenhüller-Kaserne), Austria.


WURZINGER Grüner Veltliner Austria Lustig 2018 $14 (Wine VanHook)


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Some LIGHT reading re. Karma....


...for a slow Sunday p.m.

The one about getting the "thieves" to call police so they wouldn't get arrested reminded me....been there, done that...

The shop teacher [Ted] at a small-town school I worked at had built himself one of those 2-sheet-plywood-hydroplane (?) boats.  As a joke, after school one day another teacher and I hoisted it up onto the school [1 stor(e)y, flat roof] and more-or-less forgot about it.   Next morning I was across town at the elementary school running a track meet, when one of the staff from that school came over and told me that he'd heard that Ted had reported it to the police as having been stolen.  So... in I go... phone the police and give 'em the story.  The officer responded with: "I thought we might be getting a call."    ...and to show Ted that it was all in good fun, we even helped him get it down!!


Spitalsentlassungen - 3.270 Rehabilitations-Betten in NÖ

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The first Train the Trainer workshops were held in Austria, Hungary, the Netherlands and Slovakia


To support the professional execution of nearly zero-energy buildings new pilot “Train the Trainer” courses were implemented in Austria, Hungary, the Netherlands and Slovakia for flat roofer, ventilation installer and building inspection.



The October uprising in Iraq

November 28, 2019

Since early October, there has been a spontaneous wave of demonstrations in Iraq’s capital Baghdad and other cities against widespread corruption, unemployment and poor public services.

Green Left Weekly’s Susan Price spoke to Sydney-based Iraqi human rights activist Abeer Hasan Abdulazeez about the significance of this movement.

* * *

What has caused the protest movement in Iraq and how significant is it?

I nicknamed it the October Revolution and in Arabic language it is called intifada.

The protests started on October 1, a date which was set by civil activists on social media, spreading over the central and southern provinces of Iraq, to protest 16 years of corruption, unemployment and inefficient public services.

The protests lasted for a whole week, continuously, then stopped on October 8 and resumed on the 25th. After this day, the demands escalated into calls to overthrow the administration and stop Iranian interference in Iraq’s affairs

The Iraqi government used excessive force to suppress these demonstrations, using live bullets, snipers, hot water and tear gas against protesters. This resulted in 327 dead and over 6427 wounded, according to the latest statistics we have received.

The significance of this Intifada and what distinguishes these demonstrations, is that they did not come at the invitation of a party or political or religious groups, but were spontaneous, by young people who are not politically affiliated and from various regions of Baghdad and other provinces.

What are the people's demands?

As I explained earlier, corruption, unemployment and poor public services such as electricity, water, medical services and the absence of social security made Iraqi people struggle and suffer.

These were the primary factors that led to the intifada in its first phase. In the second phase, other demands were added for a radical change of government, including all members of parliament, as well as to change all the principles on which the Iraqi government was formed after 2003. They also added the demand for the removal of Iranian interference in Iraq's internal and external affairs and independence of the Iraqi political decision-making, to serve the interests of the Iraqi people and the region.

The Iraqi government tried to obscure the facts, distort the truth and the goal of the uprising, by accusing the demonstrators of not having clear and specific demands as well as not having leaders to represent them — so the Iraqi government could sit with them to negotiate the demands of the protesters..

The advanced political awareness among protesting youth and others made them reorganise themselves to form a group of leaders, representing the demonstrators and by states and provinces. They also reviewed all the demands of the demonstrators to make them clear, specific and uniform.

How has the United States invasion of Iraq contributed to the conditions for this uprising?

I do not think so there is a relation between these two events. Some may find that there is a strong link between the entry of US troops to Iraq in 2003 and the uprising that is occurring at present. But that is at least from my point of view.

That is because this big military operation carried out by the US in 2003 in Iraq was the reason for the removal of the former dictatorship and helped to adopt a new political system.

Unfortunately, the government that took power after 2003 with the support of the US was not able to meet the government promised to the Iraqi people, because it was occupied with political and partisan conflicts to obtain sources of power in Parliament as well as money.

On the other hand, I agree with those who say that the entry of the US into Iraq in 2003 also had negative aspects. The severe destruction that accompanied these military operations is one of them, which led to the destruction of 95% of Iraq's infrastructure, as well as the destruction of the army and its equipment in almost complete form.

Iraqis are still suffering from the effects of the destruction of its infrastructure, which not all governments since 2003 have been able to repair. The Iraqi people are still suffering from the lack of electricity, water and sewage services as well as in the areas of health and education.

The most important negative factors that emerged after the occupation of the US in Iraq is the security vacuum in the region as well as Iraq. The Iraqi border became unprotected during US military operations, which resulted in the entry by many militias who work with regional or external forces. This is what we saw through the invasion of ISIS militias into northern Iraq and the occupation of Mosul and some other areas, which required a lot of effort and money as well as sacrifice of lives to liberate these areas from ISIS by the Iraqi army.

What has been the response of the traditional parties of the left to this movement?

The reaction and response of the traditional Iraqi opposition parties were supportive of the uprising and the demands of the demonstrators, despite the difference of emphasis. Where some appeared to be trying to exploit the uprising to promote a party through the assertion and support for the demands of the demonstrators, others showed double attitudes and lack of clarity and frankness.

The general response was in favour of this uprising, supportive of its demands and belief in political reform as the radical solution to the crisis in Iraq.

All Iraqi opposition parties, as well as many parties in Arab countries, Europe, Latin America, all human rights organisations and other international parties have supported the demands of the demonstrators and condemned the use of excessive force by the Iraqi authorities, which have included the killing of many people and injuring of thousands.

The Iraqi community and other communities in a number of countries, including Australia, Germany, France, Austria, Sweden and the US are also standing in support of the rightful demands of the demonstrators and condemning the practices of power against the protesters.

What new political forces are emerging?

At the moment, there is no indication of the emergence of new political forces or ideologies.

On the contrary, all political forces in Iraq and parties are now considering and monitoring the results that will follow the intifada, to determine their stance.

Some parties have claimed support for the demonstrators and their demands, but the support by those parties is nothing but political deceit to ensure their survival in power and in the political scene.

In addition, some political forces and parties involved in the current Iraqi government think that support for the demonstrators will give them the opportunity in the future to change stances and ensure the support of the Iraqi people.

Swinging positions by some political forces, as I mentioned earlier, was a strategy to ensure they stay in the political game, whatever the outcome of this crisis.

Dual positions are only a temporary political tactic, in the event of the victory of the intifada and the fulfillment of the demands of the demonstrators — which will certainly be achieved and won.

Where do you see this movement going? Will it succeed? What are the next steps needed?

This revolution is going in the right direction, as long as the demonstrators stick to the demands and particularly, the demand for the overall change of government, parliament and the non-participation of the current parties in the upcoming elections.

The intifada will succeed, but will need more time than everybody expected, due to overlapping political interests, as well as the intervention of foreign forces that have the desire to retain the current Iraqi government in power. 

The next and important step is to mobilise more international support to pressure the Iraqi government to sit at the negotiating table and discuss the demands of the demonstrators, which represent the demands of the entire Iraqi people.

As part of the process to increase international support, we are in constant contact with most of the Iraqi community living in Australia and abroad.

Also, we are encouraging them to ask the governments of the countries in which they live to raise the issue in all international forums and to pressure the Iraqi government internationally, which will accelerate the process of political changes in Iraq.

In line with the requirements of supporting the uprising in Iraq, The Dream association is working hard with Iraqi community members to raise the issue of Iraq and explain the reasons that caused the intifada. We are succeeding in getting solidarity from other organisations and communities living in Australia, such as the Chilean community and their organisations as well as Australian organisations, including the Greens, other human rights organisations and a few members of  parliament.

The October uprising will succeed eventually, the people of Iraq will get their rights, no matter how long it takes.

How united are the forces in this movement? How important is unity?

What attracts attention about the October uprising and makes it distinctive and different from the previous uprisings in the past, is that the demonstrators are spontaneously united in all their categories and that is something that encourages optimism.

The goals of the October uprising unite the protesters and brings them together as one against the Iraqi government. Moreover, the October uprising was born from 16 years of suffering of the Iraqi people. This suffering affected all categories of the Iraqi people, except the ruling class and the rich.

The protesters' strong belief in the issues and in changing the government and its underlying principles has united them all. These principles led to sectarian division and have divided Iraqi society. It is now known to everyone that these principles and ideologies were marketed by Iran to serve Iran’s interests in Iraq and in the region, through its affiliates in the Iraqi government.

The young intellectuals, who form the largest volume in the uprising, have a great awareness of the reality of the political situation in Iraq and the changes needed to the government.

They will maintain the momentum that will push the uprising to continue until the changes are achieved and for the fulfillment of all demands.

The people of Iran are once again mobilising against the regime. Do you see this struggle as related to the struggle in Iraq? Does the Iraqi movement see itself as part of the struggles emerging in the Middle East, Chile and elsewhere?

Certainly, there is a relationship between the struggle of the Iraqi people and the Iranian people, but it is an indirect relationship and there is no cooperation between the two movements.

The two movements in Iraq and Iran suffered corrupt regimes that seized the wealth of the people.

Most of the Iranian people, especially intellectuals and youth, reject the expansionist policies of the Iranian government in the region and its interventions in the affairs of neighboring countries — such as Iraq, Lebanon, Syria and Yemen — to attempt to control them completely.

The struggle against corrupt government, unemployment and poverty of public services and for freedom, equality and justice has become the demand of all peoples who struggle across the world. Therefore, the Iraqi movement is part of struggles that are emerging in the Middle East, Chile and elsewhere — and vice versa.

The protests in Iraq, Lebanon, Chile and elsewhere are complementary, because they represent the right of all humankind to live in freedom, with dignity and justice.

[Abeer Hasan Abdulazeez is the founder of The Dream association, an organisation that supports human rights and assists refugees. She has worked in international diplomacy, publishing and broadcasting.]

Protest in solidarity with Iraq in Sydney on November 24.


Stephen Harris, Universitätsbräuhaus, Vienna, Austria

Visited by Stephen Harris on the 24 May 2019. Busy and lively in the beer garden on a balmy Saturday evening.

Nestle products in Europe to feature nutritional score

Nestle will launch a color-coded nutritional rating system called Nutri-Score on product packaging next year in Austria, Belg -More


Wirecard’s boon and SwatchPAY! launch in Germany and Austria

<ul><li>Now available in Germany and Austria: Swiss watch manufacturer Swatch presents six new SwatchPAY! watches that consumers can pay with</li><li>

NP Division at the General Assembly 2020

Each year the European Geosciences Union organizes the largest European geosciences event which is the EGU General Assembly. It usually attracts over than 15000 scientists from all over the world, including both established researchers and early career scientists, who contribute to more than a half of the participants. It consists of several sessions (usually more than 500), covering a wide spectrum of geoscience fields, from the interior of the Earh to the interplanetary medium and planetary environments. The main aim of the General Assembly is to provide a forum where scientists can present their work and discuss their ideas with experts in all fields of geoscience. The General Assembly consists of disciplinary sessions, dealing with topics covered by each EGU division, Union Symposia and Great Debates, being cutting-edge, current, and of interest to a broad range of the space and geosciences, Medal Lectures, being characterized by talks given by medallists at both Union and Division levels, Short Courses and Outreach Sessions, whose participation is especially encouraged to Early Career Scientists. The EGU General Assembly 2020 will held at the Austria Center Vienna (ACV) in Vienna, Austria, from 3-8 May 2020. Here the numbers of the Nonlinear Processes in Geosciences (NP) Division are presented: – 53 Sessions organized or co-organized by NP – 22 Sessions with NP as lead division – 8 Short Courses organized or co-organized by NP – 1 Short Course on meeting the NP officers who will present NP research activities ( – 14 Inter- and Transdisciplinary Sessions (ITS) organized or co-organized by NP – 3 Inter– and Transdisciplinary Sessions (ITS) led by NP ( ( ( – 4 PICO Sessions organized or co-organized by NP – 1 PICO Session starting from NP ( Moreover, NP also awarded 4 different people in relation to their activities within the nonlinear geosciences: – Valerio Lucarini is the 2020 Lewis Fry Richardson Medal – Ekaterina Didenkulova is the NP Division Outstanding ECS – Elisa Ziegler and Rem-Sophia Mouradi achieved the Outstanding Student Poster and PICO (OSPP) Award The program of the NP Division at the General Assembly 2020 is very exciting and we should expect a very good and large participation from the geosciences community. We strongly encourage you to submit an abstract to one of our sessions. Please do not hesitate to contact us for any questions (Stéphane Vannitsem, NP Division President,, Tommaso Alberti, ECS Representative,

Nobel at Noon: Literature


The Nobel Prize in Literature 2019 was awarded to Austrian writer Peter Handke “for an influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience.” In the same announcement, the Nobel Prize committee also awarded the 2018 Nobel to Olga Tokarczuk, an experimental novelist and poet from Poland, “for a narrative imagination that with encyclopedic passion represents the crossing of boundaries as a form of life.”

Cynthia Wong, PhD, professor of English at CU Denver, will lead a discussion about the two authors for the November 21st Nobel at Noon Series.

The Nobel at Noon Series spotlights each Nobel Prize with an informal presentation and discussion. CU Denver faculty experts discuss the meaning and importance of the Nobel Prize while drawing the audience into a discussion about why this award matters to society as a whole.

The lecture begins at 12 p.m. on Thursday, November 21 in the Wartgow Welcome Center (Student Commons Building, Room 1300). Light refreshments will be provided. Feel free to bring your lunch.

More information:


CMS Community X-mas Meetup

CMS Community X-mas Meetup
Christian Ziegler 28. November 2019 - 13:51

Open Postdoc Fellowships at the Erwin Schrödinger Centre for Quantum Science and Technology (ESQ) | Erwin Schrödinger Centre for Quantum Science and Technology (ESQ) Vienna

Vienna or Innsbruck, Austria, Open Postdoc Fellowships at the Erwin Schrödinger Centre for Quantum Science and Technology (ESQ) The Erwin Schrödinger Center for Quantum Science and Technology ESQ invites applications for five t

Tande wygrał w Ruce, bez Polaków na podium


Drugi konkurs sezonu i drugie zwycięstwo - Norweg Daniel Andre Tande choć po pierwszej serii był siódmy, to jednak wygrał w fińskiej Ruce zawody Pucharu Świata w skokach narciarskich.

Tande uzyskał 131 i 142 metry i o 9,2 punktu pokonał Austriaka Philippa Aschenwalda, a o 10,1 punktu Słoweńca Anze Laniska . Początkowo drugi był Norweg Marius Lindvik, a trzeci Słoweniec Peter Prevc, ale obaj po swoich drugich próbach zostali zdyskwalifikowani. Zdyskwalifikowano też Słoweńca Anze Semenicia. To oznacza, że najlepszy z Polaków Dawid Kubacki, który skoczył 123,5 i 135,5 metra zajął 12. miejsce. 13. był Piotr Żyła, 16. Kamil Stoch, 18. Maciej Kot, 22. Stefan Hula, 27. Jakub Wolny, a 46. Klemens Murańka. Liderem Pucharu Świata jest Tande (200 pkt), który ma 60 punktów przewagi nad Laniskiem i 107 punktów nad Aschenwaldem. Stoch - 5., Kubacki - 9., Żyła - 19. Kot - 22., Hula - 31., Wolny - 35. W niedzielę następny konkurs w Ruce. Początek o 16.30.

Christie's Announces December Design Sale Including Rare Frank Lloyd Wright Chairs


Christie's New York is delighted to announce its  December Design Sale  in New York on 13 December 2019 celebrating the creative visions of some of the world's most important designers and architects of the past century. Nearly 200 selected lots will be exhibited, featuring a group of early 20th century Austrian and French Art Deco works, pieces from The Collection of Alexander Kaplen and from an edited New York collection of mid-century French and American design. The season is highlig...

Read the full story at


Comment on Foxconn as Case Study of Targeted Development Subsidy by Barkley Rosser

2slug. Will keep this short, maybe three points. Yes, Hayek did allow for the effects you mention, but I think he still viewed the interest rate stuff as more important. You seem to make it look like the Austrians are more into endogenous business cycles than Keynesians. I think it is the other way around. Again, lots of Austrians really do focus on the naughty central banks, in this way agreeing with Milton Friedman and old-school Chicago monetarists, despite their other disagreements. But Keynes himself and much more directly his important follower, Hyman Minsky, argued that animal spirits were more often than not endogenous to recent patterns in markets and the business cycle, with Minsky laying out a whole theory/model of this. Regarding Hayek, poorly informed libertarians and conservatives who have not read much Hayek really do not understand how complicated he was. He was no fan of Ayn Rand, and she was not a fan of his. Probably the most blatant example of this was back when Obama was trying to get the ACA passed, and various opponents, partly triggered by idiot shows on Fox News were waving copied of Hayek's Road to Serfdom, even on the floors of Congress, in opposition to the ACA. The ironic joke is that in RtS itself Hayek himself came out for full-blown universal national health insurance, making him much more of a socialist than that nasty Obama, with his ACA that was derived from a proposal that originated in the free-market Heritage Foundation. But, well...

Europei 2020, l'Italia nel girone con Galles, Svizzera e Turchia. Mancini: "Non ci sentiamo favoriti"


Il sorteggio dei gironi delle fasi finali degli Europei 2020 sorride all’Italia di Roberto Mancini. Gli Azzurri scenderanno in campo all’Olimpico di Roma contro la Turchia per poi sfidare anche la Svizzera e il Galles. “Le squadre sono tutte competitive. siamo comunque alla fase finale. Certo poteva capitare anche la Francia, ma il nostro è un gruppo equilibrato. Noi stiamo facendo le cose per bene ma c’è da lavorare tanto e migliorare molto da qui all’inizio del torneo, ha detto il ct. Quanto alle previsioni non si sbilancia: “Siamo favoriti? Le partite sono da giocare, e le squadre che affrontiamo sono tutte competitive. Ci aiuta il fatto di giocare in Italia”.

 Le 12 città che ospiteranno la manifestazione sono: Copenaghen, Bucarest, Amsterdam, Dublino, Bilbao, Budapest, Glasgow, Baku, Roma, Monaco di Baviera, San Pietroburgo e Londra. La competizione si concluderà allo stadio Wembley di Londra con le 2 semifinali (in programma 7-8 luglio) e la finalissima il 12 luglio.

Ecco l’elenco completo dei gironi:

- Gruppo A (città ospitanti, Roma e Baku): Italia, Svizzera, Turchia, Galles;

- Gruppo B (San Pietroburgo e Copenaghen), Belgio, Russia, Danimarca, Finlandia;

- Gruppo C (Amsterdam e Bucarest): Ucraina, Olanda, Austria e la vincente degli spareggi del percorso ‘A’ (solo se Romania) o ‘D’ (Georgia, Macedonia del Nord, Kosovo, Bielorussia);

- Gruppo D (Londra e Glasgow): Inghilterra, Croazia, Repubblica Ceca e una proveniente dagli spareggi di marzo (Scozia, Norvegia, Serbia, Israele);

- Gruppo E (Bilbao e Dublino): Spagna, Polonia, Svezia, e una proveniente dagli spareggi di marzo (Bosnia, Slovacchia, Irlanda, Irlanda del Nord);

- Gruppo F (Monaco e Budapest): Germania, Francia, Portogallo e la vincente degli spareggi del percorso ‘A’ (Islanda, Bulgaria, Ungheria) o ‘D’ (Georgia, Macedonia del Nord, Kosovo, Bielorussia).


La “Jihad dei coltelli” che allarma l’Europa


Prima Londra, poi l’Aja. È la “Jihad dei coltelli” che allarma l’Europa. Una “Jihad” condotta da “lupi solitari” senza supporto operativo, almeno così sembra, da parte delle centinaia di “cellule dormienti” messe in piedi dall’Isis e da al-Qaeda nel Vecchio Continente. Non hanno l’addestramento dei foreign fighters, formatisi nei campi di battaglia di Siria e Iraq, non hanno i mezzi o le capacità per costruire un ordigno da uomo-bomba,.  ma non per questo sono meno pericolosi. Perché i lupi della “Jihad dei coltelli” sono più imprevedibili, meno tracciabili da parte dei servizi d’intelligence, anche se qualcuno di loro era già stato individuato e arrestato in passato. È il caso di Usman Khan, l’attentatore ventottenne, che ieri sul London Bridge ha accoltellato i passanti, uccidendone due e ferendone altri tre, prima di essere a sua volta ucciso dalla polizia. Khan era stato rilasciato in libertà vigilata l’anno scorso, dopo aver scontato sei anni per reati di terrorismo. Khan era stato condannato nel 2012 e rilasciato a dicembre 2018 “su licenza”, il che significa che avrebbe dovuto soddisfare determinate condizioni o sarebbe tornato in carcere. Diversi media britannici hanno riferito che indossava un braccialetto elettronico alla caviglia.

Prima dell’attacco Khan stava partecipando a un evento a Londra ospitato da Learning Together, un’organizzazione con sede a Cambridge che lavora nell’istruzione dei carcerati. L’antiterrorismo britannica afferma che la polizia non sta attivamente cercando altri sospetti. Trascorrono poche ore, è il terrore ghermisce l’Aja, dove tre minorenni sono stati feriti a coltellate in una via dello shopping della città olandese. La polizia ha reso noto che un sospetto è in fuga. L’uomo, di carnagione scura e di circa 45-50 anni, indossa una maglia nera, sciarpa e pantaloni da jogging grigi.  Un attacco che ha fatto ripiombare l’Aja nella paura, riportando alla mente l’attentato del maggio del 2018, quando al grido di “Allah Akbar” un uomo ha accoltellato tre passanti. In quell’occasione si parlò di uno squilibrato.


I lupi della “Jihad dei coltelli” sono solo una parte dell’allarme rosso scattato in Europa subito dopo l’uccisione del “califfo” dell’Isis, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. I suoi seguaci hanno voglia di vendicarne la morte. Gli ideologi del Califfato li hanno esortati a usare metodi inusuali per ammazzare. Persino una pietra, un coltello da cucina, un’ascia, la vettura sono sufficienti, hanno ribadito con gli appelli sul web. La creatività del terrorista fai-da-te. Ma la preoccupazione più forte riguarda i foreign fighters di ritorno. In Europa, il Paese che ha più foreign fighters in rapporto alla popolazione è il Belgio, con 440 combattenti su 11.4 milioni di abitanti. Segue la Francia, con 1.200 combattenti espatriati. La Gran Bretagna si attesta ufficialmente a quota 600, anche se MI6, l’intelligence esterno britannico sostiene che il numero potrebbe essere molto più elevato e arrivare fino alle 2.000 unità. Dall’Irlanda sono partiti in 30. La Germani ne annovera  tra i 500 e i 600 e di questi molti ricoprono il ruolo di comandanti all’interno della gerarchia jihadista. In Svezia fonti d’intelligence ne indicano tra i 250 e i 300. In Olanda se ne calcolano tra i 200 e i 250, in Danimarca 100-150, in Norvegia 60 e in Finlandia tra i 50 e i 70. E ancora. Da un recente rapporto Onu, sempre per restare all’Europa, si indica tra i 50 e 100 jihadisti provenienti dalla Spagna, dall’Italia 80. I foreign fighters provengono anche dall’Austria (150 e si ritiene che circa 60 abbiano già fatto ritorno nel Paese), dalla Svizzera (40) e dall’Albania (90, dalla Serbia (70)). A questi vanno aggiunti circa 340 combattenti provenienti dalla Bosnia Erzegovina e 150 dal Kosovo. I macedoni sono 12.  Non si tratta solo di “lupi solitari” reclutati attraverso i social, indottrinati e preparati all’azione sulle “moschee” e campi di addestramento “mediatici” (sono oltre 1700 i siti che fanno riferimento alla galassia dell’Islam radicale). L’Isis ha cellule terroristiche clandestine in Gran Bretagna e Germania, analoghe ai gruppi che hanno condotto gli attentati di Parigi e Bruxelles. A lanciare l’allarme, è stato il direttore della National Intelligence americana, James R. Clapper. Alla domanda se l’Isis sia impegnato in attività clandestine in quei Paesi, Clapper ha risposto affermativamente, sottolineando come questo sia oggetto di preoccupazione “per noi e per i nostri alleati europei”. Stando ad un rapporto di Europol, intitolato ‘Cambiamenti nel Modus Operandi dell’Isis rivisitato’, “squadre assemblate in Siria” sarebbero state inviate in Europa via Ucraina e Paesi Baltici, dove avrebbero già acquistato armi sul mercato nero. Ma anche la Libia è considerata uno dei trampolini di lancio, forse per compiere azioni parallele in Nord Africa. Squadre composte da “diverse decine di persone e dirette dall’Isis” potrebbero già essere presenti in Europa per commettere attacchi terroristici”. Dodicimila foreign fighters che tornano in libertà, non più “custoditi” dalle milizie curde impegnate nel respingere l’invasione turca, per scatenare una nuova, sanguinosa Jihad globale.

Dodicimila combattenti di Daesh (Isis) a cui si aggiungono i 70mila loro famigliari prigionieri dei curdi nel nord della Siria, tra i quali vi sono molti adolescenti indottrinati alla causa del Califfato e della Jihad e potenzialmente addestrati a compiere attacchi e attentati suicidi. Una potente arma di ricatto all’Europa in mano al i presidente turco Recep Tayyp Erdogan. Il “Sultano di Ankara”, ha mandato avanti il suo ministro degli Interni, il falco Suleiman Soylu, a minacciare di nuovo l’Europa: “Rimanderemo i membri dell’Isis nei loro Paesi, anche se gli è stata revocata la cittadinanza”. Si parlerebbe, secondo Ankara di circa 1.200 foreign fighters dello Stato Islamico detenuti nelle prigioni turche, di cui 287 (45 turchi e 242 di 19 diverse nazionalità) catturati durante l’operazione “Fonte di pace” con cui la Turchia ha invaso il nord est della Siria il 9 ottobre scorso. Dopo la sconfitta militare imposta all’Isis in Siria e Iraq, l’allerta è soprattutto in relazione al concreto rischio del cosiddetto “effetto blowback”, vale a dire alla possibilità che, una volta rientrati nei Paesi d’origine, i foreign fighters decidano di passare all’azione.


Nel rapporto dell’Europol di fine giugno si evidenziava proprio come i foreign fighters stiano tornando in massa in Europa. Il Regno Unito è in testa ai Paesi europei con la più alta percentuale di combattenti di ritorno con il 45% di sospetti jihadisti rientrati da Siria e Iraq. A seguire c’è la Germania, mentre l’Italia ha visto finora un ritorno di jihadisti “approssimativamente tra il 20 ed il 30%”, si legge nel rapporto. Secondo l’Europol, i foreign fighter di ritorno continuano ad utilizzare sia le rotte balcaniche che quelle mediterranee per tornare in Europa. Lupi solitari più foreign fighter di ritorno. Una miscela esplosiva per l’Isis 2.0. I comandi militari del Daesh hanno rivisto i propri piani, cambiando strategia e puntando ad una Jihad globale che abbia l’Occidente, e in esso in particolare l’Europa come teatro di battaglia. Ecco allora l’attivazione di cellule “dormienti”, l’indicazione ai “mujahiddin” con passaporto europeo di rientrare a casa per seminare morte e terrore nel Vecchio continente. Martin Chulov, giornalista del Guardian, esperto di terrorismo jihadista, aveva rivelato che prima degli attentati di Parigi i leader dello Stato islamico si erano riuniti vicino a Raqqa, a quei tempi la “capitale” del Califfato in Siria, e in quell’occasione avevano deciso di mettere in piedi una nuova strategia che prevede grandi attentati nelle capitali europee. Guy van Vlierden è un reporter belga specializzato nel seguire i foreign fighters partiti da Francia e Belgio per la Siria e poi tornati. “E’ perfettamente possibile – annota - che esista un grande network e che ci siano decine di attentatori, perché sappiamo che hanno gestito un viavai di volontari a Leros e nei centri per rifugiati in tutta Europa – in Germania, in Austria e forse anche in Ungheria”. I servizi segreti tedeschi valutano che in Germania vi siano circa 600 veterani della guerra in Siria, cioè addestrati ad azioni di guerra e terrorismo, e ben 43 mila estremisti salafiti ideologizzati ma non addestrati militarmente. Numeri che potrebbero moltiplicarsi se i 12mila foreign fighters torneranno liberi. Liberi di colpire. Anche da noi.


22 de suceveni, tratați gratuit în străinătate

Anul acesta, Casa de Sănătate Suceava a eliberat 22 de formulare E112 prin care pacienții pot efectuat tratament gratuit în străinătate, iar aceștia s-au adresat unor unități sanitare din Italia, Ungaria, Austria, Elveția și Germania. Șeful Casei, doctorul Claudiu Cobuz a transmis că formularele au fost acordate pentru pacienți cu afecțiuni neurologice, pediatrice, ortopedice, dermatologice, boli ale sistemului circulator, afecțiuni oncologice și afectiuni ORL. Potrivit șefului CAS Suceava, contravaloarea estimată a serviciilor medicale obținute în baza acestor formulare este de ...

Recent refugee arrivals in Austria: Challenges to social and labour market integration

A major study by wiiw of recent arrivals from the Middle East highlights the importance of interaction with locals, language skills and mental health support.

Publication: The Effect of Stressors and Resilience Factors on Mental Health of Recent Refugees in Austria

Given the exposure to stressors in their home countries, during their migration and in the phase aft...

Refugees in Austria: Strong labour market integration after several years

After negotiating initial hurdles, refugee employment rates tend to converge fairly quickly towards those of non-humanitarian migrants and natives.

Publication: Various Domains of Integration of Refugees and their Interrelationships: A Study of Recent Refugee Inflows in Austria

This paper addresses the complexity of, and the interrelationships between, two important aspects of...

Publication: Employment Gaps Between Refugees, Migrants and Natives: Evidence from Austrian Register Based Labour Market Data

This paper analyses labour market integration in Austria of non-European refugees originating from m...


기계 종류별 주요 수입국 현황 제품명 제품별 주요 수입국 Equipment for scrubbing-and-drying of bottles and other vessels Germany, Italy, Austria, Israel, Sweden Equipment for filling, closing... 판지상자장비, 종이컵, 밀봉라벨기계, 포장기계를작성견장을다는수축 여섯, 플라스틱... 설명했다...파우치로 교체하는 경우가 많아졌고, 파우치 포장의 종류와 쓰임새도 날이 갈수록 다양해지고 있어... 제품번호730021 기본사양 성능우수, 상세정보 참조 모델명 판매금액 가격협의 거래방식 제품분류식품·포장기계/물류·운반 > 파렛트/랙/앵글/사다리 상세분류 제조년 제조사홍진시스템 거래가능지역전체 가격... 입금 확인후 배송해 드립니다. 다만, 상품종류에 따라서 상품의 배송이 다소 지연될... 제품번호106393 기본사양고형류 모델명필로포장기, 사탕,빵종류 판매금액7,000,000원 제품분류식품.화학.포장.물류운반 > 포장기계 기타 년식 및 상태 2011년/상태양호 제조사대환포장기계 판매사 동일기계... > 식품관련포장기계 제조년월2011년00월 제조사대환포장기계 업체명동일기계 전화번호031-682-9537 담당자현진환... : 장비의 냉동 보존, 냉장 냉동고, 식품 안전성 테스트 장비, 냉장 운송 및 물류 장비의 종류 등... 시장 : 기계 종류별 시장 세분화 세계의 FFS(성형·충전·밀봉) 포장 기계 시장 세계의 라벨링 및 코딩... 인류에 기여하고 있다. 엔터팩 자동/수동 식품포장기계 특징 포장 크기에 따른 기기 선택 (EHQ-200, EHQ...모양에 맞게 필름절단, Punch 동시 작동 용기 종류에 따라 간편한 Heater Unit 교환방식 Tray구동의 2... 유럽과 미국 등 서구권은 버티컬 포장 방식이 각각 식품 포장기계 분야의 대세를 이루고 있다”고 설명했다...파우치로 교체하는 경우가 많아졌고, 파우치 포장의 종류와 쓰임새도 날이 갈수록 다양해지고 있어... 1 ~ 15 t, 사용자 정의<. 자동 스핀 테이블, 3-6 작업 역 선택할 수, 효율적으로 작업<. 유럽... nano200-평면 제품분류식품.화학.포장.물류운반 > 식품기계 기타 / 식품 관련자재 년식 및 상태 새제품...주문하신 상품은 입금 확인후 배송해 드립니다. 다만, 상품종류에 따라서 상품의 배송이 다소 지연될... [문의번호:13469] 삼면포장기 삽니다. : 식품.포장.물류.운반 - 식품관련포장기계 중고제품 피자빵종류 포장 구매문의 구매문의시 판매기업에 빠른 구매상담과 견적을 받을 수 있습니다. 삼면포장기 삽니다. 문의... 년식 및 상태 2011년/상태양호 제조사대환포장기계 판매사 동일기계... Development Council 방문객수 410,000여명 방문 입장권 전세계 1,200여 업체 참가... 가공기계 2012년 상하이 국제식품기계설비 전시회 참가비 부스종류 가격(달러/㎡) 비고... 되며, 건조시의 가스 투과성이 낮다 - 단점 : 방습성이 좋지 않고, 내산성, 내알칼리성이 낮고, 열접착성이... 모델명P00000ZF 제품분류식품.화학.포장.물류운반 > 자동포장기계 제조사삼무식품기계 판매사 삼무식품기계...포장기 입니다.- 제품의 종류가 무게에 따라 다양하게 포장가능합니다.- 팩을 강제로 벌린 상태에서... 형성, 기계적성, 투명성 등에 결점 (4) 셀로판 주성분 : 재생섬유소 - 장점 : 광택이 있고, 인쇄가 잘 되며, 건조시의 가스 투과성이 낮다 - 단점 : 방습성이 좋지 않고, 내산성, 내알칼리성이 낮고, 열접착성이... 1.0 12 벨기에 0.0 0.0 0.6 13 한국 0.8 1.5 0.6 자료 : 태국 상무부 ○ 식품포장기계는 종류에 따라 용기포장(HS Code 8422.30)과 기타포장(HS Code 8422.40)으로 나누어져 있음. 태국의 2010년 식품용기포장... > 파렛트/랙/앵글/사다리 상세분류 제조년 제조사홍진시스템 거래가능지역전체 가격... 고주파 식품 물집 자동 포장 기계 자동 포장 기계 특징: <. 고주파 용접 기계 기능 동기 녹는<. 절단 압력 제어 1 ~ 15 t, 사용자 정의<. 자동 스핀 테이블, 3-6 작업 역 선택할 수, 효율적으로 작업<. 유럽... 기타식품기계 제조사화신 기계(주방) 업체명책임공구기계장터 전화번호053-359-0945 담당자임진영 휴대폰***-****-**** 대구... 다양한 종류찜 약제찜 등 판매금액4,800,000원(가격협의) ( ) 제품분류식품 · 포장 > 기타식품기계 제조사화신 기계(주방) 업체명책임공구기계장터 전화번호053-359-0945 담당자임진영 휴대폰***-****-**** 대구... and other vessels Germany, Italy, Austria, Israel, Sweden Equipment for filling, closing... 제품(서비스) 경제지표 주요 시장 개요 Five Force 분석 제6장 기계 종류별 시장 구분 아시아태평양 지역의 식품 포장 기계 시장 : 기계 종류별 충전기 라벨링 및 코딩기 래핑기 제7장 용도별 시장 구분 아시아... 보통상점에서의 포장기계 수요가 급증할 것으로 예상되며 중소형 가금가축 도살... 영아식품 가공포장설비의 시장도 확대 추세이다. <도살 및 육류 가공포장기계> 가금가축도살기계, 육류가공...특히 대중도시의 보통상점에서의 포장기계 수요가 급증할 것으로 예상되며 중소형 가금가축 도살... 수입이 23%, 기타 2%임. ㅇ 이 중에서 특히 식품 포장 기계의 수요는 1억 5000만 달러 정도이며 약 90%를...있음. ㅇ 우크라이나의 국내 생산은 크게 두 종류로 구분될 수 있는데 종전 국영기업이었던 대규모... 6장 시장 기회 평가 다양한 종류의 식품 포장 기계에 관한 시장 기회 평가 제7장 세계의 식품 포장 기계 시장 : 기계 종류별 시장 세분화 세계의 FFS(성형·충전·밀봉) 포장 기계 시장 세계의 라벨링 및 코딩... 2 종류의 기계가 셋트로 구성되어있습니다. 1. 엘실러(L-sealer... 기계 시장 : 기계 종류별 충전기 라벨링 및 코딩기 래핑기 제7장 용도별 시장 구분 아시아... 생산업체는 2700개 이상임. 해당 품목의 종류도 3000개에 달함. ○ 완전경쟁시장에서... 기계, 환경 보호 기계, 실험실 장비 등 무게 4.포장 재료 및 제품 : 플라스틱 재료, 복합 재료, 종이 재료...장비 : 장비의 냉동 보존, 냉장 냉동고, 식품 안전성 테스트 장비, 냉장 운송 및 물류 장비의 종류 등... 그 중 가장 높은 비중을 차지하는, 연포장재를 사용하여 식품을 포장하는 포장기계를 중심으로 알아보도록 한다. 2. 포장기계의 분류 포장기계의 종류를 구분하는 것은 분류하는 방법에 따라 많은 차이가 있을 수... 어떤 종류의 당신이. B. 크기 제품의( 길이가, 폭과 높이). 2:엔지니어입니다 해외 제공 할 수? 예, 하지만...우리는 보내당신은 비디오를 자세한 내용 기계 설치 및 끝까지 당신을 돕기. 3. 당신은 공장 또는... 판매기업에 빠른 구매상담과 견적을 받을 수 있습니다. 삼면포장기 삽니다. 문의... 방식 제품분류식품·포장기계/물류·운반 > 식품관련포장기계 제조년 제조사삼원포장기계 거래가능지역전체...포장기를 판매합니다. 수축포장기는 2 종류의 기계가 셋트로 구성되어있습니다. 1. 엘실러(L-sealer... 식품포장기계는 종류에 따라 용기포장(HS Code 8422.30)과 기타포장(HS Code 8422.40)으로 나누어져 있음. 태국의 2010년 식품용기포장... 90%를...있음. ㅇ 우크라이나의 국내 생산은 크게 두 종류로 구분될 수 있는데 종전 국영기업이었던 대규모... 탐지장비, 진공프라이팬장비 4, 베이커리장비, 편의식품, 향신료, 가공장비, 문케이크건빵빵과자생산설비...펄프조형장비, 판지상자장비, 종이컵, 밀봉라벨기계, 포장기계를작성견장을다는수축 여섯, 플라스틱... 사양고형류 모델명필로포장기, 사탕,빵종류 판매금액7,000,000원 ( ) 제품분류식품 · 포장 > 식품관련포장기계 제조년월2011년00월 제조사대환포장기계 업체명동일기계 전화번호031-682-9537 담당자현진환... 보내당신은 비디오를 자세한 내용 기계 설치 및 끝까지 당신을 돕기. 3. 당신은 공장 또는... 무게에 따라 다양하게 포장가능합니다.- 팩을 강제로 벌린 상태에서... 포장, 액체포장, 약품포장기계 · 금속포장, 화장품포장, 플라스틱포장기계, 식품 포장재료 · 플라스틱...설비, 유제품 가공기계 2012년 상하이 국제식품기계설비 전시회 참가비 부스종류 가격(달러/㎡) 비고... 중국 식품포장기계시장은 완전경쟁시장 - 중국 OFweek닷컴에 의하면 현재 식품 및 포장기계산업 종사자는...넘어섰고, 생산업체는 2700개 이상임. 해당 품목의 종류도 3000개에 달함. ○ 완전경쟁시장에서... 필름절단, Punch 동시 작동 용기 종류에 따라 간편한 Heater Unit 교환방식 Tray구동의 2... 식품기계/주방/포장 전시기간 지명도 Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre Hong Kong Trade Development Council 방문객수 410,000여명 방문 입장권 전세계 1,200여 업체 참가... 포장기계의 분류 포장기계의 종류를 구분하는 것은 분류하는 방법에 따라 많은 차이가 있을 수...

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ORS plans 5G Broadcast trial with TV and radio in Vienna

Austrian transmitter network operator ORS intends to carry out a test run with TV and radio channels in 5G Broadcast mode in Vienna. Media authority KommAustria granted the corresponding approval. The pilot project is to be carried out via the two large transmitter sites in Vienna at Kahlenberg (pictured) and Liesing. The authority will allocate […]

SVO, TeleData and Stadtwerke Norderney choose Ocilion

German regional network operators SVO, TeleData Friedrichshafen and Stadtwerke Norderney have chosen the IPTV wholesale solution from Austrian service provider Ocilion. TeleData’s new IPTV offer has already been rolled out, the other two are currently being implemented. Ocilion delivers the end-to-end service consisting of software, services, content packages, video-on-demand, set-top boxes and apps for tablets […]

Project TUNED-EUPAE - Improving work-life balance: opportunities and risks coming from digitalization

On behalf of Eurofedop, Willi Gloss (GÖD-FCG, Austria) and Agg Géza (KSS, Hungary), members of the social dialogue committee, participated in the final conference …
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24 By Avenida Hotel Residences Kaprun By Alpin Rentals Kaprun Austria

24 By Avenida Hotel Residences Kaprun By Alpin Rentals Kaprun Austria

Landgasthof Post Ledererwirt SanktLambrecht Austria

Landgasthof Post Ledererwirt SanktLambrecht Austria

Axel Struss neu im Regulatory-Team bei Diapharm in Wien

Der Diplom-Biologe Axel Struss ist neuer Senior Consultant Regulatory Affairs und Informationsbeauftragter bei Diapharm Austria in Wien ( Er war bislang bei Pfizer Consumer Healthcare für International Regulatory Affairs und zuvor bei Wyeth Consumer Healthcare tätig. Für die Klienten von Diapharm Austria verantwortet Axel Struss künftig als externer Informationsbeauftragter die Prüfung und Freigabe von Pack- und Werbemitteln und übernimmt Aufgaben im Regulatory und Quality Management.

October/November in KDE Itinerary


Time for another bi-monthy status update around KDE Itinerary! Since the last report plenty of things have happened again, ranging from multi-ticket support to integration with the Plasma Browser Integration plug-in, most of which you’ll find in the upcoming 19.12 release.

New Features

The biggest new feature this time is clearly the integration into the Plasma Browser Integration plug-in for Firefox and Chromium. That has been in the works since the Nürnberg sprint, and required a number of changes throughout the infrastructure and in the browser plug-in.

Plasma Browser Integration pop-up showing details of an event mentioned on the current website. Plasma Browser Integration offering to add an event to KDE Itinerary.

More work is still needed on this so that KDE Itinerary can also consume “timeless” elements properly, such as hotel or restaurant information without an associated booking. For that we need Kirigami date/time controls first though.

Another new feature is support for multi-ticket reservations. That’s for cases where a single traveler has multiple relevant tickets for a single journey section, such as a separate seat reservation or a first class upgrade next to a regular train ticket. Those cannot be merged, and the UI needs to be able to alternatively show both tickets. This is done by leveraging existing infrastructure for multi-traveler reservations. In the course of this, we also added support for decoding RCT2 upgrade tickets.

KDE Itinerary offering to select between the main and upgrade ticket of a train trip. Multi-ticket selector in KDE Itinerary.

The built-in weather forecast in the KDE Itinerary app can now also indicate expected high wind speeds, thanks to the Breeze icon theme gaining support for that in its weather icon set.

KDE Itinerary timeline showing a weather forecast with windy weather. Weather forecast in KDE Itinerary indicating windy weather.

Infrastructure Work

As usual a lot of things happened behind the scenes as well:

  • The custom extractor API as well as the generic extractors became more flexible and powerful, there’s a separate post covering most of this. Since then we also added access to UIC 918.3 vendor blocks for the custom extractor API, and content-based extractor selection.

  • KPublicTransport received API to explicitly control which backend services to query, and the UI for this has been integrated into KDE Itinerary’s settings page. There’s also a dedicated post about this.

KDE Itinerary showing a configuration page to select which public transport services to use. Detailed public transport information service selection in KDE Itinerary.
  • The generic PDF extractor now also considers the creation and modification time in the PDF meta-data as context information, which allows us to get the date right in more cases for PDF boarding passes (which in their barcode annoyingly only contain the day, not the date).

  • The train station database of the extractor engine now also supports Indian Railways station codes, and contains all stations with such a code from Wikidata. Together with the content-based extractor selection this should pave the way for supporting Indian Railways SMS tickets.

Fixes & Improvements

Besides these larger changes, there are of course also plenty of small improvements worth noting:

  • The KMail plug-in got a UI revamp. It now no longer looks like what was initially just supposed to be debug output, and its actions are now regular buttons rather than hidden in the not obvious to spot context menu.
KItinerary KMail plug-in with new UI visuals. New KMail plug-in UI.
  • Timezones on Android so far were usually displayed as GMT offsets only. This is due to QTimeZone being limited to use older Android API for this. We now call newer Android API for this ourselves if available (API level >= 24), to get closer to the human readable timezone names we have on Linux.

  • Custom extractors for IndiGo, Flixbus, Lufthansa, RegioJet and ÖBB were added or improved, and the generic extractor for annotations in Microdata format can now handle nested objects correctly.

  • Calendar entries for restaurant reservations without an end time no longer span the entire day.

  • The trip group naming heuristic was improved to also consider the longest gap between location changes as the possible destination of a trip.

  • The KMail itinerary plug-in can now also show train classes, and can correctly display multiple ticket tokens now.

  • The KDE Itinerary app now shows inline feedback when importing data.

KDE Itinerary showing an inline notification about two successfully imported reservations. KDE Itinerary providing feedback about imported reservations.

KPublicTransport, the framework that provides us with real-time transport data, also got a number of noteworthy improvements:

  • Backend services can now be configured with a static timezone. That’s used for backends that ignore timezones entirely due to being regionally restricted to just one anyway.

  • Backends can now indicate if they are able to query arrival times at a station, so the framework can avoid querying those on such requests.

  • The parser for responses from EFA backends now also supports an alternate compact response format that some services use.

  • The Hafas parser now resolves master location references, which should improve location query result quality a bit. Product selection in journey queries for Hafas-based backends was also fixed, which resulted in missing tram lines in certain locations.

  • A number of new backend services were added, covering Luxembourg as well as various regions in Austria, Germany and the US.


All the development happening is of course of limited use if this isn’t distributed to our users. So I’d also like to highlight a few things supporting that:

  • As the KItinerary extractor engine depends on inofficial Poppler API, we need to regularly adapt that code to new Poppler releases. Besides doing that up to the upcoming 0.83 release of Poppler we hopefully also made the supporting infrastructure for this a bit more scalable and future proof, reducing the future maintenance effort there.

