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談幾個便宜的1000mm反射鏡頭(Celestron C5和C90, Meade, 和Rubinar)

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談幾個便宜的1000mm反射鏡頭(CelestronC5和C90,Meade,和Rubinar) 冼鏡光 July15,2018上線 六年(2012)前寫了一篇常見的500mmf/8反射鏡頭測試(Accura、Canon、Nikon、Sigma、Tamron、Tokina和Vivitar)比較若干個500mm的反射鏡頭,當時的想法是下一篇應該是其它的500mm(譬如Contax、Minolta、MTO、Olympus、Yashica等等)或者是1000mm才有意思。沒想到一些意料之外的因素而停了下來,久了之後就忘了,這個暑假趁着天氣好趕快把未完成的部份補充,這就是本篇幾個便宜的1000mm鏡頭的比較。請注意到「便宜」這兩個字,我的標準