  • For deployment scenarios far away from our usual environments, such as old server systems, we have added the infrastructure to do full static builds of the command line extractor tool. That’s not necessarily a good alternative to proper distribution packages, but those aren’t easily available on say a Debian 9 server.


This work continues to rely on donated data samples, thanks to everyone who has helped with this so far! And a special thank to the donator of the large set of multi-ticket samples that were essential in some of the above, there’s still much more work to be done based on that :)

If you want to help in other ways than donating test samples too, see our Phabricator workboard for what’s on the todo list, for coordinating work and for collecting ideas. For questions and suggestions, please feel free to join us on the KDE PIM mailing list or in the #kontact channel on Matrix or Freenode.


Kitzsteinhorn: World-Class Riders Shred the Superpipe!

Condizioni perfette a Kitzsteinhorn Austria per il Superpipe e ghiacciaio.
Superpipe aperto per tutti i riders dal 4 dicembre 2019 • Grand opening KK-3K previsto per il 30 novembre 2019

QParks Tour

Anche quest'anno il team di QParks Tour Austria ha preparato un calendario eventi di grande rilievo. Di seguito il video promo e le date.

Hedge Funds Might Blow a $4.4 Billion Light Bulb Deal


AMS’s attempted takeover of Osram has turned into a standoff with merger arbs. There’s a chance of everybody losing. See the light. Hedge funds have got AMS AG over a barrel. The Austrian sensor maker ...

Ilmeksimatult tabanud Saimon Sutt tegi hiilgava mängu ning vedas Oberwarti järjekordse võiduni

Hiilgava mängu teinud Saimon Sutt vedas Oberwart Gunnersi kindla võiduni, kui Austria kõrgliigas alistati koduväljakul peetud kohtumises Grazi Raiffeisen 87:73 (18:29, 22:13, 26:18, 21:13).  24-aastane Sutt tabas ilmeksimatult kõik teele läinud visked ning tõi mängu parimana ligi 30 minutiga 28 punkti (kahesed 2/2, kolmesed 7/7, vabavisked 3/3), võttis kuus lauapalli (kolm ründest), andis neli resultatiivset…


We just got his naturalization records and is says Shaden austria hungery.
Mother was Catherine margovich and john rusnock.


This photo shows a specific breed of curly-haired Hungarian pigs

An image has been shared repeatedly in multiple Facebook and Twitter posts alongside a claim that it shows a pig that was bred with a sheep to mislead Muslims into eating pork, which is prohibited in Islam. The post adds that the breeding was facilitated by new technology from Austria. The claim is false; the image shows Mangalica pigs, a Hungarian breed that was first developed in the 19th century by cross-breeding different types of pigs.

Die schlechte Nachricht: Großbrand in Hallstatt im ...

Die schlechte Nachricht: Großbrand in Hallstatt im Salzkammergut in Österreich. Hallstatt ist Unesco-Weltkulturerbe.

Die gute Nachricht: China hat rechtzeitig ein dezentrales Backup gemacht.

Update: Hups, hatte die falsche URL gepastet.


Post-doctoral position in vienna/Austria

we work on neurobiology and neuropharmacology of aging- in particular we aim to show differences between aging rats that are impaired or unimpaired at the molecular, electrophysiological immunochemical and proteomics level As to the neuropharmacological topic we have synthetized, characterized our compounds that are dopamine transporter inhibitors and tested them in behavioural paradigms-nowwe are into mechanisms of action although the target is known we are looking for a senior or gifted…

StLJN Saturday Video Showcase: Spotlight on Fred Frith


This week, let's have a look at some videos featuring guitarist Fred Frith, who's coming to St. Louis to perform in a concert presented by New Music Circle on Saturday, December 14 at Joe's Cafe. While he's in town, he also will present a free master class on Sunday, December 15 at the 14th St. Artists Collective in north St. Louis.

Fred Frith, who turned 70 this year, was born in Sussex, England and first came to wide attention in the late 1960s and early 70s as a member of the art-rock band Henry Cow. His 1974 album Guitar Solos made a splash showcasing his unusual approach to improvising, using lots of effects and deploying various found objects, including ball bearings, egg beaters, drumsticks and many more, both to strike the guitar and sometimes to "prepare" it in a manner recalling John Cage's prepared pianos.

In 1979, Frith moved to New York City, where he became part of the then-burgeoning downtown experimental music scene, which led to him forming groups such as Massacre and Skeleton Crew and eventually, collaborating with Brian Eno, Robert Wyatt, Syd Barrett, Mike Oldfield, The Residents, John Zorn, Bill Laswell, and many others.

Frith in the 1980s also began writing music for dance, film, and theater. After spending a couple of years living in Germany, he moved in 1997 to Oakland, CA to join faculty at Mills College, where he taught composition until retiring last year, all the while maintaining an active performing and recording schedule.

For his St. Louis show - his first since a duo performance with John Zorn many years ago at The Sheldon - Frith will be playing solo, and so today, we've collected some performance videos including four solo shows, starting up above with a full performance recorded in April of this year at the Torino Jazz Festival in Turin, Italy.

After the jump, there are two more solo concerts, from February 2019 in Ottensheim, Austria and June 2016 in Paris, France.

Next is a combination solo performance and Q&A session recorded in January 2013 in New York City, in which Frith plays and also talks about five of his favorite songs, followed by another older solo show from March 2007 in Mexico City.

The final video shows Frith and his West Coast trio with bassist Jason Hoopes and drummer Jordan Glenn in December 2018 at Starline Social Club in Oakland, CA.

For more about Fred Frith and his distinctive approach to guitar, check out his interview from 2013 with the website Prepared Guitar, his 2014 interview with Chicago Reader, conducted by experimental filmmaker Lori Felker, and his 2016 Q&A with

You can see the rest of today's videos after the jump...


Business Development Project Engineer (M/F)

Business Development Project Engineer (m/f) Job Ref : 1911982 Location: Bludenz, Vorarlberg, Austria Ever wondered how long it takes to make Milka chocolate? Taking into account the cocoa tree seedling (including time for a tree to mature), the...

Olympic qualification race set for an epic showdown

Alex Maloney and Molly Meech - Rachel von Zalinski Live Sail Die

Two 49er teams well known to the podium but yet to qualify their countries for the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games finished first and second at the three-day Oceanic Championships which served as a warm-up event for next week’s 2019 Hyundai World Championships. Austria’s Benjamin Bildstein and David Hussl sealed victory in the light and fickle

"Olympic qualification race set for an epic showdown" is generated from Live Sail Die.


Landwirtschaft - Obsternte lag heuer deutlich unter dem Vorjahresniveau

Die heurige Obsternte blieb mengenmäßig weit hinter dem Vorjahr zurück. Das geerntete Volumen im Erwerbsobstbau sank um 21 Prozent auf 225.200 Tonnen (ohne Holunder und Aronia), wie aus aktuellen Daten der Statistik Austria von Mittwoch hervorgeht.

Mars-Schokoladenfabrik - Breitenbrunner Schokowerk: Im Osten nix Neues

Im Breitenbrunner Werk von Mars Austria wird nach wie vor verhandelt.

Project TUNED-EUPAE - Improving work-life balance: opportunities and risks coming from digitalization

On behalf of Eurofedop, Willi Gloss (GÖD-FCG, Austria) and Agg Géza (KSS, Hungary), members of the social dialogue committee, participated in the final conference …
; Read more ; - News

Villa Marie House / Superfuturegroup


Villa Marie is situated on a south orientated slope in the alpine foothill region of Upper Austria, which is characterized by soft hills and splendid views to the alps. The design focuses on two aspects, a bungalow concept organizes all rooms on one level around a central living area and the west orientated veranda terrace. The generous veranda connects the main living room with the garden and provides a covered, outdoor social area. A big void flood plenty of natural light into the house and separates the veranda into two covered areas.


We didn mistrust Kennedy the way we did Nixon


28 trombonists play 'bohemian rhapsody

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Podsumowanie konferencji „The Austrian School of Economics in the 21st Century” i nie tylko

W dniach 13–14 listopada w Wiedniu odbyła się 8. międzynarodowa konferencja „The Austrian School of Economics in the 21st Century” („Austriacka szkoła ekonomii w XXI wieku”). Konferencja zorganizowana wspólnie przez kilka organizacji, w tym Fundación Bases, Austrian Economics Center i Hayek Institut, spotkała się z dużym zainteresowaniem ze strony pasjonatów wolności z Europy, Stanów Zjednoczonych […]

International Land Use Symposium

<p>Sustainable spatial development requires more and more precise and comprehensive information for planning and political decisions. This applies in particular to the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations. An international symposium to be held in Paris from 4 to 6 December 2019 will address current developments in the analysis, modelling and visualisation of data on land use and land cover changes.</p> <p>Under the umbrella "Land use changes: Trends and projections", the ILUS 2019 is dedicated to interdisciplinary concepts on how current developments in spatial analysis and data modelling can contribute to sustainable resource management and better support planning as well as urban and regional development. To this end, the symposium covers three major topics: Land Use and Land Cover Change Observations, Metropolization: Challenges and Risks as well as Drivers, Mechanisms, Tools. An open section provides space for other relevant contributions.<br /> <br /> The symposium will be opened with contributions of renowned international scientists in the area of spatial analysis and spatial planning. Keynote speakers include Andy Karvonen, KTH Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm/Sweden, Martino Pesaresi, Joint Research Centre in Ispra/Italy, Norbert Pfeifer, TU Wien/Austria, François Moriconi-Ebrard, Centre national de la recherche scientifique/France, Nathalie Gaussier, Université Montesquieu Bordeaux 4/France, Jochen Jaeger, Concordia University Montreal/Canada, and Bin Jiang, University of Gävle/Sweden.<br /> <br /> The ILUS 2019 is jointly organized by the following partners: Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development (IOER, Dresden), Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Energies de Demain (LIED, University of Paris Diderot), Pôle Image (University of Paris Diderot) and Institut National de l’Information Géographique et Forestière (IGN, Saint-Mandé).<br /> <br /> 3 December 2019: Workshop on urban Sprawl<br /> On 3 December the pre-conference workshop “Approaches to limiting urban sprawl: policies, planning, and governance” will take place. The aim of the workshop on urban sprawl is to place the empirical results on the characteristics of Urban Sprawl into the planning, legal and economic context.<br /> <br /> Programme and panel discussion<br /> This year's panel discussion is focusing on the following topic: "Do spatial analyses matter? From geodata science to sustainability transformations" and will be led by Mathieu Arnoux (Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Energies de Demain, Université Paris Diderot) and Marc Wolfram (IOER, Dresden).</p>

Call for Papers - 'Globalization in the Modern Era'

<p class="MsoTitle" style="text-align:center">&nbsp;</p> <img alt="IT&amp;FA logo 1" data-align="center" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="eaf56795-b8f0-4bb4-953e-42597eb9f5d9" src="" /> <p class="MsoTitle" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:36pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Palatino Linotype&quot;,serif"><span style="color:red"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:22.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Call for Papers</span></span></b></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:16.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">30<sup>th</sup> International Conference</span></span></b></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:16.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The International Trade and Finance Association</span></span></b></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:red">Abstract Submission Deadline January 31, 2020</span></span></span></span></span></p> <p align="center" style="text-align:center"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black">Theme:&nbsp; Globalization in the Modern Era<br /> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; May 27 – 30, 2020</span></span></span></b><br /> <b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:14.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="color:black">University of Richmond, Richmond, Virginia, USA</span></span></span></b></span></span></p> <p><br /> <span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"><b>Graduate Student Mentoring Event Included!</b> There will be a <b>special mentoring event this year for graduate students</b> on <b>Wednesday, May 27</b>. Members of ITFA will hold a day-long mentoring session to help students understand what is required of them as they progress through their academic or other professional careers. Please indicate your intention to attend this important, helpful event. </span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><strong style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">BACKGROUND</span></span></strong></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"><span style="letter-spacing:-.25pt">IT&amp;FA was founded in 1990 by a prestigious group of academics and professionals who believed that the study of "international" issues had not received the emphasis and attention that it should. The Association has professional members in over 30 countries. These include Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Costa Rica, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, and the United States. Thirty years later, there are still some of the original founding members and many others who attend year after year. ITFA members welcome others to join our helpful, open group to further intellectual literature and discussions concerning the international realm.&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><strong style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">CONFERENCE INFORMATION</span></span></strong> </span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">IT&amp;FA is a multi-disciplinary association, and welcomes scholars and professionals from economics and finance, as well as all other areas of business, law, communications and other disciplines with an interest in globalization and the global economy.&nbsp; The conference will consist of regular competitive sessions, as well as plenary sessions dealing with high-profile issues.</span></span></span></span></p> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">We invite theoretical, conceptual and empirical proposals and completed papers on all aspects of international trade and finance, including such emerging issues as cyber security and economic warfare, digital free trade and e-commerce, intellectual property protections, and trade in various services. IT&amp;FA also seeks papers on trade policy, exchange rates, investments and capital flows, banking, migration, tourism, communications, transportation, governance and law, and management and marketing.&nbsp; Industry-specific studies are welcome (such as agriculture, retail, textiles, and entertainment), as are proposals dealing with multilateral, regional, and national issues impacting international trade and finance are also invited.&nbsp; </span></span></span></span></p> <ul> <li><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="color:black"><span style="tab-stops:list 36.0pt"><span style="text-autospace:ideograph-numeric ideograph-other"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Program</span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">: Offers discussions of economic topics across many disciplines via speakers and panels.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="color:black"><span style="tab-stops:list 36.0pt"><span style="text-autospace:ideograph-numeric ideograph-other"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Special Events</span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">: The Presidential Address, award presentations, paper/panel presentations, gala dinner, and networking opportunities.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> <li><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="color:black"><span style="tab-stops:list 36.0pt"><span style="text-autospace:ideograph-numeric ideograph-other"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Paper Awards</span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">: We offer US$500 for the best faculty paper submitted to the conference and US$250 for the best student paper (no faculty authors included), along with certificates confirming each. These must be uploaded to the Awards section of the website. </span></span></span></span></span></span></span></li> </ul> <p><span style="font-size:12pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">REGISTRATION</span></span></b><br /> <br /> <span lang="EN-US" style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">IT&amp;FA’s registration fee is US$300 for <u>all</u> participants/US$125 for students who submit abstracts by January 31, 2020. This fee will cover registration, associated conference expenses, and one year’s membership in IT&amp;FA, with access to the <i>Global Economy Journal</i>. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="text-autospace:ideograph-numeric ideograph-other"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Cancellations: Before March 31, 2019, 100% of the registration fee is refundable. After March 31, 50% of the fee is refundable.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="text-autospace:ideograph-numeric ideograph-other"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">The conference will open with a reception on Wednesday, May 27, hold sessions on Thursday and Friday, including a banquet on Friday evening, and conclude with final sessions or a group event on Saturday, May 30. Those planning to depart on Sunday, May 31, will have time to investigate the unique circumstances that connect Richmond, Virginia, and the surrounding Washington, DC, area to the evolving global economy. These include important history, world-class cultural beautiful parks, and shopping. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="text-autospace:ideograph-numeric ideograph-other"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">IT&amp;FA seeks both proposals for individual papers and for complete sessions. Complete sessions should have three to four papers. In the case of multiple authors for a paper, at least one author must register for the conference. All attending must pay the registration fees. No participant will be permitted to present more than two papers. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="text-autospace:ideograph-numeric ideograph-other"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="line-height:107%"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">DEADLINES: </span></span></span></span></b></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="text-autospace:ideograph-numeric ideograph-other"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">November 1, 2019 to January 31, 2020 – Registration Materials and Abstracts submitted for Peer Review</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="text-autospace:ideograph-numeric ideograph-other"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">February 23, 2020 – Notification of Acceptance by this date. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="text-autospace:ideograph-numeric ideograph-other"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">March 15, 2020 – Payment of Registration Fee Due. <u>Visa documentation requests due along with payment, if not requested earlier.</u> Cancellation for 100% returned fees, 50% return fees hereafter.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="text-autospace:ideograph-numeric ideograph-other"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">March 15, 2020 – <u>Deadline for Hotel Registrations</u>. </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="text-autospace:ideograph-numeric ideograph-other"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">May 10, 2020 - Conference schedule posted online.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="text-autospace:ideograph-numeric ideograph-other"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">May 27 to May 30, 2020 – Conference convenes in Richmond, Virginia.</span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="text-autospace:ideograph-numeric ideograph-other"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">For additional registration information and updates, please see the association website:&nbsp; </span></span></span></b><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"><a href="" style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; color:#0563c1; text-decoration:underline"><b><span style="color:black"></span></b></a><b> &nbsp;&nbsp;</b></span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">If you have any questions, please contact </span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:11px"><span style="font-size:10pt"><span style="text-autospace:ideograph-numeric ideograph-other"><span style="font-family:&quot;Courier 10cpi&quot;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black">Prof. Sarah K. Bryant, Executive Vice President, at </span></span></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:12.0pt"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"><span style="color:black"></span></span></span></span></span></span></p>

​INTERVIU Spectacolul care vorbește despre "România fragilă, cu oboseli, răni, lupte interne și încercări de maturizare" și a făcut turul Europei: E ciudat că la 30 de ani de la Revoluție noi nu circulăm cu spectacolele de teatru

În septembrie 2016, la mai puțin de un an de la incendiul din clubul Colectiv și de când ieșise pentru prima dată la proteste în stradă, regizoarea Carmen Lidia Vidu lansa proiectul "Jurnal de România", pe care chiar ea îl descrie ca fiind trecerea ei de la teatru care "pe lângă estetic și emoțional, este și funcțional". 3 ani mai târziu, cele 3 spectacole din proiect - "Jurnal de România. Sfântu Gheorghe", "Jurnal de România. Constanța" și "Jurnal de România. Timișoara" au făcut turul Europei - jurnalele au ajuns la publicul din Austria, Germania și Belgia. O performanță rară în condițiile în care "e ciudat că la 30 de ani de la Revoluție noi încă nu circulăm cu spectacolele de teatru", spune Carmen Lidia Vidu.

Premiul Nobel contra păcii


Cine ar fi crezut că va sosi și ziua în care Academia Suedeză, printre misiunile căreia se include şi decernarea Premiului Nobel pentru literatură, se va înscrie pe rușinoasa listă a instituțiilor afectate de epidemia scandalurilor sexuale?! Și cine ar fi crezut că Peter Handke, autorul austriac care i-a închinat ode dictatorului Slobodan Milošević, va apuca ziua în care prestigioasa instituție îl va răsplăti pentru meritele sale îndoielnice? n primăvara lui 1999, când forțele aliate occidentale au pornit atacurile contra Republicii Federale a Iugoslaviei, Handke se afla la Belgrad, unde declara cu patos:,,În momentele în care criminalii NATO își lansează bombele contra acestei țări, locul meu este aici.” Nu era prima oară când ideile sale au provocat opinia publică. În 1966, când Handke nu împlinise încă 24 de ani, într-un mesaj adresat Grupului 47 (cerc literar la Universitatea Princeton din SUA), ataca literatura germană, acuzând-o de ,,impotență descriptivă”., Criticii i-au prezis atunci un succes uriaș tânărului autor, considerat un rebel literar mai ales după publicarea romanului său Die Hornissen (Viespii). Prozator, dar și poet, uneori agresiv, alteori sensibil, el a produs în scurt timp un număr uriaș de nuvele şi piese de teatru, iar romanul său publicat în 1970 s-a bucurat chiar de vânzări considerabile, fiind adaptat la ecran de regizorul Wim Wenders, cu care a colaborat mai târziu și în cadrul eforturilor de realizare a capodoperei acestuia din urmă, Aripi deasupra Berlinului.Read more...

The post Premiul Nobel contra păcii appeared first on BAABEL .


1780: Death of Empress Maria Theresa


Empress and Queen Maria Theresa died on this day, at the age of 64. She spent 40 years and 40 days on the throne of Austria, Hungary, and the lands associated with these two crowns. It is interesting that, in Hungary and Croatia, she was considered a king, not a queen. Her father was the ...

Recensioni di novembre

Peter Handke SAGGIO SUL LUOGO TRANQUILLO Guanda editore, 2014, collana “Prosa contemporanea”, pag. 108, € 13,00 Quest’anno il premio Nobel per la letteratura 2019 è stato assegnato allo scrittore austriaco Peter Handke, a conclusione di una lunghissima carriera letteraria, cominciata negli anni ’60 con l’adesione alla sperimentazione letteraria del Gruppo di Graz, il cui obiettivo…

Sci, SuperG di Lake Louise: Paris è ancora secondo


Dopo la seconda piazza in discesa, l'azzurro si ripete chiude alle spalle dell'austriaco Matthias Mayer nella lunga distanza. 1'31"40. Terzo posto ex aequo per Vincent Kriechmayr e Maurizio Caviezel. L'Italia festeggia anche il quinto posto di Mattia Casse, al suo miglior...


Peerless West Side Penthouse High atop the Mandarin Oriental, this magnificent penthouse is the result of a spectacular renovation by acclaimed designer Juan Montoya.


WebID 1210968

Peerless West Side Penthouse High atop the Mandarin Oriental, this magnificent penthouse is the result of a spectacular renovation by acclaimed designer Juan Montoya. Two residences were meticulously combined, creating a rare single-level home of 5,300+ square feet, every space replete with artful details and museum-quality finishes. Without peer in Manhattan, the home boasts soaring ceilings; custom lighting; artisan millwork; such superior materials as marble and onyx from Pietrasanta, Italy; and views of Central Park, the rivers, and the skyline. The opulence begins in the foyer, with its marble onyx, lapis lazuli, Afrormosia wood, and Austrian bronze. The gallery offers built-in art display spaces, discreet cabinetry, and intricately detailed plaster ceilings. Steps away is an onyx and tiger's eye powder room with a rock crystal sink and a vaulted ceiling. The great roomwhich encompasses living and dining spaces and a media roomfeatures floor-to-ceiling windows, marble floors, stately columns, Afrormosia panels with bronze inlay, and a hidden television. Shagreen and Afrormosia paneling contribute to a refined ambiance in the library. Striking rosewood cabinetry, onyx slab counters, and marble floors distinguish the kitchen, which offers pairs of dishwashers, Miele ovens, and Sub-Zero refrigerator-freezers; a microwave; and a Thermador cooktop. Lavish in style and size, the master suite has Macassar ebony doors, marble floors, and parchment wall panels; it includes a sitting area, multiple closets, attic space, an office, and a bath with a soaking tub, a shower, and Lalique fixtures. Three bedroom suites and abundant closets are located in the western wing, which has a private entrance. Shades, drapes, lighting, air conditioning, heating, humidification, music, and security are automated. A spa; a state-of-the-art fitness center; an indoor pool; a business center; conference rooms; and housekeeping, valet, and concierge services are among the Mandarin Oriental's five-star amenities.

Peerless West Side Penthouse High atop the Mandarin Oriental, this magnificent penthouse is the result of a spectacular renovation by acclaimed designer Juan Montoya.

80 Columbus Circle
80 Columbus Circle
Upper West Side

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One way this could be achieved simply with an open mind as well as a fresh take a look at smoking with an approach generally known as cognitive behavioural therapy. This is very dangerous when driving out around the open road or operating heavy machinery. Prozac balances serotonin inside brain to help the brain recognize in the event the body has had enough to eat. Our primary purpose would be to offer support to prospects who are wanting to gain freedom from nicotine.

I use a lot better results with depression by making use of things that produce me happy, such as good music or dancing for exercise, that also helps with the fibromyalgia and weight issues which are brought if you take antidepressants. Cigarette smoking has been linked to coronary heart disease, stroke, ulcers, and increased events for respiratory infections. Although needles may scare a lot of people away, it really is just not painful at all and might certainly be a easy way relax and have in tune with how your head and the entire body work. A doctor from Loma-Linda research hospital discovered this drug.


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OMV Sustainability Newsletter Out Now


Sustainable development in and around our operations is a key focus to OMV. In addition to our efforts in improving our sustainability performance and people’s wellbeing in our operations, we also invest in sustainable development solutions for society and neighboring communities. This newsletter summarizes our recent sustainability progress.

OMV strengthened cooperation with VERBUND for renewable energy options in Austria

OMV and VERBUND first joint project will be to build Austria's largest photovoltaic plant.


OMV with Snam and TAG started exploring potential opportunities in the field of sustainable LNG mobility in Austria

Gas is the most immediate solution for reducing pollution from fine dust and CO2 emissions from light and heavy transportation. The MoU with with Snam and TAG lays out the intention to jointly explore potential opportunities in the field of sustainable LNG mobility in Austria.


OMV remained the only Austrian company listed in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index

For the second year in a row, OMV has entered the Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI World) and is still the sole Austrian company included.


Did you know?
All greenhouse gas reduction projects implemented in OMV's operations since 2009 have delivered a total reduction of 1.7 mn t CO2 equivalent. This equals removing 850,000 cars from Austrian streets. 

OMV's recent achievements in social and community investments:

EUR 4 mn committed to more energy efficient public buildings in Romania

More energy efficient buildings can lower Europe’s CO2 emissions. In Romania, OMV Petrom endorsed “Romania Eficienta”, a national four year programme for raising awareness and financing deep renovation for efficiency of public buildings.


Raised public awareness on circular waste management in Romania and Norway

In Romania, our community investments raised awareness among over 4200 people about recycling and valorization of domestic waste. In Norway, we collected ocean waste for local recycling together with the organization “Clean Shores”.


Funded 11 innovations for sustainable development in Romania

OMV Petrom funded 11 innovations with EUR 0.5 mn in seed funding contributing to e.g. increasing access to education in remote communities and improving the recovery and integration of children with autism through virtual reality.


Raised capacity of local suppliers in Yemen

In Yemen, we organized a supplier workshop to enhance our local content outreach. 27 local companies were introduced to OMV's tendering procedures, the importance of HSSE & CSR, current local contractors’ performance, and ways to improve. 


Launched an entrepreneurship challenge in Tunisia

As part of Nawara Project community investments we launched a Program of Entrepreneurship and Vocational Training – the “TAHADDI” Program. TAHADDI is Arabic for “challenge”. This programme aims to offer subcontractors’ demobilized workers’, as well as the unemployed community members of Tataouine, a path to alternative employment or self-employment. 100 beneficiaries will benefit from entrepreneurship training, seed money, and post-business creation coaching. Another 60 will be able to participate in certified trainings in domestic gas installation, or scaffolding (pictured).


Subscribe to receive this regular OMV Sustainability Newsletter here.


Swiss Licensed Crypto Bank Expanding Into 9 Markets

A fully operational crypto-focused bank based in Switzerland is expanding into nine other markets. With a banking and securities dealer license from the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority, its services include crypto custody, trading, and asset management. The bank has launched its investment business including a cryptocurrency index. Also read: Swiss Crypto Bank SEBA Launches With Range of Services International Expansions SEBA Bank AG, formerly SEBA Crypto AG, is a crypto-focused bank headquartered in Zug, Switzerland. The bank recently became fully operational and started onboarding Swiss clients after obtaining a banking and securities dealer license from the Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority (FINMA). The bank has announced that it is extending service to “clients from selected foreign jurisdictions” in December. A spokesperson for the bank told that the selected jurisdictions are the U.K., Italy, Germany, France, Austria, Portugal, Netherlands, Singapore, and Hong Kong. SEBA Bank aims to build a bridge between the traditional banking world and the crypto world. Its services include custody storage, trading and liquidity management, asset and wealth management, transaction banking, and tokenization. They are aimed at professional investors, family offices, banks, asset managers, and blockchain companies. The spokesperson further clarified to that the bank accepts BTC, ETH, ETC, LTC, XLM and NEO for its custody service. As for trading, it accepts BTC, ETH, ETC, LTC, and XLM. Investment Solutions and Crypto Index The bank launched its investment business on Tuesday along with its index for crypto assets called the SEBA Crypto Asset Select Index (SEBAX). The bank has selected MV Index Solutions Gmbh (MVIS) to maintain the index and act as its administrator. Gentwo Digital was also brought on board to implement the specific restructuring requirements of the first investment solution, SEBA noted. SEBA Crypto Asset Select Price Index as of Nov. 28. Source: MVIS SEBAX “is a dynamic, risk-optimized index with a broad market exposure of the crypto asset market,” the bank described. Its objective “is to provide an investable index for the most secure, reliable and tradable crypto assets,” MVIS detailed. “The selection of the constituents is monitored on an ongoing basis. The index applies advanced techniques to reduce concentration into single constituents and to deliver enhanced diversification.” SEBAX’s November components. Source: MVIS According to its fact sheet, the index was established on July 2 and currently has five components that are rebalanced monthly. It is calculated daily with the constituent prices converted to USD. A maximum of eight crypto assets ranked by market capitalization are selected for inclusion in the index. MVIS has contracted with Cryptocompare Data Ltd. to maintain and calculate the index. In November, the index components are 48.46% BTC, 26.70% ETH, 18.28% LTC, 3.43% XLM, and 3.13% ETC. Crypto assets have to meet specific criteria to be eligible for the index and must rank within the top 30 coins by market capitalization. “Stable coins and privacy coins are excluded,” MVIS explained. Also excluded are crypto assets with less 90 days of pricing history, those that are not listed on any of the eligible exchanges, and those that fail the index’s technical maturity and safety criteria. What do you think of SEBA Bank expanding internationally? Let us know in the comments section below. Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only. It is not an offer or solicitation of an offer to buy or sell, or as a recommendation, endorsement, or sponsorship of any products, services, or companies. does not provide investment, tax, legal, or accounting advice. Neither the company nor the author is responsible, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused or alleged to be caused by or in connection with the use of or reliance on any content, goods or services mentioned in this article. Images courtesy of Shutterstock, SEBA Bank, and MVIS. Did you know you can buy and sell BCH privately using our noncustodial, peer-to-peer Local Bitcoin Cash trading platform? The marketplace has thousands of participants from all around the world trading BCH right now. And if you need a bitcoin wallet to securely store your coins, you can download one from us here. The post Swiss Licensed Crypto Bank Expanding Into 9 Markets appeared first on Bitcoin News.

More Snow Up Top, and a Cold Snap to Come


Another snowstorm is sweeping over the Alps. It’s a fitting end to an extraordinary month, which has left the high-altitude resorts and glaciers with (for the most part) excellent early-season conditions. See below for Meteoblue’s 24-hour snow forecast to 1am on Saturday morning. Moderate falls of 30cm or more are expected across much of the north-western Alps, from the Tarentaise in France to the Arlberg in Austria. Some areas will have more. Meteofrance is for example, predicting 40cm of snow over the …


Re: Bond 25 SPOILER news


Are we getting a teaser trailer Wednesday morning or Tuesday night?

I don't think the #metoo comments by actors means we're going to see a woke teaser, but I think now that we could see Spectre references at the start of the NTTD teaser. I used to think the teaser would make out the film was a normal Bond film ( but with some of the recent actor comments, I don't think it will be that straightforward, albeit not woke.

Reflecting on the Spectre teaser, I see now that the teaser builds to the title reveal. Going backwards from the title reveal, Spectre, Bond is at a meeting of some ominous organisation, Mr White warns him he is a kite in a hurricane, we see the funeral and Austrian lake and lakeside house, leading up to Mr White's appearance where he begins to warn Bond about Spectre, and before all that we have Bond looking at his personal effects (for a personal mission?) given to him by Moneypenny who references Skyfall and before her we see a ruined MI6 hq, another link to Skyfall. I think this linking of films will continue.

Narration has been a big part of DC's last two teasers and we've heard a lot about how women drive NTTD forward. I think the NTTD teaser could see a Malek/Safin narration talking about revenge on Bond, perhaps a shot of an imprisoned Blofeld, for the Spectre reference to begin with and a shot of Bond with Madeleine, and then Moneypenny next to the Judi Dench portrait, and maybe a shot of M saying Bond is retired to Nomi, and the first half of the teaser ending with the Matera car chase and then the latter half of the teaser a rapid series of shots including a fan friendly Felix Leiter appearance and action scenes with Nomi helping Bond and also Bond in Cuba with Paloma and the Russia car chase, perhaps with the Blofeld Spectre comments about all the women in his life ending up dead as narration for this second half nicely leading into the boat explosion as the seaplane flies over followed by the words No Time To Die appearing.

Not the Leiter-centric teaser I had thought of before.


NetTV Plus teams up with DAZN

NetTV Plus teams up with DAZN November 29, 2019 20.58 Europe/London By Jörn Krieger NetTV Plus and DAZN have formed a partnership to make DAZN’s sports offering available on the OTT platform targeting viewers from ex-Yugoslavian countries. The customers of NetTV Plus’ subscription packages in Austria, Germany and Switzerland can now access DAZN’s sports content as part of NetTV Plus’ multiple offerings and promotional campaigns. “NetTV Plus is continuously working on improving its services, so that we can always offer users the opportunity to watch the best content and to have the best experience. Our cooperation with DAZN is another step in this direction, and we are convinced that this unique offering will thrill all existing NetTV Plus users, as well as new ones, who now have one reason more to choose NetTV Plus,” said Nikola Francetic, CEO of NetTV Plus. Thomas de Buhr, executive vice-president of DAZN, added: “The partnership with NetTV Plus is a perfect opportunity to present the fantastic sports portfolio of DAZN to a very sport-enthusiastic target group. DAZN content enables these fans access to their favourite teams and many athletes from their home countries.”

Un capolavoro alla portata di tutti



Nel 1863, ancora sotto il dominio Austriaco, Padova stava per assistere ad una delle sue più gravi catastrofi.
La tragedia era però iniziata senza che si potesse intervenire fattivamente, nel 1827. Il 4 dicembre l’ingegner Menin accorse in comune e denunciò al Podestà che era in corso la demolizione del palazzo degli Scrovegni, lasciato da anni cadere in rovina dall’allora proprietà, la famiglia Gradenigo di Venezia. I lavori di demolizione sfiorarono anche l’oratorio dell’Annunziata che il Marchese Pietro Selvatico Estense descrive con queste parole:
“(…) fummo assordati da ignominioso martello che atterrava le fabbriche ad esso vicine, e vedemmo con raccapriccio scalpelli e leve a scassinare e sgretolare l’esterno delle muraglie stesse, su cui stanno coloriti gli stupendi freschi (…).
Nel 1858 la proprietà dichiarava di voler vendere ciò che rimaneva del complesso degli Scrovegni, ma il comune non aveva i soldi per comprare: la gran parte della cassa confluiva a Vienna e l’impero era ben distante da occuparsi delle bellezze di Padova.

Come detto prima nel 1863 si sfiorò il dramma: una società inglese, per conto del Victoria and Albert Museum di Londra si offerse di comperare la chiesetta per poter staccare gli affreschi di Giotto e trasportarli nella capitale Inglese.
In quel momento, assieme alle autorità più illuminate, il Podestà De Lazara, e altri studiosi, si sollevò la pubblica opinione, quelli che di solito si definiscono come coloro che hanno ben altro da fare che occuparsi di affreschi.
Il Podestà scrisse così alla Delegazione provinciale Austriaca, iniziando non a caso col descrivere la probabile rivolta cittadina:
“Insiste la voce, con inquietudine generale dei cittadini, che una società Inglese possa avere acquistato o tratti dai nobili Gradenigo di Venezia la chiesa dell’Annunziata”. Poi prosegue, parlando di “sventura”, e ricordando che gli Scrovegni disposero che i cittadini di Padova ogni anno potessero entrare liberamente in quella chiesa ed ammirare l’opera giottesca “e averne una scuola morale per l’Inferno le altre religiose rappresentazioni”. (1)
Grazie ai cittadini di Padova dal primo all’ultimo, alla gente comune, sappiamo poi come è finita: dopo l’unificazione con il Regno d’Italia il comune ebbe i fondi per comprare la chiesetta; il resto è storia di oggi.
Perché abbiamo iniziato ricordando questi fatti?
Perché ciò che accadde allora è accaduto in questi mesi, settimane, giorni.

C’è la bellezza, ma se è vero, come è stato ricordato ieri all’inaugurazione della mostra “Giotto alla portata di tutti” a Cartura che “la bellezza salverà il mondo”, è anche vero che in certi momenti della storia spetta alle persone comuni dimostrare che questa bellezza a sua volta può e deve essere salvata, preservata, per poter essere condivisa.
Questo succede nei momenti importanti, ed infatti qui, al di là della mostra in sé, che descriveremo tra breve in poche parole, c’è una comunità (nel senso più ampio del termine) che si è messa in gioco, per salvare la bellezza dalle miserie, dalle incombenze, dal ritmo sfrenato che ci impone la vita, dalle mille cose che ci affliggono, per raccontarla, per condividerla, per poter sentire dentro di sé la soddisfazione intima di donarla al prossimo.

Vorremmo dunque, evitando il burocratese, i numeri, i nomi delle personalità, e tutto ciò che suona come freddo, sottolineare come un gruppo di cittadini, genitori di ragazzi e ragazze che frequentano la scuola, mamme in gran parte, abbiano pensato di portare questo allestimento –una riproduzione 1:4 in legno della Cappella degli Scrovegni, che in 15 anni in giro per l’Italia e l’estero ha portato a più di un milione di visitatori- a Cartura, appunto.
Questi genitori, gente comune del posto (come i cittadini “inquieti” di Padova), hanno poi portato l’idea anche in Parrocchia, per poter fare catechesi con l’aiuto della bellezza giottesca. Nata  così, dopo una visita all’oratorio dell’Arena, questa “pazzia” ha dunque coinvolto e travolto dall’entusiasmo prima il Parroco, poi a macchia d’olio un po’ tutti.

Come dicevamo prima non vorremmo dare numeri freddi, ma qualcosina la dobbiamo dire, se già ora, prima dell’inaugurazione, sono stati coinvolti ed erano presenti al taglio del nastro  tutti i sindaci, assessori, rappresentanti dei comuni della zona; se già ora, prima di aprire i battenti, ci sono oltre mille e trecento prenotazioni da parte delle scuole e quasi quattrocento da cittadini; se anche novanta volontari circa, persone che magari prima d’ora non avrebbero mai pensato di venire formati (con trascinante entusiasmo dal prof. Filippetti, del quale parleremo tra poco) per essere loro stessi a dover trasmettere questa “gioia” data dalla bellezza agli altri; se altri volontari, una trentina, ancora, si occuperanno dei laboratori allestiti a latere dell’evento, nei quali bambini e ragazzi di tutte le età potranno svolgere attività manuali, toccare con mano, entrare nella storia, nell’arte: addirittura ci sarà chi potrà diventare Giotto, allestendo e dipingendo un piccolo affresco; infine se ben diciotto sponsor hanno sentito di dover contribuire alla buona riuscita.
Insomma i quadri pittorici dell’Arena, riprodotti qui a Cartura, diventano non solo un modo per potervi sostare innanzi con tutta calma (e non, purtroppo i pochi minuti concessi dall’originale), ma, con l’aiuto del prof. Filippetti e i volontari, Giotto diviene divulgatore esso stesso del messaggio evangelico, una sorta di “Dottore della Chiesa”, alla pari, se vogliamo, del Dante della Divina Commedia; cosa, del resto, scontata dai suoi contemporanei, proprio come ha scritto lo stesso Scrovegni nel passo riportato all’inizio.

Dicevamo del prof. Filippetti, che con la sua competenza nell’iconologia e iconografia, unite all’entusiasmo che lo caratterizza, riesce a far comprendere con parole semplici e vive quanto del messaggio biblico Giotto ha talora reso evidente, ma molto spesso nascosto, dentro la grandezza della propria arte.

Roberto Filippetti (professore di iconologia in pensione, che da decenni gira l’Italia e il mondo) è anche, per citare Polito, giornalista del Corriere della Sera: “uomo di fede, che legge il ciclo pittorico di Giotto come un grande testo sacro”. Autore di saggi, libri, conferenze, testi per bambini, si dedica appunto da molto tempo alla divulgazione dell’opera giottesca ma, e lo diciamo a coloro i quali non si sentono particolarmente attratti dalla religione, svelandone gli aspetti nascosti, perciò sconosciuti e affascinanti. Il suo racconto conduce dentro ai misteri dell’arte e della fede, appunto, intrecciandone i piani e perciò svelandoci un Giotto per costoro inusitato.

Dunque un piccolo grande miracolo è avvenuto a Cartura: un avvenimento che coinvolge un intero paese, una zona: per una volta non è una sagra, non è una gara di miss, non è un contest di chef, non sono gli assaggi in piazza, ma, udite udite, la cultura e l’arte, evento nel quale le donne (non è un caso) hanno svolto un ruolo preponderante.
E’ proprio vero che alla fine è sempre “l’amor che move il sole e l’altre stelle”.

Il Vangelo secondo Giotto

La Cappella degli Scrovegni Teatro di Cartura (PD), Piazza dell’Assunta 25

Aperto dal 1/12/2019 al 6/1/2010
    • Allestimento: ITACA Associazione di Promozione culturale
    • Organizzazione:

Comitato genitori dell’I.C. Tommaseo di Cartura;
Parrocchia di Cartura;
Comune di Cartura;
Pro Loco di Cartura;
Cooperativa sociale Giovani e amici – Umami Factory Cartura;
Carturalmente Associazione culturale;

Informazioni, orari, prenotazioni su:
    (1) Notizie e virgolettati tratti da: “Dante e Giotto, la commedia degli Scrovegni”, di Giuliano Pisani, Salerno editrice, Roma 2016

Foto di G.Tiozzo, testo di E.Chiaretto. Diritti di attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 4.0 Internazionale (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)


Schrems, Nürnberg - Silber für „Lager“-Bier

Acht Braumeister um Karl Trojan kreierten „Austrian Lager“ – und holten Preis.

Portugal, France and Germany in Euro 2020 super group

Germany coach Joachim Loew, Portugal coach Fernando Santos and France coach Didier Deschamps pose with the trophy after being drawn in group E.
Germany coach Joachim Loew, Portugal coach Fernando Santos and France coach Didier Deschamps pose with the trophy after being drawn in group E.

BUCHAREST, Saturday - Defending champions Portugal and the last two world champions, France and Germany, were thrown together in what German coach Joachim Loew described as the group of death following a lop-sided and complicated Euro 2020 draw on Saturday.

England were drawn against Croatia in a repeat of last year’s World Cup semi-final while other favourites were given a much easier ride in the 24-team tournament which will be played in 12 different countries across the region.

The clear pick of the six first round pools was Group F, to be played in Munich and Budapest, which pitted France, Portugal and Germany, plus the winners of either playoff A or D. However, the sting was slightly taken away by the format which allows four of the six third-placed teams to qualify for the round of 16, UEFA’s decision to rank the teams according to their result in the qualifiers, combined with Portugal’s performance in their group, meant they ended up among the third seeds while France were one of the second seeds.

“This is a group of death,” said Loew whose side will play all three games at home under competition rules. “The expectations will be quite high. For our young team, this will be huge challenge but also a big motivation.”

England and Croatia, who have met in the Nations League since Croatia’s 2-1 win in Moscow last year, will be joined in Group D by the Czech Republic and the winners of playoff C - either Scotland, Norway, Serbia or Israel.

The Group D winners will face the runners-up from Germany’s group in the round of 16 while the second-placed team will travel to Copenhagen to meet the Group E runners-up - potentially an easier match.

The Group will be played in London - host for the semi-finals and final - and Glasgow.

Other favourites were given a much easier-looking ride.

Italy, who won all 10 qualifying games as they bounced back from failing to make the last World Cup, will face Turkey, Wales and Switzerland in Group A, in Rome and Baku.

“We have a slight advantage by playing at home. Maybe some will think we are favourites but we need to confirm everything on the pitch, as always,” Italy coach Roberto Mancini said.

Euro 2008 and 2012 champions Spain, who will jointly host Group E in Bilbao with Dublin, play Sweden, Poland and playoff winner B - either Bosnia, Slovakia, Ireland or Northern Ireland.

Belgium’s opponents in Group B will be Denmark and Russia -who are both host nations - and Finland, who will be making their first appearance in a European Championship or World Cup. The Netherlands, who like Italy missed out on the last World Cup, were pitted against Ukraine, Austria and playoff winner A or D in Group C, which will be played in Amsterdam and Bucharest.

Under the complex rules, all host nations will play their group games at home, meaning a number of teams had been allocated their groups before the draw

“The rules are clear, they were accepted by everybody,” said UEFA deputy general secretary Giorgio Marchetti. “Portugal are in pot three because they didn’t win their group, and the winner of their group was Ukraine. And Ukraine, thanks to their results, are in pot one, and everybody accepts it because once again we have clear rules.” – Agencies 

Monday, December 2, 2019 - 01:00


TradeVarious 1/400 models

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Dec 26, Austria: St. Stephen's Day

26th December is the Feast of St. Stephen in Western Christianity. It is observed as a second day of Christmas holidays in several countries.. For more information on this holiday, visit the link.

Neri Sottoli Selle Italia repite inicio de temporada en San Juan

Neri Sottoli Selle Italia repite inicio de temporada en San Juan

El Conjunto de la división Profesional Continental sumará su elenco para disputar las siete etapas de la Vuelta a San Juan Internacional 2020.

En la edición del 2019, el recientemente bautizado Neri Sottoli Selle Italia, que no dejó de ser una continuación del Wilier Triestina (2018) apostó a la juventud de la flamante incorporación de Dayer Quintana, a la que le sumó la experimentada participación de Giovanni Visconti para los primeros palancazos de la temporada en la ronda sanjuanina de categoría UCI.

Bajo la dirección técnica de Luca Scinto, el conjunto italiano consiguió la mejor posición con el hermano menor de los Quintana en la ubicación 31° de la General Individual, teniendo en cuenta que en la edición del 2020, el colombiano pasará a formar fila en el Team Arkéa Samsic, con la misma categoría, ya no será parte de la Vuelta más importante del Cono Sur. Otro que correrá la misma suerte que el cafetero, será el clasicómano Simone Velasco. El italiano de 24 años tomará su rumbo hacia el  Gazprom - RusVelo (PCT).

En la temporada 2019, la escuadra pro- continental subió nueve veces a lo más alto del podio, y tres de ellas con la figura de Giovanni Visconti, que comenzó su preparación en la Vuelta a San Juan, llevándose una etapa en el Tour de Eslovenia y la misma cantidad en el Tour de Austria. En septiembre selló su estilo en la 91° edición del Giro de la Toscana, con una tirada de 204 kilómetros en la prueba de categoría  1.1 del calendario UCI Europa Tour, donde el turinense sostuvo una fuga junto a Egan Bernal, Nicolay Cherkasov y Pierpaolo Ficara para coronarse en la provincia italiana de Pisa, lo que lo pone como candidato a llevarse un parcial arribando con un selecto grupo de vanguardistas.


Reviews from Michael_Novakhov (3 sites): Michael Novakhov from Michael_Novakhov (17 sites): Michael Novakhov - SharedNewsLinks℠: German elite forces facing Neo-Nazi scandal as commander suspended - Google Search

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43 mins ago - German elite forces facing Neo-Nazi scandal as commander suspended ... secretive equivalent to the SAS, is to be suspended from service this ...
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German elite forces facing Neo-Nazi scandal as commander suspended ... suspected neo-Nazis have been discovered in the ranks of Germany's special forces, ...
German elite forces facing Neo-Nazi scandal as commander suspended. Added less than 1 hour ago. Authors: Jorg Luyken. Google Translate ...
15 mins ago - German elite forces facing Neo-Nazi scandal as commander suspended ... One of the men has already been suspended while an investigation ...
4 hours ago - A new neo-Nazi scandal has erupted in the German military, this time in its Special Forces Command, according to the Bild am Sonntag ...
36 mins ago - A soldier in the KSK, Germany's highly secretive equivalent to the SAS, is to be suspended from service this week after an internal ... Concern that the elite forces had become a hotbed of extremism was aroused last year ...
German elite forces facing Neo-Nazi scandal as commander suspended. Load more. Go to source. 21 m. The Telegraph - Telegraph Online, Daily Telegraph, ...
Otto Skorzeny (12 June 1908 – 5 July 1975) was an Austrian-born SS-Obersturmbannführer ... In 1931 Skorzeny joined the Austrian Nazi organization and soon became a member ... The missions were canceled as the German forces failed to capture the ... Skorzeny was appointed commander of the recently created Waffen ...
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Jan 01, Austria: New Year's Day

New Year's Day is a public holiday in all countries that observe the Gregorian calendar, with the exception of Israel. For more information on this holiday, visit the link.

Qué es y cómo funciona la mochila austríaca

En Austria se aplica un sistema individual de acumulación -el 1,53% del salario bruto que paga el empresario- para que el trabajador pueda usarlo como pensión, indemnización por despido, capital para emprender o si cambia de trabajo. El sistema de pensiones español lleva años en entredicho. Tal y como se encuentra estructurado en la actualidad, … Leer

Breña Baja premia las mejores mieles de La Palma en el XV Concurso Insular


Por decimoquinta edición, el Ayuntamiento de Breña Baja celebró durante toda la jornada del pasado sábado 30 de noviembre, en la Carpa de la Plaza de las Madres en San José, el Concurso Insular de Mieles, que dio a conocer las mejores mieles de monte y de costa elaboradas durante el año, se informa en nota de prensa. 

Para ello contará con la colaboración del Cabildo de La Palma y de Saborea La Palma. Participaron 21 mieles, 14 en la categoría de Monte y 7 en la de Costa. Tras la sesión de cata que tuvo lugar en el Salón de Plenos del Ayuntamiento de Breña Baja, la Mejor Miel de Costa fue la presentada por Francisco Sánchez Martín, del paraje Piedra Jurada (Barlovento), y como Mejor Miel de Monte, la presentada por José Daniel Camacho Hernández, del paraje de Vinojobre (Villa de Mazo).

Antes de comunicar a los ganadores, la jornada se convirtió en una verdadera fiesta de la apicultura palmera, con una degustación de tapas con miel y maridaje, de la mano del sello Saborea La Palma y el almuerzo de todos los apicultores presentes. A continuación, la charla formativa acerca del impacto y tratamiento frente a la Loque Americana, una de las enfermedades bacterianas más contagiosas y que afecta a la abeja melífera. La disertación corrió a cargo del biólogo Javier Hernández, investigador en la Universidad de Graz (Austria). 

Concurso escolar

Se entregaron también los premios al Concurso de Dibujos entre los 180 escolares de los distintos centros del municipio. En la categoría Infantil, obtuvo premio la creatividad de Irene Rodríguez, de solo 4 años (CEIP San José). Martín Marzo, de 7 años (CEIP San Antonio) ganó en la categoría de Primer Ciclo de Primaria. El premio a mejor dibujo en categoría Segundo Ciclo de Primaria recayó en Dora Vidal con La casita de las abejas, mientras que Vega Brito, de 10 años, (CEIP San Antonio), fue galardonada con el mejor dibujo en Tercer Ciclo de Primaria con Vida.


DC Snowboard 155 Wide, Made in Austria Lielisks DC snovbords. Derīgs visiem, wide - nedaudz platāks, kas palielina stabili ...

Производитель: Dc
Модель: Pbj wide
Год: 2017
Длина: 155
Цена: 120

Смотреть объявление


11.10-13.10.2019 Jarkunveno de Ĉeĥa Fervojista Esperanto Asocio en Kořenov.

Ĉeĥa Fervojista Esperanto Asocio aranĝis sian jarkunvenon en la hotelo Lesní chata en vilaĝo Kořenov inter montaroj Krkonoše kaj Jizerské hory.Dum restado ni vizitis muzeon en Kořenov(inter Kořenov kaj Harachov estas dentrada fervojo,ununura en nia lando-sed nun trajnoj jam ne uzadas dentradon) Ni ankau audis diversajn prelegojn pri fervojo kaj pri esperanta movado. Partoprenis 38 partoprenantoj el tri landoj.Ni tre dankas al niaj polaj kaj austriaj gekolegoj
Partoprenantoj antau muzeo de (...) - Pasintaj aranĝoj

В Инсбруке туристы смогут бесплатно передвигаться на общественном транспорте

В Инсбруке туристы смогут бесплатно ездить на транспорте

В мае 2020 года в австрийском городе Инсбруке иностранные туристы смогут пользоваться общественным транспортом бесплатно.



Как сообщает Бюро по туризму города, нововведение начнет работать с 1 мая 2020 года. Данным предложение смогут воспользоваться все путешественники, которые приехали в город на 2 дня и более.

Отмечается, что воспользоваться данной функцией туристы смогут с помощью туристической карты Welcome Card, которую получить можно будет у фирмы-арендодателя жилья или в гостинице.

«Карта Welcome Card 2020 позволит прорекламировать регион Инсбрук как инновационную и экологичную точку назначения. Включая в нее общественный транспорт, увеличится турпоток в город», — добавила директор Бюро по туризму региона Карин Зайлер-Лалль.

Кроме того, ведомство сообщает, что Инсбрук станет первым городом в Австрии, в котором туристы смогут передвигаться на общественном транспорте бесплатно на основе единого абонемента.

Материал подготовлен редакцией


Rixos Krasnaya Polyana 5* подтвердил звание лучшего горнолыжного отеля России

Rixos Krasnaya Polyana 5* получил звание лучшего горнолыжного отеля РФ

В минувшие выходные в Австрии прошла ежегодная церемония вручения наград World Ski Awards. Традиционно в ноябре в Китцбюэле мировое сообщество награждает лучшие курорты, отели и шале. По результатам голосования экспертов турбизнеса и посетителей на сайте World Ski Awards отель Rixos Krasnaya Polyana Sochi 5* признан лучшим горнолыжным отелем России.



Отель премиум-класса международной сети Rixos Hotels расположен на Курорте Красная Поляна, на уровне Поляна 960. Гости по достоинству оценили роскошные условия размещения в современных номерах с панорамным видом на Кавказские горы, изысканную кухню, отдых в гармонии с природой и комфортный доступ к горнолыжным трассам курорта. Отдельного внимания заслуживает и спа-комплекс Rixos Royal Spa, удостоенный престижной награды World Spa Awards 2019 как лучший СПА-курорт России в 2017, 2018 и 2019 гг. Награда World Ski Awards 2019 также стала третьей по счету: Rixos Krasnaya Polyana Sochi 5* завоевывал звание лучшего горнолыжного отеля России в 2017 и 2018 гг.

Материал подготовлен редакцией


Article on New Glock 46 Pistol.

Glock G46 Pistol For German Police. GLOCK 46: the first rotating-barrel GLOCK under test For a long time, the GLOCK G46 was a well-kept secret and could only be found in government tenders. For the first time, the Austrian manufacturer offers a pistol with rotating barrel and a decocking system. We tested the new service pistol of the German Saxony-Anhalt state police. Read on to learn how it behaved on the shooting range! 11/23/2019 The new GLOCK 46 differs greatly in function and appearance from all other GLOCK models. The G46 is GLOCK's answer to the technical requirements (TR) of German police forces for service pistols. It certainly comes somewhat late, because most German federal states already procured new generations of service pistols some time ago. Nevertheless, GLOCK was able to score at least a point in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt (see our article). There, about 8,600 G46 pistols will be issued until 2021. The rumour persists that the police TR at that time...

Weihnachtssingen im Wörtherseestadion: Schlagerstars zeigen sich besinnlich

Zu Beginn der Adventzeit wurde es im Wörtherseestadion besinnlich. Der SK Austria lud nämlich zum großen Weihnachtssingen. Rund 5.000 Besucher sind der Einladung gefolgt, um ihre Schlagerstars zu sehen. Mit dabei waren Nik P., Udo Wenders, "Die Kaiser" und viele mehr. Die Einnahmen gehen an die Kärntner Kinderkrebshilfe und den Nachwuchs der SK Austria.

moto-austria: Saisonbeginn in Österreich

Vom 7. bis 9. Februar findet in Wels die moto-austria statt. Kurz vor Saisonbeginn bietet die grösste Zweiradmesse Österreichs die perfekte Möglichkeit, sich auf die Motorrad-Saison einzustimmen.

Sánchez acapara todo el protagonismo y margina al Rey


Pedro Sánchez volverá este lunes a intentar ocupar el papel del Rey, y lo hará durante la Cumbre de jefes de Estado y de Gobierno que se desarrollará en Madrid en el marco de la Conferencia de Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático.

El Gobierno ha excluido de esta Cumbre a Don Felipe, que ni siquiera saldrá en la llamada «foto de familia», a pesar de que el Rey, según la Constitución, «asume la más alta representación del Estado español en las relaciones internacionales». La Reina tampoco intervendrá en la Cumbre, aunque el martes por la tarde acudirá a un acto puntual. Lo llamativo es que tanto Don Felipe como Doña Letizia han intervenido en los últimos años en varios eventos de la ONU sobre el clima, sin embargo no estarán en la Cumbre de Madrid.

En esas circunstancias, los Reyes ofrecerán la tarde de este lunes en el Palacio Real una recepción a los jefes de Estado, de Gobierno y de delegaciones asistentes a la conferencia. Allí será donde Don Felipe dirija unas palabras a los mandatarios extranjeros.

La Moncloa envió el domingo a los medios el programa de Sánchez en la Cumbre, que incluye doce actos en ocho horas (de 8.30 a 16.45 de hoy). En el programa el presidente del Gobierno en funciones se atribuye el papel de anfitrión que tradicionalmente han ejercido los Reyes. Según este programa, Sánchez da la bienvenida a los jefes de Estado y de Gobierno, se fotografía con los presidentes de instituciones europeas, se reúne con los jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de la Unión Europea, con el primer ministro de Francia y con el secretario general de Naciones Unidas, Sánchez interviene en la ceremonia de inauguración, posa para la foto de familia, ofrece un almuerzo a los mandatarios extranjeros y se reúne con los jefes de Estado y de Gobierno de los países iberoamericanos. También comparece ante los medios con el secretario general de Naciones Unidas.

Además de la recepción que los Reyes ofrecerán este lunes por la tarde, Don Felipe aprovechará la estancia de los mandatarios en Madrid para mantener contactos bilaterales con algunos de ellos, como son el secretario general de Naciones Unidas, Antonio Guterres; la presidenta de la Cámara de Representantes de EE.UU., Nancy Pelosi, y los presidentes de la República Dominicana, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Argentina, Guatemala y Austria. El martes ofrecerá un almuerzo al Gran Duque de Luxemburgo.


Szef Mercedesa nie wyklucza powrotu Roberta Kubicy do F1! "Mógł być mistrzem świata"

Szef Mercedesa Toto Wolff nie wierzy, że Robert Kubica na stałe odejdzie z Formuły 1. Zdaniem Austriaka, Polak może jeszcze wrócić do roli podstawowego kierowcy. -  Z Robertem nigdy nie wiadomo. Na pewno to mądry gość - powiedział.

Aleksandr Lukashenko thanks Austrian officials for warm welcome to Belarusian delegation in Vienna

Belarus President Aleksandr Lukashenko has sent thanks-you letters to Federal President of Austria Alexander Van der Bellen, Chairman of the Austrian People’s Party Sebastian Kurz and President of the National Council of Austria Wolfgang Sobotka for a warm welcome and hospitality during the official visit of the Belarusian delegation to Austria.

Our harnesses are officially safe


The Austrian animal-welfare authorities have tested our K9® Powerharness, IDC® Powerharness, IDC® Longwalk and Hard Dog Race® harnesses to see if they are safe from an animal-welfare point of view. During the development of our products, we have put great emphasis on making our harnesses safe, comfortable and sturdy for both dogs and owners. We believe this is highly important, as these are harnesses are being used on a regular,  [ Read More ]

The post Our harnesses are officially safe appeared first on Gyula Julius Sebő.


Auf Wiedersehen 2019 - Snowsports on Austrian Alps Austria

20 Dec / 08 Jan Snow sports on Austrian Alps. Just 6. 100 00 USD excluding flights. No kids and animals. " 2019 " - Campaign 2019 / 20 - Rafting...

Paper 1st anniversary gift or stocking filler for women: daisy flower with personalised message. by artangel


10.00 GBP

A perfect 1st (paper) anniversary gift or stocking filler, this little acrylic bottle has a tiny paper daisy inside. Your personalised message can also be added to the tag tied around the bottle neck.

The bottle has a tiny cork topper. Your message will be hand-written in black ink on a white tag, and tied around the bottle neck with white thread.

The bottle measures approx. 4.5 cm x 1.7 cm and will arrive in a white organza bag, ready for gifting.

Your message can be up to 25 characters.

As this item is made to order, please allow 3 business days for your bottle to be made, in addition to postage time. Thank you!

You can find more of my work here:***LAST RECOMMENDED ORDER DATES CHRISTMAS 2019***

Monday, December 2nd: Africa, Asia, Caribbean, Central and South America, Far and Middle East

Wednesday, December 4th: Eastern Europe (except Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia)

Thursday, December 5th: Greece, Turkey, Australia and New Zealand

Saturday, December 7th: Czech Republic, Finland, Italy, Poland, Sweden, Canada and USA

Monday, December 9th: Austria, Denmark, Germany, Iceland, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland and Spain

Wednesday, December 11th: Belgium, France, Ireland and Luxembourg

Saturday December 14th: UK

PLEASE NOTE: the above dates apply to non-personalised items. If your item requires personalisation please allow additional time (as detailed in the listing) for it to be made for you.
If you need you item quickly, please contact me to discuss options for priority shipping.
Thank you!


Mistletoe Christmas ornament. Hand-painted decoration / wood bauble in green & white. by artangel


6.00 GBP

A hand painted wooden Christmas bauble with an unusual mistletoe design. In classic white and soft green, with a white satin ribbon hanger.

The back of the bauble is plain white (shown in picture 4) and it measures approx. 4" (10 cm).

You can see more of my work here -***LAST RECOMMENDED ORDER DATES CHRISTMAS 2019***

Monday, December 2nd: Africa, Asia, Caribbean, Central and South America, Far and Middle East

Wednesday, December 4th: Eastern Europe (except Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia)

Thursday, December 5th: Greece, Turkey, Australia and New Zealand

Saturday, December 7th: Czech Republic, Finland, Italy, Poland, Sweden, Canada and USA

Monday, December 9th: Austria, Denmark, Germany, Iceland, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland and Spain

Wednesday, December 11th: Belgium, France, Ireland and Luxembourg

Saturday December 14th: UK

PLEASE NOTE: the above dates apply to non-personalised items. If your item requires personalisation please allow additional time (as detailed in the listing) for it to be made for you.
If you need you item quickly, please contact me to discuss options for priority shipping.
Thank you!


Monday, December 2nd: Africa, Asia, Caribbean, Central and South America, Far and Middle East

Wednesday, December 4th: Eastern Europe (except Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia)

Thursday, December 5th: Greece, Turkey, Australia and New Zealand

Saturday, December 7th: Czech Republic, Finland, Italy, Poland, Sweden, Canada and USA

Monday, December 9th: Austria, Denmark, Germany, Iceland, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland and Spain

Wednesday, December 11th: Belgium, France, Ireland and Luxembourg

Sunday December 15th: UK

PLEASE NOTE: the above dates apply to non-personalised items. If your item requires personalisation please allow additional time (as detailed in the listing) for it to be made for you. If you need you item quickly, please contact me to discuss options for priority shipping.

Thank you!


Christmas dinosaur ornament in gold, modern alternative party decoration or quirky home gift by artangel


10.00 GBP

This gold dinosaur would be a great talking point in your Christmas decor, or makes the perfect gift for a dinosaur lover who wants to add a modern, alternative touch to their home!

Free-standing, the dinosaur measures approx. 5 inches (12.5 cm) wide, and 4 inches (10 cm) tall.

He is made of plastic and been hand-painted in metallic gold.

You can browse the rest of my shop (including other dinosaurs!) here -


Monday, December 2nd: Africa, Asia, Caribbean, Central and South America, Far and Middle East

Wednesday, December 4th: Eastern Europe (except Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia)

Thursday, December 5th: Greece, Turkey, Australia and New Zealand

Saturday, December 7th: Czech Republic, Finland, Italy, Poland, Sweden, Canada and USA

Monday, December 9th: Austria, Denmark, Germany, Iceland, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland and Spain

Wednesday, December 11th: Belgium, France, Ireland and Luxembourg

Saturday December 14th: UK

PLEASE NOTE: the above dates apply to non-personalised items. If your item requires personalisation please allow additional time (as detailed in the listing) for it to be made for you.
If you need you item quickly, please contact me to discuss options for priority shipping.
Thank you!


Dark teal blue and gold Christmas tree decorations. Stag's head ornaments / modern wood baubles. by artangel


9.00 GBP

A set of 3 Christmas ornaments in deep teal blue and gold.

Each ornament consists of a teal blue wooden bauble, topped with a gold wooden bauble with a laser cut stag's head.

Hand-painted and perfect for a modern country, woodland or rustic scheme.

Ornaments come with gold satin ribbon for hanging.

Backs are plain teal blue (shown in picture 4).

Size: Approx. 8 x 8 cm.

You can see more of my work here -***LAST RECOMMENDED ORDER DATES CHRISTMAS 2019***

Monday, December 2nd: Africa, Asia, Caribbean, Central and South America, Far and Middle East

Wednesday, December 4th: Eastern Europe (except Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia)

Thursday, December 5th: Greece, Turkey, Australia and New Zealand

Saturday, December 7th: Czech Republic, Finland, Italy, Poland, Sweden, Canada and USA

Monday, December 9th: Austria, Denmark, Germany, Iceland, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland and Spain

Wednesday, December 11th: Belgium, France, Ireland and Luxembourg

Saturday December 14th: UK

PLEASE NOTE: the above dates apply to non-personalised items. If your item requires personalisation please allow additional time (as detailed in the listing) for it to be made for you.
If you need you item quickly, please contact me to discuss options for priority shipping.
Thank you!


Monday, December 2nd: Africa, Asia, Caribbean, Central and South America, Far and Middle East

Wednesday, December 4th: Eastern Europe (except Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia)

Thursday, December 5th: Greece, Turkey, Australia and New Zealand

Saturday, December 7th: Czech Republic, Finland, Italy, Poland, Sweden, Canada and USA

Monday, December 9th: Austria, Denmark, Germany, Iceland, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland and Spain

Wednesday, December 11th: Belgium, France, Ireland and Luxembourg

Sunday December 15th: UK

PLEASE NOTE: the above dates apply to non-personalised items. If your item requires personalisation please allow additional time (as detailed in the listing) for it to be made for you. If you need you item quickly, please contact me to discuss options for priority shipping.

Thank you!


Fun Christmas decor, gold dinosaur ornament, dino lover gift by artangel


10.00 GBP

A fun dinosaur Christmas ornament, made from plastic and painted in metallic gold.

He measures approx. 6.5 inches (16.5 cm) wide, and 3.5 inches (9 cm) tall.

Free standing and can be displayed on a table, shelf, bookcase etc.

You can see more of my shop (including other dinosaur options!) here -


Monday, December 2nd: Africa, Asia, Caribbean, Central and South America, Far and Middle East

Wednesday, December 4th: Eastern Europe (except Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia)

Thursday, December 5th: Greece, Turkey, Australia and New Zealand

Saturday, December 7th: Czech Republic, Finland, Italy, Poland, Sweden, Canada and USA

Monday, December 9th: Austria, Denmark, Germany, Iceland, Portugal, Netherlands, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland and Spain

Wednesday, December 11th: Belgium, France, Ireland and Luxembourg

Saturday December 14th: UK

PLEASE NOTE: the above dates apply to non-personalised items. If your item requires personalisation please allow additional time (as detailed in the listing) for it to be made for you.
If you need you item quickly, please contact me to discuss options for priority shipping.
Thank you!


Austrian police probe theft of chocolate truck


Austrian police probe theft of chocolate truckAustrian police said Friday they were looking for a stolen truck carrying 20 tonnes of chocolate worth 50,000 euros from a Milka factory. The truck was loaded last week in the town of Bludenz in western Austria. The Austrian company in charge of the transport outsourced it to a Hungarian company, which in turn tasked a Czech partner with the job.


EU: lots of Nikon Lenses sale including 50mm f1.8G for 149 euro

Lots of nice price on Nikon lenses at Amazon Germany including the obligatory headliner of the sale, the new condition 50mm f1.8G AF-S lens going for 149 euro with free shipping within Germany and Austria. Limit two per customer. Hard to argue with the price and if/when you want to sell it alone or with […]

EU: Nikon 35mm f1.8G DX for 119 euro [limit 2]

Hard to go wrong with this lens at this price if you have/use a DX DSLR, it is the new condition Nikon 35mm f1.8G DX AF-S lens going for 119 euro with free shipping within Germany-Austria at Amazon Germany. Limit two per customer. Thank you for subscribing to our FREE Full-Text RSS Feed! Check also […]

OMV Sustainability Newsletter Out Now


Sustainable development in and around our operations is a key focus to OMV. In addition to our efforts in improving our sustainability performance and people’s wellbeing in our operations, we also invest in sustainable development solutions for society and neighboring communities. This newsletter summarizes our recent sustainability progress.

OMV strengthened cooperation with VERBUND for renewable energy options in Austria

OMV and VERBUND first joint project will be to build Austria's largest photovoltaic plant.


OMV with Snam and TAG started exploring potential opportunities in the field of sustainable LNG mobility in Austria

Gas is the most immediate solution for reducing pollution from fine dust and CO2 emissions from light and heavy transportation. The MoU with with Snam and TAG lays out the intention to jointly explore potential opportunities in the field of sustainable LNG mobility in Austria.


OMV remained the only Austrian company listed in the Dow Jones Sustainability Index

For the second year in a row, OMV has entered the Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI World) and is still the sole Austrian company included.


Did you know?
All greenhouse gas reduction projects implemented in OMV's operations since 2009 have delivered a total reduction of 1.7 mn t CO2 equivalent. This equals removing 850,000 cars from Austrian streets. 

OMV's recent achievements in social and community investments:

EUR 4 mn committed to more energy efficient public buildings in Romania

More energy efficient buildings can lower Europe’s CO2 emissions. In Romania, OMV Petrom endorsed “Romania Eficienta”, a national four year programme for raising awareness and financing deep renovation for efficiency of public buildings.


Raised public awareness on circular waste management in Romania and Norway

In Romania, our community investments raised awareness among over 4200 people about recycling and valorization of domestic waste. In Norway, we collected ocean waste for local recycling together with the organization “Clean Shores”.


Funded 11 innovations for sustainable development in Romania

OMV Petrom funded 11 innovations with EUR 0.5 mn in seed funding contributing to e.g. increasing access to education in remote communities and improving the recovery and integration of children with autism through virtual reality.


Raised capacity of local suppliers in Yemen

In Yemen, we organized a supplier workshop to enhance our local content outreach. 27 local companies were introduced to OMV's tendering procedures, the importance of HSSE & CSR, current local contractors’ performance, and ways to improve. 


Launched an entrepreneurship challenge in Tunisia

As part of Nawara Project community investments we launched a Program of Entrepreneurship and Vocational Training – the “TAHADDI” Program. TAHADDI is Arabic for “challenge”. This programme aims to offer subcontractors’ demobilized workers’, as well as the unemployed community members of Tataouine, a path to alternative employment or self-employment. 100 beneficiaries will benefit from entrepreneurship training, seed money, and post-business creation coaching. Another 60 will be able to participate in certified trainings in domestic gas installation, or scaffolding (pictured).


Subscribe to receive this regular OMV Sustainability Newsletter here.


Austria (Topsecret!): Vincent Bueno na Eurowizji 2020!

Choć nadawca ORF planował ogłosić swojego reprezentanta na 65. Konkursie Piosenki Eurowizji w Rotterdamie dopiero za kilka dni, już dzisiaj inne austriackie medium ogłosiło informację z wewnątrz austriackiej telewizji. Austrię na Eurowizji 2020, wbrew plotkom o innych kandydatach, będzie reprezentował doświadczony eurowizyjnie wokalista, powiązany z kontrowersjami! O kim mowa? Stacja oraz czasopismo Österreich ogłosiły, […]

Eurowizja 2020: Austria wybrała! Czy do Rotterdamu pojedzie Thea Devy?

Od tygodnia w niemieckojęzycznych mediach mówi się o tym, że swojego reprezentanta na Eurowizję 2020 wybrała już Austria! Nadawca ORF, w przygotowaniach do przyszłorocznego Konkursu Piosenki Eurowizji, miał wytypować ostatnio zarówno artystę, który na niego pojedzie, jak i jego piosenkę! Czyje nazwisko najczęściej pojawia się w mediach? W mediach społecznościowych zahuczało, kiedy pojawiła się informacja […]

Salto - Successo austriaco in un equilibrato team event di Wisla

Gara emozionante sul trampolino polacco, dove però non è arrivata la vittoria della squadra di...

Weekend with Florinda Czeija


The London Diamond Way Buddhist centre is pleased to invite you to a weekend of lectures by Florinda Czeija, a lay Buddhist teacher from Austria. Florinda has been practicing Diamond Way Buddhism for over 20 years. At Lama Ole’s request, together with her husband Guido, she has been giving Buddhist teachings for over 10 years […]

The post Weekend with Florinda Czeija appeared first on London Diamond Way Buddhist Centre.


Altra festa, quella della transumanza


Recente la richiesta fatta in sede Unesco da Italia, Austria e Grecia per far riconoscere “la transumanza” come patrimonio culturale immateriale dell’umanità.

L'articolo Altra festa, quella della transumanza è un contenuto originale di IZ Informatore Zootecnico.


Lauda will in Stuttgart und Düsseldorf zweitgrößte Airline werden

Die österreichische Ryanair-Tochter Lauda will an ihren deutschen Basen in Stuttgart und Düsseldorf mindestens die zweitgrößte Airline werden, verriet Airline-Chef Andreas Gruber im Interview dem Portal "AustrianAviation". An den weiteren Basen in Wien und Palma habe man dieses Ziel bereits erreicht.

Un estudio demuestra la relación directa entre la endogamia y la deformidad facial de los Austrias españoles

Un equipo de genetistas y 10 cirujanos maxilofaciales publica en la revista 'Annals of Human Biology' un completo estudio que demuestra que la llamada 'mandíbula de los Habsburgo', una deformidad que caracterizó a los reyes en los siglos XVI y XVII, fue consecuencia de los matrimonios entre parientes.

USA Luge Athletes Looking Forward To Start Of World Cup Races This Weekend

The U.S. National Luge team has been training in Sochi and will compete in the first World Cup races of the season in Austria this weekend. The team has close ties to New York’s North Country. During a conference call, several of the athletes talked about their training, working through injuries and expectations for the sliding season.

SRG wróci w NTC w Szwajcarii i Austrii

Szwajcarskie stacje SRG wrócą w DVB-T na granicy austriacko-szwajcarskiej

El accidente de Chernobyl. Partes I, II y III

Europa fue escenario de las Guerras Napoleonicas* desde inicios del siglo XIX, las cuales concluyeron en 1815 con la derrota de Napoleon, en Waterloo y dejaron un costo en vidas humanas, entre civiles y militares, de 3-7 millones de personas.
*Combates entre Napoleon I y diversos Estados europeos. No existe consenso sobre su inicio pues algunos consideran que se inicio cuando Napoleon se hizo con el poder en Francia, en 1799, mientras que otros consideran que tuvo lugar en 1803, cuando el Reino Unido le declaro la guerra a Francia. Como fuera concluyo en 1815 con su derrota en Waterloo, una localidad situada en la actual Belgica.

Pero el continente no alcanzo ni siquiera a recuperarse de las calamidades de mas de una decada bajo la guerra cuando comenzo a ser azotados por un nuevo embate, esta vez de parte de los elementos naturales y cuyo origen ni siquiera tuvo lugar en Europa.

En los años 1814 y 1815 el sudeste asiatico fue sacudido por 2 grandes explosiones volcanicas, la del volcan Mayon, en Filipinas, en 1814 y otra aun mas intensa y devastadora, la del monte Tambora, en Indonesia, al año siguiente. Ambos fenomenos permitieron verter a la atmosfera una cantidad inmensa de cenizas que ayudaron no solo a generar una mayor cantidad de nubosidad sino que tambien de lluvias en amplios sectores del Hemisferio norte durante 1816, año que seria calificado como The Year without a Summer (el año sin verano) en Europa occidental y America del Norte por la gran cantidad de dias frios, nubosos y con lluvia presentes esa temporada, lo que implico que el planeta entero sufriera una disminucion de su temperatura anual algo menor a 1°C.

Anomalias de temperatura en 1816 en comparacion con la media de temperaturas para el periodo 1971-2000. Pueden ver que a pesar de que amplios sectores de Europa, e incluso del norte de Africa, presentaron temperaturas bajo la media de comparacion, el Este del continente, y sobre todo el Imperio ruso, presentaron condiciones mas calidas.

Pero el mal tiempo, que en verdad no solo abarco 1816, sino que se extendio hasta 1818, dejaria su huella no solo en los registros de los especialistas sino que tambien provoco importantes deficits en la produccion de alimentos en el Hemisferio norte, en una epoca en que existia una agricultura de subsistencia por lo que se vivia con lo que la tierra daba de cosecha a cosecha. Al mismo tiempo, la anomalia climatica favorecio la aparicion de diversas enfermedades, como una epidemia de colera, que se extendio desde la India hasta Moscu, y otra de tifus que asolo Irlanda.

El fenomeno dejo sus huellas en una gran variedad de actividades humanas modificando incluso el arte de la epoca pues la abundancia de cenizas en la atmosfera cambio los atardeceres, que adquirieron un tono distinto como pueden apreciar en la siguiente pintura del ingles William Turner en que se observa como el tono amarillento de la ceniza -presente en ese momento en los cielos de Europa- tiñe el crepusculo pintado por el autor en su tela, a pesar de representar una situacion de principios del siglo IX antes de nuestra Era.

"Dido erigiendo Cartago, o el ascenso del Imperio cartagines", obra de 1815

Y si bien la produccion literaria del periodo fue escasa, parte de ella adquirio sus caracteristicas gracias a las particulares condiciones de la epoca pudiendo, ademas, trascender con vigor hasta el presente.

Junto al fuego de la chimenea

En la vispera del verano de 1816 una joven pareja de ingleses, Mary Godwin y su novio y futuro esposo, el poeta Percy Shelley, partieron a visitar a otro poeta, otro ingles, el cual habia decidido dejar su patria y se encontraba entonces residiendo en Suiza. Se trataba del celebre Lord Byron. La joven Mary de 18 años escribia: "El verano fue crudo y frio. La lluvia incesante, durante dias enteros, no nos dejaba salir de casa".

Lord Byron, poeta ingles nacido en 1788, en Londres y muerto en 1824, a sus 36 años, en la Grecia bajo dominio de los Otomanos que Byron trato de liberar, nacion aquella que lo considera un heroe nacional. Es considerado uno de los mas grandes poetas ingleses de todos los tiempos, habiendose constituido ademas en toda una celebridad en su epoca. Tanto su obra, como su misma figura, han inspirado hasta el presente a celebres compositores, pintores, escritores y tambien al cine. 

Las conversaciones extensas junto al calor de la chimenea, donde participaban la jovencita junto a su pareja y padre de su hijo, nacido unos pocos meses atras, ademas de Byron y su medico personal, y tambien escritor, John Polidori, incluyeron la lectura de una compilacion en frances de relatos de fantasmas de autores alemanes, denominada Fantasmagoriana, lo que seguramente los inspiro a comenzar a hablar sobre el galvanismo, una linea de investigacion cientifica fundada por el italiano Luigi Galvani que se habia ido popularizando en la epoca, ante el avance de las investigaciones en electricidad, entonces una nueva forma de energia a la cual se le buscaban aplicaciones practicas.

En 1816 la electricidad no era precisamente una energia de uso masivo, sino que apenas de uso experimental conociendose solo casi 20 años despues su primera gran aplicacion practica, con la creacion del telegrafo en 1833, en la version del estadounidense Samuel Morse, ingenio que permitia la transmision de mensajes codificados. 

En efecto, la hoy conocida como electrofisiologia habia dado sus primeros pasos con el italiano, quien descubrio en las ultimas decadas del siglo XVIII los efectos de una corriente electrica aplicada sobre muestras de tejido muscular. Sin embargo, un sobrino suyo, Giovanni Aldini, decidio ir aun mas lejos e investigar los efectos de la corriente electrica sobre seres humanos, valiendose para ello de criminales recientemente ejecutados. Muchas de esas experiencias las realizaria frente a publico.

En una de ellas, realizada en Londres, en 1803 los asistentes reaccionaron con sorpresa y pavor ante los espamos que sufria el cadaver, que pertenecia a un asesino recientemente ajusticiado en la horca. Un testigo de los hechos escribio: "Aparecio en el cadaver una respiracion convulsiva forzada, sus ojos volvieron a abrirse, los labios comenzaron a moverse mientras que el rostro del asesino, que ya no obedecia a ningun instinto rector, comenzo a retorcerse mostrando tan extrañas expresiones que uno de los asistentes resulto apesadumbrado por el espanto y unos pocos dias despues perdio la razon".

Esa capacidad aparente de revivir tejidos muertos llevaria a algunos a probar los efectos de la electricidad tambien en lisiados para intentar hacerlos caminar nuevamente, pero en el caso de ese verano junto al lago Ginebra, sirvio de inspiracion a la joven Mary para escribir un relato luego de que Lord Byron propusiera a cada uno de los presentes escribir una historia sobrenatural. El relato, que adquiriria su forma final poco tiempo despues, se denomino "Frankenstein, o un Prometeo moderno" siendo publicado en 1818, de forma anonima pero con dedicatoria de Mary a su padre, un filosofo de ideas liberales, ademas de ateo y anarquista, pero que a pesar de sus ideas libertarias se oponia fervientemente a la relacion entre ella y su novio.

Esa noche de julio de 1816, en que Lord Byron propuso a los presentes escribir una obra inspirada en un tema sobrenatural, sirvio a dicho poeta como ocasion para escribir el fragmento de una historia que luego abandono pero que sirvio de inspiracion para que su medico personal y tambien escritor, John Polidori, que lo acompañaba entonces en Suiza, escribiera una novela llamada The Vampyre, que seria publicada en 1819 pero no apareceria inicialmente bajo autoria de Polidori sino de Lord Byron para aprovecharse de la fama de este ultimo.
La obra es considerada como la que inaugura el genero del vampirismo como tema literario, que sabemos daria pie a toda una serie de producciones cinematograficas de fama mundial. La obra de Polidori, en si, daria origen a adaptaciones teatrales y peliculas, la ultima de las cuales se estreno en octubre de 2019. 

En la obra, su protagonista, Viktor Frankenstein, es un hombre que apoyado en la alquimia y en el desarrollo de la quimica de la epoca logra dar con el secreto para dar vida a lo inerte lo que le permitira crear un ser que luego intentara, en vano, destruir. Al reflexionar sobre su creacion afirmara en el texto lo siguiente:

"No exagero al decir que no se podia mirar a esta criatura sin sentir un estremecimiento... Miraba a mi creacion inmovil, todavia sin concluir, mientras yacia en la mesa del laboratorio pero aun asi su deformidad sorprendia mis ojos. Cuando sus musculos y articulaciones comenzaron a moverse fue tan espantoso que incluso la fantasia de los artistas medievales que habian representado las fuerzas del infierno lucia palida y forzada delante de mi creacion ... Aquello con lo cual habia soñado con tanta pasion se habia transformado para mi en un tormento infinito, frente a lo cual ya no podia hacer nada".

Si bien no hay una alusion directa a la electricidad como la fuerza motriz que da vida en la obra a esa criatura, el contexto de la epoca y de las conversaciones de su creadora en aquel frio verano de 1816 llevaron al cine a hacer precisamente de la electricidad la fuerza creadora del monstruo creado por  Viktor Frankenstein y cuya primera version filmica aparecio en 1910, en los Estados Unidos, en una pelicula muda de 16 minutos de extension.

Esa percepcion de las fuerzas de la naturaleza como una capacidad todopoderosa y marcada por el sino de Prometeo*, es decir, como una virtud incapaz de ser dominada por el arbitrio humano, probablemente reflejaba no solo las esperanzas y temores de la epoca frente a la novel electricidad, de la cual era su expresion el galvanismo, sino que tal vez eran tambien una reaccion frente a la vastedad de las transformaciones provocadas por la I revolucion industrial, periodo en que el trabajo manual comenzo a ser reemplazado por la operacion de maquinarias que producian ya no a partir de fuerza animal bruta sino que de las transformaciones de la energia, sobre todo de la liberada a partir del carbon.
*Figura mitologica de la Antigua Grecia quien se hace de manera furtiva con el fuego del templo de Hefestos para entregarselo como don a la Humanidad, accion por la cual fue castigado por los dioses que lo encadenaron a lo alto de un monte donde un aguila le horadaba las entrañas.

Esa revolucion se habia iniciado a mediados del siglo XVIII y se seguiria desarrollando en el siglo XIX, permitiendo transformar sociedades agrarias en sociedades industriales y urbanas. Al mismo tiempo, sirvio tambien de preludio para una II revolucion industrial que tuvo lugar entre el ultimo tercio del siglo XIX e inicios del siglo XX llevando el desarrollo industrial hasta la produccion en serie y permitiendo, ademas, el desarrollo de medios de transporte de manera vertiginosa, tanto terrestres, como maritimos y aereos, junto con promover una aun mayor expansion y profundizacion de la urbanizacion.
Asi como la maquina a vapor y el carbon estuvieron tras la I revolucion industrial, la II fue de la mano de la fundicion del acero y del desarrollo de las ciencias quimicas y la electricidad. 1897 veria nacer el motor Diesel, que seria utilizado a principios de siglo en buques y desde 1914 en locomotoras para despues ser usado en los recientemente creados tractores agricolas, en  vehiculos de carga y en tanques. En tanto la electricidad llevaria al desarrollo de la radiocomunicacion y la generacion electrica que condujo, entre otras cosas, a la aparicion del tranvia y la iluminacion de las ciudades.

En ese vertiginosa transformacion de la vida cotidiana a cuenta de desarrollos cientificos y tecnologicos crecientes, que no se detiene hasta el presente, la energia nuclear asomaria por primera vez en las postrimerias del siglo XIX con el descubrimiento de los llamados rayos X en 1895 por el aleman Wilhelm Roentgen, lo que le valio recibir en 1901 el primer Premio Nobel de fisica de la historia.

Los rayos X son radiacion electromagnetica de alta energia que fueron llamados rayos X por su descubridor para designar una radiacion por el desconocida. Fue precisamente Roentgen el primero en realizar una fotografia con radiacion X, lo que hoy constituye un procedimiento medico comun, y que pueden ver arriba, cuando el 22 de diciembre de 1895 el fisico aleman fotografio la mano de su esposa, en uno de cuyos dedos se puede apreciar un anillo. 

La radioactividad (literalmente, emision de rayos), a saber, la emision de particulas y energia por el nucleo del atomo*, seria descubierta en 1896 por el fisico frances, Antoine Henri Becquerel, quien descubrio la radioactividad del uranio, mientras que en 1898 los esposos Curie, Pierre y Marie, descubrieron la radioactividad del torio y tiempo despues la de otros 2 elementos, que bautizaron como Radio y Polonio (por Polonia, la Patria de Marie Curie, llamada realmente Maria Salomea Sklodowska, quien aunque nacio en Varsovia lo fue cuando la ciudad era parte del Imperio ruso). Al mismo tiempo, tanto Becquerel como Pierre Curie descubririan en si mismos los efectos biologicos de la radioactividad sobre la piel humana mientras que la misma Marie Curie, fruto de su trabajo, moriria de sindrome de radiacion. De hecho, sus apuntes siguen hasta el dia de hoy emitiendo radioactividad.
*Transformaciones que permiten que los nucleos atomicos se transformen en nucleos distintos, creando, a partir de ello, otros elementos quimicos. No existen practicamente nucleos estables (que no emitan radioactividad) cuando el peso atomico (numero de protones) de los mismos es mayor de 83 y su masa atomica (suma de protones y neutrones) supera los 209.

En 1897 se descubrio el electron, considerado como la unidad de carga electrica negativa fundamental de la materia. Uno de sus descubridores, el fisico ingles Joseph Thomson, plantearia en 1904 un modelo del atomo, particula fundamental de la materia, que se conoce hasta el dia de hoy como el modelo del plum pudding (un platillo ingles de Navidad). Partiendo de la neutralidad electrica del atomo asumio a este ultimo como una masa en la cual los electrones, las plum* o pasas del pudding, se encuentran insertos en una masa positiva**, el pudding.
*Si bien plum se puede traducir como ciruela, en la epoca la palabra era usada tambien como sinonimo de pasas cuando formaban parte de un pastel. 
**Entonces aun no se habia descubierto el proton ni menos el neutron mientras que lo que conocemos hoy como electron era llamado por Thomson como "corpusculo negativo".

Pero el modelo de Thomson, que suponia al atomo como una masa continua y compacta, seria pronto reemplazado por un nuevo modelo, planteado en 1911 por el neozelandes Ernest Rutherford y en el cual el atomo se transformo en un pequeñisimo nucleo rodeado por electrones que giraban a gran distancia, es decir, el atomo dejo de tener la consistencia de un pudding y se transformo en un espacio mayormente vacio.

La base del modelo de Rutherford surgio en un experimento realizado por el y sus discipulos en 1899, donde sometio la radiacion emitida por sales de uranio a un campo magnetico. Esto le permitio discernir, al menos, 3 tipos de particulas que se comportaban de manera muy distinta al ser expuestas al campo magnetico y que llamo rayos Alfa, Beta y Gamma, siendo las primeros particulas positivas (equivalentes a atomos de Helio que han perdido sus unicos 2 electrones), las segundas unidades de carga electrica negativa, es decir, electrones y la radiacion Gamma rayos electromagneticos, siendo todos estas particulas producto de la desintegracion del atomo.

La radioactividad es un proceso mediante el cual el nucleo de un atomo inestable pierde energia emitiendo radiacion en forma de rayos alfa, beta y gamma. La emision de los 2 primeros provoca una transmutacion  nuclear al generarse nucleos con diferentes numeros de protones y/o neutrones, y que puede llevar a la transformacion del atomo original en un elemento quimico diferente. Este ultimo concepto podria recordar a algunos la idea del Lapis philosophorum (Piedra filosofal o Quinto elemento), que en las leyendas de los alquimistas medievales representaba un reactivo capaz de transformar los metales en oro y tambien de crear el llamado Elixir de la vida (Es decir, de la inmortalidad y la juventud)

En 1932 James Chadwick descubrio el neutron y casi de inmediato, tras su descubrimiento, comenzaron las investigaciones para estudiar las interrelaciones entre el neutron y el nucleo del atomo. Ese año se construiria, en Inglaterra, el primer acelerador de neutrones capaz de escindir nucleos atomicos.

Pero a pesar de los vertiginosos avances en la ciencia del atomo durante las primeras decadas del siglo XX muchos ni siquiera sospechaban como el atomo acabaria determinando el futuro de la Humanidad en las decadas venideras. De hecho, Ernest Rutherford, considerado hoy como uno de los padres de la fisica nuclear, al dirigirse en 1933 a la Asociacion britanica para el avance de la ciencia, durante una conferencia sobre la energia, afirmo que sus trabajos sobre la division del atomo mostraban que no habia futuro alguno para la energia nuclear, sin importar si pasaran 200 o 300 años mas. Lo sorprendente es que dicha afirmacion la realizo cuando apenas restaban 9 años para la puesta en operacion del primer reactor nuclear de la historia y 12 para la explosion de 2 bombas atomicas sobre Japon.

En 1934 el italiano Enrico Fermi junto a un grupo de colaboradores sometieron distintos elementos al impacto de neutrones. Entre esos elementos trabajo con el Uranio, el elemento mas pesado existente en la naturaleza, producto de lo cual pudo generar elementos artificiales aun mas pesados que el uranio, los transuranidos*.
*Sus numeros atomicos (numeros de protones) van desde el 93 al 105. En el caso del Uranio-238, cuando absorbe un neutron, se transforma en U-239, el cual es inestable y lleva a que un neutron de su nucleo se transforme en 1 electron+1 proton, lo que lo transforma en un nuevo elemento, Neptunio-239 (de numero atomico 93). Este tambien es inestable y por el mismo proceso anterior se transforma en Plutonio-239 (numero atomico 94). Si bien este ultimo se puede encontrar de forma natural en las minas de uranio solo lo esta en cantidades extremadamente pequeñas. 

El descubrimiento en 1939 de la division del atomo, que denominaron fision, por el aleman Otto Hahn, junto a los austriacos Lise Meitner y Otto Frisch, permitio comprender que Rutherford estaba equivocado sobre el futuro de la energia del nucleo pues se habia abierto la puerta a una nueva forma de produccion de energia, la energia del nucleo del atomo, la cual multiplicaba en 50 millones de veces la energia que producia la quema del carbon.

C + O2 ----- CO2 + 4,2 eV

Neutron + Uranio ----- Productos de fision + 200 MeV*
*De esa energia un 80% es energia cinetica (asociada a la velocidad) de los fragmentos de fision, mientras que el restante 20% se divide entre radiacion generada por esos fragmentos y la energia cinetica de los neutrones liberados inmediatamente.

La razon era la transformacion de la masa en energia segun la conocida formula de Einstein: E=mc2, pues la fision de la masa de un nucleo genera una disminucion de su masa, equivalente en terminos de energia a esa reduccion de masa multiplicada por la velocidad de la luz al cuadrado. Se trataba, de hecho, de la primera confirmacion experimental de esa ecuacion, seguramente la mas famosa ecuacion de la historia, la cual habia sido hecha publica por primera vez el 21 de noviembre de 1905 en el "Annalen der Physik", revista cientifica alemana de publicacion mensual. 

Esto implicaba que si deseasemos hacer operar durante 1 año una planta de produccion de energia electrica a base de energia atomica y con una potencia de 1 GW* se requeriria utilizar apenas 1 tonelada de uranio mientras que hacerlo con carbon requeriria 3 millones de toneladas de este ultimo.
*1 GigaWatt equivale a 10 elevado a 9 Watt, es decir,, un mil millones de Watt.

Adicionalmente, ese mismo año se descubrio que la fision del uranio no solo generaba una enorme cantidad de energia sino que tambien liberaba 2-3 neutrones adicionales, lo cual planteo la idea de generar una reaccion en cadena, en caso de que esos neutrones pudieran ser utilizados para dividir otros nucleos de uranio de modo de hacer crecer el numero de neutrones disponibles para fision de manera exponencial.

Neutrones como producto de fision

De los neutrones liberados por fision casi su totalidad son los llamados Мгновенные нейтроны (Neutrones instantaneos) que surgen casi de inmediato tras la fision nuclear. Una cantidad menor a 1% la constituyen otro tipo de neutrones, los llamados Запаздывающие нейтроы, neutrones termicos o ralentizados en español, que son aquellos liberados entre algunos milisegundos y hasta varios minutos despues de que tiene lugar la fision.

Ese mismo año 1939 se descubrio, ademas, que a pesar de que los neutrones termicos constituian apenas el 1% de los neutrones liberados en una fision nuclear tenian un rol muy relevante en una reaccion en cadena pues permitian la posibilidad de crear una reaccion en cadena bajo control, que es la base de operacion de un reactor nuclear, o una bomba atomica.

La fision nuclear

Solo se pueden someter a fision los nucleos de los atomos mas pesados. De hecho, ellos mismos pueden sufrir tambien fision espontanea aunque se trata de un fenomeno muy aislado*.
*En 1 gramo de uranio tienen lugar cerca de 20 fisiones espontaneas por hora.

En el caso del uranio-235, al recibir un neutron adicional comienza a estirarse hasta que las fuerzas electricas de repulsion entre protones (de carga positiva) superan las fuerzas nucleares de atraccion (que solo operan a muy cortas distancias) lo que divide al nucleo en 2 partes. Estos subproductos de la fision nuclear salen eyectados a 1/30 de la velocidad de la luz.

Para establecer una reaccion en cadena no se puede tampoco utilizar cualquier elemento capaz de ser sometido a fision de sus nucleos. El elemento comunmente utilizado es el uranio.

Este tiene varios isotopos*, siendo el mas abundante en la naturaleza el U-238 (99,3%) mientras que en segundo lugar en abundancia se encuentra el U-235 (con 0,7%). Cuando estos isotopos son bombardeos por neutrones ambos pueden ser fisionados, pero la fision del U-235 es mucho mas intensa con neutrones termicos al tiempo que los nucleos de U-238 solo entran en fision con neutrones instantaneos con energias del orden de 1 MeV**.
*En griego significa misma posicion pues se refiere a derivados de un mismo elemento quimico, y que por lo tanto tienen identica posicion en la Tabla periodica de los elementos, sin distinguirse en su numero atomico, Z (numero de protones) pero si por su masa atomica, A (numero de protones y neutrones), por lo que tienen identicas propiedades electricas pero distinto peso atomico. Existen isotopos estables y radioactivos.
**Concepto que se usa en fisica nuclear y que equivale a la energia necesaria para desplazar una particula cargada en un campo electrico y cuya diferencia de potencial electrico sea igual a 1 millon de Volt.

En caso de menor energia el U-238 no fisiona sino que se va transformando en otros elementos, primero en Neptunio (vida media* de unos 2 dias) y luego en Plutonio. Este ultimo tiene una vida media de 24 mil años, es decir, es bastante estable, sin embargo, tambien puede ser fisionado con neutrones termicos, al igual que el U-235, por lo que tambien puede ser utilizado para generar reacciones en cadena controladas.
*Tiempo necesario para que una sustancia radioactiva se convierta, debido a las transformaciones de sus nucleos, en la mitad de su cantidad original.

Si bien en la fision del U-235 se libera una nueva generacion de neutrones la mayoria de ellos se pierde al escapar del recinto del reactor o al ser absorbidos por la mayoria prevaleciente de nucleos de U-238 (que al absorberlos se transforman, como ya vimos, en Plutonio-239). Por tanto, la solucion es enriquecer la "mezcla" aumentando el porcentaje de U-235, siendo el porcentaje minimo de este ultimo isotopo para mantener una reaccion en cadena de 3%*.
*En la actualidad, se utilizan mezclas con entre 2 a 5% de U-235 para reactores de produccion de energia electrica, mientras que porcentajes de hasta 20% se usan en reactores experimentales y de investigacion. Cuando el porcentaje supera el 20% se trata de reactores para uso militar o en tecnologia espacial. Por otra parte, mezclas empobrecidas en uranio, con valores entre 0,1-0,3%, se utilizan en armaduras de piezas de artilleria.

En general, las condiciones para crear una reaccion en cadena son las siguientes:

1-Una cantidad minima de combustible (la llamada masa critica) pues, como ya se menciono, si la cantidad de uranio es muy pequeña los neutrones escaparan sin provocar fision. En el caso del U-235 esa masa critica es de 50 kg, que dada la densidad del uranio representa una esfera de 9 cm de diametro. Sin embargo, la presencia de superficies reflectantes de neutrones o de ralentizadores de los mismos puede disminuir significativamente esa cifra.

2-Velocidad adecuada de los neutrones.

3-Ausencia de otras sustancias al interior del reactor nuclear, que es donde se lleva a cabo la reaccion en cadena, que puedan absorber neutrones.

En 1941 se descubriria que el plutonio-239 bajo accion de neutrones termicos resultaba aun mas facil de fisionar que el U-235 pues en promedio la fision de un nucleo de Pu-239 libera entre 2,8-3,0 neutrones mientras que el U-235 entre 2,4 y 2,6. En tanto, la masa critica de Pu-239 es menor, siendo de 11 kg, conformada como una esfera que alcanza 10 cm de diametro. 

El primer reactor

Dada la relevancia de los neutrones en el proceso de fision en cadena no sorprende que en la creacion del primer reactor* tomara parte el mayor especialista en esa particula atomica de la epoca, el italiano Enrico Fermi (imagen superior), quien habia huido de la Italia de la II Guerra hacia los Estados Unidos. Los trabajos comenzaron en 1941 escogiendose como ralentizador de los neutrones un material disponible en abundancia, carbono en forma de grafito. Sin embargo, el primer modelo de reactor, compuesto de oxido de uranio y unas 30 toneladas de grafito, no produjo los resultados deseados ante la falta de neutrones necesarios para iniciar una reaccion en cadena.
*En buenas cuentas, es un recinto donde se lleva a cabo una reaccion nuclear controlada.

En 1942 Fermi partio a trabajar a Chicago donde se construyo un nuevo modelo de reactor, constituido por 384 toneladas de grafito y 46 toneladas de uranio. Alli, el dia 2 de diciembre de 1942 se pudo constatar la primera reaccion en cadena, en una experiencia que tomo 28 minutos y donde la reaccion en cadena era moderada por varillas de cadmio, lo que impedia hacerla crecer de manera incontrolada, algo imprescindible no solo para evitar una explosion sino porque ninguno de los 40 testigos del experimento contaba con proteccion contra la radiacion.

Ampliando el uso de la energia nuclear

Los primeros reactores industriales se destinaron a la produccion de Plutonio-239*, luego de lo cual fue el turno de los reactores de menor magnitud para su uso en submarinos atomicos.
*El plutonio es el principal elemento de fision usado para elaborar armas nucleares, dejando rezagado en un segundo lugar al U-235 gracias, entre otras cosas, a que es mas barato de producir que el segundo. Ademas, el plutonio es un combustible nuclear que requiere de una masa critica mas pequeña (para llevar a una reaccion en cadena), requiriendo cerca de 11 kg que, gracias a la elevada densidad del plutonio, pueden contenerse en una esfera de no mas de 10 cm de diametro. El plutonio se genera en un reactor nuclear que opera con uranio natural o empobrecido, el cual contiene mayormente U-238.

Pero si bien los primeros proyectos en el area de la energia atomica, de principios de la decada del ´40, estaban destinados a su uso militar a fines de la misma decada comenzo a plantearse ya su uso pacifico como fuente de produccion de energia.

La primera bomba atomica, Triny bomb, fue probada en el Desierto de Nuevo Mexico, el 16 de julio de 1945, en los Estados Unidos. La explosion de una esfera de plutonio del tamaño de una pelota de tenia, alcanzo 20 kilotones, es decir, fue equivalente a la explosion de 20 toneladas de TNT. 
Si bien solo las bombas arrojadas sobre Hiroshima (conformada por uranio) y Nagasaki (hecha de plutonio) se han utilizado en un escenario belico cerca de 20 mil bombas atomicas se han hecho explotar sobre nuestro planeta.

En el caso especifico de la URSS, el inicio de su industria atomica tuvo lugar bajo condiciones muy complejas debido a las consecuencias de la Guerra, tanto humanas y financieras como en su infraestructura. Sin embargo, sus esfuerzos humanos y economicos les permitieron en un breve plazo construir y poner a operar el primer reactor nuclear nacional, el F-1, lo cual tuvo lugar a fines de diciembre de 1946, en Moscu. En tanto, en agosto de 1949, en el Poligono de Semipalatinsk (actual Kazaxstan) los sovieticos probaron su primera bomba atomica. Los rusos afirmarian con orgullo que desde la puesta en operacion de su primer reactor nuclear hasta la explosion de su primera bomba requirieron 2 años y 8 meses, un tiempo practicamente equivalente al que le tomo a los Estados Unidos, que habian sufrido significativamente menos las consecuencias de la guerra, en terminos de perdidas humanas, economicas y de infraestructura y porque no se habia combatido al interior de sus fronteras. 
El bombardeo de Japon con bombas atomicas dio inicio a una carrera armamentistica en el mundo, en el contexto de la llamada Guerra Fria. La URSS probaria su primera bomba atomica en 1949 y luego lo haria el Reino Unido, en 1952, seguido por Francia en 1960 y China, en 1964. En 1998 tanto la India como Pakistan harian explotar su primera bomba atomica. 
Segun cifras de inicios de 2014 el arsenal nuclear global comprendia 16.300 bombas atomicas. Se considera que hasta 9 paises poseerian armas nucleares (aunque solo 5 lo tienen oficialmente permitido: China, Estados Unidos, Francia, Reino Unido, Rusia) mientras que otros 40 contarian con la tecnologia y los materiales para construirlas.  

Produccion de electricidad a partir de energia nuclear

El primer intento por crear electricidad se realizo en 1951 en Idaho, Estados Unidos en un reactor experimental que logro producir una cantidad infima de electricidad. En tanto, el primer reactor nuclear en ser integrado a la red electrica comenzo a operar en Calder Hall, Inglaterra, en 1956.

Uno de los problemas de la epoca para crear instalaciones adecuadas para producir electricidad era que en la zona activa del reactor* debia aprovecharse el calor generado por medio de materiales que fueran capaces de soportar altisimas temperaturas y elevados niveles de radiacion.
*El lugar donde tiene lugar la fision nuclear.

Este trabajo comenzo a ser estudiado tambien en la URSS, en 1950, con la construccion de un reactor experimental, denominado AM, Атом Мирный (Atomo pacifico).

Tras analizarse diversas variantes el proyecto escogido, aprobado por los academicos Igor Kurchatov y Nikolay Dollezhal, consideraba un reactor que usaria uranio (dispuesto en unos elementos tubulares que los rusos llaman TVEL) y grafito mientras que en calidad de refrigerante, para retirar el calor generado en la reaccion, se usaria agua bajo presion de 100 atmosferas*.
*El punto de ebullicion de un liquido crece con el aumento de la presion mientras que se reduce con la disminucion de presion. A 100 atmosferas el punto de ebullicion del agua alcanza los 310°C.

La potencia proyectada era de 30 MW pero no a partir de consideraciones teoricas sino que de consideraciones muy concretas dadas las restricciones impuestas por los deficits financieros y la destruccion propias de los años posteriores a la Guerra. De hecho, para la unidad de turbina que utilizarian se valieron de una turbina fuera de uso de baja potencia, del orden de 6 MW, y que resultaba adecuada para un reactor experimental, y que limito la potencia de ese primer reactor.

Los llamados en ruso elementos generadores de calor, ТВЭЛ (TVEL Arriba, visibles como varillas cilindricas al interior de un ensamble denominado en ruso ТВС, es decir, TVS) los cuales contienen el combustible nuclear y se situan en el sector mas agresivo del reactor, se crearon inicialmente a partir de tubos de acero en los cuales se instalaban casquillos con uranio. Sin embargo, las pruebas mostraron que los tubos eran inservibles porque su tiempo de operacion en condiciones de altas temperaturas era solo de unas cuantas horas. Los resultados mejoraron cuando el uranio puro fue reemplazado por una mezcla con un 9% de molibdeno, lo que extendio su tiempo de operacion a varios cientos de horas. Pero aun mejores resultados tuvieron lugar al instalar la mezcla uranio-molibdeno al interior de una matriz de magnesio.

En mayo de 1954 se inicio la carga de combustible del reactor, el cual contenia 546 kg de uranio con un 5% de enriquecimiento de U-235, y que comenzo a generar electricidad el dia 26 de junio. La potencia electrica del reactor experimental alcanzo 1,5 MW.

El reactor, proyectado para generar hasta 5 MW, se mantendria operando de manera experimental hasta abril de 2002, cuando fue detenido definitivamente.

El ritmo de desarrollo de la energia nuclear en la URSS no fue inicialmente elevado dado que en la epoca se le daba preferencia al desarrollo de la energia termica y la hidraulica.

Entre 1948 y 1957 se pondrian en operacion 9 reactores industriales que producian plutonio (para uso militar) y solo 1 reactor, ademas experimental, para produccion de energia electrica (cuya historia acabamos de ver). Al mismo tiempo, se trabajaba activamente en producir reactores con la posibilidad de producir tanto energia electrica como plutonio (derivado, como hemos visto, de bombardear U-238 con neutrones instantaneos) de modo de darles un uso simultaneo, tanto civil como militar.

A partir de 1957 los sovieticos iniciaron la construccion de centrales de produccion de energia electrica a partir de energia nuclear, construyendo no solo reactores con grafito y agua corriente, como moderador y refrigerante*, respectivamente, sino que tambien usando agua corriente para ambas operaciones (los llamados ВВЭР, водо-водяной реактор, VVER).
*El flujo de neutrones que se genera en una reaccion nuclear implica la generacion de calor, el cual debe ser retirado por medio de algun elemento refrigerante. En tanto el ritmo de la reaccion nuclear es regulado, entre otras cosas, por medio de elementos moderadores, cuya labor es absorber neutrones libres, dejando menos de ellos disponibles para fisionar otros atomos de U-235.

En 1964 comenzo a operar el primer reactor VVER, el ВВЭР-1, con una potencia de 210 MW en la AES* de Novovoronezh (imagen superior actual). En 1973 fue puesto en operacion el primer reactor del mundo con neutrones rapidos, el БН-350 (BN-350, en la ciudad de Shevchenko, actual Kazaxstan). En tanto en 1974 comenzo a operar el primer reactor RBMK, celebre por el accidente de Chernobyl, con una potencia de 1000 MW, en la AES de Leningrado y se inicio, ademas,  la construccion de AES en Europa oriental.
*De aqui en adelante se hablara de AES como acronimo de Planta nuclear para produccion de energia electrica.

En el periodo 1957-1967, en los paises de Europa oriental, Asia y Africa, la URSS construyo 25 instalaciones atomicas, lo que incluyo 10 reactores para AES, 7 aceleradores* y 8 laboratorios de fisica e isotopos.
*Son instalaciones que aceleran particulas cargadas electricamente para que alcancen elevadas velocidades e impacten otras particulas. En la actualidad existen unos 30 mil en el mundo. En el futuro se espera poder desarrollar aceleradores capaces de crear incluso agujeros negros.

En 1964 la energia total de las AES del mundo alcanzaba los 5 millones de kW. A partir de entonces comenzaria un rapido crecimiento de la energia atomica que fue aportando cada vez mas a la produccion de energia electrica en el mundo. Se iniciaria un boom de construccion de AES en los Estados Unidos, luego en Europa occidental, Japon y la URSS. Los niveles de crecimiento de la energia atomica alcanzarian cerca de un 30% anual.

En 1972 los cientificos del llamado Club de Roma* publican un documento que se volvio legendario, llamado The Limits to Growth (Los limites del crecimiento), que a partir de modelaciones por computador afirmaba que el crecimiento economico no continuaria indefinidamente debido a la progresiva extincion de los recursos naturales, incluido el petroleo. 
*Organizacion internacional fundada en Roma, en 1968 para analizar la evolucion de la vida en la Tierra a consecuencia de las acciones humanas. El mencionado informe de 1972 daria pie a una serie de movimientos sociales que estan marcando el desarrollo de la Humanidad en el siglo XXI, como el ecofeminismo y el ambientalismo. 

La crisis del petroleo de 1973* le daria una publicidad sin precedentes al informe del Club de Roma, de 1972 y pondria a la energia nuclear como una opcion mas que oportuna debido a que la crisis energetica, que provoco un brusco aumento de los precios del petroleo, forzo a muchos paises a revisar sus programas energeticos privilegiando un mayor interes en energias renovables, la energia nuclear y la explotacion de combustibles fosiles al interior de las fronteras de cada pais.
*Se inicio en octubre de 1973 cuando los paises arabes exportadores de petroleo establecieron un embargo petrolero a las naciones que ellos consideraban habian apoyado a Israel durante la Guerra del Yom Kippur (6-25 octubre, en que una coalicion de paises arabes inicio un conflicto belico contra Israel resultando los arabes derrotados. El conflicto dio pie al inicio de un extenso proceso de paz entre Israel y las naciones arabes). El embargo cuadruplico el precio del barril de petroleo pero tambien condujo a otros cambios. Asi, en la industria automotriz comenzaron a construirse automoviles con motores mas eficientes en consumo de combustible y tambien de menores dimensiones.

En el contexto de esta crisis del petroleo el Presidente norteamericano Richard Nixon establecio un proyecto para construir mil reactores nucleares en territorio norteamericano hasta el año 2000 pero su salida del gobierno antes de cumplir su mandato por el escandalo Watergate* y la llegada a los gobiernos norteamericanos de personas contrarias a la energia nuclear** cambiaron la posicion de este pais hacia la energia nuclear.
*Escandalo politico que tuvo lugar en los Estados Unidos, entre 1972-1974 y que termino con la destitucion del Presidente Richard Nixon, el unico caso de un hecho asi en la historia de este pais. Este tuvo relacion con acciones de espionaje en las oficinas, ubicadas en el complejo Watergate, en Washington, de George McGovern, candidato del Partido democrata a la Presidencia de los Estados Unidos para las elecciones de 1972, en que triunfo Nixon.
**Estamos hablando aqui de energia nuclear no para uso militar sino que para produccion de energia electrica.

La institucionalidad adecuada para comenzar una nueva posicion contraria a la energia nuclear se dio en los Estados Unidos a partir de la administracion del Presidente Jimmy Carter*. Su gobierno estuvo dominado por miembros de la Trilateral Commission, organismo creado por la familia Rockefeller, que se opuso a la energia nuclear y se inclino por el uso de energias renovables. Ademas, la Comision de Energia atomica fue reemplazada por el Departamento de Energia, que quedo a cargo de James Schlesinger, quien a comienzos de la decada de 1970 habia apoyado a representantes de las firmas mas importantes de Wall Street para iniciar acciones legales que finalmente impidieron la construccion de la central nuclear de Calvert Cliffs, en el sur de Maryland. Esta accion daria inicio a una serie de acciones judiciales por parte de ambientalistas para detener o postergar la construccion de muchas otras centrales en los Estados Unidos en las decadas por venir.
*39 Presidente de los Estados Unidos. Solo goberno por un unico periodo, entre 1977-1981, luego de lo cual fue sucedido por Ronald Reagan. 

Una circunstancia que reforzo la campaña contra la energia nuclear en los Estados Unidos la provoco el accidente de Three mile Island*, en 1979 en los Estados Unidos lo que, sumado a otros incidentes en Europa, llevo a una revision radical de las exigencias de seguridad, a un endurecimiento de la normativa vigente y a una revision de los programas de desarrollo de las AES en todo el mundo, lo que provoco un inmenso daño material y de prestigio a la industria nuclear. Asi, los Estados Unidos, que eran lideres en energia nuclear, dejaron de plantearse, a partir de 1979, la necesidad de construir nuevas centrales.
*Tuvo lugar el 28 de marzo de 1979 provocando la liberacion al entorno de gases radioactivos y yodo radiactivo en un total estimado en 2,5 millones de Curie. El accidente tuvo categoria V en una escala internacional que alcanza como valor maximo VII, que fue el valor que alcanzarian los accidente de Chernobyl y Fukushima. El accidente en Estados Unidos tuvo lugar, coincidentemente, pocos dias despues del estreno de la pelicula The China Syndrome que describe una situacion, en diversos aspectos, similar a la de la central nuclear. A consecuencia del accidente, entre 1979-2012 no se entregaria ninguna licencia para construir AES mientras que se cancelaron los planes ya acordados para construir 71 nuevas AES, todo ello en suelo norteamericano.

Sin embargo, no todos los incidentes con centrales nucleares serian conocidos por el publico dado el contexto de la Guerra fria que requeria, entre otras cosas, la necesidad de mantener una intachable imagen internacional. Uno de ellos fue el que tuvo lugar en la AES de Leningrado, en 1975.

ЛАЭС, AES de Leningrado

Situada a 80 km al oeste de la actual San Petersburgo, comenzo a ser construida en septiembre de 1967 y debia constituirse en la principal de las centrales construidas en la URSS con reactores RBMK-1000*. Su primer bloque de produccion de energia electrica estuvo listo para operar en 1973 mientras que el segundo en 1975, agregandose un 3er y un 4to bloques en 1979 y 1980, respectivamente. En agosto de 1981 su capacidad de generacion electrica alcanzo los 4 mil MW, lo que la constituyo en la central mas poderosa en Europa de su tipo.
*En el curso de 10 años, tras la puesta en operacion del bloque de energia de la AES de Leningrado se pusieron en operacion 12 bloques de energia con reactores RBMK-1000 en la URSS, en las plantas de generacion electrica de Chernobyl, Kursk y Smolensk. Para 1986, año del accidente de Chernobyl, el total de bloques de energia en operacion con esos reactores era de 14.

En la construccion de la AES de Leningrado se establecio que el costo del kiloWatt/hora no debia superar los 180 rublos de la epoca, lo que forzo a reducciones de costo en el proyecto que afectaron directamente sus sistemas de seguridad. Asi este proyecto, como todos los demas que utilizaron reactores RBMK-1000, no consideraron una cubierta de seguridad de la instalacion del reactor, lo que implicaba que 200 toneladas de uranio y mas de 1 mil toneladas de elementos radioactivos se encontraban practicamente en contacto directo con el exterior pues la cubierta de la seccion del reactor era en solidez equivalente a la de un edificio residencial.

El accidente de 1975

El 30 de noviembre de 1975 se produjo un serio accidente en la AES de Leningrado que para algunos pudo haber adelantado el accidente de Chernobyl en 11 años.

Por largo tiempo los detalles del accidente en el I bloque de la AES de Leningrado (En adelante me referire a ella, a veces, como LAES) fueron inaccesibles al publico dado que en epoca sovietica todo lo relacionado con la industria nuclear era considerado secreto absoluto, salvo para un muy estrecho circulo de especialistas.

Y no solo ningun medio de comunicacion informaria sobre el accidente sino que ni siquiera los residentes de la localidad en que se encontraba la planta nuclear sabrian algo al respecto al contrario del accidente de Chernobyl que no solo no se pudo ocultar por haber tenido una escala espacial mucho mayor sino porque sucedio cuando en la URSS se daba inicio al periodo conocido como Гластность*.
*Glastnost, politica de apertura en las acciones de los organismos de gobierno y de libertad de prensa establecida por el Presidente de la URSS, Mixail Gorbachev en la segunda mitad de la decada de los ´80 en la URSS y que permitio, por primera vez, la existencia legal de una oposicion al regimen imperante (recordemos que las constituciones de los paises comunistas prohiben la existencia de oposicion politica). El concepto de Glastnost, sin embargo, es muy anterior pues surgio en Rusia a fines de la decada de 1850 con un sentido similar a aquel de la decada de 1980.

Como la AES de Leningrado se encontraba bajo administracion del Minsredmash* el accidente se investigo como un hecho absolutamente interno de esta dependencia. Incluso se impidio que los representantes del Ministerio de energia sovietico, que se preparaban para poner en operacion las centrales nucleares de Kursk y de Chermobyl, tuvieran participacion en la investigacion del accidente de Leningrado o que pudieran tener acceso a los materiales de la investigacion.
*Ministerio de construccion de maquinaria intermedia, el organo de gobierno en la URSS a cargo de la industria atomica. Se creo en 1953. En 1989 se unio al Ministerio de energia atomica para conformar el Ministerio de energia e industria atomica. 

Los hechos

En la mañana del 30 de noviembre de 1975 el personal de turno de LAES recibio una llamada telefonica desde un Instituto de investigacion cientifico-tecnologica situado a 3 km de la planta nuclear dado que tenian mediciones de radiacion que superaban la escala maxima de medicion de sus dosimetros y no tenian informacion de alguna anomalia en el recinto del Instituto de investigacion.

Esa misma mañana, en el panel de control de la central nuclear, habian surgido varias señales de alarma que daban cuenta de la destruccion de varios canales tecnologicos*.
*Tuberia de un reactor nuclear que tiene posicion vertical u horizontal y que en los reactores RBMK alcanza un total de 1693. Alberga las varillas con combustible nuclear y permite el paso de un refrigerante, agua corriente en el caso de esos reactores. Las tuberias tienen un largo de 18,36 metros. 

Cuando llego el personal de turno del 1° de diciembre se encontro con que el reactor se habia detenido y que habia una fuga de radiacion que afectaba a la planta nuclear y que se habia extendido tambien fuera del perimetro de la misma.

Que habia sucedido?

A partir del 1° de noviembre de 1974 se habia comenzado a realizar una serie de pruebas con el primer modelo de reactor RBMK-1000 de modo que despues de concluirlas se transformara en modelo para una serie de reactores futuros de la misma clase. En la vispera del accidente se habia iniciado una prueba de gran escala luego de la cual el reactor comenzaria a operar como modelo para otras AES sovieticas.

En la noche del dia 29 al 30 se debia descargar uno de los 2 turbogeneradores del bloque* I de la planta nuclear para realizar labores de mantencion, sin embargo, por error del operador este saco de operacion no el turbogenerador que se habia descargado sino que otro en funcionamiento, lo que llevo a que se pusiera en operacion el sistema de emergencia del reactor nuclear lo que lo llevaria a su detencion.
*Bloque energetico de una central nuclear destinado a la produccion de energia electrica. Considera diverso equipamiento como el reactor nuclear, la turbina, un turbogenerador, un transformador, etc. 

Cuando el jefe de turno se dio cuenta del error ordeno poner en operacion lo antes posible el turbogenerador que se saco erroneamente de operacion.

La situacion debia resolverse lo antes posible ante el riesgo de que el reactor cayera en lo que se conoce como Foso de Yodo y se bloqueara la operacion del reactor.

Foso de yodo

Lo primero que debemos tener presente es que en un reactor la fision del combustible nuclear va generando deshechos, algunos de los cuales pueden ser intensivos en absorcion de neutrones*, como el Xenon-135 o el Samario-149, por lo que pueden disminuir la reactividad del reactor, es decir, su capacidad, de mantener una reaccion en cadena.
*Recordemos que sin neutrones no puede haber fision de nucleos atomicos. Son ellos el detonante permanente de la reaccion.

Cuando el U-235 impactado por neutrones entra en fision, ademas de generar neutrones adicionales, forma distintos subproductos. En contadas ocasiones se puede formar Xe-135* directamente, algo que ocurre en un 0,3% de las ocasiones y por lo tanto resulta irrelevante, sin embargo, en un 6,3% de las veces se forma Yodo-135, el cual es radioactivo** y se va transformando en Xe-135, mas 1 electron.
*El Xenon-135 es un muy buen absorbedor de neutrones, por lo que si su cantidad aumenta la reactividad en el reactor (la capacidad del reactor de mantener una reaccion nuclear en cadena) disminuye drasticamente.
**El que sea radioactivo supone que es una sustancia inestable, por lo que se transforma en otra despues de un tiempo, segun una tasa o ritmo que se denomina Vida media.  

Es decir, un reactor esta creando todo el tiempo Yodo 135, pero la mitad de el se transforma despues de 6,6 horas en Xe-135. Este ultimo elemento es tambien radioactivo, con una vida media de 9,1 horas, tiem

Karczma tyrolska u Martina już oficjalnie otwarta !

Karczma tyrolska u Martina już oficjalnie otwarta !

W minioną sobotę w Błędnie (w pobliżu Lubieszewa) miało miejsce uroczyste otwarcie Karczmy Tyrolskiej u Martina. To nowy lokal, który stylizowany jest na wzór tyrolski. Tyrol jest krajem związkowym

w zachodniej Austrii, którego stolicą jest Innsbruck. Karczma tyrolska w Błędnie nawiązuje zarówno stylizacją, wystrojem jak i jedzeniem do typowych lokali w austriackich Alpach. Serwowane jedzenie jest starannie wykonane według oryginalnych przepisów prosto z Alp.

W sobotnie popołudnie uroczystego otwarcia lokalu dokonała Paulina Moser, która przywitała gości w imieniu pracowników oraz właściciela. Podczas wieczoru odwiedzający goście próbowali zarówno specjalnie przygotowanych na tą okoliczność przystawek jak i dań głównych z karty. Każdy z gości otrzymał kulinarny poczęstunek od właściciela. W tyrolski, biesiadny nastrój gości wprowadził Robert Osiński, który śpiewał na żywo jak oraz prezentował biesiadną muzykę.

Karczma Tyrolska u Martina znajduje się w Błędnie w pobliżu wyspy i campingu Inter Nos. To miejsce, które z pewnością zaskoczy wielu turystów w sezonie wakacyjnym. Lokal otwarty jest 7 dni w tygodniu przez cały rok w godz. 12:00 – 21:00.

W lokalu organizowane będą imprezy okolicznościowe, spotkania firmowe. Lokal czynny będzie podczas najbliższych Świat. W lokalu zorganizowana będzie również zabawa sylwestrowa. Oferta specjalna, nie spotykana w innych tego typu miejscach to transport gości do domu. W piątki, soboty oraz podczas Świąt goście będą mogli skorzystać ze specjalnego transportu do domu po biesiadzie w karczmie. Szczegółowych informacji udziela personel w karczmie.



Managing Director Under Trade Law

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Austria spielt gegen Hartberg groß auf und gewinnt 5:0

Monschein trifft drei Mal, die Wiener wahren die Chance auf die Meistergruppe

Royal Austria Angelica Kauffman porcelán díszváza - Jelenlegi ára: 30 000 Ft

Köszöntöm oldalamon !
Jelen aukción porcelán vázát kínálok eladásra !
26x19 cm , fülein az aranyozás kopottas
További hasonló tételek kínálatomban !
A fényképek az adott tárgyról készültek , a képeken szereplő állapotban vannak !
Kérem a kedves vásárlót , hogy akkor üsse le az aukciót , ha 1 héten belül rendezi az adás-vételt !
A vásárlást követő 20. napon értékelésemet elkészítem !
Kérem nézze meg további kínálatomat, vásárlás előtt minden esetben tekintse meg az ismerj meg / bemutatkozó oldalt, ahol feltüntetem az éppen aktuális átvételi és postázási lehetőségeket!
Royal Austria Angelica Kauffman porcelán díszváza
Jelenlegi ára: 30 000 Ft
Az aukció vége: 2019-12-02 13:08

Use opportunity to secure goals within coalition | Der Standard - Austria


Centuries of inbreeding among European royals responsible for famous facial deformities seen in historical paintings

THE jutting ‘Habsburg jaw’ – a facial deformity common to the European royal family of the same name – was the results of centuries of inbreeding, according to a new study. Generations of intermarriage secured the Habsburg dynasty’s dominance over a vast European empire encompassing Austria and Spain between the 15th and 17th centuries.   […]

Weingut Südsteiermark

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Opera All Over the Map


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Montreal offers a lot of classical music — as well as diversity, much of historical and architectural interest, fine restaurants, and a designated Gay Village not far via Metro or even by foot from the venues where the two operas I saw were performed. (Like many such ‘hoods, it’s said to be less gay than back in the day.)

“Lucia di Lammermoor” (November 9), from Opéra de Montréal, filled the vast, modern Salle Wilfrid-Pelletier, named for a longtime Met conductor married in turn to fine second-tier divas Queena Mario and Rose Bampton. As Lucia, Kathleen Kim took over rehearsals on a week’s notice from the vocally more opulent but usually dramatically static Albina Shagimuratova. The company was lucky to get Kim, a diminutive, vulnerable stage figure with some interpretive guts and notably good staccati. Her voice lacks much weight below and high E flats were not on this occasion stellar, but she more than earned her check.

The production’s raison d’etre and highest achievement was the very first Edgardo of locally bred and trained tenor star Frédéric Antoun. A very credible Romantic hero, Antoun sang extremely well in good style, balancing Gallic float with Latin ping in his phrasing. He offered — in key! — one of the best final scenes since Alfredo Kraus’ long tenure in the great role, this despite being ludicrously upstaged by five (!!!) ghosts, an ill-advised hallmark “innovation” (as if!) of Michael Cavanagh’s otherwise clunkily old fashioned staging in the late Robert O’Hearn’s “Victor Book of the Opera”-worthy sets.

Cavanagh and routine conductor Fabrizio Ventura — who allowed far too many 1970s-style held final high notes — also cut the dramatically crucial Wolf’s Crag Tower scene, something one doesn’t expect at an international house. This gave Gregory Dahl’s seasoned, professional Enrico not much to do. Oleg Tsibulko’s solidly unremarkable Raimondo got his scene with Lucia. Rising tenor Mario Bahg sounded wonderful in Arturo’s brief but exposed duties, and Florence Bourg contributed a sonorous Alisa, unfazed by high Bs.

The next day brought — Antoun’s work aside — a far more interesting occasion in Opera McGill’s “Clemenza di Tito.” Michael Hidetoshi Mori’s fluid, intelligent production ingeniously blended modern choral dress with Ginette Grenier’s compelling period robes; using much more of the recitative (farmed out by Mozart to an assistant), Mori and the impressive conductor Stephen Hargreaves made this sometimes static opera compelling and exciting to a diverse public.

All the students cast showed accomplishment. Maddie Studt’s Sesto proved outstandingly credible visually, vocally and technically. The Vitellia, Avery Lafrentz, had a comic blast and showed a mettlesome, wide-ranging voice that should settle in. Olivier Gagnon was vivid and agile if not always dulcet in Tito’s tricky music; in a sudden misstep, Hargreaves rushed him through the crucial finale. Elisabeth Boudreault furnished an appealing Servilia ready for professional stages. Any music-minded visitor to Montreal should check out McGill’s calendar.

At November 14’s Boston Symphony concert, later repeated in New York, Austrian soprano Genia Kuehmeier, long away for North America, confirmed her high vocal quality in Mahler’s Fourth and honorably followed the composer’s prescribed dynamics. Andris Nelsons didn’t channel much interpretive specificity with his technically top-notch players’ work. The concert’s takeaway was the truly sensational playing of Leif Ove Andsnes in Grieg’s flashy, derivative Piano Concerto.

The next night Carnegie hosted the Chicago Symphony under Riccardo Muti in a program focused on Rome. Bizet’s youthful “Roma”, despite some initially intriguing channeling of brass chords reminiscent of “Tannhaeuser,” proved an exercise in spurious orchestral color; to my surprise the string section seemed under-rehearsed, which they were assuredly not in the final work, Respighi’s facile showpiece “The Pines of Rome.” In between came the real deal: Berlioz’s cantata “La mort de Cléopâtre,” a practice run for his later heroine Didon in “Les troyens.” Muti gets Berlioz and shook the heavens, as did Joyce DiDonato in a terrifically impressive demonstration of meaningful French declamation, stage savvy, and the vocal chops (up to ringing high B flats) to evoke the Egyptian ruler’s pride, regret, and desperate resolve. The crowd veritably shouted its approval; high time for her Didon to occupy a local throne!

Unlike New York, our nation’s capital still has a flourishing concert organization, Washington Concert Opera. November 24’s “Hamlet” offered the kind of wow-I’m-glad-to-be-present experience that one associates with great evenings when the much-missed Opera Orchestra of New York presented such nonpareil stars as Mariella Devia, Gabriela Benacková, and Renato Bruson. Ambroise Thomas’ score — here shorn of the ballet — may not be adequate to Shakespeare’s play (what could be?) but can boast several very fine scenes. Antony Walker let us hear the usually suppressed original final scene, with a (somewhat) happy ending in which Hamlet, Gertrude, Polonius, and Laertes all survive.

Jacques Imbrailo, best known for Billy Budd and Pelleas, proved very impressive as a Byronic, style-imbued Prince of Denmark, bringing an emo Ralph Fiennes vibe to his dramatic performance and using layered dynamics to fill out the portions — like the much-derided drinking song, actually clever in context — somewhat heavily scored for his sonorous lyric baritone. Lisette Oropesa also achieved a musical and theatrical triumph as Ophelia, finding the part’s hurt and pathos as well as the terrific staccati and chromatic scales; she has become an excellent interpreter of French opera.

The others, while satisfying, needed some further Gallic stylistic coaching. Eve Gigliotti brought a wide-ranging, dramatically implicated sound to Gertrude, a fine part, and Jonas Hacker dispatched Laertes’ limited but not easy music with flair. If his Claudius sounded rather weathered, Tom Fox has kept his range and his stage artistry.

Walker had assembled several other imposing low-voiced singers in Matthew Scollin (Horatio/ First Gravedigger), Brian Kontes (Ghost, channeling “Semiramide”), and Timothy Bruno (Polonius). Walker’s forces, while not perfect throughout, played with intent. It was an exciting evening.

David Shengold ( writes about opera for many venues.

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Salzburg, Austria Travel Guide


Salzburg is an Austrian city situated on the edge of the Alps, close to the German border. Straddling the Salzach River banks and surrounded by mountains and lakes, there are few cities that can match the fairytale setting of Salzburg. Salzburg is one of the classical music giants, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart hometown. Its stately hillsides, churches, …

The post Salzburg, Austria Travel Guide appeared first on My Travel Blog.


Anticipation rises for Avril Lavigne's eagerly awaited global Head Above Water tour


Avril Lavigne is set to play her first shows abroad in nearly a decade. 

Lavigne first announced the news last month, as previously reported.

The Canadian superstar is set to take her Head Above Water tour to Swizerland, Italy, Brussels, Belgium, Austria, Netherlands, Czech Republic, France, Germany and the UK, before heading onto Japan, China and South East Asia.

Check ticket availability for the European, UK and Japanese leg of her worldwide tour HERE.

It will be the first time the 35-year-old has performed abroad since 2011's The Black Star Tour.

Lavigne has just finished her first North American tour here, admitting being back on stage after five years has brought her so much happiness after her long battle with Lyme disease, which she fell ill with in 2014.

The shows are in support of her album Head Above Water, which documents her battle with the illness. The record was released in February and is her first studio effort since her self-titled 2013 record.

Lavigne revealed: "Music has been more healing than ever for me.

"I was at a point where I wasn't sure whether I'd be working or even doing music again, and then I started writing songs from my bedroom.

"'Head Above Water' and 'Warrior' were the first two songs that I wrote, and then they just kept coming. It was cool for me to see because it showed me that music is such a big part of who I am without even thinking about it or trying to make a record.

"We had the most amazing time performing on the US Head Above Water Tour!! I can’t believe how quickly it went by.

"Seeing all your faces each night and feeling your energy was exactly what I needed. I truly missed being up on stage, singing with you and this has brought me so much happiness which is why I’m even more excited to announce that I’ll be taking the Head Above Water Tour worldwide next year with dates in Europe, Japan, China and Southeast Asia!"


Schönborn: Homosexuals and High Volée Are "At Home" in Vienna Cathedral

Schönborn: Homosexuals and High Volée Are "At Home" in Vienna Cathedral
On Saturday evening, Vienna Cardinal Schönborn presided for the third time in his cathedral over a homosex concert featuring infamous Austrian gay activists like Gery Keszler and Conchita Wurst. According to, Schönborn did not welcome the militant homosexuals as guests, but said that – quote: "In this cathedral, we are all at home". He added that God wants no one to feel excluded. Nevertheless, the doors of the cathedral were guarded. Only people with a ticket had access to it.
Priests Have to Hide from Schönborn
In the cold, outside the cathedral, over one hundred Catholics prayed the full rosary to atone for Schönborn's homosex show. The event was organized by Pachamama-remover Alexander Tschugguel. In an introduction he mentioned that many priests were present at the prayer. However, he announced that he would lead the prayer because the Church is going through difficult times and a rosary should be led by a lay person, …

Arranca la producción del nuevo Škoda Octavia

El primer Octavia de cuarta generación ha salido de la línea de producción en la planta Mladá Boleslav de Škoda.

Con alrededor de 400.000 unidades entregadas cada año, el nuevo Octavia es uno de los modelos preferidos por los clientes europeos. Hasta la fecha, el fabricante ha producido más de 6,5 millones de unidades de su superventas, que representa uno de los modelos compactos más populares en la República Checa, Austria, Finlandia y Suiza.

El nuevo Octavia sale de la cadena de montaje en la nave de producción M13, situada en la sede de Škoda en Mladá Boleslav. La firma checa fabricó el primer Octavia moderno hace más de 20 años. Para la producción del nuevo Octavia, la compañía ha preparado sus instalaciones para incorporar procesos y tecnologías innovadoras; los robots también se utilizan en aquellos entornos de producción más complejos y físicamente exigentes. Además, gracias a las nuevas tecnologías, las estaciones trabajo de los empleados de Škoda pudieron diseñarse ergonómicamente. Cada día, 1.150 Octavias de la cuarta generación salen de la fábrica, que es una de las más modernas y ecológicas de su categoría en Europa, para ser entregada a clientes de todo el mundo.

Noticias anteriores Marca: Skoda


: Heavy rain south - Dry & bright for many Tuesday, 02 Dez - 04:43


Heavy rain and snow affects southern parts of Europe through the next two days Monday Heavy outbreaks of rain affecting southeastern Spain on Monday. Drier and brighter to the northwest and for Portugal. Heavy rain continues too for northern Italy and spreads into the northern Balkan states turning to snow over the Dinaric Alps. Increasing cloud over Greece with isolated showers to the west. Dry and sunny for much of Turkey. A mostly dry and bright day for France, the Low Countries and Germany. Feeling cold with isolated showers for northern coasts. Some snow showers over Switzerland, Austria, Hungary and Slovakia while it stays mostly dry but cloudy for the Czech Republic. A cloudy day for Poland too with scattered snow showers. A dry day for Denmark with varying amounts of cloud. Snow clears east from the Baltic States to leave a bright but cold end to the day here. Continuing windy for much of Norway, Sweden and Finland with snow becoming confined to northern areas and to the western coast of Norway. Plenty of good spells of sunshine here.

Tuesday Heavy outbreaks of rain continue for southeast Spain, spreading to the Balearic Islands later. Dry and bright for the rest of Spain and Portugal. Showery rain and cloud clear to the south from Italy with dry and sunny conditions following from the north. A band of rain affects northern portions of Greece and Turkey but it stays dry and bright to the south. High pressure brings dry and settled conditions to a large part of Europe on Tuesday. A chilly but sunny day for much of France, the Low Countries, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia. Any early snow showers over eastern areas quickly clear away. A band of showery rain spread across Norway, Denmark and Sweden. This turns to snow over higher ground and to the north. Rain reaches Finland later but ahead of this it's a dry and bright day. Dry and sunny too for the Baltic States though cloud builds form the west later.


Auf Wiedersehen 2019 - Snowsports on Austrian Alps Patrick Rafting Events

20 Dec / 08 Jan Snow sports on Austrian Alps. Just 6. 100 00 USD excluding flights. No kids and animals. " 2019 " - Campaign 2019 / 20 - Rafting...

Platform Austria | Austrian Pavilion Biennale Architettura 2020

Digitale Plattformen sind zu einem alltäglichen Begleiter geworden. Sie versprechen uns ein selbstbestimmteres, effizienteres und erlebnisreicheres Leben. Ihr globaler Siegeszug bringt aber nicht nur „veraltete“ Infrastrukturen zum Verschwinden, sondern a

Project TUNED-EUPAE - Improving work-life balance: opportunities and risks coming from digitalization

On behalf of Eurofedop, Willi Gloss (GÖD-FCG, Austria) and Agg Géza (KSS, Hungary), members of the social dialogue committee, participated in the final conference …
; Read more ; - News

8,700+ new hydropower plants threatening Europe's freshwater biodiversity

Hydropower pressure on European rivers: The story in numbers © WWF, RiverWatch, EuroNatur, GEOTA
28% of all planned hydropower plants are in protected areas, the vast majority in national parks and Natura 2000 sites. The study also evidences an alarming rise in small hydropower, which wreaks environmental havoc whilst producing very little energy. With more than a third of European freshwater fish species currently threatened with extinction [1] -  of which hydropower dams are a key driver -  European rivers and their biodiversity cannot cope with the pressure of more hydropower. 
Commissioned by WWF, RiverWatch, GEOTA and EuroNatur [2], the study provides damning evidence of governments' failure to protect rivers and biodiversity, demonstrating a blatant disregard for EU water and nature protection laws.
Key findings: 
  • Europe is already saturated with 21,387 hydropower plants
  • Despite this, 8,785 additional plants which are planned or under construction [3]
  • 28% of all planned hydropower is in protected areas (33% in the EU)
  • 91% of the plants recorded by the study are small plants, which produce negligible amounts of energy (less than 10MW)
The study is released as the EU prepares its Biodiversity Strategy for 2030, and is preparing to take a leading role at the 2020 Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity [4]. 
Hydropower ≠ Green 
Hydropower dams destroy rivers and their surrounding environment, seriously contributing to the loss in freshwater biodiversity. They change a river's natural flow, block fish migration routes - affecting fish stocks and the survival of vulnerable species - and trap sediments that protect riverbanks and deltas against floods and sea level rises. 
Strong law, weak enforcement 
Under the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD), Member States must ensure all rivers are healthy by 2027. Hydropower dams are a major obstacle to reaching this target. Seven years to go, and 60% of rivers are still not healthy. 
The impact of the WFD has been gutted by shoddy implementation, lacklustre enforcement, and the abuse of exemptions, often for the benefit of unsustainable farming and industry [5].  New hydropower plants are often built regardless of the non-deterioration principle of the law, without even asking for an exemption - even when there is evidence that the plant would further degrade river health. In Austria - one of the countries with the highest existing hydropower intensity - an additional 123 plants are planned. But a recent study [6] found that less than a third of the permits delivered for hydropower plants were in line with the WFD.
Andreas Baumüller, Head of Natural Resources at WWF's European Policy Office, said:
"Freshwater species populations are declining at twice the rate of terrestrial or marine species - and hydropower dams are a major pressure. Europe has a strong legal tool in the EU Water Framework Directive, but enforcement by the European Commission is weak, implementation by Member States even weaker. The EU cannot claim to be a champion for biodiversity without putting this key environmental tool at the heart of its European Green Deal. It must invest in enforcement, eradicate the abuse of exemptions, and say no to more hydropower in Europe."   
Gabriel Schwaderer, CEO of EuroNatur, said: 
"Most of the planned hydropower projects - almost 3.000 - are on the Balkans. The rivers there are still mostly intact, some even in an untouched state. They are a European treasure we cannot afford to lose. We count on the European Union to monitor closely the developments in the Balkan States, where a lot of investment goes to hydropower, but the potential for solar energy – a truly renewable energy source - is not being used." 
Ulrich Eichelmann, CEO of RiverWatch, said:
"This assessment is alarming. We are facing nothing less than the end of free flowing rivers in Europe, if we don't stop this dam craze. Under the label of "green energy", the hydro lobby and political decision-makers are about to destroy Europe's last remaining rivers and streams, and with it an enormous amount of plant and animal species. We don't need any additional new hydro dams in Europe. Subsidies on hydro has to stop and nature protection must be improved." 
Steven Weiss, Associate Professor at the Institute of Zoology, Karl-Franzens University of Graz, said
"Based on extrapolations from my more detailed study on the Balkans, as well as the IUCN red list, we can predict that at least 20 and perhaps up to 30 freshwater fish species would go extinct if all of these plans would be carried out. Furthermore, a large percentage (> 95%) of the southern European fish fauna would be placed in an IUCN threat category. We must understand that the already high demand for water resources, especially in southern Europe will be exacerbated by such large-scale hydropower exploitation, resulting in a deadly combination for freshwater biodiversity."
Sophie Bauer
Communications Officer (Freshwater)
WWF European Policy Office
+32 471 05 25 11
Notes to the editors: 
Key recommendations
For a full, detailed list of recommendations, please refer to p.37 in the study. 
  • New hydropower projects in the last remaining free-flowing or intact rivers in Europe have to be prevented, and the planning of additional hydropower plants should be reconsidered. 
  • Within protected areas, hydropower development cannot be an option. 
  • In countries with the highest density such as Austria, Norway or Switzerland, the focus should solely be on the refurbishment and, where possible, on renovation. 
  • Old hydropower licenses which need to be prolonged must require strong criteria on how to mitigate the environmental impacts and the public must be included in this evaluation.
In particular, we call on the European Commission to:
  • Better enforce existing EU legislation to protect rivers and their biodiversity from hydropower, particularly the EU Water Framework Directive and EU Birds and Habitats Directives. 
  • To this end, the European Commission should review the existing guidance documents that apply to hydropower development under the Common Implementation Strategy of the Water Framework Directive.  
  • End subsidies and public finance for new hydropower development in Europe
  • Develop tighter criteria for hydropower under the EU taxonomy for pollution and ecosystems impacts, to make sure no greenfield hydropower plants are developed in the EU anymore and retrofits are given priority, but only if they are more beneficial to society and environment than decommissioning and they don't further deteriorate rivers.
[1] European Commission, 2011. European Red List of Freshwater Fishes,
[2] WWF, RiverWatch, GEOTA, EuroNatur, 2019. Hydropower pressure on European rivers: The story in numbers 
[3] These figures are a conservative estimate, as they only include plants whose precise location could be validated - for instance by high resolution satellite data - plants above 0.1 MW and officially planned plants.
[4] The UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has existed since 1992 and meets every two years. In 2020, the CBD COP will be a pivotal meeting for biodiversity conservation, as a post-2020 Biodiversity Strategy will be agreed upon for the following decade. As a party to the CBD, the EU operates as one single bloc at the table, and so it is crucial that it shows strong leadership, commitments and tangible targets to protect biodiversity. Find out more here
[5] 53% of surface water bodies in the EU are covered by at least on exemption (EEA WISE)
[6] WWF Austria, ÖKOBÜRO, March 2018. Umsetzung des Verschlechterungsverbots gemäß EU-Wasserrahmenrichtlinie in Österreich im Bereich Wasserkraf. The study analyses 200 documents related to hydropower plants authorisations, including 61 permits.


Registrácia cirkví a náboženských spoločností v zemiach Vyšehradskej štvorky, Rakúsku a na Ukrajine

Registrácia cirkví a náboženských spoločností v zemiach Vyšehradskej štvorky, Rakúsku a na Ukrajine = Registration of churches and religious societies in the Visegrad Four countries, Austria and Ukraine / Damián Němec (ed.) -- Vydání první -- Praha : Leges, 2019 -- 320 stran ; -- ISBN: 978-80-7502-369-8 -- Právo

Rafael Grossi, nuevo presidente de la OIEA, señala la energía nuclear como «parte de la solución de la crisis climática»

La OIEA (Organismo Internacional de Energía Atómica) tiene tres misiones principales: promover el uso pacífico de la tecnología nuclear; implementar un sistema de salvaguardas para verificar que la tecnología nuclear no sea usada con fines militares; y promover altos estándares seguridad en todas las industrias nucleares. A partir de hoy, en cuanto el argentino Rafael Grossi asuma la dirección general en Viena, un cuarto objetivo se sumará a los anteriores: convertir la energía atómica en agente activo de la solución a la crisis climática. «La voz del OIEA está ausente en este debate», ha lamentado antes de la toma de posesión, «nosotros no somos lobbistas de la energía nuclear, pero tenemos una responsabilidad que nos viene marcada por nuestro propio estatuto y debemos dar información sobre algo que es una evidencia científica. No es una convicción política o ideológica. La energía nuclear es una energía limpia, es una energía que produce muy bajos niveles de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero, prácticamente igual que la energía hidroeléctrica y menos que la solar o la eólica. Esto son hechos que deben ser registrados en cualquier debate serio sobre el cambio climático». Hasta ayer embajador argentino en Austria, tras desempeñarse como jefe de gabinete y vicedirector de Amano, y considerado uno de los mayores expertos mundiales en temas atómicos, ocupará el cargo por los próximos cuatro años en reemplazo de Yukiya Amano. Además de seguir lidiando con cuestiones tan candentes como las tensiones en Irán y Corea del Norte y las posibles carreras armamentísticas entre Estados Unidos, China y Rusia, se ha propuesto ampliar la presencia de la OIEA en los foros internacionales de debate climático. Abogado de formación y graduado con medalla de plata del Instituto del Servicio Exterior de la Nación (ISEN) ya en la Argentina democrática, se especializó en tecnología nuclear de INVAP de Bariloche y trabajó después con Roberto García Moritán, posteriormente uno de sus mentores dentro de la Cancillería. Entre 1997 y 2000 presidió el Grupo de Expertos Gubernamentales de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Registro Internacional de Armas y fue después asesor del Subsecretario General de las Naciones Unidas en materia de Desarme, además de titular del Grupo de Países Suministradores Nucleares. Su vocación por la seguridad de la energía nuclear quedó ratificada en 2017, cuando se implicó por iniciativa propia en la búsqueda del submarino ARA San Juan, que recuerda como «una experiencia movilizante y tremendamente emocionante». Ahora asegura que volcará toda esta experiencia en prioridades como el programa nuclear de Irán y Corea. «Deseo establecer muy rápidamente una relación de trabajo constructiva y honesta con Irán para avanzar. Hay mucho por ver; ciertas situaciones merecen una aclaración que no han recibido todavía. Además, existe una presunción de que pronto tendremos un papel muy importante en Corea del Norte, cuando exista un acuerdo con Estados Unidos», ha adelantado. Considera que la energía nuclear pasa por un buen momento y recuerda que, a pesar del pesimismo posterior al accidente de Fukushima, en 2011, la energía nuclear ha aumentado con 37 centrales nucleares agregadas a las redes en los últimos cinco años y más de 20 construyéndose en este momento. Solo ha decidido terminar con la actividad nuclear de generación eléctrica. Pero no se limitará a esta faceta, aunque prioritaria, de la organización y prestará atención, por ejemplo, a sus actividades científicas o médicas. «En muchos países erradicamos la mosca de la fruta o contribuimos con técnicas de radioisótopos al manejo de los acuíferos. Eso hace que la gente esté demandando más servicio del organismo», ha afirmado en una reciente entrevista en la que reiteraba su intención de que la OIEA se implique en los esfuerzos internacionales por la protección del clima. «Mi convicción, mi deseo, es estar presente en esta conversación. Nuestro mensaje será este. La energía nuclear es parte de la solución, no es parte del problema… Creo que la COP25 en Madrid es un escenario, una plataforma, indispensable». Grossi será el sexto director del OIEA desde su fundación en 1957 y se suma a la lista de personalidades hispanohablantes en altos cargos de organismos internacionales, entre los que se encuentran los españoles Luis de Guindos, vicepresidente del BCE, Josep Borrell Fontelles, alto representante de la Unión Europea para Asuntos Exteriores y Política de Seguridad, y Fernando Arias González, director general de la Organización para la Prohibición de las Armas Químicas (OPAQ); la chilena Michelle Bachelet Jeria como Alta Comisionada de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos; la mexicana Patricia Espinosa Cantellano, secretaria ejecutiva de la Convención Marco de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático (CMNUCC); y entre los que puede considerarse también al brasileño Roberto Carvalho de Azevedo, director general de la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC).

Hello from Portland

Hi all. I’m a year-round bike commuter/walker with an interest in vintage bikes and cycling infrastructure. I currently own three bikes: an early ‘70s Nishiki 10-speed is my main ride but I also have an early ‘60s Allegro and a (probably) ‘60s Sears 3-speed (made in Austria by Puch). I’ve been...

Austrian Airlines: Έως και 70 πτήσεις την εβδομάδα προς 19 προορισμούς στην Ελλάδα

Έως και 70 πτήσεις την εβδομάδα - κατά 12 περισσότερες από εφέτος - προς 19 προορισμούς στην Ελλάδα, θα πραγματοποιούν...

Comentariu la Cine are interesul să destabilizeze mişcarea monarhistă din România? Legăturile cu PSD şi Federaţia Rusă. de Capcana serviciilor ruseşti: monarhiştii români, atraşi într-o cursă la Viena. Partid austriac vrea desfiinţarea NATO. | Monarhia Salvează România

[…] Alianţei Naţionale pentru Restaurarea Monarhiei. Din informaţiile oferite redacţiei noastre (Cine are interesul să destabilizeze mişcarea monarhistă din România? Legăturile cu PSD şi Fede…), cetăţeanul din spatele acţiunii, Ştefan Daniel Ţuţuianu, este cunoscut pentru legăturile […]

'The records keep going': Shiffrin moves to second on all-time World Cup wins list

  • US skier wins slalom for fourth straight year at Killington
  • 24-year-old now trails only Lindsey Vonn for victories

Mikaela Shiffrin’s winning margins just get bigger and bigger in World Cup slaloms. One weekend after finishing 1.78 seconds ahead of her opponents in Finland, Shiffrin was a massive 2.29sec clear of her biggest rival, Petra Vlhova, in the United States on Sunday.

Shiffrin’s success for a fourth straight year at Killington was the 62nd World Cup win of her career tied for second on the all-time women’s list. The 24-year-old American drew level with Annemarie Moser-Proell, the Austrian downhill great of the 1970s, and now trails only Lindsey Vonn’s 82 wins.

Continue reading...

Rába valley

The Site follows a section of the River Rába from the Austrian border downstream to Győr-Moson-Sopron County. In this section, the river meanders freely and yearly floods maintain the natural dynamic of oxbows, shifting riverbeds and typical riverside vegetation. The new boundaries of the Ramsar Site follow recently changed property boundaries and the shoreline of the water body more accurately. Typical habitat types are floodplain meadows, softwood riparian forests, willow bushes and hardwood riverside forests. The banks support nesting birds such as the European bee-eater Merops apiaster, kingfisher Alcedo atthis and sand martin Riparia riparia. The meandering sections of the Rába, the oxbows and the abandoned man-made pits play an important role in the reproduction of fish species and aquatic insects and provide important habitats for their survival during summer droughts. The Site supports high percentages of the Hungarian populations of threatened species such as the Ukrainian brook lamprey (Eudontomyzon mariae) and Zingel zingel. The Site plays an important role in flood control, and in maintaining relatively high groundwater levels which enhance the productivity of surrounding agricultural land. Uncontrolled tourism, fishing activities, intensive forestry, and the discharge of treated sewage water pollution inflow from upstream Austria all have a negative impact. The Rába River Basin Management Plan has recently been finalized and will be implemented with support of EU funds.

Haus & Bau


Austria’s largest autumn construction trade fair

The post Haus & Bau appeared first on Construction Trade Shows Events and Conferences - Construction Shows.


Open Postdoc Fellowships at the Erwin Schrödinger Centre for Quantum Science and Technology (ESQ) | Erwin Schrödinger Centre for Quantum Science and Technology (ESQ) Vienna

Vienna or Innsbruck, Austria, Open Postdoc Fellowships at the Erwin Schrödinger Centre for Quantum Science and Technology (ESQ) The Erwin Schrödinger Center for Quantum Science and Technology ESQ invites applications for five t

Study the art of opera conducting with opera singers and full professional orchestra in Vienna/Austria and Szombathely/Hungary 2020

CONDUCTING COURSE Study the art of opera conductingwith opera singers and full professional orchestra in Vienna/Austria and Szombathely/Hungary Repertoire:Puccini/La Bohème/third act from number 8 to endBizet/Carmen/final duetMozart/Zauberflöte/finale of first act, bar 35-159 Time table:August 1 – 4: preparation work with piano, in Vienna/AustriaAugust 5/6 + 8/9: work with singers and piano, in Vienna/AustriaAugust 10/11: work […]

sixx Austria - Krimiserie - S5 / F1: Castle - Nach dem Sturm

20:15 Uhr - Nach dem Sturm - Der erfolgreiche, etwas arrogante Krimiautor Richard Castle ermittelt in New York mit der geradlinigen Polizistin Kate Beckett in auf...

sixx Austria - Krimiserie - S5 / F2: Castle - Bewölkt mit Aussicht auf Mord

21:10 Uhr - Bewölkt mit Aussicht auf Mord - Der etwas arrogante Krimiautor Richard Castle ermittelt in New York mit der geradlinigen Polizistin Kate Beckett in au...

sixx Austria - Krimiserie - S5 / F1: Castle - Nach dem Sturm

01:15 Uhr - Nach dem Sturm - Der erfolgreiche, etwas arrogante Krimiautor Richard Castle ermittelt in New York mit der geradlinigen Polizistin Kate Beckett in auf...

Testing OPS-SAT

Testing OPS-SAT Image:

OPS-SAT during testing of its solar arrays at the Graz University of Technology, Austria.

Only 30 cm high, OPS-SAT packs a punch. Carrying an experimental computer ten times more powerful than on any current ESA spacecraft, OPS-SAT is yours to do what you want with. Find out more, here.


El argentino Rafael Grossi, primer latinoamericano en dirigir el OIEA


OIEA DIRECTOR Viena, 2 dic (EFE).- El diplomático argentino Rafael Grossi se convirtió este lunes en el primer latinoamericano en dirigir el Organismo Internacional de Energía Atómica (OIEA), la agencia nuclear de Naciones Unidas. El nombramiento formal del hasta ahora embajador argentino en Austria y ante organismos internacionales en Viena fue aprobado por aclamación en […]

The post El argentino Rafael Grossi, primer latinoamericano en dirigir el OIEA appeared first on La Prensa Latina.


LBS 2019 on-air

The Austrian national radio station Ö1 joined LBS2019 to capture the latest developments and ongoing research on Location Based Services: “Die Tücken der elektronischen Karten – Wie GPS die Welt(sicht) verändert” (starting at 19:18) is available in German until 29.11.2019, with interviews with Gartner Gartner, Georg Molzer, and Anita Graser. For centuries, humans used maps …

Austrian Economics Looks East


[This article contains excerpts from a presentation given at the 70th anniversary of the publication of Human Action, in Vienna, at the Palais Coburg, November 23, 2019.  Mises surely would be pleased by the thought of this gathering today, to know that his Vienna still has a heartbeat in Europe, even as its politicians and bankers and academics all go in the wrong direction. He certainly would be pleased and amazed to know his work would become available across the world, in many languages, free and instantly online. Most of all he would be thrilled to know his name is better … Continue reading

The post Austrian Economics Looks East appeared first on LewRockwell.


Postare de log efectuată de altmariusscena

Postare de log efectuată de altmariusscena

Colea Răutu – un actor de geniu

Postat de V. Brădăţeanu - „Talentul trece deopotrivă prin suflet şi spirit, n-a putut fi definit de nimeni sigur, există actori culţi şi actori cultivaţi, actori cerebrali care-şi construiesc personajele pe criterii logice. Intuiţia însă, cred că funcţionează într-o sferă limitată de situaţii: în viaţă ca şi în artă. Eu nu ştiu cât talent am, dar ştiu să mă desprind din viaţă foarte mult.” – Colea Răutude Razvan MoceanuJoi, 28 noiembrie, se împlinesc 107 ani de la naşterea actorului de teatru şi film Colea Răutu. Personalitate artistică de mare valoare, el a avut o carieră de 74 de ani pe scenă, a jucat în peste 70 de filme şi a avut o îndelungată activitate teatrală, a fost prezent în numeroase producţii de televiziune, în spectacole ale Teatrului Naţional Radiofonic, însă a demonstrat şi un talent muzical remarcabil.Actorul Colea Rautu, la premiera filmului Lupeni 29; la cinema Patria.12 februarie 1963Nikolai Rutkovski, pe numele său real, s-a născut la 28 noiembrie 1912, în localitatea Limbenii Noi, judeţul Bălţi, astăzi în Republica Moldova, părinţii săi fiind, tatăl, de origine poloneză, de profesie mecanic de locomotivă, iar mama sa, basarabeancă, era educatoare.A fost cel mai mare dintre cei patru copii ai familiei, ceilalţi fraţi ai săi fiind Larisa, Natalia şi Valentin.A fost, mai întâi, elev al Colegiului „Regele Ferdinand” din Chişinău, apoi a studiat la liceul militar din Bălţi, însă tânărul poreclit „Colică” nu a avut o mare atracţie către învăţătură, fiind mult mai pasionat de jocul de fotbal.La vârsta de 13 ani, Colea pleacă din Chişinău spre Bucureşti, va locui în gazdă la un meşter angajat la Uzinele Mociorniţa şi se încscrie în echipa de fotbal a uzinei.Având o voce şi un timbru deosebit, Colea Răutu s-a angajat în corul Operei din Cluj, iar mai apoi, în anul 1929, intră în teatru ca figurant la un festival al unei mari actriţe din acea vreme, Nelli Nicolau.Vizionarea spectacolului de teatru de revistă “Floarea din Hawai”, o premieră muzicală la acea vreme, îi va prilejui aflarea veştii că erau căutaţi tineri pentru a intra în trupa de teatru a lui Emil Bobescu, regizor de spectacole muzicale şi fiul lui Aron Bobescu, cel care înfiinţase prima trupă de operetă din Ţara Românească.Se va prezenta la selecţie, unde va interpreta melodia “Ocii ciornâi”, iar prestaţia sa artistică va convinge, astfel că Răutu va fi angajat în trupa de teatru, unde va fi distribuit alături de Ion Dacian.Va renunţa, astfel, la visul său de a juca fotbal, fiind angajat la Teatrul de Revistă “Cărăbuş” al lui Constantin Tănase, mai ales pentru prezenţa în cuplete de factură satirico-socială.S-a înscris la Conservatorul de Artă Dramatică din Bucureşti, absolvit în promoţia 1947.Actorul Colea Rautu (dr.) in timpul repetitiilor la piesa de teatru ‘Pisica in noaptea Anului Nou’ de D.R. Popescu, pe scena Teatrului National din Bucuresti. 1971Va încânta publicul în mai multe spectacole, însă “Ţi-a ieşit coşaru-n drum”, creat de Gherase Dendrino, pe versurile lui Puiu Maximilian, a fost remarcabil, fiind jucat în peste 150 de reprezentaţii, fiind ovaţionat, în cele mai multe cazuri, la scenă deschisă.În anii celui de-Al Doilea Război Mondial, se înrolează pe front alături de Constantin Brezeanu, care juca la Teatrul “Nottara”, cei doi cântând şi încercând să ridice moralul ostaşilor armatei române.Apoi, Colea Răutu va juca la sala Cinema Roxy, aflată pe Strada Lipscani, în spectacole de revistă, alături de Gică Petrescu şi de Jean Moscopol.În anul 1946, Colea juca în comedia muzicală „Haimanaua bulevardului”, în care interpretarea sa era asimilată unei excelente voci de tenor, în condiţiile în care nu a parcurs niciodată studii muzicale.Începând cu anul 1952, joacă la Teatrul „Giuleşti”, alături de Ştefan Mihăilescu Brăila, pe această scenă aflându-se până în anul 1968. În această perioadă a jucat şi la Teatrul din Piteşti şi s-a aflat şi pe scena Teatrul Naţional din Bucureşti, la solicitarea lui Sică Alexandrescu.În 1956, în chiar anul apariţiei televiziunii la noi, apare pe micul ecran într-o emisiune alături de Ioana Radu, Mia Braia şi Gică Petrescu, publicul având ocazia să îl cunoască şi să-i aprecieze calităţile artistice.Însă Colea Răutu va deveni pasionat de cinema, mai ales după ce a urmărit filmele lui Boris Karloff, actor britanic celebru mai ales pentru rolurile sale din mai multe filme de groază și pentru interpretarea rolului monstrului lui Frankenstein, din anii ’30-’40 ai secolului trecut.Regizorul Paul Călinescu îl va distribui în rolul ţăranului Ilie Barbu din drama „Desfăşurare” – o ecranizare după nuvela omonimă a lui Marin Preda -, care a avut premiera în anul 1954, aceasta fiind pelicula de debut a lui Colea Răutu, în care un rol principal l-a avut şi regretatul Ernest Maftei.A urmat apoi o carieră artistică de excepţie, cu roluri preponderent negative,  jucate în peste 70 de filme româneşti, coproducţii şi străine, lăsând în cinematografia românească personaje interpretate magistral în filme ca drama „Moara cu noroc” (1955), regia Victor Iliu, rolul Pintea, alături de Ioana Bulcă şi Constantin Codrescu, „Mihai Viteazul” (1970), regia Sergiu Nicolaescu, rolul Sultanului Murad al III-lea, alături de Olga Tudorache, Irina Gărdescu şi Amza Pellea, „Fraţii Jderi” (1974), regia Mircea Drăgan, rolul Grigore Gogolea, alături de Gheorghe Cozorici, Ştefan Velniciuc şi Sebastian Papaiani, „Nemuritorii” (1974), regia Sergiu Nicolaescu, rolul Iusuf Paşa, alături de Amza Pellea, Ion Besoiu şi Sergiu Nicolaescu, „Ştefan cel Mare” (1975), regia Mircea Drăgan, rolul Soliman Paşa, alături de Gheorghe Cozorici, Violeta Andrei şi Gheorghe Dinică, „Pintea” (1976), rolul colonelului, regia Mircea Moldovan, alături de Florin Piersic şi Maria Ploae, „Ultima noapte de dragoste” (1980), regia Sergiu Nicolaescu, rolul căpitanului medic Zafiu, alături de Joanna Pacula şi Vladimir Găitan, „Duelul” (1981), regia Sergiu Nicolaescu, alături de Sergiu Nicolaescu şi Jean Constantin, „Căutătorii de Aur” (1986), regia Alecu Croitoru şi Sergiu Nicolaescu, alături de Ernest Maftei, „Cel mai iubit dintre pământeni” (1993), regia Şerban Marinescu, rolul Traian Petrini, alături de Dorel Vişan, Gheorghe Dinică şi Ștefan Iordache, sau serialul de televiziune „Toate pânzele sus!” (1986), regia Mircea Mureşan, rolul Spânu, alături de Sebastian Papaiani, Ion Besoiu, Ilarion Ciobanu.Melodia „Hai coșar, coșar”, intrepretată de Colea Răutu, se află pe coloana sonoră a filmului „De trei ori București”, din 1967, format din trei povestiri cinematografice distincte a căror acțiune se desfășoară în București, cele trei părți fiind scrise și realizate de trei regizori diferiți: Partea I – „Întoarcerea” de Mihai Iacob, Partea a II-a – „Aterizare forțată” de Horea Popescu şi Partea a III-a – „București” de Ion Popescu-Gopo.De asemenea, el a jucat şi în alte seriale de televiziune româneşti şi străine – „Die Lederstrumpferzählungen” (RFG, 1970), „Lupul mărilor” (Austria, 1971), „La Révolte des Haidouks” (Franţa/România, 1972) sau „Atkins” (RDG, 1985).Colea Rautu 1998Colea Răutu a fost şi un apropiat colaborator al Teatrului Naţional Radiofonic, printre spectacolele întregistrate de acesta la radioul public aflându-se „Gaiţele” de Alexandru Chiritescu, adaptarea: Mariana Pârvulescu, regia artistică: Mihai Pascal, regia muzicală: Livio Bellegante, regia tehnică: ing. Ion Mihăilescu, o înregistrare din anul 1966 avându-i în distribuţie şi pe Silvia Dumitrescu Timică, Maria Wauvrina, Nineta Gusti, Stela Popescu, Carmen Stănescu, Nataşa Alexandra, Eugenia Popovici, Alexandru Giugaru, Coca Andronescu şi Dem Rădulescu, „Pentru cine bat clopotele” de Ernest Hemingway, dramatizare de Nicolae Neagoe, regia artistică: Dan Puican, regia de studio: Rodica Leu, regia muzicală: Nicolae Neagoe, regia tehnică: ing. Andrei Sireteanu, o înregistrare din anul 1985 avându-i în distribuție şi pe Ion Caramitru, George Constantin, Mitică Popescu, Dorina Lazăr, Șerban Cellea, Dana Dogaru, Radu Panamarenco, Dumitru Chesa, Candid Stoica, Mircea Albulescu, Mihai Dinvale, Gheorghe Pufulete, „Departe de lumea dezlănţuită” de Thomas Hardy, traducere de Bianca Zamfirescu şi Eugenia Popescu Ciucea, dramatizare de Nicolae Neagoe, regia artistică: Dan Puican, regia de studio: Janina Dicu, regia muzicală: Nicolae Neagoe, regia tehnică: Vasile Manta, o înregistrare din anul 1991 avându-i în distribuţie şi pe Dana Dogaru, Florin Zamfirescu, Adrian Pintea, Victor Rebengiuc, Mirela Gorea, Ana Ciontea, Elena Nica Dumitrescu, Radu Panamarenco, Valentin Teodosiu, Candid Stoica, Nicolae Călugăriţa, Dan Bobe.Marele nostru actor a publicat numeroase articole pe tema teatrului şi filmului, a fost membru al Uniunii Cineaștilor și al Uniunii Teatrale din România – UNITER.El s-a îndrăgostit în tinereţe de echipa de fotbal Rapid Bucureşti şi a rămas, pentru întreaga sa existenţă, un susţinător fervent al echipei alb-vişinii.Pentru realizările sale artistice deosebite, Colea Răutu a fost recompensat cu numeroase premii şi distincţii: titlul de Artist Emerit, Ordinul Meritul Cultural clasa a III-a (1967) „pentru merite deosebite în domeniul artei dramatice”, premiul ACIN pentru întreaga activitate (1988), Premiul la Festivalul de film de la Karlovy-Vary, Premiul Festivalului de film de la Moscova, a fost unul din laureaţii Galei „Vârsta de Aur” (2001), ai Premiilor Naţionale în Domeniul Teatrului şi Galei Premiilor în Cinematografie (Premiul de Excelență în Cinematografia Românească, 14 mai 2002), iar la 30 mai 2002 a fost decorat cu Ordinul Naţional Steaua României în grad de Cavaler, alături de alţi actori, „pentru prestigioasa carieră artistică şi talentul deosebit prin care au dat viaţă personajelor interpretate în filme, dar şi pe scenă, cu prilejul celebrării unui veac de film românesc”.Actorul Colea Răutu a murit la 13 mai 2008, la Spitalul Universitar de Urgenţă din Bucureşti, la vârsta de 95 de ani, în urma unor complicaţii provocate de o boală incurabilă, fiind înmormântat cu onoruri militare, la Cimitirul Bellu din Bucureşti, pe Aleea Actorilor.Nichita Stănescu l-a numit pe Colea Răutu „actorul de geniu” şi „un om dizolvat total în omenie.”Vezi mai mult


Re: First United Methodist Church

I’m so excited my broken Marriage has been restored. “We recently made up, even though it was difficult.

First United Methodist Church
Rating: 5 Stars
Posted by Corey Darlene

14.12. Tupu Ylä-Anttila: Habsburg Female Regents in the Early 16th Century


In this work, I examine the education of princesses and forms of female power in the 16th -century through three women of the Habsburg family – Margaret of Austria (1480–1530), Mary of Hungary (1505–58) and Juana of Austria (1535–73) – all of whom acted as regents for Emperor Charles V (1500–1558) either in the Netherlands or in Spain. Great hopes had been laid on Charles, in his youth, as the ruler who would unite Christendom and bring peace. Erasmus of Rotterdam dedicated his Institutio principis Christiani to Charles in 1516. My work asks, what happened when the Habsburg princes shared their power with their sisters and daughters?

I argue that female regency in the Habsburg family needs to be considered as a form of queenship. The three princesses studied in this work reflect the changes in the expanding empire of Charles V. At the same time, the image of an ideal queen was evolving. One aspect of the queen-like regency was their status as childless widows combined with a motherly role towards royal children in their care. This, I argue, reveals how they used the regency to resist marriage plans, and in turn, remained unmarried to maintain their regency.

This work gives a new interpretation to previous studies that have considered these women mainly as parts of the Habsburg imperial political machinery. Here, the means and limits of female political power are investigated by asking how they acquired the skills they needed for governing, persuading the emperor and arguing their viewpoint.

I want to challenge the view of the princesses as exceptionally cultivated women and offer instead a more variable picture of how the regents, with inadequate education for ruling, faced the challenges of governing. The principle of hereditary rule gave the Habsburg princesses unforeseen possibilities as regents. However, all the dynasty's princesses were educated to become queen consorts. On the one hand, I study the influence of the regents’ advisors. On the other hand, I consider the impact of the contemporary ideals on queenship, as well as the influence of humanist thought and religious reformers. Through a case study of these three regents, my work shows how and with what tools the Habsburg women were able to act as alter-egos of the emperor and to adjust to the changing political situations.

The princess regents’ correspondence forms the central part of the sources used for this work. The regency formally required the princess only to represent the authority of the absent ruler. The crucial role of the princesses was, nevertheless, to use their correspondence as the ruler’s connection to the region’s government. The correspondence was also their channel for persuasion and influence.


Pearl Jam Announces 2020 European Tour


The post Pearl Jam Announces 2020 European Tour is published on LIVE music blog.

Pearl Jam has announced they’re touring Europe next summer! The 13 dates will kick off at the end of June in Frankfurt, Germany and wind through Europe hitting Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Italy, Austria, United Kingdom, Poland, Hungary, Switzerland, France and finally the Netherlands. Are you ready, Europe? Pearl Jam is coming in 2020. More info: [...]

The post Pearl Jam Announces 2020 European Tour appeared first on LIVE music blog.


Comment on KOL278 | Bob Murphy Show: Debating Hans Hoppe’s “Argumentation Ethics” by Jan Masek

So I was really looking forward to this but I am going to have to listen to it again, I must have missed when Dr Murphy explained what his problem was with Hoppe's argument (I know he referred to something like it was proving too much, e.g. if you have to have standing room that does not prove you get to own the land or something along the lines) and when Kinsella replied. There was a lot of explaining of what Hoppe meant but not much argument between the two great men. Heck, I don't even know if Dr Murphy changed his mind and now supports it due to Kinsella's arguments, or if he realized he didn't fully understand Hoppe's argument and after clarifying he now gets it and agrees. Or if he still has objections. Like I said, I will have to listen again. I LOVE the idea of two libertarians talking about what they DISagree on. We have plenty of patting each other on the back and it's fun (think Murphy Woods or Woods Rockwell) but when two civilised and smart people do not agree on something, that's when we learn the most. I'd like to see even more of it, from the top of my head left vs right (maybe with Jeffrey Tucker who is/was fantastic but apparently has become a left libertarian), money with Selgin or White, Austrianism with Caplan, religion with (again) Kinsella.

Austria Construction and Infrastructure Market Trend, Marketing Strategy, Application, Regional Growth, Size, Share, Forecast

(EMAILWIRE.COM, November 28, 2019 ) Increasing government expenditure towards sustainable infrastructure development with continued investment in energy-efficient and environmentally sustainable assets is promoting the market demand for Austria Construction and Infrastructure companies. The government...

OCEANS | Band release official video for new single ‘Dark’


CELEBRATING THE BLACKEST OF ALL FRIDAYS IN STYLE, OCEANS HAVE RELEASED AN OFFICIAL VIDEO FOR NEW SINGLE, ‘DARK’ + DEBUT ALBUM THE SUN AND THE COLD AVAILABLE FOR PRE-ORDER   Austrian-German post death metallers OCEANS are set to release their debut album The Sun And The Cold on January 10, 2020 via Nuclear Blast. After teasing fans with snippets from the 2nd […]

The post OCEANS | Band release official video for new single ‘Dark’ appeared first on Metal Meyhem Radio.


Hayek award to Richard J Stephenson

This year’s Hayek Lifetime Achievement Award is entrepreneur, businessman and philanthropist Richard J Stephenson, whom Svensk Tidskrift had the honour to meet at the Austrian Conference in Vienna.

Carlos de Austria, el Infante desconocido


Este contenido es propiedad de Revista de Historia - Revista de Historia es una de las pocas Revistas de Historia que destacan por ser una Revista de Historia online con artículos históricos semanales enriquecidos con infografías, vídeos e imágenes impactantes.

Tiempo de lectura: 5 minutos Muchos infantes e infantas, hijos o hermanos de reyes, ocupan las páginas de la historia de España. Pocos están rodeados de un aura tan misteriosa y pocos son tan desconocidos e investigados como el infante Carlos de Austria (1607-1632), hermano del rey Felipe IV “El Grande”. Si quieres leer el artículo mas tarde, guárdatelo en […]

La entrada Carlos de Austria, el Infante desconocido se publicó primero en Revista de Historia.


SUD Se-210 Caravelle VI-R Austrian Airlines Reg OE-LCE - 1:200 Scale

SUD Se-210 Caravelle VI-R Austrian Airlines Reg OE-LCE - 1:200 Scale

SUD Se-210 Caravelle VI-R Austrian Airlines Reg OE-LCE - 1:200 Scale

Product Code: IF210OE0919P 1:200 Scale Diecast Model Diecast Aviation Model Interchangeable Undercarriage




'Squeaky Curtain' divides Europe’s Eastern and Western mice


  • The house mouse diverged into two subspecies depending on which humans they followed.
  • The Western and Eastern European house mice can interbreed, but the results are, well, mixed.
  • The continent remains divided between Eastern and Western mice except for a narrow contact zone where hybrids eek out a living.

musculus v. domesticus

It's been 30 years since the fall of the Berlin Wall, and the Iron Curtain is now a distant and dimming memory. But that's only true if you're a human. In the mouse world, Europe is still divided into East and West. As this map shows, the line that separates both halves of the continent is strangely similar to the Cold War frontier between capitalism and communism.

The "Squeaky Curtain" starts at the Baltic Sea, cutting through Denmark, Germany, and Austria before almost making it to the Adriatic. Instead, the line shadows the formerly Yugoslav coast before swerving east, keeping the southern Balkans in "the West," finally diving into the Black Sea.

West of the line lives the Mus musculus domesticus, the Western European house mouse. To the East roams the Mus musculus musculus, the Eastern European house mouse. On average, the Eastern mouse is smaller and browner, the Western one generally a bit sturdier and usually grey. Both subspecies branched from the same ancestor, some 500,000 years ago in Asia.

What ultimately separated house mice into these two subspecies are the humans they chose to follow. The ones moving through Asia's interior via Russia toward Eastern Europe turned into Eastern European house mice. The ones aiming for the Mediterranean, hitchhiking on ships to reach Western Europe (and eventually also the Americas and Australia) became Western European house mice.

Baltic to Black Seas

The 'Squeaky Curtain', dividing Europe from the Baltic to the Black Seas in two zones, for Western and Eastern house mice.

When the two subspecies met up again in Europe, is unclear. "It has been suggested that source populations first met in the southern region of the current hybrid zone, and only more recently in Central and Northern Europe, with progressive contact from south to north similar to a zipper being pulled up through Europe," write the authors of Genetic conflict outweighs heterogametic incompatibility in the mouse hybrid zone?, a scientific paper that examines interbreeding between Western and Eastern European house mice (and the origin of this map).

"Progressive contact" isn't necessarily a euphemism for doing the dance with two tails. The long genetic separation means the subspecies have drifted far apart. While males of either subspecies generally don't care whom they mate with, females prefer the company of males of the same subspecies. That limits interbreeding. And hybrid couples usually produce fewer offspring than "pure" Eastern or Western ones. Both factors help explain why interbreeding only occurs in a relatively narrow and stable hybrid zone no more than 10 to 20 km wide.

The reduced capacity for interbreeding may be an indication that the two subspecies are in the process of becoming two separate species, entirely unable to interbreed. Only at the centre of the hybrid zone do hybrid mice occur in significant numbers relative to their Eastern and Western forebears. But not everything is gloomy for the hybrids: they're more resistant to parasite-borne diseases than both Eastern and Western European house mice.

Now you know.

Strange Maps #1000

Map taken from open-access article by Macholán, M., Baird, S.J., Munclinger, P. et al. Genetic conflict outweighs heterogametic incompatibility in the mouse hybrid zone?. BMC Evol Biol 8, 271 (2008) doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-271

Got a strange map? Let me know at


Ellis eighth to start luge season

Pemberton luger enjoys great start to 2019-20 THOUGH SHE'S just 17, Trinity Ellis already has her first Viessmann FIL World Cup top-10 finished under her belt. The Pemberton product posted an eighth-place finish at the season-opening race in Igls, Austria on Nov. 23, finishing 0.290 seconds off the pace set by winner Tatyana Ivanova of Russia.…

The Irishman: How Giants Confront Mortality

On a snowy day in the woods of present day Austria in AD 180, Maximus rallied his troops before the final battle and shouted, ”What we do in life, echoes in eternity!” The battle ensued and Maximus’ men came out…

Mayer breaks into World Cup winner's circle in super-G at Lake Louise


By The Canadian Press

LAKE LOUISE, Alta. — Matthias Mayer ascended the top step of the World Cup medal podium in Lake Louise, Alta., for the first time in his career after a series of runner-up results.

The reigning Olympic super-G champion from Austria won that race Sunday at the mountain resort edging Italy's Dominik Paris by four-tenths of a second.

"After four second places I finally got the win," the 29-year-old said. "Tried to push hard, give everything and fighting for every hundredth of a second. Very happy to see the green light at the finish."


Read More

Ginevra Berta sul podio nel superG della Val Gardena



Ginevra Berta sul podio nel superG della Val Gardena

(02.12.2019) Altre soddisfazioni per la squadra agonistica del Comitato Trentino Fisi nelle prime gare stagionali. Nel superG Fis della Val Gardena la 19enne di Caderzone ha centrato un significativo terzo posto, con un ritardo di 83 centesimi dalla vincitrice, l’austriaca Selina Stecher, e di 44 centesimi dalla veneta tesserata con il Cs Esercito Elena Dolmen.Altra prova rilevante per la ragazza...


Pellet austriaco abete rosso 15 kg a1

Pellet austriaco abete rosso 15 kg a1 PELLET AUSTRIACO ABETE ROSSO 15 KG Certificato A1 ENPLUS Bancale 70 sacchi 15kg ciascuno Diametro: 6mm Ceneri...

Peter Seisenbacher: Austrian judo champion jailed for child sex abuse

Austrian Olympian Peter Seisenbacher is jailed for five years for sexually assaulting girls.


Summer flight schedule for 2020: More Flights to Greece, Italy and Spain

o Focus on vacation destinations in the Mediterranean, Kavala and Samos added to the offering o Once again daily flights to Rome and Barcelona o Long-haul routes: launch of flight service to Boston, Tokyo flights commencing two weeks earlier Passengers can once again look forward to an attractive Austrian Airlines flight schedule in the upcoming summer months. Many new destinations or increased frequencies on other routes, for example in Greece, Italy or Spain, are now included thanks to the strategic concentration of capacities in Vienna. In the long-haul segment, Austrian Airlines` initial flight to Boston will take place on 29 March 2020. Austria has never been directly connected to the...

Austria: community service ordered for moped crash mother

BERLIN (AP) - An Austrian court has told a woman to do 200 hours of community work after her two daughters died when a car slammed into the trailer they were being pulled in behind her electric moped. ......

Recibe Presidente Federal de Austria a Embajadora cubana


El Presidente Federal de la República de Austria, Señor Alexander Van der Bellen, recibió las Cartas Credenciales de manos de la Excelentísima Señora Loipa Sánchez Lorenzo, que la acreditan como Embajadora Extraordinaria y Plenipotenciaria de la República de Cuba ante ese país.


El sexo entre familiares provocó la deformidad facial de los reyes españoles de los siglos XVI y XVII

Un equipo de genetistas y cirujanos confirma la relación entre el prognatismo mandibular y el parentesco de los Austrias - Fuente:

Casinos: Sidlo wegen „Imageschaden“ abberufen

Die mit Spannung erwartete Entscheidung über die Zukunft von Finanzvorstand Peter Sidlo bei den Casinos Austria ist gefallen: Der Aufsichtsrat des Konzerns hat am Montag in einer Sondersitzung „mit großer Mehrheit“ Sidlos vorzeitige Abberufung und die Beendigung seines Vorstandsvertrags beschlossen. Als Begründung wurde „drohender Imageschaden“ angegeben. Aus Sicht des Unternehmens heißt die Abberufung „aus wichtigem Grund“, dass Sidlo mit sofortiger Wirkung und ohne weitere Ansprüche ausscheidet. Sidlo selbst sagte, gefragt, ob er auf die Einhaltung des Vorstandsvertrags pochen werde, dass er sich zuerst den Abberufungsbeschluss im Detail ansehen möchte.

12/2/2019: SPORTS: Mayer flies into first at Lake Louise alpine super-g


When it comes to super- G ski racing, not many people can get down the mountain quicker than Matthias Mayer. The 29-year-old, from the traditionally dominant ski nation of Austria, has 22 World Cup podium finishes and two Olympic gold medals to his...

Humphrey Bogart, Ingrid Bergman y Cuevas del Almanzora en 'Casablanca'


A los protagonistas de 'Casablanca', Ilsa y Rick, o, si ustedes lo prefieren, Ingrid Bergman y Humphrey Bogart, siempre les quedará París. A nosotros, siempre nos quedará la incertidumbre sobre la presencia de Cuevas del Almanzora en la mítica película.

Fotograma de la película 'Casablanca' en el que puede apreciarse el nombre de Cuevas

ALMERÍA HOY / 01·12·2019

A su insólito paisaje, al protagonismo vivido durante siglos y a su rica y apasionante historia, hay que añadir otra, no tan conocida, pero que ha unido desde 1942 el nombre de la localidad levantina con el séptimo arte de la mano de una de las obras cumbre de la cinematografía. A sus protagonistas, Ilsa y Rick, o, si ustedes lo prefieren, Ingrid Bergman y Humphrey Bogart, siempre les quedará París. Hablamos de ‘Casablanca’ y, a todos nosotros, siempre nos quedará Cuevas.

Todos conocemos la película. La mayoría la hemos visto. Muchos de nosotros, en más de una ocasión y en todas y cada una de ellas hemos notado aflorar la emoción en muchas de sus escenas. Ahora, ‘Casablanca’ vuelve a ser actualidad porque su protagonista, Ingrid Bergman, hubiera cumplido cien años el pasado 29 de agosto. Ese mismo día, 33 años atrás, la actriz moría a consecuencia de un cáncer de mama poco después de una íntima celebración junto a su familia y familiares más allegados.

Sólo contemplar el rostro de la Bergman merece los 98 minutos de atención que la película nos pide. La fuerza expresiva de la cara más bella, dulce y encantadora de Hollywood alcanzó su cénit en Casablanca, la obra de Michael Curtiz en la que interpretó el papel de Ilsa Lund por mera casualidad. Se lo habían ofrecido a Hedy Lamarr, pero la actriz austriaca se había comprometido para rodar tres películas ese año que ninguno de nosotros recordamos.

Pero ¿qué tienen que ver Ingrid Bergman, Humphrey Bogart, Michael Curtiz, Ilsa, Rick e, incluso, Sam, interpretado por el pianista Dooley Wilson, con Cuevas del Almanzora?

Recordará el lector que ‘Casablanca’ es un drama romántico centrado en el conflicto de Rick Blaine (Humphrey Bogart) entre -usando las palabras de uno de los personajes- el amor y la virtud: Rick deberá escoger entre su amada Ilsa o hacer lo correcto. Su dilema es ayudarla o no a escapar de Casablanca junto a su esposo, uno de los líderes de la resistencia, para que éste pueda continuar su lucha contra los nazis.

Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial (1939-1945), Casablanca era una ciudad a la que llegaban huyendo del nazismo gente de todas partes: llegar era fácil, pero salir era casi imposible, especialmente si el nombre del fugitivo figuraba en las listas de la Gestapo. En este caso, el objetivo de la policía secreta alemana es el líder checo y héroe de la resistencia Victor Laszlo, cuya única esperanza es Rick Blaine, propietario del 'Rick’s Café' y antiguo amante de su mujer, Ilsa, que se ofrece a quedarse a cambio de un visado para sacar a su marido del país. Rick deberá elegir entre su propia felicidad o el idealismo que rigió su vida en el pasado.

La película comienza describiendo el recorrido que habían de realizar quienes pretendían huir de la Francia ocupada por los alemanes. Así, desde París llegaban por tren o carretera hasta Marsella, en donde embarcaban hasta Orán y, desde allí, llegaban a Casablanca para tratar de conseguir un salvoconducto que les permitiera volar a Lisboa, capital de un Portugal neutral que suponía la puerta hacia el resto del mundo, principalmente los Estados Unidos.

La descripción de ese éxodo hacia la libertad es ilustrada por un mapa. Al principio, la pantalla es ocupada por la geografía de Francia, pero la cámara va desplazándose hacia el sur, por el Mediterráneo, y, a la izquierda aparece España, con apenas una docena de localidades situadas en el mapa. Faltan muchas capitales de provincia, como Ciudad Real, Alicante, Jaén, Huelva, Cádiz o Almería, pero ahí, solitaria, al suroeste de Cartagena, puede leerse ‘Cuevas’.

Sin apellido, pero Cuevas aparece en el principio de una de las películas más importantes de todos los tiempos, y eso es algo para subrayar porque no todo el mundo lo conoce, ni tan siquiera aquí, en el Levante de Almería.

¿Por qué Cuevas?

¿Por qué aparece Cuevas en ese mapa? La localidad, en 1942, ya no era ni sombra de su esplendoroso pasado ni su importancia la misma que tres décadas atrás, cuando alcanzó los 26.548 habitantes censados, a los que habría que añadir otros 10.000 más de hecho que vivían y trabajaban en el municipio al amor de la riqueza suscitada en torno a la minería de Sierra Almagrera, las fundiciones y las numerosas posibilidades de negocio que una ciudad próspera y abierta ofrecía. Eran los años dorados de la Société Minière d'Almagrera, la empresa de Louis Siret, que daba trabajo a 3.000 personas. La capital de la provincia contaba con 47.637 almas en ese mismo censo.

De hecho, la cartografía de 1910, elaborada por Alberto Martín, como refiere el historiador y cronista oficial cuevano, Enrique Fernández Bolea, confería una gran preeminencia a Cuevas, aunque nunca por encima de la capital, Almería, que en el mapa de ‘Casablanca’ ni tan siquiera aparece.

Pero al término de la I Guerra Mundial, la minería cayó en picado. Por una parte, el conflicto había supuesto una demanda de metales enorme que, al acabar el conflicto, dejo de existir y, por otra, el reparto colonial de África propició la explotación de las minas de ese continente, una competencia que apuntilló el negocio minero a este lado del estrecho.

El mapa incluye los límites del protectorado español en Marruecos, así que debe basarse en uno posterior a 1912, cuando Francia cedió a España sus derechos sobre esa parte del norte de África. Que aparezca sin el apellido ‘del Almanzora’ significa que puede ser, además, anterior a 1931, año en que el municipio adoptó el nombre completo con el que ahora se conoce.

Es posible que el mapa fuera realizado a propósito para el film y, en ese caso, que aparezca el nombre de Cuevas y no el de la capital ni el de otras ciudades que en 1942 eran sustancialmente más importantes, podría deberse al azar o a que entre los integrantes del equipo de realización de la Warner hubiera algún emigrante o exiliado ‘rabote’. De momento, cualquier conjetura es posible.

Ingrid Bergman encarnaba a la perfección a la heroína romántica, pero dura y distante. François Truffaut dijo de ella que era “el sueño filmado”, y un sueño es que el nombre de Cuevas esté inmortalizado en una película como ‘Casablanca’. A Ilsa y a Rick siempre les quedará París y, en ‘Casablanca’, siempre estará Cuevas.


A session type provider: Compile-time API generation of distributed protocols with refinements in F#


A session type provider: Compile-time API generation of distributed protocols with refinements in F#

Neykova, R., Hu, R., Yoshida, N. & Abdeljallal, F., 24 Feb 2018, p. 128-138. 10 p.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - 24 Feb 2018
EventProceedings of the 27th International Conference on Compiler Construction - Vienan, Austria
Duration: 24 Feb 201825 Feb 2018


ConferenceProceedings of the 27th International Conference on Compiler Construction


Serbia in the Great War 1914 – 1918 - Lj. Dimic/M. Radojevic



This publication is a special edition of the Belgrade Forum for a World of Equal Rights. The book is available in four languages, Serbian, Russian, English, German. The Belgrade Forum for a World of Equals is a non-governmental organization, the former Foreign Minister of Yugoslavia, Živadin Jovanović, presides. This group, which consists mainly of intellectuals, dedicates its main activity to the publication of publications with a focus on the Balkans and its history, maintains a homepage with current topics such. An award ceremony to Peter Handke, for example, regularly organizes conferences that are very well attended and supported by the participants' commitment. So z. For example, when all the events surrounding the 1999 war were documented, sharp statements against the war were published. B. also from the US side of Michel Chossudovsky.

The fact that the question of "war guilt", in this case the First World War, is again served with open audacity, has contributed to the topicality of this book. Especially loud is the drum of war guilt operated in Germany. It has also recently been reflected in an unspeakably manipulated European Parliament opinion aimed at Russia. But not only Russia, but also England are the focus. The ethnic wing of the AfD around Höcke operates the warm-up, probably for domestic political reasons and to collect voters.

Urgently enough, most urgently, that is, the votes of the Serbian historians from Belgrade. Mira Radojević and Ljubodrag Dimić devoted themselves with dedication to the presentation of the war background of the Great War of 1914-1918 against the Serbs. They hope that they will flow into the public, including those of the EU. However, Mira Radojević and Ljubodrag Dimić are aware that these voices are all too easily overwhelmed by the centers of political power that want to change the historiographical image of the First World War. The authors assume that recent history has been under attack for some time by a revisionist historiography. The revisionist "attack" denies facts and its attack on the scientific methodology makes the collective memory meaningless. How right they are ...
A look back: In 1999, when the hyenas had attacked Peter Handke with their tattered teeth, there were very few upright publicists in Germany. It was the time of mental-psychological preparation for the war. The 1999 war against Yugoslavia was short. After that the hyenas "calmed down", the prey was made, the stomach filled, the carcass lay in the burning sun, which lay mercilessly over Yugoslavia.
It was later too easily forgotten that even with this war the entire Balkans and its now fragmented territories became a defenseless victim of great power politics, which could now materially and institutionally dominate and order, as was fitting. And that's how it is today. On the agenda is the subjugation to allow self-determination is not up for debate. Who should "bind Serbia" to itself, Germany or France? If Austria does not want to play the role of a "primus inter pares" for the Balk Historical parallels are on the rise. The authors went deep into the history of the First World War, as revealed by numerous sources. Anyone who wants to subject his deeply rooted prejudices about the "Serbs" to revision will read the book. Anyone who does not consider this and wants to spit on the "Serbian nationalists" in the future - unfortunately will go down in history as ignorant. But there are many.

The presentation of the events begins with Serbia around the turn of the century - from the Berlin Congress to the assassination of Sarajevo. The Berlin Congress was the first open blow that directed German imperialism in its march to world power against the Balkan peoples, such. B. đorđe Stanković. (P. 11f.) But even the Habsburg monarchy was considered the "most dangerous enemy of the Serbian people and enemy of all Slavs". (15) In general, according to the authors, the presence of major powers not belonging to the Balkans resulted in a deepening of the conflicts, which were therefore more tragic. The love of depiction in detail proves to be beneficial, as the reader first gains an impression of which internal and external tears the Serbian people had to deal with. The strong intention of the Serbs was to establish a Serbian state, to unite the people of the Serbs. In order to prepare the Serbian people, as a state, for the twentieth century, the establishment of schools was seen as a suitable measure. A university was founded in 1867 in Belgrade, they wanted to educate an intellectual elite. The then Serbia was neither willing nor able to lead a war in 1914. However, the army's weakness and inadequate equipment provided an incentive for the enemies of Serbia. And so disaster took its course.
"The combination of the aristocratic-agrarian and industrial-bourgeois elites with the military and their efforts to preserve their position in German society struck also settled on the foreign policy level in the formulation of offensive goals and an orientation towards militarism. The Alliance "Manor" and "Blast Furnace" ... was the hard reactionary core that should play a key role in the events that led to the First World War ... ". (46f.) One could not better describe German militarism at the time when Fritz Fischer did it in 1979.
 The Austrian nobility was also alarmed. He saw the "Slavic tidal wave" rise, they feared the "end of the Germans in Austria," said the German ambassador on the eve of the war. (53)
It would not do it justice, they tried to summarize the detailed and fact-rich presentation, the density of information in this book again. It becomes clear that the destruction of Serbia was of "vital interest" to the Habsburg monarchy. The fear of a convergence of the Serbian subregions was huge. A unified state, one nation was the genuine and unconcealed interest of the Serbs. They wanted to form a nation, with everything that belonged to it during that historical era.
About the assassination of Sarajevo, which represented the beginning of the Great War, there are probably countless variants. The core, however, is that the charges were directed against "... the Serbs ...". "The Serbs" it should have been until today. Until 1999, politics was against them and will probably continue to do so - secret service, military, economic, geostrategic.

To date, the Serbian government has no evidence of the assassination or its preparation. (84f.) The lies that Scharping, Fischer, Schroeder, and the Kohl government presented in the preliminary phase of the 1999 war come to mind. To the extent that the realities of the dismemberment of Yugoslavia are worked up and the masterminds named, in this measure can be a bit Show righteousness through the knick-hole. However, we do not have to wait for the current German government to acknowledge the breach of international law from 1999 - it will not do so, because as the "peace force" it wants to get a seat on the UN Security Council, and as the "peace power" new economic dependencies to participate in negotiations under a false sign, and in reality to earn more lush fillets / resources. China is in the door ...

A complicated interaction, also on diplomatic level carried out - there were also voices against the war - could not stop the declaration of war against Serbia by Emperor Franz Joseph. Serbia must die, behind this propaganda wave was the clear support of Berlin that Serbia must be eliminated as soon as possible as a political fact of the Balkans. (119) Chancellor Bethmann Hollweg declared in the Reichstag on 4.8.1914 that the war was not wanted. The German government had drawn up a white paper in August 1914, in which the documents were collected to prove the innocence of the Germans at the outbreak of the war. As early as the mid-20s, this work was regarded by some of the critical German public as the most hypocritical book on the outbreak of war. (121)
The never-ending massacre of hundreds of thousands of young men, starving and mutilated civilians was followed by the years following the entry into the war in 1914. A war such as the world had never seen before had begun. Germany was looking for a way to move east across the Balkans and Turkey. The Serbian people were slaughtered. Executions by the Austro-Hungarian army were the order of the day. Grace was harmful to such a population and severely punished. This ferocious cruelty called for a group of criminologists, including the Swiss physician and forensic scientist Archibald Reiss. In a report he collects the facts. The death style chosen by the executioners is very diverse
had been mutilated before or after her death; they were often stabbed, burned alive, stoned, their fingers or toes cut off, their breasts cut off, and babies thrown to the pigs for food. The report of Prof. Reiss caused horror in the civilized world. Henry Barbusse tried to express solidarity with the innocent victims by pointing out a series of individual crimes. The population, according to Barbusse, was driven mad by terror and fear. Even John Reed, who had come to Serbia several months later, came across the evidence and traces of these crimes. He confirmed the truthfulness of the findings of the Swiss doctors around Prof. Reiss: All of them were old men, women and children, against whom the Habsburg punitive expedition was organized. (149)
Serbia's state program in 1914 was to achieve a general consolidation of political and economic conditions. It would have taken decades of peace after the exhausting Balkan wars. A strong southwest Slavic state should emerge and Serbs, Croats and Slovenes should participate. Montenegro was also considered by Nikola Pašić as belonging to Serbia. But the war continued, and the book shows which fronts existed. For military historians interesting and novel insights into the war events of the First World War arise.
The war ended in 1918. The Serbs, Croats and Slovenes achieved the goals of the Kingdom of Serbia. The creation of the common state filled people with a pride that inevitably became mourning for human and material sacrifices. Serbia had lost 370,000 soldiers between 1914 and 1918. There were 114,000 war invalids recorded, another 630,000 people had died of hunger and disease and in the prison camps. More than half a million children were now orphans.
Photographs of the execution of Serbs by the Habsburgs ...
A soldier at the grave of his fallen son

The Balkans was and is due to its geographical location predestined to be victims of the great power interests. The breakthrough to the east earlier, a wall against Russia and China today. The Mediterranean must also be controlled, whether picturesque port cities hide NATO warships? New port extensions of NATO are planned. Camp Bondsteel had to be built as a strategic center. You do not have to know the intentions of the EU and the US in detail to guess that evil is again in action. In the name of a perverted morality, the next war should not be conducted. You will try it anyway. The book is an outstanding contribution against the historically, politically motivated revisionism, excellently written, with sources that leave nothing to be desired. Our respect!
 Barbara Hug


This California warning might cause alarm – or apathy


Dennis Svatunek, originally from Austria, has lived in California for 14 months. He noticed Proposition 65 labels on some plants he bought but feels the warnings are so ubiquitous that they have ...

Event Update For 2019-11-30


The seas, lakes and oceans are now pluming deadly hydrogen sulfide and suffocating methane. Hydrogen sulfide is a highly toxic water-soluble heavier-than-air gas and will accumulate in low-lying areas. Methane is slightly more buoyant than normal air and so will be all around, but will tend to contaminate our atmosphere from the top down. These gases are sickening and killing oxygen-using life all around the world, including human life, as our atmosphere is increasingly poisoned. Because both gases are highly flammable and because our entire civilization is built around fire and flammable fuels, this is leading to more fires and explosions. This is an extinction level event and will likely decimate both the biosphere and human population and it is debatable whether humankind can survive this event.

A. More fires and more explosions, especially along the coasts, but everywhere generally.
B. Many more animal die-offs, of all kinds, and especially oceanic species.
C. More multiples of people will be found dead in their homes, as if they'd dropped dead.
D. More corpses found in low-lying areas, all over the world.
E. More unusual vehicular accidents.
F. Improved unemployment numbers as people die off.

Category: Variety Pack

2019-11-30 - Warming toll, 1 degree hotter, trillions of tons of ice gone:

2019-11-30 - Steel plant hit by huge fire at 12:30 AM along the Mississippi River, vehicle scrapyard burns, in St. Paul (Minnesota):

Quote: "The fire erupted in a vehicle scrapyard operated by Gerdau Steel, along Red Rock Road near Interstate 494 and the Wakota Bridge."

Quote: "Flames from the fire were reported to be up to 70 feet high and could be seen for miles."

Quote: "Red Rock Road is in an industrial area on the Mississippi River on the city’s extreme southeast corner."

2019-11-30 - Refinery damaged by fire in Great Falls (Montana):

2019-11-30 - Transformer explodes and burns on pole in Marchfield on the island of Barbados:

2019-11-30 - Four garbage trucks destroyed by fire in the wee hours while parked at facility in San Marcos (California), near the coast:

Quote: "Four garbage trucks were destroyed by the early morning fire in San Marcos. An early morning blaze in San Marcos destroyed four garbage trucks and sent flames 50 feet into the air."

2019-11-30 - Five cars destroyed by fire at 3:30 AM while parked at Mercedes dealership in Miami Gardens (Florida), near the coast:

Quote: "Police are investigating an early morning fire inside a Mercedes-Benz dealership in Miami Gardens that left several high prices cars charred beyond recognition."

2019-11-30 - More than 145 wildfires burn across New South Wales (Australia):

2019-11-30 - At the Madrid climate talks, carbon offsets — and the future of the planet — are on the table:

Note: The problem is that the idea of doing anything serious remains on the table. Doesn't do much good there!

2019-11-30 - Home destroyed by explosion and fire on Le Fever Road in Warren (Michigan), nobody there:

Note: This is the 176th residential explosion in 2019...

2019-11-30 - Boat bursts into flame at Long Beach Marina in coastal Middle River (Maryland), 1 injured:

2019-11-30 - Boat bursts into flame at Wind Creek Marina on Lake Martin (Alabama):

2019-11-30 - Houseboat, two boats and apartments go up in flames at 3:30 AM at West End Marina in coastal New Orleans (Louisiana), nobody there:

Quote: "New Orleans fire officials say a two-story house boat caught fire early Saturday morning, destroying the vessel and damaging nearby buildings and boats in West End Marina NOFD units rushed to the scene around 3:30 a.m. as flames from the boat lit up the sky and reflected across the water. The boat which was docked at 31 South Roadway Street in the marina. No one was inside the boat when firefighters arrived and no injuries were reported, but the flames engulfed the floating home and smoke damaged two nearby apartments, as well as two other boats."

Note: These are the 960th, 961st, 962nd, 963rd and 964th boats/ships to burn/explode in 2019...

2019-11-30 - Train engine bursts into flame near Springhill Drive in Albany (Oregon):

2019-11-30 - Tanker truck bursts into flame on bridge in coastal Lagos (Nigeria):

2019-11-30 - Tractor (excavator), truck and home under renovation destroyed by fire in Croftby (Australia):

Quote: "A police spokesman said the house, which was being renovated was completely destroyed as well as a truck and excavator parked nearby."

Note: These are the 2054th and 2055th tractors/tankers/semis to burn/explode in 2019...

2019-11-30 - FedEx truck bursts into flame at Walmart in Valrico (Florida):

2019-11-30 - RV bursts into flame while parked at home in coastal Titusville (Florida):

2019-11-30 - RV bursts into flame on I-75 in Gordon County (Georgia):

Quote: "GSP says they do not know the cause of the fire, except that it was not the result of a crash."

Note: These are the 425th and 426th RVs to burn in 2019...

2019-11-30 - Van bursts into flame on Belmont Avenue in Springfield (Massachusetts):

2019-11-30 - Van bursts into flame on the A98 near coastal Fraserburgh (Scotland):

2019-11-30 - Car bursts into flame at 5:10 AM on Bonds Lane in Woodbury Salterton (Britain):

2019-11-30 - Car bursts into flame on the A30 near Ottery St Mary (Britain):

2019-11-30 - Car bursts into flame on the M4 near Reading (Britain), separate crash too:

2019-11-30 - Car bursts into flame on the A421 in Wavendon (Britain):

Quote: "Saturday 30 November, 2.20pm Car fire, near Eagle Farm Roundabout, A421, Wavendon. One appliance and crew from Broughton attended. Firefighters used one hose reel and one set of breathing apparatus."

2019-11-30 - Vehicle bursts into flame on I-70 in Kansas City (Missouri):

2019-11-30 - Several vehicles, RV trailer and storage building destroyed by fire in Grand Chute (Wisconsin):

Quote: "The building, along with its contents, are considered a total loss. A camper and several vehicles were inside."

2019-11-30 - Four barns, farm equipment and hay destroyed by fire in Saugerties (New York):

2019-11-30 - Furniture and mattress warehouse destroyed by massive fire in Fresno (California):

2019-11-30 - Carpet store heavily damaged by fire on West Innes Street in Salisbury (North Carolina):

2019-11-30 - Irrigation business heavily damaged by fire on Wallace Road in Warrendale (Pennsylvania):

2019-11-30 - Ski lodge destroyed by massive fire near Lake Placid (New York):

Quote: "First responders rushed to Whiteface Mountain near Lake Placid around 9 p.m. Saturday for a fire inside the Mid-Station lodge."

2019-11-30 - Four buildings heavily damaged by fire at 3:30 AM in the UNESCO World Heritage-listed lakeside town of Hallstatt (Austria):

Quote: "A large fire has damaged part of the idyllic Austrian lakeside town of Hallstatt."

2019-11-30 - Hardware store heavily damaged by fire in coastal Kingston on the island of Jamaica:

Quote: "In September last year, the warehouse as well as Pings Fabrics were extensively damaged in another early morning blaze."

2019-11-30 - Home damaged by fire on Darien Court in coastal Virginia Beach (Virginia):

2019-11-30 - Home damaged by fire at 7 AM on Walnut Street in Springfield (Massachusetts):

2019-11-30 - Home heavily damaged by fire on Village Street in coastal Branford (Connecticut), 1 injured:

2019-11-30 - Home heavily damaged by fire on Marie Terrace in Arlington (Texas), several dogs killed:

2019-11-30 - Home heavily damaged by fire on Sygan Road in South Fayette Township (Pennsylvania):

2019-11-30 - Home heavily damaged by fire at 6:15 AM in Wichita (Kansas):

2019-11-30 - Home heavily damaged by fire at 2:23 AM on District Line Road in Sumter County (Georgia):

2019-11-30 - Home destroyed by fire at 4:45 AM near Savoy (Illinois), nobody there:

2019-11-30 - Home destroyed by fire on Sunset Road in Dorrance Township (Pennsylvania):

2019-11-30 - Home destroyed by fire in the wee hours in Saint Charles (Iowa):

2019-11-30 - Duplex heavily damaged by fire in Milwaukee (Wisconsin):

2019-11-30 - Multi-family home heavily damaged by fire in the wee hours on Westland Street in Hartford (Connecticut):

2019-11-30 - Apartment building heavily damaged by fire at 6:30 AM near the Mississippi River in East St. Louis (Illinois), 4 injured:

2019-11-30 - Deadly fire burns mobile home in Phoenix (Arizona), 1 killed:

2019-11-30 - Deadly fire destroys mobile home at 2 AM in Moscow Mills (Missouri), 1 killed, 4 injured:

2019-11-30 - Deadly fire burns home on Flowerpark Drive in Santa Clarita (California), 2 killed:

2019-11-30 - Deadly fire burns home on Worthington Road in Gentry (Arkansas), 1 killed:

2019-11-30 - Deadly fire destroys home shortly before 3 AM on Old Stringer Road in Hall County (Georgia), 240 feet from Lake Lanier:

2019-11-30 - Deadly fire burns apartment building at 6:20 AM in coastal SeaTac (Washington), 1 killed:

2019-11-30 - Vacant home burns on Denver Avenue in Kansas City (Missouri):

2019-11-30 - Vacant triple-decker home burns in the wee hours in coastal Dorchester (Massachusetts):

2019-11-30 - Minke whale found dead in the River Thames in coastal London (Britain):

Quote: "A dead whale has been found in the River Thames for the third time in the past two months."

Quote: "'A whale is very unusual in the River Thames, however we have now had three in the past two months,' said Martin Garside of the Port of London Authority (PLA)."

2019-11-30 - Many fish wash up dead in coastal Punta Gorda (Florida):

Quote: "Many had to hold their noses on their way to the Gulf, as a large fish kill littered the marina with the corpses of dead fish. Boaters and residents of the Marina first reported the fish kill about a few days ago, when the tide and winds began bringing in the masses of rotting fish. Some even said it was the worst they've seen and smelled in years. FWC did confirm that red tide has been reported off the coasts of Lee and Charlotte Counties, but on Saturday they couldn't confirm whether the fish were killed by it. "

2019-11-30 - Dozens of fish wash up dead on beach on coastal Marco Island (Florida):

Quote: "Dozens of fish were seen washed up on the beach on Marco Island Sunday during the end to 2019 Thanksgiving weekend. It’s not confirmed to be a result of red tide, but it’s a question being asked."

2019-11-30 - Two boys die after being pulled from the Mahanadi River in Chhattisgarh (India):

2019-11-30 - Two boys, 14 and 16, die in lake in Vesu (India), near the coast:

2019-11-30 - Man, 61, goes hunting, has heart attack and drops dead, in Penn Forest Township (Pennsylvania):

2019-11-30 - Man, 58, slumps over dead on bench in Columbia (South Carolina):

2019-11-30 - Man, 62, drops dead in bathroom at book store in Victorville (California):

2019-11-30 - Woman found dead in church on Cane Creek Mountain Road in Rutherford County (North Carolina):

2019-11-30 - Man, 50, found dead at Clason Point in coastal Bronx (New York):

2019-11-30 - Woman, 62, found dead in the Cooper River in Collingswood (New Jersey):

2019-11-30 - Man found dead along road in Centerville (Tennessee):

2019-11-30 - Man, 34, found dead in yard in Marion County (Florida):

2019-11-30 - Inmate found dead at detention center in Nez Perce County (Idaho):

2019-11-30 - Man, 42, foams at the mouth and dies in Migori (Kenya), near Lake Victoria:

Quote: "Mr Yogo’s widow Roselyn Akinyi denied her husband could have taken his life. She said her husband had complained of persistent stomach pains on Thursday before his condition worsened."

2019-11-30 - Woman, 45, found dead on Govan Road in coastal Glasgow (Scotland):

2019-11-30 - Man in his 70s found dead in canal in coastal Galway (Ireland):

2019-11-30 - Driver has 'medical event', pickup crashes into pickup which hits third pickup which hits 3 men, in Paris (Texas), 1 killed:

Quote: "Police Chief Bob Hundley said the driver of a pickup truck headed northbound on Johnson Woods Drive apparently suffered a medical event around 9:20 a.m. His truck hit a parked pickup truck which, in turn, struck a third pickup. That vehicle then crashed into three men who had been doing some fence work. One of the men who was struck later died at a hospital."

Note: Pickupalooza!

2019-11-30 - Small plane crashes into cornfield near Chamberlain (South Dakota), 9 killed, 3 injured:

2019-11-30 - Small plane crashes, bursts into flame, near Quartz Creek Airport in Cooper Landing (Alaska), 3 killed:

2019-11-30 - Small plane crashes into garden at home, bursts into flame, in Ronneby (Sweden), 1 killed:

2019-11-30 - Tanker truck overturns on I-15 in Lehi (Utah):

2019-11-30 - Tractor trailer overturns, bursts into flame, on I-81 in Wythe County (Virginia):

2019-11-30 - Tractor trailer veers off road, crashes into home, in Grand Island (Nebraska):

2019-11-30 - Car crashes into ditch, bursts into flame, in Canandaigua (New York), 1 injured:

2019-11-30 - Motorcycle veers off road, crashes into trees, in coastal West Palm Beach (Florida), 1 killed:

2019-11-30 - Seaside bluff collapses in coastal Del Mar (California):

2019-11-30 - Broken pipe leaks a million gallons of raw sewage into the ocean in Orange County (California):

Note: 'Thanks!' said the ancient anaerobic archaea and bacteria that eat sewage (among other things) and produce hydrogen sulfide...

2019-11-30 - Study links short-term air pollution exposure to hospitalizations for growing list of health problems:

2019-11-30 - Typhoon Kammuri to reach at least a Category 3 and could strengthen to Super Typhoon status, expected to hit the Philippines:

2019-11-30 - River watchers in the US already wary about 2020 spring flooding:

2019-11-30 - Ferocious hurricane season that saw 18 named storms comes to an end:

2019-11-30 - Trump administration plan would cut food stamps for millions of people:

2019-11-30 - Michigan and Illinois set to usher in recreational pot sales:

Note: That'll kill business on the riverfront in St. Louis. No reason to party on the St. Louis riverfront when you can drive across the river and get the same entertainment options plus weed too!


Mujer es condenada a brindar servicio comunitario tras la muertes de sus dos hijas


Una mujer en Austria tendrá que realizar 200 horas de servicio comunitario por un accidente vehicular negligente donde murieron sus dos hijitas, falló una corte.

Las niñas murieron cuando un vehículo chocó contra el remolque para bicicleta que estaba unido a la motocicleta eléctrica de su madre.

La mujer fue acusada de causar las muertes por negligencia grave porque las niñas de 1 y 4 años no tenían cascos y el remolque no tenía luces traseras al momento del accidente, el 4 de agosto cerca de Hausleiten, a las afueras de Viena.

El conductor de 60 años fue hallado culpable de homicidio y lesiones por negligencia y fue multado con 28.000 euros (30.850 dólares) el lunes por la corte estatal de Korneuburg, reportó la agencia de noticias local Austria Press Agency.

El caso en contra de la madre de 39 años será retirado si realiza 200 horas de servicio durante seis meses.


Felipe VI ofrece este lunes una recepción al presidente Danilo Medina


El Rey Felipe VI ofrece este lunes una recepción para los presidentes de República Dominicana, Danilo Medina, y de Ecuador, Lenín Moreno, que asisten esta semana a la Cumbre del Clima de Naciones Unidas (COP25) en Madrid.

El monarca recibirá a las 17.30 horas en el Palacio Real a Medina, y Moreno podrá reunirse con el rey a las 18.00 horas. Más tarde, a las 18.30 horas, Felipe VI ofrecerá una recepción a los jefes de Estado, de Gobierno y a las delegaciones asistentes a la cumbre.

La agenda del rey continuará el martes en el Palacio de la Zarzuela. A las 10.00 horas, Felipe VI mantendrá un encuentro con el presidente de la República de Costa Rica, Carlos Alvarado Quesada, a las 10.30, con el presidente de Argentina, Mauricio Macri, y a las 13.00 horas con el presidente de Austria, Alexander Van der Bellen.

Por último, el miércoles el Rey recibirá en audiencia en el Palacio de la Zarzuela de Madrid al presidente de la República de Guatemala, Jimmy Morales, a las 17.00 horas.

Asimismo, el monarca recibirá en audiencia en el Palacio de la Zarzuela el martes a las 09.00 horas a la presidenta de la Cámara de Representantes de los Estados Unidos, Nanci Pelosi, que acudirá acompañada de una delegación de miembros de la Cámara.

El martes, Felipe VI también se reunirá con el secretario general de las Naciones Unidas, Antonio Gutiérrez, a las 12.00 horas en el Palacio de la Zarzuela.


La endogamia está detrás del mentón prominente de los Habsburgo


Madrid, 2 dic (EFE).- La 'mandíbula de Habsburgo', una deformación del mentón característica de esta dinastía en reyes españoles y austríacos y sus esposas, puede atribuirse a la endogamia, según un estudio publicado este lunes en la revista Annals of Human Biology.

Generaciones de matrimonios mixtos aseguraron durante más de 200 años la influencia de la familia en un imperio europeo que incluía a España y Austria, pero llevaron a su desaparición cuando el último monarca de los Habsburgo (Carlos II) fue incapaz de tener un heredero.

Hasta ahora, aseguran en una nota de prensa los autores de este nuevo estudio, ninguna investigación había confirmado si el mentón distintivo conocido como 'mandíbula de Habsburgo' era el resultado de la endogamia (a esta familia se le conoce en España como la dinastía de los Austrias).

'La dinastía de los Habsburgo fue una de las más influyentes de Europa, pero se hizo famosa por la endogamia, que fue su caída final. Mostramos por primera vez que existe una clara relación positiva entre la consanguinidad y la apariencia de la mandíbula de los Habsburgo', afirma el investigador principal Roman Vilas, de la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (norte).

Este trabajo combina el análisis de retratos históricos con estudios genéticos, y para llevarlo a cabo los investigadores reclutaron a diez cirujanos maxilofaciales.

Estos tuvieron que analizar la deformidad facial en 66 retratos de 15 miembros de la citada dinastía, la mayoría de ellos conservados en el Museo de Historia del Arte de Viena y en el Museo del Prado de Madrid.

Así, los cuadros se analizaron para diagnosticar once características del prognatismo mandibular, también conocido como 'mandíbula de Habsburgo', y siete características vinculadas a la deficiencia maxilar, entre ellas las más reconocibles, el labio inferior prominente y una punta nasal sobresaliente.

A partir de este análisis, los cirujanos puntuaron el grado de prognatismo mandibular y la deficiencia maxilar de cada miembro de la familia de los Habsburgo.

Por ejemplo, vieron que María de Borgoña, que se casó con Maximiliano I en 1477, mostró el menor grado en ambos rasgos, sin embargo, el prognatismo mandibular fue más pronunciado en Felipe IV, rey de España y Portugal de 1612 a 1640.

La deficiencia maxilar fue diagnosticada en mayor grado en cinco miembros de la familia: Maximiliano I (regente desde 1493), su hija Margarita de Austria, su sobrino Carlos I de España, el bisnieto de Carlos Felipe IV y el último de la línea de los Habsburgo, Carlos II.

Los autores del estudio detectaron una correlación entre las dos enfermedades, y sugieren que la 'mandíbula de Habsburgo' se caracteriza de hecho por ambas y que estas comparten una base genética común.

La extensión de la endogamia se calculó a partir de un árbol genealógico a gran escala, con más de 6.000 individuos pertenecientes a más de 20 generaciones.

Los investigadores detectaron una fuerte relación entre el grado de consanguinidad y el grado de prognatismo mandibular; la relación con la deficiencia maxilar también fue positiva, pero sólo fue estadísticamente significativa en dos de las siete características diagnosticadas.

Las causas de la relación entre la consanguinidad y la deformidad facial siguen sin estar claras del todo, pero los autores apuntan que se debe a que el principal efecto del apareamiento entre parientes es un aumento en las posibilidades de que la descendencia herede formas idénticas de un gen de ambos padres (homocigosidad genética).

Esto reduce la aptitud genética de las personas, por lo que la 'mandíbula de Habsburgo' debe considerarse una condición recesiva, resumen. EFE


Verstappen: 'Estoy muy contento por el podio y por acabar tercero el Mundial'


Abu Dabi, 1 dic (EFE).- El holandés Max Verstappen (Red Bull), que acabó tercero el Mundial de Fórmula Uno tras finalizar segundo este domingo el Gran Premio de Abu Dabi, manifestó en el circuito de Yas Marina que está 'muy contento' por el podio logrado este domingo y por el puesto en el que acabó el campeonato.

'Claro que estoy muy contento por acabar la temporada con un podio y por ser tercero en el Mundial, por delante de los dos Ferrari, que es un gran logro', explicó Verstappen, de 22 años, que este año logró tres victorias, en el Red Bull Ring de Spielberg (Austria), en Hockenheim (Alemania) y en Interlagos (Sao Paulo', donde hace dos semanas ganó el Gran Premio de Brasil.

'En esta pista, Mercedes y (el inglés) Lewis (Hamilton) hoy fueron algo más rápidos, pero como equipo tuvimos una buena estrategia, buenos 'pit stops' y el coche funcionó realmente bien, así que haber sido segundo en este circuito ha sido un buen resultado', manifestó 'Mad Max', que hace tres años se convirtió en el piloto más joven de la historia en ganar un Gran Premio al imponerse hace tres años en el de España, en Montmeló (Barcelona), con sólo 18.

'El ritmo fue bueno y en líneas generales fuimos algo más rápidos que los otros muchachos, lo que es un sentimiento agradable', explicó.

'Para mí, el mejor momento de la temporada fue Austria. Lograr la primera para Honda (su motorista) en la era híbrida (V6) fue algo realmente emotivo; y como equipo ganar de nuevo en nuestro circuito de casa -el Red Bull Ring- y ante tantos aficionados de Holanda fue un sentimiento genial', comentó Verstappen, que lleva ocho victorias en la categoría reina.

'Ha sido una gran temporada y el equipo nunca dejó de apretar. Honda también ha evidenciado una gran mejoría, así que podemos estar muy contentos de nuestra primera temporada juntos', opinó el holandés, al que aún le quedaría hasta la próxima temporada para convertirse en el más joven campeón mundial de la historia de la F1

'Como equipo queremos dar un paso adelante el año que viene y luchar por el título', afirmó.

'Tenemos que pisar a fondo para cerrar el margen, pero si miramos las últimas carreras, creo que dimos un importante paso adelante', dijo la joven estrella neerlandesa.

'Ha sido un final estupendo y ahora sólo queremos centrarnos en el futuro y ser más competitivos en 2020', manifestó Verstappen este domingo en el circuito de Yas Marina. EFE


Urban Stages Presents Two Free Reading This December - #NWORD By Christian Elder and PULP VERITE By Crystal Skillman


Urban Stages Frances Hill, Artistic Director and Antoinette Mullins Literary Manager announce selections for the December play readings.

On December 4th #NWORD written by Christian Edler is directed by Vincent Scott, starring Disnie Sebastien with Max Samuel and Shabazz Green will be presented.

#NWORD brings two Brooklyn mothers together who clash when one woman's child is seen calling the other's son the "N" word in a video online. After tempers flare from the incident, the mothers and their husbands form a friendship before betrayal is exposed.

Playwright Christian Elder is a poet, filmmaker, playwright that is based in Los Angeles. His play INSEX, was honored with a stage reading at the Billie Holiday Theater in the fall of 2018. His film "Big Meet" staring Lane Carlson was the recipient of an Earth Award. He founded Old Hat Productions and independent publishing press Old Hat Press.

On Thursday, December 5th Urban Stages will present Crystal Skillman's PULP VERITE directed by Kristan Seemel.

In Pulp Verite, Joy is a member of a filmmaking collective where she is captured and held overseas for three years. After being released she returns to the USA to reunite with her friends with the hope of bringing her sister who is still a captive with the ISIS home. Their strength as a collective, youthful ideology, and commitment to the cause are shaken to the core.

Ms. Skillman's play Open had a sellout run at the TANK theater this summer earning a NY TIMES and TONY Critics Pick. Other plays include Geek, King Kirby, Another Kind Of Love, and Cut. Pulp Verite was announced on the 2019 Kilroys list as Honorable Mention. Crystal is the musical book writer of Mary and Max which was awarded the 2018 MUT Critics Prize and just opened in Austria on an international tour.

Both readings begin at 7pm at Urban Stages located at 259 W 30 Street.

For more information and reservations call Urban Stages 212 421-1380.


Vienna: concerto gay in cattedrale: la lettera di Mons. Viganò

Aldo Maria Valli e Marco Tosatti hanno pubblicato una lettera dell'Arcivescovo Carlo Maria Viganò sull'osceno concerto pro gay tenuto nel Duomo di S. Stefano a Vienna  sabato scorso.
QUI e QUI MiL per la profanazione dell'anno scorso.
Alexander Tschugguel, il giovane che ha gettato nel Tevere le Pachamama ha detto che i cattolici austriaci non amano molto che la cattedrale di santo Stefano sia usata per promuovere eventi LGBT. E ha organizzato un rosario fuori della Chiesa.
L’arcivescovo Carlo Maria Viganò gli ha inviato la lettera che riproduciamo.
QUI su LifeSite alcune ripugnanti foto e  notizie sulla medesima manifestazione degli anni scorsi.
Una diocesi, quella di Vienna, senza pastore, ormai in mano alla lobby LGBT.

Caro Alexander,
Cari fedeli riuniti in preghiera per la recita del Rosario fuori dalla Cattedrale di Santo Stefano a Vienna,
Il Signore Gesù e la Vergine Maria siano con voi!
Abbiamo visto l’idolatria penetrare nel Tempio di Dio e rivendicare a sé l’adorazione dovuta esclusivamente al Dio vivente e vero.
Delle statuine, identificate come idolo Pachamama, sono state portate processionalmente.
Il caro Alexander si è ricordato del monito del Dio geloso – geloso perché “Amico dell’uomo”, della sua eterna verità e del suo destino di gloria.
Quel monito riecheggia nelle pagine della Scrittura rivelata, che tutti dovrebbe riempire di sacro tremore: “Voi demolirete i loro altari, spezzerete le loro stele, brucerete nel fuoco i loro idoli!” (Deuteronomio 7, 5). Li annegherete nelle acque del Tevere, “perché sono un abominio per il Signore tuo Dio; non introdurrai quest’abominio in casa tua(Deut 7, 25-26).
San Paolo ci insegna che l’uomo cade nell’idolatra quando, divenuto incredulo ed apostata, disprezza la conoscenza di Dio e si ostina nel suo rifiuto di glorificarlo, “Lui che ha fatto il mondo e tutto ciò che contiene, che è Signore del Cielo e della terra…. Lui che a tutti dà la vita e il respiro a ogni cosa…. Colui nel quale viviamo, ci muoviamo ed esistiamo; Colui del quale noi siamo la stirpe.” (Att. 17, 22, 28)
L’idolatria soffoca la verità nell’ingiustizia, ottenebra la mente e perverte il giudizio. Allora l’uomo, in balia della tirannia delle sue passioni infami e delle sue voglie vagabonde, si abbandona ad ogni forma di perversione e di impurità, “così da disonorare il proprio corpo, poiché ha cambiato la verità di Dio con la menzogna e ha venerato e adorato la creatura al posto del creatore, che è benedetto nei secoli.” (Rom 2, 25).
Ancora una volta Vienna, la gloriosa capitale che seppe resistere con le armi della luce e della fede, all’avanzata della Orda Ottomana, subisce – sgomenta e scandalizzata – l’ennesima provocazione omoeretica e blasfema. Sulla cattedra di Santo Stefano si esibiscono attivisti gay, travestiti e transessuali che dalla Chiesa Cattolica dovrebbero invece ricevere l’annuncio della Verità liberatrice di Cristo e il dono dell’Amore salvifico, gratuitamente offerto a tutti coloro che, dal più profondo delle proprie ferite e del proprio pentimento, osano riconoscersi bisognosi di salvezza.
Mi associo di tutto cuore al piccolo gregge, rimasto forse senza Pastore ma chiamato a raccolta nel Cuore dell’Immacolata, per implorare da Lei, mediante la preghiera riparatoria del Santo Rosario, il perdono di Dio per le offese e gli oltraggi perpetrati.
L’enormità degli scandali non diminuirà mai la potenza del Signore: non abbiamo perciò motivo di perdere coraggio né fiducia. Di fronte alla sinistra visione di una chiesa che sembra volersi riedificare contro la fede e contro la verità della persona umana, che sostiene e promuove ciò che avvilisce la vita e procura la perdita delle anime, vogliamo raddoppiare la fede e pregare senza mai stancarci l’Immacolata Madre di Dio e nostra vera Madre: Vitam praesta puram, iter para tutum, ut videntes Iesum semper colletemur. Insegnandoci a guardare Gesù, la Vergine Maria ci rende capaci di perseverare nella fede come “Acies ordinata, uno schieramento di anime militanti, sofferenti e trionfanti, unite per affermare l’onore della Chiesa, la gloria di Dio e il bene delle anime. L’arruolamento è aperto.” (Roberto de Mattei)
Mentre ci apprestiamo a varcare le soglie di un nuovo anno liturgico, san Bernardo mette nei nostri cuori e sulle nostre labbra le parole della nostra incrollabile speranza, della nostra fede certa, mentre i nostri cuori si aprono all’ardore della carità di Cristo, unici rimedi contro l’avanzare dell’iniquità.
“Fin da ora, celebriamo con tutto il cuore la venuta del Nostro Signore Gesù Cristo… Egli è venuto non solo a noi, ma per noi… La grandezza della grazia che ci ha donata, mostra qual era l’indigenza del nostro bisogno. Giudichiamo la gravità della nostra malattia da quanto costa guarirla… La venuta del Salvatore è perciò necessaria. Lo stato in cui sono gli uomini rende indispensabile la sua Presenza. Venga presto, dunque, il Salvatore!”
+ Carlo Maria Viganò
Arcivescovo tit. di Ulpiana


Watch These Guys Expertly Photobomb Live Webcams at an Austrian Ski Resort


Sölden opens new 7.3km toboggan run

A new toboggan run of 7.3km will open in Sölden this winter, from the mid station of the new Gaislachkogal gondola. The new toboggan run will offer a new attraction to the already popular Austrian ski resort — open every day from 08:00 to 16:00, and for floodlit night tobogganing every Wednesday from 18:00 with live music and a DJ every evening from 18:00. The toboggan run starts at 2,170m on the Stiegele, from the middle station of the Gaislachkogel, running down to 1,366m giving a vertical drop of 804m and an overall distance of 7.3km. The run is classed as ‘medium difficulty’ and costs €30 for adults and €16 for children, or free with a valid ski pass. The sports shop next to the base of the Gaislachkogl gondola has toboggans for rental, as do some mountain huts. For more information, visit To read Where to Ski & Snowboard‘s independent review of Sölden, click here

Facial deformity in royal dynasty was linked to inbreeding, scientists confirm

The 'Habsburg jaw,' a facial condition of the Habsburg dynasty of Spanish and Austrian kings and their wives, can be attributed to inbreeding, according to new results.

Miss South Africa finalist launches new health and wellness brand

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Lee-Ann Liebenberg first drew public attention when she was selected as a Miss South Africa Finalist She has graced the pages of top international magazines like Cosmopolitan, FHM and Sports Illustrated, to mention a few. She puts health and vitality first, as an extension to that; she is now launching a new health and wellness brand called DR+SWISS into the South African market.

Liebenberg found out about the benefits of CBD during a difficult period in her life. She heard about CBD whilst her dad was being treated Rheumatoid arthritis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. “It was heart-breaking to see him battling with the effects of both the illness and the treatment, so when I heard that CBD could possibly alleviate some of these effects I decided to research it extensively and discovered that it could be used not only to relieve pain and inflammation but to support general health and homeostasis as well, says Liebenberg.”

Her father passed away in 2018, but the relief that he was able to obtain from CBD prompted Liebenberg and her husband who is a businessman, to consider developing a range of CBD products for the South African market. The active ingredient in DR+SWISS products is CBD (cannabidiol), a natural ingredient derived from the cannabis plant, which is used as a nutritional supplement to promote physical, emotional and social wellbeing. One of the challenges they faced was to find a provider with sound credentials and established credibility, especially one that could guarantee the origins, quality, and efficacy of its CBD oils.

“We couldn’t find a local producer that ticked all the boxes for us, so when we set out to develop the DR+SWISS range, we turned to the largest medical cannabis and CBD producer in Europe. It’s a company with more than 15 years of experience in producing a premium range of CBD oils of both exceptional quality and purity says Liebenberg.”

The international model said CBD oil helped her Dad during his illness and her aim is to bring its health and healing properties to South Africans. DR+SWISS is the only CBD brand in South Africa that can proudly claim to deliver the purest and broadest range of products specifically designed to cater for the whole family, starting with a 3% (300mg) concentration and increasing to a concentration of 30% (3 000mg). The fresh, aromatic oils are completely free of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol).The chemical responsible for most of the psychological effects of cannabis, which makes it 100% safe to use, even for children.

The raw cannabis used to produce the CBD oils used in the range is sourced from selectively harvested crops in Holland, Spain, Austria, Italy, and Switzerland, and are extracted using the latest Swiss supercritical extraction technology to ensure the utmost purity. Moreover, DR+SWISS products also undergo lab testing at industry leader, Fundación CANNA, to guarantee the highest levels of purity and active ingredient accuracy.




Пожар в историческом городе - Euronews Русский

Пожар в историческом городе  Euronews Русский

Travel deals of the week: Tuesday December 3, 2019

Deal of the week: Music to your ears An eight-day Enchanting Danube river cruise blends the charming countries of Germany, Austria, Slovakia and Hungary. The discounted price for seven nights' accommodation on board the majestic...

PMI Seminar: Martin Schwartz, PhD

PMI Seminar Series - 3/30/2020 @ 2pm - CRB Austrian Auditorium 


Martin Schwartz, PhD
Robert W. Berliner Professor of Medicine (Cardiology)
Professor of Biomedical Engineering and of Cell Biology
Yale School of Medicine

"Mechanotransduction in cardiovascular physiology and disease"

Why Leclerc must be prioritised at Ferrari

LeClerc in Singapore
Ferrari pit strategy cost pole winner LeClerc in Singapore
Monégasque youngster has more to give than his older teammate Vettel - it's time for Ferrari to recognise this

If things had worked out a little differently, Charles Leclerc could be taking Lewis Hamilton down to the wire in Abu Dhabi. In his first season at Ferrari, Leclerc has taken seven pole positions to Valtteri Bottas’s five, Hamilton’s four and Sebastian Vettel’s two.

He could and should have won race two in Bahrain, where the car let him down. In Monaco he was quickest in final practice but Ferrari banjaxed his race by not sending him out for a second Q1 run, which left him qualifying only 16th.

In Azerbaijan he was the stand-out before crashing in Q2 when Ferrari needlessly tried to get him through on a harder tyre. In Austria he took pole but was kept on the leash in the opening stint to maximise tyre life, which ultimately allowed Max Verstappen to pass him with two laps to go.

In Germany he had the car to win but, in keeping with others, Hamilton included, skated off on a treacherous surface. Belgium and Italy he won brilliantly, back-to-back. It should have been a hat-trick in Singapore where he started from pole and led, until Ferrari accidentally leap-frogged him with Vettel by stopping the four-time champion first to undercut Hamilton. And then failed to order a position reversal.

A week later, another win went west in Russia when Leclerc followed a pre-race plan to tow Vettel into the lead but Sebastian reneged on the deal to allow him back in front. A Virtual Safety Car period then handed Mercedes cheap pitstops and a one-two ahead of Charles.

Leclerc himself torpedoed a decent chance in Japan when the arrival of arch-rival Verstappen around his outside at Turn 1 prompted a red mist moment. Then, arguably conservative Ferrari strategy cost Leclerc in Mexico. Right there, 10 races Leclerc could have won from the first 19, instead of the two he actually claimed.

The pace is clearly there, and that’s Ferrari’s problem. Vettel is the senior statesman, a good guy, intelligent, with a wry sense of humour and a fine ambassador for the sport. He’s hard not to like.

But Eddie Irvine always told it like it is and has done so recently in an interview with an online gambling company. Vettel, Irvine says, is not a worthy four-time champion. He’s good but mistake-ridden. And Eddie doesn’t think he’s super-quick either, claiming that we saw that when he was bested by Daniel Ricciardo in 2014, and are seeing it again.

There were times this year when Vettel has not been sacrificed because of his status and Ferrari has lost races because of it. The intra-team rivalry had flashpoints in Monza, Singapore and Sochi and is becoming a problem. Team principal Mattia Binotto calls the ‘problem’ a luxury. But it’s one he could do without.

At the start of the season Ferrari announced that it would start off prioritising Vettel. It’s now time they did the reverse. The timing screen, ultimately, decides a team’s number one.

By design or coincidence?

Ferrari’s lacklustre performance in the US Grand Prix, after being bang on the pace ever since F1’s August break, prompted much muttering and speculation in the days and weeks that followed the Austin race.

Ferrari’s power unit has given the red cars a straightline speed advantage all season but, after a poor display at Budapest in August, Ferrari took a run of six straight pole positions only halted by Mercedes in the USA.

The Ferrari speed advantage has always been much more prevalent in qualifying than in races but, in Austin, Charles Leclerc finished more than 50sec behind the winning Mercedes, just as Ferrari had done in Budapest. It happened just a day after the FIA issued a Technical Directive (TD).

An intrinsic part of F1 is looking for exploitable loopholes in the regulations. If a team believes it has found one, it may seek to clear it with the FIA. The FIA will then pass an opinion that such a thing is legal, or refuse it. If it’s the latter, a TD is issued to all teams telling them of the inquiry and the reasons that it has been denied.

Prior to the US GP, Red Bull asked the FIA whether it would be okay to use electrical pulses to interfere with the FIA’s fuel flow device. The maximum fuel flow rate could be exceeded between measuring points so long as the average flow rate was within the regulations. That could give a power advantage and would fit with a scenario where this was witnessed over a shorter distance (a qualifying lap) but not significantly over a longer one (a race distance).

The FIA’s TD said that no, this would not be okay, and cited article 3.10.5, which says: “Any device, system or procedure the purpose and/or effect of which is to increase the flow rate or to store and recycle fuel after the measurement point, is prohibited.”

Sebastian Vettel’s Ferrari retired early in the US with a suspension problem and team principal Mattia Binotto said that Leclerc’s performance was compromised by having to revert to a previous, less powerful engine specification after a problem in practice, allied to tyre issues in the opening stint. Ferrari’s rivals – surprise, surprise – thought otherwise.

Tony Dodgins


Rolling start: Shock privateer win in WEC, Alonso's Dakar development, rising star Nico Muller and more

Hamilton behind the helmet: A study of an F1 icon

Opinion: modern F1 has a single track mind


Casinos Austria - Finanzvorstand Sidlo mit sofortiger Wirkung abberufen

Der Aufsichtsrat der Casinos Austria hat am Montag "mit großer Mehrheit" Finanzvorstand Peter Sidlo vorzeitig abberufen. Dabei hatte ein interner Prüfbericht, der dem Gremium vorgelegt wurde, dem Aufsichtsrat bescheinigt, bei der Bestellung Sidlos und der Trennung der Vorstände Alexander Labak und Dietmer Hoscher "im Rahmen des vorhandenen Ermessensspielraums korrekt" vorgegangen zu sein.

Con la «Tosca» di Puccini Pereira saluta la Scala: timone a Meyer. Edison nuovo socio

L’opera pucciniana inaugura la nuova stagione lirica del Piermarini. Sarà l’ultima “Prima” di Sant’Ambrogio per il sovrintendente austriaco, che dal 15 dicembre assumerà la guida del Maggio Fiorentino. E annuncia l’ingresso di Edison come socio della Fondazione

¿Preparados para el futuro? Lo vamos a ver en Dubai 2020


La celebración de las exposiciones universales ha sido siempre un momento de cambio, de llegada de vanguardias, de aparición de nuevos diseños; también en el ámbito de la arquitectura. En seguida nos viene a la cabeza la Exposición Universal de Barcelona de 1929 y cómo Mies van der Rohe cambió la historia de la arquitectura con su diseño para el pabellón de Alemania.

Hoy en día jugamos con ventaja pero, en cambio, perdemos en la capacidad de sorprendernos. Gracias a las nuevas tecnologías podemos ver los diseños que han sido elegidos por cada país para su pabellón en la próxima exposición internacional de Dubai 2020. Es sin duda una forma de descubrir cómo va a ser la arquitectura del futuro.

Emiratos Árabes

Pabellón Emiratos Árabes

Santiago Calatrava ha sido el elegido para el diseño del pabellón de Emiratos Árabes, el pais anfitrión. Tiene forma de halcón en vuelo, símbolo de este estado. El pabellón ocupará una superficie de 15.000 metros cuadrados.


Pabellón España

El pabellón que representará a España ha sido diseñado por el despacho de Madrid Amann-Canovas-Maruri. Se trata de 17 carpas cónicas situadas sobre su área de exposición. Estos conos funcionan como chimeneas solares convirtiéndose en una forma de ventilación natural.


Pabellón Chequia

El despacho Formosa AA Inc. ha optado por un concepto sostenible de pabellón. Para ello utilizará un sistema Sawer (recurso solar aire agua tierra) con el objetivo de crear un paisaje verde en el desierto.


Pabellón Chile

Entre 24 proyectos fue seleccionado el diseño de
Smiljan Radic, Cecilia Puga y Paula Velasco, que han propuesto un pabellón construido con tablas de 2,60 metros y tuercas, teniendo presente el concepto de sostenibilidad, ya que el edificio genera una sombra fresca para que los visitantes se queden.


Pabellón Austria

El pabellón austriaco será obra del despacho vienés Querkraft. Han elegido métodos tradicionales de construcción de la región del Golfo Pérsico, que según previsiones, conseguirán reducir el consumo de energía en un 72%.


Pabellón Holanda

En este caso es un proyecto ideado por un consorcio en el que está presente el despacho V8 Architects. Son una gran cantidad de placas de acero rentadas, un material que habitualmente se utiliza en excavaciones y estructuras de contención.

Hemos comentado solo seis pabellones de los muchos que acogerá la exposición. Es una muestra para captar la esencia de la arquitectura que se presentará el próximo año en Dubai y que seguro marcará el futuro.


DORADCY TECHNICZNEGO do sprzedaży obrabiarek do drewna - Felder Group Polska Sp. z o.o. - Rzekuń, mazowieckie

Samochód, laptop i telefon służbowy. Działa na rynku polskim już 15 lat i jest wyłącznym przedstawicielem na terenie naszego kraju renomowanego, austriackiego…
Od - Fri, 14 Jun 2019 07:47:01 GMT - Pokaż wszystkie Rzekuń, mazowieckie oferty pracy

Auditorium Parco della Musica Pietro Roffi “1999”


Il fisarmonicista Pietro Roffi torna in concerto,all’Auditorium Parco della Musica di Roma, lunedì 2 dicembre 2019 ,organizzato da Ventidieci, con il suo inedito live“1999”.

“Pietro non è soltanto tecnicamente preparatissimo, ma anche un musicista di un‘espressività poetica e raffinata, capace di far cantare il suo strumento e di seguire il pensiero musicale del compositore con immaginazione e empatia” (Dario Marianelli, Premio Oscar)

Dopo il debutto a settembre scorso con l’Orchestra dell’Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia nel concerto per i novant’anni di Ennio Morricone, il fisarmonicista porta per la prima volta a Roma il suo progetto per fisarmonica ed elettronica.

I dieci brani originali presenti in “1999”, disco di debutto per Inri Classic, vengono qui interpretati in forma di concerto. Auditorium della Musica

L’elemento acustico ed esotico espresso dalla fisarmonica si fonde con l’etereo espresso dall’elettronica.Il risultato è un suono unico che non si riesce a collocare in un lasso temporale o un genere preciso: ci sono le influenze della musica da film, quelle del folk, a tratti c’è perfino un po’ di techno.

Con la fisarmonica in spalla, Pietro Roffi ha girato il mondo. Nato nel 1992, ha cominciato a suonare la fisarmonica all’età di sei anni e si è laureato con lode e menzione d’onore al Conservatorio “Santa Cecilia” di Roma.

Ha debuttato come solista all’Auditorium Parco della Musica di Roma con l’Orchestra

dell’Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia sotto la direzione di Carlo Rizzari, suonando una Serenata scritta dal premio Oscar Dario Marianelli in occasione del novantesimo compleanno di Ennio Morricone, alla presenza del Presidente della Repubblica.

Svolge un’intensa attività concertistica che lo ha visto esibirsi in più di cento concerti in tutto il mondo, come solista e con orchestre sinfoniche, in sale prestigiose come il “Die Glocke” a Brema (Germania) con la Internationalen Jugendsinfonieorchesters, dove ha eseguito il concerto “Fairy Tales” per fisarmonica e orchestra di V. Trojan, e il “Romanian Athenaeum” a Bucarest (Romania) con l’Orchestra Giovanile Nazionale diretta da Gabriel Bebeselea, ricevendo ovunque apprezzamenti da pubblico e critica musicale.

Ha suonato inoltre in Lituania, dove nel 2017 ha debuttato con le Variazioni Goldberg di Bach, in Italia (dove si è esibito, tra l’altro, per la IUC Concerti alla Sapienza, nel Teatro del Grande Eliseo, nella Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea, per Expo Milano 2015, per Notti a Castel Sant’Angelo, per Nuova Consonanza e al Narnia Festival), in Inghilterra (Royal Academy of Music di Londra e nella Cattedrale di Peterborough), in Argentina (con una tournée sold-out in tredici città),a Malta (Bir Miftuħ International Music Festival), in Cina (Pechino, Tianjing e presso la Nanjing University of Arts).

In Australia (Melbourne e Woodend Winter Arts Festival nel Victoria State), in Brasile (a Rio de Janeiro, presso la Sala Italia e il Museu Nacional de Belas Artes), in Croazia e in Spagna. Nel 2017 si esibisce nella Suite da concerto dalle musiche per il film Anna Karenina composta da Dario Marianelli con la Roma Tre Orchestra al Teatro Palladium di Roma e al Teatro Verdi di Pordenone, sotto la direzione di Luciano Acocella.

Nell’occasione conosce il compositore premio Oscar che lo chiama, nel novembre dello stesso anno, per registrare la colonna sonora del film “Nome di donna” del regista Marco Tullio Giordana. Nel 2010 ha vinto il Primo Premio al Concorso Internazionale di Castelfidardo (cat. musica leggera).

Ha frequentato seminari con pionieri dello strumento come O. Murray (Regno Unito), C. Jacomucci (Italia), Y. Shishkin (Russia), F. Angelis (Francia), M. Rantanen (Finlandia), S. Hussong (Germania), C. X. Qing (Cina), R. Sviackevicius (Lituania), I. Alberdi (Spain), A. Melichar (Austria).

Ha tenuto master classes come docente nella National University of Music di Bucarest e registrato concerti live per TV e radio nazionali in Romania, Italia e Cina. Viene annualmente invitato a rappresentare l’Italia da Ambasciate e Istituti Italiani di Cultura nel mondo.

Dopo aver pubblicato nel 2018 un EP dedicato ad Astor Piazzolla insieme al pianista romano Alessandro Stella, a settembre del 2019 Pietro pubblicherà il suo primo album da solista di composizione originali (per fisarmonica ed elettronica) con l’etichetta Inri Classic. Suona

una Bugari Armando Prime, costruita a Castelfidardo. È cresciuto e vive a Valmontone, cittadina vicino Roma.

Biglietti in vendita su

Ufficio Stampa Ventidieci

Maurizio Quattrini 338/8485333 -

Galleria (Clicca sulla foto per slideshow): 


Aneka Info: Pembukaaan Resmi Pasar Natal di Wina

Walikota Wina, Austria, Michael Ludwig pada hari Sabtu 16 November 2019, menyalakan lampu pohon Natal di depan balai kota, secara resmi membuka pasar Natal kota itu. Selengkapnya disampaikan Metrini Geopani.

Zukunftsweisendes von gestern und heute. Bilanz und Abschlussbericht Wien Modern 2019


Mit einem Überblick soll hier die zweite Halbzeit (18.11.–30.11.) von WIEN MODERN 2019 Revue passieren. Das Festival endete am letzten Novembersamstag mit dem abendlichen Abschlusskonzert im Großen Saal des Wiener Konzerthauses, bei dem noch einmal die gestellten Themen „Minimal – Maximal“ sowie das Hauptmotto „Wachstum“ als Hörerfahrungen gestellt wurden. Mark Andre bewegt sich in „über“ …

Der Beitrag Zukunftsweisendes von gestern und heute. Bilanz und Abschlussbericht Wien Modern 2019 erschien zuerst auf mica - music austria.


„Wir sind einfach drei Typen, die im Trio ihre Mucke machen und Songs schreiben, die uns catchen“ – FLORIAN RITT (FOLKSHILFE) im mica-Interview


Mit „Mir laungts“ und „Hey Du“ zwei Radiohits auf Ö3 in Dauerrotation, der Gewinn des AMADEUS AUSTRIAN MUSIC AWARD als Songwriter des Jahres 2019 und als Draufgabe noch ein Auftritt als Co-Headliner auf der Hauptbühne des diesjährigen DONAUINSELFESTS vor 65.000 Leuten: Ja, man kann durchaus sagen, dass es FOLKSHILFE geschafft haben. Das Interessante dabei ist, …

Der Beitrag „Wir sind einfach drei Typen, die im Trio ihre Mucke machen und Songs schreiben, die uns catchen“ – FLORIAN RITT (FOLKSHILFE) im mica-Interview erschien zuerst auf mica - music austria.


Ö1 Talentebörse vergibt ein Jazzstipendium in Form eines Studienplatzes


Ö1 vergibt im Rahmen der Talentebörse nun zum dritten Mal ein Ö1 Jazzstipendium in Form eines Studienplatzes für ein 2-jähriges Studium im Fach “Master of Arts in Music” am JAM MUSIC LAB Private University for Jazz and Popular Music, Vienna. Österreich ist ein Hot Spot des europäischen Jazz. Joe Zawinul, Hans Koller, das Vienna Art Orchestra …

Der Beitrag Ö1 Talentebörse vergibt ein Jazzstipendium in Form eines Studienplatzes erschien zuerst auf mica - music austria.


DRIVE MOYA – „The Light We Lost“


Die dreiköpfige Band DRIVE MOYA zeigt auf ihrem Debütalbum „The Light We Lost“ (Noise Appeal Records/ VÖ: 6.12.), dass Indierock nicht zwangsläufig immer den gleichen musikalischen Weg nehmen muss, sondern durchaus auch mal anders klingen kann. Eine Version eines Rock-Sounds, die dann doch etwas anders aus den Boxen schallt, als man es sonst gewohnt ist. …

Der Beitrag DRIVE MOYA – „The Light We Lost“ erschien zuerst auf mica - music austria.




LEONARD PAUL, THOMAS GANSCH und ALBERT WIEDER tragen im Trio auf ihrem Album „Ménage à trois“ (Verve/Universal Music/ VÖ:29.11) die musikalische Idee ihrer Hauptband MNOZIL BRASS in ausgesprochen unterhaltsamer Manier weiter. Was bei den drei Musikern auf dem Programm steht, ist ein Bläsersound, der sich in mitreißend vielfältiger Art ausdrückt und allen etwas zu bieten …

Der Beitrag WIEDER, GANSCH & PAUL – „MÉNAGE À TROIS“ erschien zuerst auf mica - music austria.


SIMONE KOPMAJER – „My Favorite Songs“


Die steirische Jazzsängerin SIMONE KOPMAJER lässt auf ihrem eben erschienenen neuen Album „My Favorite Songs“ (Lucky Mojo Records) ihre sehr erfolgreiche Karriere auf musikalisch wunderbare Weise Revue passieren. Simone Kopmajer blickt auf eine bislang überaus produktive Zeit als Jazzsängerin zurück. Ihr neues Album „My Favorite Songs“ – welches noch dazu ein doppeltes ist – ist …

Der Beitrag SIMONE KOPMAJER – „My Favorite Songs“ erschien zuerst auf mica - music austria.


“learning journey” zum Thema “MusicTech”


Vom 27. bis zum 29. April 2020 organisiert das AUSSENWIRTSCHAFTSCENTER LONDON eine „learning journey” zum Thema „MusicTech”. Co-kuratiert wird das Programm von Stefan Redtenbacher, Wir sind überzeugt Auch in einer global fragmentierten und diversen Musikszene ist und bleibt die kosmopolitische 9 Millionen Metropole London ein Tech- und Trendknotenpunkt für Produzenten, Labels, Studios, Kreative und Startups. …

Der Beitrag “learning journey” zum Thema “MusicTech” erschien zuerst auf mica - music austria.


Po przeprowadzeniu Rzezi Wołyńskiej, Ukraińcy chcieli spacyfikować Lubelszczyznę. Krwawa wojna z OUN-UPA. [WIDEO]


Głównym powodem konfliktu na wschodniej Lubelszczyźnie był fakt, że Ukraińcy uznawali ją za ukraińskie Kresy Zachodnie i swoją koncepcję wpisywali w różnorakie plany niemieckie popierające Ukraińców. Jako przykład popierania Ukraińców przez Niemców może służyć chociażby akcja wysiedleńcza Polaków o kryptonimie „Ukraineaktion”, przeprowadzona między 15 stycznia a 6 marca 1943 r., która pociągnęła za sobą wysiedlenie z 64 wsi ponad 12 tys. Polaków z powiatu hrubieszowskiego i osiedlenie na ich miejscu ponad siedem tysięcy Ukraińców.

Wkroczenie Sowietów po II wojnie światowej nie zakończyło trwającej tam cały czas wojny z OUN-UPA. Organizacje te ostro sprzeciwiły się przesiedleniu Ukraińców na Ukrainę, natomiast przesiedlanie Polaków do Polski traktowały jako przejaw sprawiedliwości dziejowej. Także Chruszczow chciał przyłączenia Chełmszczyzny do sowieckiej Ukrainy.

OUN-UPA prowadząc na Lubelszczyźnie bezwzględną walkę z państwem polskim, usiłowało nawiązać współpracę z polskim podziemiem niepodległościowym. Z jego pomocą chciało zalegalizować swoje istnienie i uzyskać akceptację rządu londyńskiego. Miał się on stać ich adwokatem na arenie międzynarodowej, który zdjąłby z niej odium ludobójczej formacji, która dopuściła się zbrodni wołyńskiej i współpracowała z Niemcami.

Działalność UPA doprowadziła do tego, że na wschodniej Lubelszczyźnie udało się pozostać sporej ilości ukraińskiej ludności, stanowiącej wciąż zaplecze dla jej funkcjonowania. Oficjalnie przesiedlenie ludności ukraińskiej na Ukrainę już się zakończyło i Chruszczow nie był skory do przyjmowania kolejnego kontyngentu. Najprawdopodobniej, co potwierdzają jego dalsze kroki, myślał o innym wariancie przyłączenia Chełmszczyzny, opartej na tzw. wymianie terytoriów.
W takiej sytuacji, by zakończyć krwawe zmagania z OUN-UPA, władze polskie podjęły decyzję o przesiedleniu ludności ukraińskiej na Ziemie Odzyskane. Pozbawiły podziemie ukraińskie zaplecza i bardzo szybko jego resztki zostały wytropione i rozbite. Do historii działania te weszły pod nazwą Operacji „Wisła”. Autor opisuje szczegółowo jej przebieg na Lubelszczyźnie. OUN-UPA w czasie jej trwania stawiała tutaj szczególnie zażarty opór w walkach, w których zginęło wielu żołnierzy. Jej ostateczne rozgromienie nastąpiło już po formalnym zakończeniu Operacji „Wisła”, jesienią 1947 r.

Książka, jak większość prac autora, jest oparta na obficie cytowanych dokumentach, relacjach i wspomnieniach. Nie tylko polskich, ale również ukraińskich, niemieckich, a także na całej dostępnej literaturze.

Poniżej fragment rozdziału pierwszego Gdzie są te tysiące zamordowanych Ukraińców? z książki Marek A. Koprowski - „Łuny na Wschodzie. Krwawa wojna z OUN-UPA o Lubelszczyznę”. Książka ukazała się ukazała się nakładem wydawnictwa Replika, Poznań 2019. Można ją nabyć TUTAJ.

Część ukraińskich historyków wciąż idzie w zaparte i twierdzi, że masowe mordy rozpoczęły się nie na Wołyniu, a na Lubelszczyźnie i rzeź wołyńska była tylko odwetem za mordy na ludności ukraińskiej, popełnione przez Polaków na Chełmszczyźnie. Jeden z nich – Orest Subtelny – w 1994 r. zasugerował, że już w 1942 r. Polacy zabili tysiące ukraińskich chłopów, głównie na obszarze Chełmszczyzny. Owe tysiące ukraińskich ofiar nie znajduje jednak potwierdzenia w źródłach. Dane na ten temat są różne, ale żadne nie potwierdzają owych tysięcy ofiar! W latach 1941-1942 zginęło 4 Ukraińców, w 1942 – 1943 – 34. Według innych danych na Zamojszczyźnie w 1942 r. zginęło 123 Ukraińców. Były to ofiary niemieckich akcji pacyfikacyjnych, mających być inspirowanymi przez polską policję granatową. Miała ona brać w nich aktywny udział. Była to jednak zemsta czy raczej odwet za udział ukraińskich policyjno-wojskowych formacji w służbie niemieckiej w pacyfikacji polskich wsi. Miało w nich zginąć w 1942 r. 119 Polaków, a w 1943 r. 325 osób. Kto więc jest tu pokrzywdzony i gdzie są te tysiące zamordowanych Ukraińców? Krwawa wojna na Lubelszczyźnie zaczęła się w 1944 r. już po wyrżnięciu przez Ukraińców Wołynia i przeniesieniu rzezi na obszar Małopolski Wschodniej, a raczej całego obszaru UPA-Zachód, w skład którego wchodził Wojskowy Okręg „Bug”, obejmujący Lubelszczyznę. Wtedy to oddziały ukraińskie nasiliły na tym terenie działalność terrorystyczną przeciwko ludności polskiej. W kwietniu 1944 r. Sztab Główny UPA skierował na Chełmszczyznę dwa kurenie z zagonu im. „Bohuna”, dowodzonego przez pułkownika Ostrożśkoho, który wchodził w skład OW „Turiw”. Jak wynika z zeznań Aleksandra Andrejewicza Łuckiego, członka Głównego Wojskowego Sztabu UPA Krajowego Prowodu OUN „Galiczyna”, a wcześniej komendanta „UPA-Zachód”, ówczesny główny komendant UPA Roman Szuchewycz przywiązywał do panowania przez OUN-UPA na tym terenie ogromną wagę. Na jego polecenie miał zostawić niedokończone prace i udać się na Chełmszczyznę.

Oto fragment protokołu z jego przesłuchania, które potwierdził swoim podpisem, a który sporządził naczelnik Śledczego Oddziału NKGB USRR Pawłowskij w asyście starszego śledczego NK USRR Pogrebnego:

W początku maja 1944 r. (…) otrzymałem od Szuchewycza zadanie wyjechać na Chełmszczyznę i stanąć na czele tamtejszych oddziałów UPA, aktywizować ich działalność i rozbudować szeregi UPA na bazie miejscowych możliwości.”
Pytanie: „Czym był podyktowany wasz wyjazd na Chełmszczyznę?”
Odpowiedź: „Polskie nacjonalistyczne podziemie w lasach Zamościa i Lublina sformowało tzw. Dywizję im. Kościuszki dla walki z kunowskim podziemiem i oddziałami UPA.

Wiosną 1944 r. dywizja ta przedostała się na Chełmszczyznę i w odpowiedzi na likwidację polskiej ludności przez oddziały UPA zaczęła zabijać Ukraińców. W związku z tym „Główny Prowod OUN” podjął decyzję, żeby posłać na Chełmszczyznę część oddziałów UPA z zadaniem rozgromienia polskiej dywizji, zlikwidowania lub wygnania całej polskiej ludności za granice Chełmszczyzny. Wcześniej na Chełmszczyznę z Wołynia i Galicji zostało skierowanych szereg oddziałów UPA, liczących 6 tysięcy ludzi, a oprócz tego w najbliższym czasie miało być przerzuconych jeszcze kilka dodatkowych oddziałów UPA. Ja udawałem się z rozkazu Głównego Prowodu, aby kierować działaniami tych oddziałów dla rozgromienia Dywizji im. Kościuszki i zlikwidowania polskiej ludności, następnie po tym miałem utworzyć nowe oddziały UPA.
Zadania swego Łucki nie wykonał, ponieważ nie zdołał dotrzeć na Chełmszczyznę. Po drodze w Kamionce Strumiłowej został aresztowany przez Niemców. Jego zeznania potwierdzają, że UPA planowała całkowite opanowanie Chełmszczyzny, likwidację polskiego podziemia i wymordowanie ludności polskiej. Nie było też tysięcy wymordowanych Ukraińców.

Głównym powodem konfliktu na wschodniej Lubelszczyźnie był fakt, że Ukraińcy uznawali ją za ukraińskie Kresy Zachodnie i swoją koncepcję wpisywali w różnorakie plany niemieckie popierające Ukraińców. Jako przykład popierania Ukraińców przez Niemców może służyć chociażby akcja wysiedleńcza Polaków o kryptonimie „Ukraineaktion”, przeprowadzona między 15 stycznia a 6 marca 1943 r., która pociągnęła za sobą wysiedlenie z 64 wsi ponad 12 tys. Polaków z powiatu hrubieszowskiego i osiedlenie na ich miejscu ponad siedem tysięcy Ukraińców. Zanim przejdziemy do omówienia szerzej wspierania etosu ukraińskiego na Lubelszczyźnie, trzeba podkreślić, że wcześniej takim adwokatem Ukraińców był carat i Rosyjska Cerkiew Prawosławna. Zostawiły one na Lubelszczyźnie dziedzictwo, z którym Polska międzywojenna nie potrafiła sobie poradzić… Dziedzictwem tym było prawosławie, które przymusowo zastępowały struktury likwidowanego Kościoła unickiego. Szczególnym terenem poddanym obróbce przez władze carskie, lansujące hasło: „jedna Rosja, jedna wiara, jeden car”, stała się Chełmszczyzna, która w 1912 r. stała się gubernią chełmską utworzoną z całych powiatów hrubieszowskiego i tomaszewskiego oraz części powiatów: chełmskiego, zamojskiego, krasnostawskiego i lubartowskiego. Ponadto do guberni chełmskiej włączono w całości powiat bialski oraz częściowo powiaty: włodawski, konstantynowski i radzyński. Ten teren w znacznej mierze pokrywał się z terytorium zlikwidowanej w 1875 r. unickiej diecezji chełmskiej. Parafie unickie zostały w niej zlikwidowane i zastąpione przez przymusowo zakładane prawosławne. Był to pierwszy etap ekspansji „carosławia”, jak określano rosyjskie prawosławie. Region ten szybko nabierał cech wschodnich. Uwieńczeniem tego procesu było odłączenie go od Królestwa Polskiego i przyłączenie bezpośrednio do Rosji. Gdyby Polska dłużej znajdowała się pod zaborami, proces ten z pewnością ruszyłby dalej na Zachód i dotarł co najmniej do Wisły. Przedłużeniem tego procesu było oddanie przez Niemców utworzonej pod ich patronatem Ukrainie na mocy traktatu brzeskiego w 1918 r. guberni chełmskiej zwanej Chełmszczyzną.,. Rozpoczęto tam wtedy antypolską agitację, która nasiliła się zdecydowanie od kwietnia 1918 r., gdy metropolita lwowski wznowił działalność unickiej diecezji chełmskiej i jej hierarchii. Społeczeństwo polskie potraktowało oderwanie Chełmszczyzny jako czwarty rozbiór Polski i solidarnie zareagowało wielkim oburzeniem i protestami. Ówczesne nastroje bardzo celnie oddał w swoich wspomnieniach Wincenty Witos, pisząc:

Dzień 18 lutego 1918 r. został wyznaczony jako termin ogólnego narodowego protestu. I rzeczywiście, w dniu tym stanęło zupełnie wszelkie życie na całym obszarze Galicji, a także częściowo i Śląska Cieszyńskiego. Mimo, że kraj pozostawał pod władzą wojskową, a koleje były zmilitaryzowane – stanęły one wszystkie, stanęła też praca w urzędach, fabrykach, zakładach. W wielu kościołach odbywały się nabożeństwa żałobne z odpowiednimi kazaniami, wygłaszanymi z bardzo dużą odwagą, przez młodszych szczególnie księży. W każdym mieście, miasteczku, wsi – odbywały się masowe wiece i demonstracje, na których przemawiali liczni mówcy, przedstawiając stan sprawy i piętnując otwarcie w słowach najostrzejszych postępowanie rządu austriackiego i niemieckiego.

Koło Polskie w parlamencie w Wiedniu wydało też odezwę, w której stwierdzało

(…) Pierwszy traktat pokojowy zawarty dnia 9 lutego 1918 r. w Brześciu uderzył w naród polski, jak grom, jak zapowiedź złowroga, że militaryzm niemiecki wraz z chytrą i nieszczęśliwą dyplomacją staro austriacką zamierzają ziemie polskie okaleczyć i naród polski we własnym jego kraju uczynić niewolnikiem i nędzarzem. Przyjaźń niemiecko-ukraińska, mająca się ugruntować na trupie Polski i Litwy, chce zasiać nienawiść między polskim i ukraińskim narodem, chce Polsce odebrać wszelkie znaczenie narodowe, państwowe, gospodarcze i uczynić z niej niewolnika państwa, przemysłu i handlu niemieckiego, niewolnika strzeżonego od wschodu wspólnie przez Niemcy i ukraińskie państwo.

Ludność polska protestowała też na terenie samej Chełmszczyzny. Do masowych wystąpień doszło w 97 wsiach zamieszkałych przez Polaków w powiecie hrubieszowskim, 78 w chełmskim. W zamojskim protesty Polaków też były masowe. Odbyły się one w 14 gminach na 15 istniejących.

Zadowolenie z przyłączenia „prastarych ukraińskich ziem Chełmszczyzny i Podlasia” wyraziło natomiast zgromadzenie duchownych trzech diecezji greckokatolickich, które uznało to za akt: „oparty na historycznych tradycjach i rdzennej, etnicznej ukraińskiej większości”.
Już u zarania odbudowy państwa polskiego Wojsko Polskie tworzone ad hoc musiało odbijać także Chełmszczyznę, z której Ukraińcy ani myśleli rezygnować i chcieli ją przyłączyć do Zachodnioukraińskiej Republiki Ludowej. W sprawę włączył się aktywnie metropolita Andrzej Szeptycki , który nie ukrywał swojej radości, że Chełmszczyzna została oderwana od Polski. Zawarcie pokoju w Brześciu, jak pisze Kost Łewyckyj, adwokat i polityk, poseł do parlamentu austriackiego i sejmu galicyjskiego, a w latach 1918 – 1919 premier ZURL, traktował symbolicznie. W mieście tym sfinalizowano unię kościelną. Szeptycki zabiegał u władz niemieckich, zarówno cywilnych, jak i wojskowych, o poparcie działalności duszpasterskiej, a raczej misyjnej, księży greckokatolickich na terenie Chełmszczyzny i Podlasia. Jak pisze Maciej Mróz, Szeptycki w swoich memoriałach i petycjach do władz niemieckich: „wysuwał oskarżenia przeciwko duchowieństwu łacińskiemu, które utrudniało reaktywowanie Unii na Chełmszczyźnie i Podlasiu. Dotyczyły one konfliktów z duchowieństwem łacińskim o sporne świątynie pounickie w Szczebrzeszynie, Radecznicy, Kostobudach i Lipsku oraz profanacji cerkiewnych ikonostasów”.
Fragment rozdziału pierwszego Gdzie są te tysiące zamordowanych Ukraińców?

Marek A. Koprowski - „Łuny na Wschodzie. Krwawa wojna z OUN-UPA o Lubelszczyznę”.

Pamięci Stanisława Basaja „Rysia”, dowódcy I Batalionu Oddziałów Hrubieszowskich BCh, który pierwszy stanął do obrony mieszkańców polskich wsi, mordowanych przez nacjonalistów ukraińskich. Po wojnie oficera MO, walczącego z oddziałami UPA o polskość Ziemi Hrubieszowskiej, bestialsko zamordowanego przez oprawców „Jahody”.

Marek A. Koprowski. Pisarz, dziennikarz, historyk zajmujący się losami Polaków. Plonem jego wypraw i poszukiwań jest wiele książek, z czego kilkanaście ukazało się nakładem Wydawnictwa Replika.

Za serię książek pod wspólnym tytułem Wołyń otrzymał Nagrodę im. Oskara Haleckiego w kategorii „Najlepsza książka popularnonaukowa poświęcona historii Polski w XX wieku”. Jest też laureatem nagrody „Polcul – Jerzy Boniecki Foundation” za działalność na rzecz utrzymania kultury polskiej na Wschodzie.

Artykuł Po przeprowadzeniu Rzezi Wołyńskiej, Ukraińcy chcieli spacyfikować Lubelszczyznę. Krwawa wojna z OUN-UPA. [WIDEO] pochodzi z serwisu Niezł


Wyprawy śladami ukrytych i skradzionych skarbów. Historie, w których legenda bywa mniej fantastyczna niż rzeczywistość! [WIDEO]


Skarby kultury od wieków kradziono, ukrywano, ale i odzyskiwano. Wiele z nich w mniej lub bardziej tajemniczych okolicznościach zaginęło lub zostało zniszczonych i to nie tylko podczas wojny. Kradzieże też nie zawsze kończyły się tragicznie. W niniejszej książce znalazły się również historie skarbów cudownie odnalezionych i ocalonych.

W 1955 roku w Warszawie przepadł obraz meksykańskiej artystki Fridy Kahlo, który dzisiaj byłby wart miliony dolarów. Dziewięć lat wcześniej w okupowanej przez Rosjan Saksonii ginie ślad po Pięknej Madonnie z Torunia.

Gdy jedne zabytki znikały, inne wracały na swe dawne miejsca. Dopiero w 1960 roku z rąk kanadyjskich antykomunistów udało się – przy pomocy kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego – wyrwać polskie skarby narodowe z arrasami wawelskimi na czele. A kilka lat po wojnie tylko przypadek sprawił, że w piwnicach Muzeum Wielkopolskiego natrafiono na zamurowany w schronie największy obraz Jana Matejki.

Leszek Adamczewski jak zwykle barwnie przedstawia owe zagmatwane, nierzadko tragiczne losy tych i innych polskich zabytków i skarbów kultury.

Fragmenty książki Leszka Adamczewskiego pt.
”Zagrożone dziedzictwo. Zaskakujące losy zabytków na krętych ścieżkach XX wieku”, wyd. Replika, Poznań 2019. Książkę można nabyć TUTAJ.

Wyprawy śladami skarbów – historie, w których legenda bywa mniej fantastyczna niż rzeczywistość!

(…)W połowie czerwca 1945 roku podpułkownik Denisow zdobył informację, że w tajnym sejfie Miejskiej Kasy Oszczędności w Gdańsku ma znajdować się unikatowa kolekcja numizmatyczna. Wkrótce na ulicy, która dziś nosi nazwę Nowy Świat, pojawiła się ekipa wyposażona w kilofy, łomy i spawarkę. Próba sforsowania grubej na półtora metra ściany się nie udała i palnikami trzeba było wyciąć dziurę w stalowych drzwiach. Trud się opłacił. W nienaruszonym stanie w ręce brygady Denisowa wpadł cały zbiór Gabinetu Numizmatycznego zamku malborskiego wraz z dokumentacją kolekcji. W sejfie stały też dwie szafy pancerne, które – jak się okazało – były puste, oraz siedem maszyn do pisania. W magazynach trzeciej komendantury Gdańska przeliczono kolekcję. Składała się ona z 14.082 monet, medali, plakiet, pieczątek, odlewów gipsowych pieczęci, a także orderów i odznak. Major Charko, wybitny archeolog i numizmatyk, spłodził pseudonaukowe opracowanie, w którym udowadniał, że na zbiór malborski składały się niemal wyłącznie monety pruskie i niemieckie, gdy w rzeczywistości w skład kolekcji wchodziły przede wszystkim monety z mennic Prus Królewskich wchodzących w skład Rzeczypospolitej i Prus Książęcych związanych z Rzeczpospolitą oraz Zakonu Krzyżackiego, a sam malborski Gabinet Numizmatyczny był do 1939 roku jednym z najbogatszych warsztatów badawczych nad dziejami polskiego pieniądza. (…)

Poznań. Cud w katedrze
Wróćmy jednak do Posen lat wojny. Na co dzień katedra – jak się rzekło – służyła za magazyn. Zwożono doń zdobycze pochodzące z grabieży – od dzieł sztuki malarskiej i cennych przedmiotów kultu religijnego na początku okupacji po różne dobra wywożone z Warszawy podczas i po powstaniu 1944 roku przez podwładnych dowódcy policyjnej grupy bojowej, gruppenführera SS i generała Waffen SS Heinza Reinefartha, wysłanej w celu pacyfikacji Powstania Warszawskiego. Reinefarth był jednocześnie wyższym dowódcą SS i policji w Kraju Warty, więc nie gdzie indziej, ale do katedry poznańskiej trafiły zrabowane w Warszawie ubrania, futra, maszyny do szycia, bielizna i tym podobne łupy. W różnych publikacjach dotyczących wojennych dziejów poznańskiego Kaiser-Friedrich Museum, czyli Muzeum Cesarza Fryderyka, mowa jest i o tym, że przez jakiś czas w katedrze poznańskiej przechowywano niektóre bardzo cenne zbiory, zanim w drugiej połowie 1942 roku skarby te przewieziono do podziemi fortyfikacji międzyrzeckich. (…)

Szczecin. Zaginiona Sedina
Gdy na początku lipca 1945 roku administracja polska z prezydentem Piotrem Zarembą na czele przejmowała władzę w Szczecinie, Sediny nie było już na szczycie pomnika-fontanny. W splądrowanym przez czerwonoarmistów mieście, gdzie brakowało praktycznie wszystkiego, a zwłaszcza żywności, gdzie na porządku dziennym były podpalenia, grabieże, gwałty i zbrodnie, nikt nie przejmował się pustym cokołem. Pewnie stał tam jakiś pomnik, który zainteresował Rosjan, więc go ściągnięto z wykorzystaniem czołgu, a przy okazji poważnie uszkodzono – szeptano tu i ówdzie. I szybko o pomniku-fontannie zapomniano. Jeśli wierzyć znawcom dziejów Szczecina, wojenne losy Sediny zginęły w mrokach tajemnicy. Pomnik stał na cokole jeszcze we wrześniu 1939 roku, a nie było go w lipcu 1945 roku.

Gniezno. W marcową noc

Na początku trzeciej dekady marca 1941 roku ożyło wnętrze zabytkowej katedry w Gnesen (Gnieźnie). Zapalono światła, a w ławkach, odwróconych w kierunku kościelnych organów, zasiedli ludzie. Nie wierni uczestniczący w nabożeństwie, ale słuchacze niecodziennego koncertu. Na zamieszczonym 22 marca, przez wydawany w Posen hitlerowski dziennik „Ostdeutscher Beobachter”, zdjęciu widać głównie cywilów w zimowych płaszczach. Wielu mężczyzn ma na głowach kapelusze lub czapki kroju wojskowego. Na drugim zdjęciu można zobaczyć, że w fotelach, gdzie zwykle w prezbiterium świątyni zasiadali kanonicy katedralni, bliscy współpracownicy prymasa Polski, kardynała Augusta Hlonda, rozpierają się hitlerowscy dygnitarze. Widać namiestnika Rzeszy w Kraju Warty, gauleitera NSDAP Arthura Greisera, zastępcę gauleitera Kurta Schmalza oraz nadburmistrza Gnesen, kreisleitera NSDAP Juliusa Theodora Lorenzena. Wszyscy oni zjawili się w zamkniętej od miesięcy katedrze, by wysłuchać koncertu organowego profesora Heinricha Boella z Breslau (Wrocławia). „Była to doniosła godzina, gdy zbudowany niemiecką ręką Dom Boży wypełniony był dźwiękami wielkich mistrzów”– pisał „Ostdeutscher Beobachter”, w publikacji zatytułowanej Das Orgelkonzert im Dom zu Gnesen, informując, że Boell zagrał utwory Bacha, Regera i Händla.


Gdańsk. Kręta droga do sądu ostatecznego.

Zdobyty przez czerwonoarmistów Danzig płonął. Języki ognia i chmury czarnego dymu unosiły się nie tylko nad gdańskim Głównym Miastem i Starym Miastem, ale także nad kwartałami zabudowy mieszkalnej. Syk ognia i czasami rumor walących się ścian zagłuszały strzały i krzyki gwałconych kobiet. Cywilni gdańszczanie na własnej skórze doświadczali, czym jest piekło na ziemi… Gdy wkrótce do Gdańska przyjechała, od miesiąca krążąca na tyłach wojsk 2. Frontu Białoruskiego, brygada trofiejna Komitetu do spraw Sztuki przy Radzie Komisarzy Ludowych ZSRR, mury budynków dawnego klasztoru franciszkanów, w którym Niemcy urządzili Muzeum Miejskie (Stadtmuseum), były jeszcze gorące. Zabytkowy budynek muzeum uległ znacznemu zniszczeniu wskutek pożaru, który szalał od 20 do
29 marca 1945 roku, a więc podczas walk o Danzig, gdy miasto było bombardowane i ostrzeliwane przez artylerię radziecką. Spłonął całkowicie dach oraz wszystkie sale wystawowe na piętrze. Wybite były szyby, a piwnice zalała woda. Później obliczono, że pożar strawił 301 z pozostawionych w muzeum obrazów, a spośród zachowanych 128-u jedenaście było podziurawionych lub nosiło ślady ognia. (...)

Toruń. Na tropie Pięknej Madonny

Już na początku niemieckiej okupacji Torunia Piękną Madonną zainteresował się profesor Willi Drost z gdańskiej Technische Schule (Wyższej Szkoły Technicznej) i jednocześnie od 1937 roku dyrektor Stadtmuseum (Muzeum Miejskiego) w Danzig, które miało rangę najważniejszej placówki muzealnej w Prusach Zachodnich. Jako specjalny kurator do spraw zbiorów muzealnych w okręgu Danzig-Westpreussen (Gdańsk- -Prusy Zachodnie) profesor zapoznawał się z zabytkami, które w zajętych przez Wehrmacht miastach województwa pomorskiego wpadły w ręce Niemców. Nadburmistrz Thorn (Torunia) i jednocześnie miejscowy kreisleiter NSDAP Franz Jacob po przyjeździe do miasta nad Wisłą szybko się dowiedział, że profesor Willi Drost cieszy się zaufaniem i poparciem Alberta Forstera, namiestnika Rzeszy w okręgu Danzig-Westpreussen i gdańskiego gauleitera partii hitlerowskiej. Osobiście wolałby, by toruńskimi zabytkami zajmował się któryś z jego protegowanych, ale nie chciał zadzierać z wpływowym gauleiterem. Tak więc to Drost nadzorował drobiazgową renowację Pięknej Madonny, przeprowadzoną wiosną 1942 roku w toruńskim Ratuszu Staromiejskim. Podczas prac konserwatorskich Marii dorobiono utracony palec prawej ręki, a Jezusowi trzy z lewej i duży palec prawej stopy. Figury te straciły palce tuż przed wojną, gdy w kościele farnym świętych Janów przeprowadzano remont. Rzeźbę zdjęto wówczas z konsoli i postawiono na ołtarzu Niepokalanego Poczęcia, gdzie któryś z robotników ją potrącił. Piękna Madonna spadła na podłogę. Po raz drugi upuszczono ją na początku wojny podczas przenoszenia rzeźby. Ręka małego Jezusa w ogóle odpadła…

Elbląg. Anonimowa przesyłka

Co po 1945 roku udało się wyciągnąć spod gruzów tego kiedyś bogatego miasta, wyeksponowano w katedrze świętego Mikołaja lub w miejscowym muzeum. Poszukiwania innych zabytków trwają. I coraz mniejsze są nadzieje na znalezienie choćby unikatowej Księgi elbląskiej – najcenniejszego bodaj zabytku znajdującego się w wojennym Elbingu. Wiele wskazuje na to, że ten rękopis polskiego prawa zwyczajowego, na początku XV wieku spisanego przez krzyżackiego skrybę Petera Holcwesschera, został zniszczony albo podczas walk o Elbing, albo później w jakimś antyniemieckim szale Polaków usuwających wszelkie ślady pruskiej przeszłości miasta. Ale cuda się zdarzają. Być może ktoś kiedyś przyzna się, że wśród rupieci, które odziedziczył po dziadku czy jakimś wujku, znajduje się klocek starego rękopisu niemieckiego (Księga elbląska spisana została w języku niemieckim) i zapyta, za ile ma to sprzedać. W latach 70. XX wieku doszło do podobnego cudu. Oto do Muzeum Narodowego w Gdańsku nadeszła anonimowa paczka. Gdy ją rozpakowano, pracownicy muzeum zobaczyli….


Szczecinek. Karety z… ambony


Gdy życie w Szczecinku zaczęło się stopniowo normalizować, pomyślano o zabezpieczeniu tego, co można jeszcze było uratować z dóbr kultury znajdujących się w mieście i powiecie. A na terenie zajętego przez czerwonoarmistów pobliskiego majątku Raddatz znajdował się skarb nad skarbami, który już w XIX wieku Polacy mieszkający w tych okolicach otaczali kultem niemalże religijnym. Do malutkiego kościółka w Raddatz ciągnęły pielgrzymki, by zobaczyć… ambonę pamiętającą czasy świetności i potęgi Rzeczypospolitej Obojga Narodów. Podczas wojny prusko-austriackiej marszałek Henning von Kleist w 1742 roku z majątku Sobieskich na Śląsku zrabował złoconą karetę – jak głosiła legenda – dar mieszkańców Wiednia dla króla Jana III Sobieskiego w dowód wdzięczności za wyzwolenie w oblężenia przez Turków. Łup ten trafił do majątku Kleistów na Pomorzu, gdzie sam marszałek polecił przerobić karetę na ambonę i umieścić ją w miejscowym kościółku. To ładna historia, która podtrzymywała na duchu pomorskich Polaków mieszkających w państwie pruskim, ale nieprawdziwa. Sobieski nie otrzymał od mieszkańców Wiednia żadnej złoconej karety ani jakiegoś rydwanu zwycięzcy i w ogóle w 1683 roku nie było uroczystego wjazdu króla polskiego do tego miasta. Interesująca nas ambona została wykonana aż z trzech karet, które wojska pruskie pod dowództwem von Kleista w styczniu 1741 roku zdobyły w śląskiej Oławie. (…)


Świnoujście. Agonia kościoła Lutra

Gdy w marcu 1946 roku puściły lody, do Świnoujścia na kontrolę przyjechał chorąży Józef Zając z koszalińskiej komendy MO. To on wykrył, co działo się nad Świną w poprzednich miesiącach. Winni w następnym roku stanęli przed Wojskowym Sądem Rejonowym w Szczecinie. W dwóch procesach zapadły dość łagodne wyroki. Na osiem lat więzienia został skazany powiatowy komendant MO w Świnoujściu Jan Zientara, a na cztery lata – szef miejscowego UB Jan Sołtyniak. Tymczasem w Świnoujściu sztormowe wiatry z uszkodzonego dachu kościoła Lutra zdmuchiwały kolejne dachówki, a dzieci polskich osadników coraz częściej w świątyni bawiły się w wojnę. „To nie jest nasz kościół”– słyszały od rodziców, którzy ewangelicką świątynię nazywali niemiecką. Świnoujska parafia rzymskokatolicka była za biedna, by otoczyć opieką kościół Lutra, a zapewne także miejscowi księża nie chcieli zadzierać z lokalną władzą, która – co od jakiegoś czasu było wyraźnie widać – tę świątynię skazała na zagładę. Nie nasz kościół, nie nasz problem – zdawali się mówić księża. Nic zatem dziwnego, że polska dzieciarnia wyrywała cynowe piszczałki kościelnych organów, organizując na nich „koncerty”. Z proc strzelano też do witraży tak długo, aż je wszystkie zniszczono. Dwaj najstarsi stażem polscy mieszkańcy Świnoujścia wspominali po latach, że którejś nocy w 1950 roku obudził ich potężny huk. Rano okazało się, że pijani żołnierze radzieccy weszli na wieżę, wywalili dwa okna razem z filarami w jej północnej części i zrzucili na ziemię cztery cenne dzwony. Popękane leżały dość długo, a potem – jako złom – zapewne trafiły do huty.


Zgorzelec. Zdradzona tajemnica

Wiosną 1943 roku jego dyrektora Siegfrieda Asche, podobnie jak dyrektorów wszystkich niemieckich muzeów i archiwów,
polecenie Adolfa Hitlera zobowiązało do zabezpieczenia zbiorów przed skutkami alianckich nalotów bombowych. W Görlitz sale wystawowe zamknięto, a zbiory przygotowano do ewakuacji. Zgodnie z zarządzeniem dolnośląskiego konserwatora zabytków, doktora Günthera Grundmanna, zostały one przewiezione do kilku składnic urządzonych w małych miejscowościach Dolnego Śląska na obu brzegach Neisse. I tam spokojnie doczekały końca wojny. Do polskich Zgorzelic nie wróciło wiele eksponatów. Jak czytamy w piśmie z 16 sierpnia 1947 roku Referatu Kultury i Sztuki Starostwa Powiatowego w Zgorzelcu (a więc już po zmianie nazwy miasta) do Wydziału Kultury i Sztuki Urzędu Wojewódzkiego we Wrocławiu, „pewna część […] zbiorów, a zwłaszcza obrazów, została w pierwszym chaotycznym okresie po zajęciu miasta rozgrabiona przez wkraczające oddziały wojskowe”, czyli żołnierzy Armii Czerwonej, czego nie miał odwagi napisać autor dokumentu. Ponadto nie udało się odzyskać zgorzeleckich skarbów kultury, które trafiły do składnic urządzonych na lewym brzegu Neisse, czyli w późniejszej radzieckiej strefie okupacyjnej Niemiec. Z tego jednak, co zwieziono do Zgorzelic lub co zostało w samym Städtische Kunstsammlungen, udało się skompletować eksponaty, które pokazano publiczności w otwartym w1946 roku Muzeum Miejskim. Tym samym dawna Hala Chwały stała się placówką muzealno-wystawienniczą. Nie był to dobry ani dla Zgorzelic/Zgorzelca, ani dla Polski czas. Nadciągające czarne chmury stalinizmu zwiększyły czujność towarzyszy odpowiedzialnych za szeroko pojętą ideologię.


Lidzbark Warmiński. Zamek nieśmiertelnych

Był piątek, 27 sierpnia 1965 roku. Dochodziła godzina 9:40, gdy Komenda Powiatowa Milicji Obywatelskiej w Lidzbarku Warmińskim została poinformowana o kradzieży eksponatów muzealnych z wystawy w zamku. Przybyła na miejsce ekipa dochodzeniowa próbowała zabezpieczyć jakieś ślady, ale nocna ulewa wszystkie zatarła. Po wstępnym oszacowaniu strat natychmiast – via Olsztyn – poinformowano Komendę Główną MO, która do miasteczka przysłała wysokiej rangi oficera. Stanął on na czele specjalnej grupy dochodzeniowej. W nocy z 26 na 27 sierpnia – jak ustalili milicjanci – z wystawy w Wielkim Refektarzu skradziono jedenaście eksponatów o łącznej wartości 23 milionów ówczesnych złotych. Były wśród nich: hiszpański krzyż procesyjny z przełomu XV i XVI wieku wykonany ze srebra częściowo złoconego; kielichy mszalne biskupów Marcina Kromera i Jana Konarskiego z XVI wieku, pacyfikał biskupa Łukasza Watzenrode wykonany ze złoconego srebra. Wtedy prowadzący śledztwo wiedzieli tylko jedno – pod względem wartości dzieł sztuki, które zniknęły z wystawy, była to największa muzealna kradzież w Polsce. I przez ponad pół wieku opinia ta się nie zmieniła. Nikt później nie ukradł z jakiegokolwiek muzeum więcej niż nieznani jeszcze wtedy sprawcy, którzy obrabowali prowincjonalną, zaczynającą dopiero swą powojenną działalność placówkę muzealną w Lidzbarku Warmińskim. (…)


Kalisz. Ołtarz w płomieniach

Kalisz spał. W tamtą grudniową noc na ulicy Kanonickiej, dochodzącej do placu Bohaterów Stalingradu (obecnego Głównego Rynku), rzadko pojawiał się przechodzień. Czasami mignęły światła przejeżdżającej taksówki lub patrolującego śródmieście Kalisza radiowozu Milicji Obywatelskiej. Mury najstarszego w mieście kościoła pod wezwaniem świętego Mikołaja tonęły w ciemnościach. W ówczesnej Polsce, a zwłaszcza w Polsce powiatowej, nie było w zwyczaju oświetlania zabytkowych obiektów. Święty Mikołaj nie ucierpiał podczas artyleryjskiego ostrzału miasta w sierpniu 1914 roku, gdy major Hermann Preusker brał odwet za rzekome ostrzelanie oddziałów niemieckich wkraczających do Kalisza. Na wykonanych nieco później zdjęciach widać morze ruin, nad którymi góruje charakterystyczna wieża świątyni. Zarówno wierzący w Boga, jak i ateiści kaliscy wiedzieli, że kościół świętego Mikołaja zdobi bezcenny obraz Petera Paula Rubensa (1577–1640) Zdjęcie z krzyża. Co lepiej wykształceni dodawali, że jest to jedyne dzieło najgłośniejszego mistrza szkoły flamandzkiej, które posiadamy w Polsce. Wszyscy kaliszanie zaś wiedzieli, że ów niemały obraz (320 na 212 centymetrów) zdobi główny ołtarz w kościele przy ulicy Kanonickiej.


Kraków. Kradzione nie tuczy.

Państwo M., mieszkańcy Krakowa, postanowili odziedziczone po babci pani Joanny M. mieszkanie wynająć. Wcześniej trzeba było je posprzątać i wyrzucić różne, nikomu już teraz niepotrzebne szpargały i rupiecie, które przez lata zgromadziła babcia. Sprzątając, w jednym z kątów mieszkania któryś z małżonków natrafił na owinięty w gazety rulon. Gazety pochodziły z lat 60. XX wieku, a rulon miał przyklejoną kartkę z następującym tekstem: „Ten obraz zakupiłam od nieznajomej osoby (tęga blondynka), zapłaciłam 800 złotych, cała moja renta. Należy zwrócić Muzeum Narodowemu w Krakowie”. Po rozwinięciu rulonu okazało się, że krył on obraz Maksymiliana Gierymskiego Zima w małym miasteczku, namalowany w 1872 roku, dwa lata przed śmiercią artysty, który zmarł na gruźlicę w wieku zaledwie 28 lat. W momencie znalezienia obrazu, a był to rok 2008, małżeństwo M. nic o nim nie wiedziało. Wydawał im się stary i cenny. Ponoć dość szybko ustalili, a przynajmniej ustalił to pan Mariusz M., co to jest za obraz i że od 1945 roku znajduje się on na liście strat wojennych. Krakowscy historycy sztuki powiedzą, że w 1938 roku Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie odkupiło „Zimę w małym miasteczku” od Franciszka Studzińskiego. Przez krótki czas obraz wisiał w galerii w Sukiennicach, by w pierwszych miesiącach wojny wpaść w ręce, znanego nam już z rozdziału o arrasach wawelskich, doktora Kajetana Mühlmanna.

Leszek Adamczewski – poznański pisarz i dziennikarz, urodzony w 1948 roku w Szczecinie. Absolwent Uniwersytetu imienia Adama Mickiewicza. Autor trzydziestu książek. Zadebiutował w 1992 roku Złowieszczymi górami i poruszonej w nich tematyce zagadkowych i tajemniczych wydarzeń z lat drugiej wojny światowej, a w szczególności losów zaginionych skarbów kultury, pozostaje wierny do dziś. Od 2009 roku współpracuje z Wydawnictwem Replika. W tym czasie ukazały się między innymi bestsellerowe pozycje o wojennych losach Prus (Dymy nad Gdańskiem, Prusy w ogniu), Śląska (Zejście do piekła, Na podbój świata) cykl książek o sensacjach z Kraju Warty oraz o hitlerowskich badaniach nad bronią atomową (Tajemnicza broń Hitlera). Ostatnio Adamczewski wyszedł po raz pierwszy poza ramy II wojny światowej w książce Katastrofy. Zapomniane i przemilczane tragedie w powojennej Polsce. Podobnym tropem podąża w Zagrożonym dziedzictwie.

Artykuł Wyprawy śladami ukrytych i skradzionych skarbów. Historie, w których legenda bywa mniej fantastyczna niż rzeczywistość! [WIDEO] pochodzi z serwisu Niezł


El buen vivir se aprende - Bartomeu Meilá


Aty (Reunión) en Tekoa Fortín Mbororé - Fotografía: Javier Rodas - Año 2007

Por Bartomeu Meliá - Jesuita y Linguista 

Exposición realizada en la Ciudad de Posadas (Misiones-Argentina) 
3 al 5 de Junio de 2015

El territorio guaraní, que en realidad es un espacio cultural, se puede representar en cinco palabras, que concatenadas significan el buen vivir: apyka, ava pire, teko, tekoha, teko porã. El camino hacia ese espacioque lo predice y lo expresa, es el ñe'ẽ –la palabra– y el ñembo'e –hacerse palabra.

Esta formulación parece tanto más extraña cuanto es, creo, más auténticamente guaraní. Y nosotros por cultura y lengua no somos Guaraníes. El territorio guaraní no es una porción de la superficie terrestre; territorio es cultura y cultura es territorio. El territorio guaraní no es un algo anterior a los Guaraníes; es su creación. De ahí que el territorio guaraní no es ocupado ni conquistado, sino pensado, dicho y vivido. Usando un barbarismo, se tendría que decir que es un cultura-torio.

El apyka es el primer territorio o cultura-torio, y éste es el seno de la madre, el lugar donde se sienta y se asienta la primera y única palabra de la persona, que se hace carne y habita entre nosotros. Es la primera palabra del ava, que en guaraní significa persona; la palabra nos visita y toma asiento, como baja sobre el sabio la palabra inspirada, estando él sentado en el banquito ceremonial, la recibe y él mismo se hace palabra. Sin este asiento, no hay posibilidad de ser persona. Ñande Ru Papa Tenond, "Nuestro padre último-último primero", surge de las tinieblas primigenias sentado en un apyka, desde donde se abre como flor. En ese espacio mínimo y total, pequeño y global la palabra de Dios se abrió en flor, palabra divina y fundamental, de la cual nacerán todas y cada una de las palabras humanas.

La explicación que los sabios y líderes religiosos le dieron a León Cadogan, el primer no-indio que registró esos textos míticos de los Mbyá-Guaraní del Guayrá, al preguntarles sobre el sentido de este apyka apu'a i, fue la siguiente:
Apyka apu'a i es pequeño asiento redondo en que aparece Ñande Ru en medio de las tinieblas. Al referirse al hecho de ser engendrado, concebido, un ser humano, dicen los Mbyá: oñemboapyka: se le da asiento, se le provee de asiento; locución que da a entender que el ser humano, al ser engendrado, asume la forma que asumió Ñande Ru (Cadogan, Ayvu Rapyta; textos míticos de los Mbyá-Guaraní del Guairá, Asunción, 1997, p. 30).
En el Diccionario Mbyá-Guaraní Castellano del mismo Cadogan (2011) se da una traducción más sintética y compleja del mismo término:
Apyka asiento, es el emblema de la encarnación: apyka apu'a i asiento individual, en forma de animal...; ñe'ẽ porã ijapyka vae palabra alma que se encarna, también los genios, buenos o malignos, se trasladan por el espacio en un apyka; apykáre oĩ vae "los sentados", los ancianos; el apyka se hace de cedro. <<moapyka; ñemboapyka: ñe'ẽ porã oñemboapykala la palabra buena se ha encarnado, ha tomado asiento; tembiapoapyka: aquel a quien se provee de asiento, a quien se hace encarnar; Tupã Ru Ete remimboapyka aquellas personas cuyas almas provienen del paraíso de Tupã.
Este mismo año 2015, dos alumnos Mbyá de la Licenciatura Intercultural Indígena do Sul da Mata Atlântica con énfasis en el área de lenguaje en la Universidad Federal de Santa Catarina, en Florianópolis, hijos de los renombrados líderes espirituales de Yynn Morotĩ Verá, en Biguasú, costa Atlántica de Santa Catarina (Brasil), el señor Alcindo Verá Moreira, de ciento cinco años, y la señora Rosa Mariano Cavalheiro, de noventa y ocho, me acotaron el significado de este mismo apyka como "el lugar donde todo se encuentra, donde los ancestros se reunían", y por metáfora y antonomasia también "...el bastón, casa de oración, todo lo que guarda las informaciones del Cosmos, el receptáculo tangible de la Sabiduría".

La persona que va a nacer es una palabra soñada que se asienta en el seno de la madre, que es el apyka poético y profético, un territorio propio, que anuncia en síntesis el espacio de su vida, de su historia pasada como pueblo y su futuro como proyecto que será dicho con palabras y con hechos durante toda su vida.
En ese territorio contenido en el seno de su madre, el Guaraní respira ya los sonidos y las influencias de su medio ambiente social y cultural; danza con su madre danzando y oye los ritmos de los cantos que ella misma canta, escucha la música y, en una perspectiva chomskiana, construye los contrastes pertinentes de la fonología y gramática de su lengua materna.

Esta filosofía, por otra parte, no es del todo extraña a la sociedad occidental, sólo que la llevamos de manera vergonzosa escondida y sólo la consideramos con seriedad cuando se manifiesta tristemente en nacimientos de criaturas deformes y monstruosas, como resultado de las agresiones externas de una atmósfera poluída, de un agua envenenada por los agrotóxicos, o de un estrés incontrolado de la madre que trabaja en ambientes insalubres y denigrantes o en correrías sin descanso. El seno de la madre no ha estado en condiciones para recibir en su apyka, en su asiento, la sabiduría.

El segundo territorio guaraní es la piel, un guante ajustado y agradable en el que venimos contenidos, que nos manifiesta y mediante el cual nos decimos. La piel es nuestro genio y figura; sólo a través de la piel nos damos a conocer, para bien o para mal; es la tela de juicio que dirá lo que somos y lo que aparentamos ser. Nuestra lengua es piel; es la piel que habitamos. Por vanidad, cubrimos con cosméticos esa piel para que no se nos descubra nuestro ser auténtico; hacemos de esa piel de la palabra un escondrijo y un trompe-l'oeuil, un truco visual.

Como la piel que habitamos, la lengua limita nuestro ser y nos da a conocer también como diferentes en nuestra identidad; las identidades se manifiestan clara e inmediatamente en esa piel, tan tenue, tan frágil, pero que contiene toda la vida de la persona, su salud y su enfermedad, su alegría y su angustia; la piel del pulgar –ésa que nos exige la policía– es la identidad irrepetible de la persona. En esa piel se muestran las quemaduras y el cáncer de piel crónicas de muerte anunciada.

Hay muchas más pieles que lenguas, pero también hay analogías de color, de rugosidad, brillantez, suavidad, diafanidad entre pieles, de modo que a veces se ha hecho de esa lengua-piel un índice de raza. La tipología de las lenguas es también una categoría sintética y análoga. La percepción sensible del decir, sobre todo en el canto, es una vía posible de acercamiento a una lengua, que no se fundamenta en jerarquías, sino más bien despierta emociones.

El cuidado de la piel no es, pues, solo vanidad aparente. La gramática, la precisión en el vocabulario, la frase bien hecha, el buen gusto en el decir, son propiedades de la buena oratura: el placer de escuchar a quien habla bien, y la satisfacción de hablar bien.

La piel permite también contactos, que no se registran necesariamente en marcas dejadas en la piel, si no es en circunstancias que dejan cicatrices y tatuajes más o menos indelebles. Los aché del Paraguay, mediante las sajaduras en relieve que corren paralelas por su espalda, nos relatan la historia de sus hechos heroicos. Entre los Guaraníes tenemos también al Ava kuatia, el hombre pintado, y ese diseño y pintura significativa pasó a designar el papel.

Antonio Ruiz de Montoya, en el Tesoro de la lengua guaraní, primer diccionario de esa lengua, elaborado a partir de los primeros contactos y publicado en Madrid en 1639, da cuenta en el lema kuatia, del ava ikuatia que significa "hombre pintado con varios colores". Ahora bien, la palabra kuatia ya se presenta con varios y diversos significados, en los cuales se entreveran el primitivo y primordial de cosa pintada y el ya "reducido" según la semántica colonial, como papel en el que se escribe: kuatia (-r-), escritura; papel; carta; libro, sin dejar de ser pintura y dibujo corporal. Que era su primera acepción. El soporte de esa pintura era sobre todo el cuerpo humano, pero había aparecido ahora con esos 'otros', asimilados a sus hechiceros, algo nuevo, otro modo de comunicación de mensajes, a través de otro soporte que no es la piel, sino el papel, en el que la palabra y su voz, un sonido, son pintados mediante rasgos, líneas y rayas. El papel soporta la huella de la voz. Pues bien, a través de una serie de mutaciones semánticas, como ñe'ẽ ikuatiáva, "la palabra pintada", el adjetivo se hace sustantivo para significar el papel y el libro, que serán llamados: kuatia.

Es el gusto por la propia lengua. Y a veces el desprecio instintivo hacia otras lenguas, que por no entenderlas consideramos no lengua y las asimilamos a barbarie, a un "bababa" que los griegos endosaban a los que no eran de su lengua. Discriminamos al hacer que el otro se sienta bárbaro. 

La lengua guaraní le parecía a Félix de Azara "ladrido de perros". Y por ladrido de perros se traduce hoy en el guaraní paraguayo el guahu, uno de los cantos sagrados de los Guaraníes. La semántica es huella y retrato de historia.

Los contactos entre hablantes de diversas lenguas son posibles, porque se toma conciencia de que hay estructuras comunes de comunicación, aunque son diversas sus formas y su realización física. La comunicación es siempre física, sea a través de la voz u otros signos sensibles. Hay contactos de lenguas que se dan en contextos de guerra: el grito, el sapukái, el silbido de desaprobación, la pitada contra el Himno Nacional de España en la reciente Copa del Rey jugada en el Camp Nou de Barcelona.

¿Se puede cambiar de piel? Todos cambiamos de piel como cambiamos de voz con los años. Hay un hablar de niño y otro hablar de adulto; un hablar de mujer y otro de hombre. Hay hablas mujeriles, como en el guaraní. La voz nos delata. En el teléfono nos reconocemos por la voz.

¿Es posible vestir dos pieles alternadamente? Hablar dos lenguas es posible y lo que llamamos bilingüismo es deseable, pero no hay que confundir piel con ropa, que es segundo pellejo. Hay que desconfiar de los fáciles y engañosos bilingüismos. El auténtico bilingüismo es muy raro, aunque se da en casos especiales. Como madre hay una sola, así también hay una sola piel. Me hace dudar la persona que me dice que es enteramente bilingüe. Y son muy engañosos los programas de educación bilingüe –tal vez apenas lo que son intrasistemáticos, y aun así requieren un examen crítico–. Porque la piel permanece y nos traiciona; conocí a un jesuita, el director del archivo romano de la Compañía de Jesús en Roma, que hablaba diez lenguas, todas en francés. Por otra parte, aun cuando la lengua sea tenida por jerigonza y algarabía, como calificaban los jesuitas de la Misiones Guaraníes –el aragonés José Cardiel o el austriaco Martín Dobrizhoffer, por ejemplo– a la lengua de los paraguayos, era esa su lengua y había que respetarla.

La lengua como frontera y como puente es otra manera de encarar la lengua como límite revelador y espléndido y como contacto de diálogo, pero también de agresión y de cambio. La lengua es en sí una revelación; "desnudas las cosas en sí las da vestidas de su naturaleza", como decía Montoya en su Tesoro de la lengua guaraní, de 1639. La lengua es separación y es contacto posible; es frontera y puente.

¿Qué tiene que ver todo esto con el territorio guaraní? Simplemente que la lengua es la piel del guaraní; es su identificación y es simplemente monstruoso lo que ha hecho el proyecto colonial desde los inicios y sigue haciéndolo hasta ahora, de obligar, mediante alicientes, subterfugios y amenazas a que los Guaraníes cambien de lengua, se despellejen; que el tigre se vuelva cordero. A Mickel Jackson le costó caro cambiar el color de su piel. Los sistemas de educación nacionales han gastado y gastan millones en ese intento. Es cierto que, si lo consiguen, acaban con el territorio guaraní, si es que lo pretenden.

La colonia no llega nunca a la victoria plena mientras no haya conquistado la lengua del vencido hasta hacerla desparecer. 

El niño y la niña al nacer caen en una tierra, en un hueco que lo acoge como nuevo seno, de cual poco a poco se levantará, como plantita que brota y crece, para no confundirse con la mera tierra. Al caer como semilla en la tierra, en realidad cae en un campo cultural, en un teko. Si yo tuviera que elegir una palabra en la cual esté sintetizada la lengua guaraní sería ésta, palabra de varias acepciones, tonos y relaciones. La traducción que da el jesuita Antonio Ruiz de Montoya, en su Tesoro de la lengua guaraní, de 1639, es la siguiente: "ser, estado de vida, condición, estar, costumbre, ley, hábito"; prácticamente, los indicadores que da la antropología moderna del concepto de cultura, tal como la definió dos siglos y medio después Edward B. Taylor en Primitive Culture (Londres 1871): "Cultura, tomada en su amplio sentido etnográfico, es un todo complejo que incluye conocimientos, creencias, arte, moral, leyes, costumbres, o cualquier otra capacidad o hábitos adquiridos por el hombre como miembro de una sociedad".

Los sintagmas, calificaciones y frases a que da lugar el uso del término teko se extiende sobre unas veinte columnas del Tesoro, indicando la importancia y centralidad de este término y su uso en la vida. El teko es la noción que más acerca al esquivo concepto de identidad de las naciones.

Este teko es una tríade en la que se comunican y relacionan el teko katu, el modo de ser auténtico, ley y norma tradicional, el teko porã, el buen vivir y el vivir bien, y el teko marangatu, el modo de ser religioso de creencias, canto y danza, con líderes espirituales y sabios. 

Una superficie terrestre se vuelve espacio geográfico y territorio en la medida en que los lugares físicos ocupados se vuelven lugar de relaciones humanas, de cultura e imaginarios propios. Una tierra –yvy– se torna entonces espacio –tekoha– por obra cultural humana –teko–, que es el modo de ser particular vivido históricamente por un pueblo o nación; es el lugar donde somos lo que somos y queremos seguir siendo; es una cultura diferente de otra, con su propio dinamismo, respondiendo a los nuevos tiempos desde su propia matriz. Cada uno de los tekoha es diferente y, sin embargo, responde a un modo de ser identitario. Se forma, así, un ñande rekoha –nuestro espacio 'inclusivo'–, pues incluye a un grupo humano definido por lengua, cultura y economía, al mismo tiempo que excluye otros espacios donde hay gentes y culturas diferentes, frente a las cuales se hablará deore rekoha –nuestro espacio 'exclusivo' donde no están los "otros"–. El tekoha no es un espacio indefinido, aunque no esté marcado con mojones ni fronteras.

En realidad, los Guaraníes del Paraguay habían vivido siempre en su tekoha, sin mayores interferencias. Para muchos tekoha esta situación se prolongó hasta bien entrado el siglo XX. Los ava de más de cincuenta años recuerdan siempre que había monte, y ahora no hay más. Que había animales del monte, que ahora no hay más.

¿Qué dicen los Guaraníes sobre su tierra y territorio? 

Muchas palabras tienen significados especiales según la cultura en que aparecen. Una palabra tan simple como tierra no tiene el mismo significado en una cultura indígena o en una cultura colonial o capitalista. Yvy, dentro de modo de ser y vida guaraní, tiene un significado propio, aunque con matices de acuerdo con las historias y los modos de vida da cada pueblo, sea Mbyá, Pãi-Tavyterã, Avá-Guaraní o Aché.

Cuando un Pãi-Tavyterã, por ejemplo, habla que la tierra es como el cuerpo, esa metáfora no es un recurso literario, sino un símbolo de vida práctica. Y así como usted no despedazaría el cuerpo de su madre, ni la vendería en pedazos, usted no va a carnear y vender el cuerpo de su madre tierra, de su hijo, de su hermano.

Hay otras palabras como tekoha que ofrecen una construcción ideológica bastante diferente de la tierra. Si bien la tierra es el lugar que pisamos con nuestros pies, el sentido del tekoha –compuesto de teko– es "lugar donde estamos y somos lo que somos", es cultural; teko es "modo de ser, sistema, hábito, costumbre", conforme el significado que presenta el primeiro dicionário guarani de Antonio Ruiz de Montoya, Tesoro de la lengva Gvarani (Madrid, 1639).

El tekoha es el lugar de nuestro sistema. Por eso, en general, el Guaraní no suele hablar del tekoha en la forma absoluta, sino siempre en la forma de genitivo, esto es, de posesión, de referencia. Ñande rekoha es nuestro lugar, es el lugar donde nosotros somos.

¿Tierra es lo mismo que yvy? ¿Es lo mismo que tekoha? Un Guaraní dará una traducción de esos conceptos como él los entiende. "Tierra es tekoha", responderá probablemente. Puede decir que es lo mismo porque él también, con toda razón, considera que nuestro pensamiento es su pensamiento y se estructura de la misma forma. En realidad, no es la misma cosa. Nuestro concepto de tierra no tiene la profundidad del pensamiento de ellos. Tratar de las tierras de los indios desde nuestro punto de vista, que sigue siendo colonial, es una aberración contra derecho. No es cuestión de dar o devolver tierras a los indígenas, sino de reconocer territorios indígenas.

Volvamos a la palabra pueblo. No hay pueblo sin tierra, por lo menos en su origen. Y esto nos lleva a preguntar qué es la tierra para cada pueblo. En el caso guaraní, hay que reconocer que en la práctica el tekoha no puede darse sin algún tipo de territorialidad. Existen pueblos que se desenvuelven sin territorialidad. Es verdad; es el caso de los romaníes, llamados también gitanos, o del pueblo de Israel, que durante muchos años vivió sin territorialidad –aunque en estos casos crean en general territorialidades mínimas.

Ese tekoha, lugar del ser, es también espacio de modo de ser histórico. No hay tekoha sin historia. ¿Qué historia?

Una de las cosas que llama más la atención es la poca memoria que nosotros, los "civilizados", tenemos, o sea, nuestra incapacidad de recordar. Casi no recordamos nada de lo que oímos, y es que no lo hemos vivido con otros; recordar es haber vivido y escuchado. Sin embargo, cuando uno mira la propia vida personal, ve que las experiencias de las cuales hemos hecho memoria son mucho más creadoras de personalidad que los libros que uno leyó o las lecciones escolares. Es ahí donde nace la memoria histórica. El pueblo indígena continúa siendo un pueblo de memoria tradicional, porque no lee, y gracias también a que no lee la pseudomemoria de los "otros".

Esos caminos de la memoria son muy importantes, pues son los que forman la tradición. En el Paraguay hay territorios con tradición; los hay también –en general, las tierras compradas o usurpadas recientemente, en los últimos treinta años– sin tradición. Un territorio tradicional puede continuar siéndolo aunque se interrumpa en él durante unos años la presencia de los guardianes de la tradición, pero al que volvemos en busca de nosotros mismos.

Este es un concepto importante porque los nuevos y recientes propietarios suelen justificar la ocupación de territorios indígenas diciendo que los indios son nómades, ya que pasan de unas tierras a otras sin fijarse de modo definitivo en ninguna. Ahora bien, lo normal es que el pueblo indígena siga ocupando sus tierras tradicionales aunque sus pobladores se renueven y recambien. Los lugares tradicionales indígenas en el Paraguay tienen una ocupación continua de siglos y hasta milenios en algunos casos. Sociológica e históricamente, los nómades son los neoparaguayos que vienen de otros lugares y que expulsan a los habitantes tradicionales empujándolos a rincones de su propio territorio, y empleando incluso amenaza y engaño. La casi totalidad de las tierras del Paraguay están hoy en manos de recién llegados, que en algunos casos ni siquiera han llegado al país, pero tienen los papeles de las tierras usurpadas como bienes de capital anónimo.

El sistema jurídico de propiedad privada tiene memoria corta; le falta sobre todo imaginación para ir a buscar los argumentos en favor de los territorios indígenas donde en realidad están; los derechos indígenas han sido sepultados en el olvido.

Si el Estado no entiende esto, nunca podrá tener una política de territorio indígena, pero ni siquiera de territorio nacional. 

Me permito hacer memoria de mis primeras experiencias de convivencia entre los Mbyá y Avá-Guaraní de Caaguazú y Alto Paraná. Era el año de 1969, cuando me torné aprendiz de antropólogo, guiado por don León Cadogan, el mejor conocedor no indio de la cultura guaraní en el Paraguay.

Solía bajar del ómnibus o de algún camión que entraba al monte en busca de madera de ley o palmito y me iba a pie hasta encontrar el grupo de casas de una comunidad guaraní. Siempre fui bien recibido, menos cuando una vez un acompañante casual, sin que yo me diera cuenta supiera y sin el permiso de los Guaraníes, comenzó a sacar fotos.

Desde el primer momento que entré el mundo guaraní quedé fascinado; escuchaba, observaba y participaba en cuanto podía de la vida guaraní, sobre todo de los rituales de su religión que me llenaban el espíritu de consolación y fuerza, que de hecho no encontraba tan intensamente en mi vida religiosa católica. Sin grandes lucubraciones, pasé a vivir esa especie de "bilingüismo" religioso en el que no había ni primera ni segunda lengua, primera ni segunda religión. Escuchar como niño que aprende los rudimentos de una nueva vida era mi única ocupación. Los Guaraníes, con mucha paciencia, desde entonces hasta ahora me educaron con métodos más humanos y efectivos que los ejercitados en la Universidad de Estrasburgo de la que acababa de salir en aquel año de 1969. Era doctor ¿En qué? ¿En ciencias religiosas, en filosofía? Mi único campo de investigación había sido la biblioteca, esa selva de libros con hojas de papel, a veces más ingrata, con sus secretos escondidos, y sin nadie a quien poder preguntar, casi todos eran autores muertos.

La selva que conocí en ese año de 1969 estaba casi intacta, era todavía aquel ka'a marane'ỹ del que hablaba ya Montoya en su Tesoro de la lengua guaraní de 1639, casi cuatro siglos atrás: "monte de donde no se han sacado palos ni se ha traqueado [removido]", así como yvy marane'ỹ es "suelo intacto (que no se ha edificado)". De hecho este mismo adjetivo marane'y se traduce por "bueno, entero, incorrupto"; incluso por virgen: Tupãsy marane'ỹ, la Virgen Madre de Dios.

Lo mismo puedo decir de las selvas de Amambay que empecé a recorrer y conocer por dentro desde 1972. En esas felices selvas se desarrollaba ese teko porã, que me cautivaba y asombraba, no sólo intelectualmente, sino también, y sobre todo como experiencia de vida. Estas notas biográficas se justifican, creo, porque el teko porã es vivencia y convivencia.

El teko porã es un concepto que atraviesa la experiencia de vida de todos los Guaraníes que conozco y aun otros pueblos de la familia tupí-guaraní esparcidos durante más de dos tercios de la superficie de América del Sur. No es, pues, una filosofía de límites estrechos. Ya conocemos el significado de teko, como el registrado también por Montoya corresponde a: "ser, estado de vida, condición, estar, costumbre, ley, hábito". Entre las numerosas calificaciones que recibe el teko está el teko porã. Es un buen modo de ser, un buen estado de vida, es un "vivir bien" y un "buen vivir", más sentido que filosofado. Es un estado venturoso, alegre, contento y satisfecho, feliz y placentero, apacible y tranquilo. Hay buen vivir, cuando hay armonía con la naturaleza y con los miembros de la comunidad, cuando hay alimentación suficiente, salud, paz de espíritu. Es también identidad cultural plenamente poseída y libre de amenazas.

De los primeros Guaraníes que fueron conocidos en 1504 en la costa del Brasil, dice el capitán francés Binot de Gonneville, que "esos indios son gente simple, que no piden más que llevar una vida simple, sin gran trabajo, viviendo de la caza y pesca y de algunas raíces que plantan". Este buen vivir lo describirá Ulrico Schmidl, que viene con la primera expedición que llega en 1537 al Ambaré, la Asunción de hoy:
Ahí nos dio Dios el Todopoderoso su gracia divina que entre los susodichos Carios o Guaranís hallamos trigo turco [maíz] y mandiotín, batatas, mandioca poropí, mandioca pepirá, maní, bocaya y otros alimentos más, también pescado y carne, venados, puercos del monte, avestruces, ovejas indias, conejos, gallinas y gansos y otras salvajinas las que no puedo describir todas en esta vez. También hay en divina abundancia la miel de la cual se hace el vino; tienen también muchísimo algodón en la tierra.
Sí, hubo tiempos de la divina abundancia que por cierto acabaron con la llegada de esos conquistadores parásitos y colonos egoístas y codiciosos, que sólo producen aquello que pueden acumular, enviándolo al exterior, sin preocuparse lo más mínimo del bienestar del prójimo, su conciudadano, si es que el dinero se rige por criterios de ciudadanía y de sana política.

Desde muchos siglos antes existía una agricultura guaraní planificada y fecunda —se puede hablar incluso de una verdadera y auténtica ciencia agronómica—. Los Guaraníes no eran —ni son— nómades, sino agricultores y mejores productores de alimentos que los colonos que les sucedieron después, sin necesidad de privatizar tierras que producen para empobrecer; no se habían puesto en marcha todavía las fábricas de pobreza, que hoy conocemos, en las que hay que trabajar por salarios mínimos, o quedarse sin trabajo.

El tekoha es hasta hoy para todos los guaraníes —sean ellos Mbyá, Avá-Guaraní o Paĩ/Kaiowá, en Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil o Paraguay— el lugar de teko, es decir, el lugar del ser, del hábito y de la costumbre, del sistema propio, de la familia y de la política, de la economía y la religión. Es lugar "donde somos lo que somos". Ese espacio físico y mental es la condición de posibilidad del teko porã del buen vivir; eso lo que la colonia se ha empeñado en destruir sistemáticamente mediante la usurpación de los territorios indígenas, destrucción ambiental, acumulación privada de bienes, desintegración del sistema social y secularización de los elementos de la vida religiosa.

El conquistador europeo, cuando, empobrecido, se convirtió de mal grado en campesino, acabó por pedir prestados al guaraní esos conocimientos, y los reconoció como los más adecuados para cultivar esa tierra. Sólo los jesuitas reconocieron esta habilidad y sobre ella hicieron descansar el desarrollo de sus pueblos.
De una u otra forma, a ese teko porã se refieren los pueblos guaraníes que lo vivían hasta hace apenas unos cuarenta años, y más concretamente desde que el Tratado de Itaipú y la agricultura mecanizada, en especial para el cultivo de la soja, trastocaron de manera definitiva y rápida las reglas del buen vivir y sus condiciones.

En este punto se impone un inciso y alusión al sistema económico guaraní, que es parte esencial del teko porã

El buen vivir que supone un territorio —y lo necesita— se manifiesta en un tipo de economía que los guaraníes han definido como jopói, y que no es sino la versión de la economía de reciprocidad tan extendida por todo el mundo y desde los primeros tiempos de la humanidad. Âge de pierre, âge de l'abondancel'économie des sociétés primitiveses el acertado título en francés de la obra de Marshal Sahlins, Stone Age Economics (1974), la economía más democrática que ha habido en el planeta.

Al llegar y vivir aunque no sea más que unos pocos días en una aldea indígena de las selvas tropicales de nuestra América, una de las cosas que más llama la atención es el modo como administran lo que tienen y lo que producen, es decir, su economía.

He tenido la suerte de poder convivir, no de modo continuo, es verdad, pero sí durante largas temporadas con Guaraníes de Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil y Paraguay. También con varios pueblos de la Amazonía legal, como los Rikbaktsa, los Iranxe, los Mynkỹ, las Kayabí, y algo menos con Nambikuára y Paressí, y sobre todo con los Enawené Nawé del río Juruena en el Brasil, contactados por primera vez en 1974, con quienes permanecí hasta 1981. En todos ellos domina en lo profundo de su modo de ser la economía de reciprocidad, por ella se definen, para ella trabajan y en ella viven.

Los Guaraníes han condensado ese tipo de economía en una palabra extraordinaria: jopói. Su etimología se compone de tres elementos: jo, partícula de reciprocidad; po,mano; i, abrir: manos abiertas uno para otro, mutuamente. Hay mucha vida y mucha historia en ese jopói, que define un modo de estar en el mundo y una cultura, en la que la distribución e intercambio de bienes se hace no sólo de una manera justa, sino también digna, libre y alegre. Se es más feliz dando que recibiendo. Convidar y dar de comer y de beber al convidado es el centro de la fiesta guaraní.

De ordinario, concebimos la economía como un proceso cuyo primer paso es la producción, el intercambio después y al fin la distribución, que en principio podría ser equitativa. Ahora bien, en las economías de reciprocidad que conozco la economía no comienza por la producción, sino por la fiesta, la distribución festiva de lo que se tiene, como don gratuito. La fiesta es la primera inversión, de la cual el crédito es el trabajo en común, en que se ponen todas las manos. Se produce para dar, y porque se ha dado se produce de nuevo para que el círculo de reciprocidad no se quiebre. El don llama al don, aunque no se está obligado a él. En realidad, el verdadero pobre no es el que no tiene nada para sí, sino el que no tiene nada para dar.

La reciprocidad es una comunicación no sólo de cosas, sino de palabras, de cantos, de relaciones personales. El jo de la reciprocidad entra en los verbos más característicos de la comunidad: conversamos unos con otros, nos convidamos, nos amamos mutuamente. Por el contrario, la tacañería es el miedo a recibir, porque no se quiere dar.

El proceso de trabajo y de producción está, en el Guaraní, no sólo condicionado, sino esencialmente determinado a reproducir el don; es decir, tiene en la reciprocidad, en eljopói, su razón práctica económica. De este modo, el convite y la fiesta, el "convite festivo", son el primero y el último "producto" de esta economía de trabajo. Sin reciprocidad no se entiende el trabajo guaraní, ni siquiera el individual. Potirõ, pepy, jopói son tres palabras sustanciales de la economía guaraní: manos juntas en el trabajo, convite y don, son apenas momentos de un mismo movimiento en el que el modo de ser guaraní se hace ideal y formalmente, pero no de un modo abstracto, sino en lo concreto de la producción de las condiciones materiales de su existencia, que nunca son de mera subsistencia y miran la excedencia y disponibilidad para continuar la producción.

Contrariamente a lo que se piensa, aún hoy el potirõ, la minga, puxirão mutirão, como se dice en el Brasil, y el pepy, convite, se dan en sociedades guaraníes contemporáneas e incluso en sociedades rurales paraguayas y brasileñas, lo que confirma que las formas de trabajo guaraní no han muerto.

Algunos hechos registrados en las crónicas jesuíticas aluden de manera directa a la relación entre trabajo en común y convite: "En viniendo de alguna caza o pesca y al tiempo de labrar sus chacras todos se juntaban a beber y emborracharse y en acabando el vino de una casa pasan a otra con muchos plumajes, muy pintados y adornados". El trabajo, en último término, es una forma de reproducir el don y el don es historia social, memoria y futuro.

En términos más teóricos, decíamos con Dominique Temple, en el libro El don la venganza y otras formas de economía guaraní (Asunción, 2004): "La reciprocidad simétrica instituye la naturaleza del trabajo en otra dimensión, ya que la definición del hombre no es reductible aquí a lo biológico. Esta dimensión es la del hombre total, comprendido lo que lo específica, es decir, su naturaleza espiritual".

En palabras de los mismos Guaraníes, esta forma de trabajo es, a fin de cuentas, tan humana, porque es "divina": tupã reko, un modo de ser, una costumbre, un hábito, un sistema divino, propio de Dios.

El teko porã ha guiado el ideal de vida de los pueblos guaraníes del continente; es lo que ellos mismos dicen y recuerdan, en contraste con su situación actual, en la cual la desgracia, la destrucción del ambiente y el paisaje, las enfermedades, la dependencia de otras formas de vida moderna, en realidad más absurdas, injustas y denigrantes, se les imponen.

La historia del Paraguay desde los tiempos coloniales hasta ahora sigue una tendencia tenebrosa que es precisamente la sustitución del tekoha, esos espacios de armonía ecológica, por la compra-venta de tierras en el mercado, que se ha afirmado sobre todo en los últimos años. Ahora bien, la extensión de latifundios, base económica de nuestros tiempos, no ha producido sino pobres; los "productores" no se sabe qué es lo que producen, pues ni siquiera pagan impuestos sobre las tierras que han privatizado para uso propio exclusivo ni tributan al Estado, por los graves daños que vuelcan sobre el país; en realidad, son productores de exilios, de masas de campesinos que se vuelven extranjeros en su propia tierra; productores de problemas que envían a las ciudades, productores de incultura y desintegración social —el paraguayo medio tiene mucho menos cultura que los indígenas, pues éstos tienen una estructura, un teko más firme y consistente—; por desgracia, la educación de las sociedades rurales y operarias va a la deriva, perdido el norte de un teko porã, que va despareciendo de su horizonte.

La eliminación sistemática de los tekoha indígenas es el paso estratégico fatal para impedir que haya un teko porã, no sólo para los indígenas, sino para toda la población del país.

Por todo eso, el teko porã guaraní no es solo memoria de un pasado nostálgico e idílico, sino proyecto de futuro, mediante el cual pensamos y decimos lo que queremos ser, y ya lo comenzamos a ser: es memoria de futuro. Y lo es para todos, pues es un buen vivir universal. Ese teko porã es posible y el buen vivir es todavía utopía que tuvo y puede tener lugar. El teko porã es el modo bueno y posible para vivir hoy y en el futuro.

El complejo de apyka, avapire, teko, tekoha teko porã no es una relación natural ni tampoco una idea abstracta aplicable a todos los lugares y culturas por igual. La naciones que salieron de las independencias del siglo XIX en su intento de homogeneizar poblaciones y estados han querido imponer una educación para todos, que resulta en la mayoría de los casos absurda y ridícula, al perseguir resultados discriminatorios en el uso del lenguaje y el poder.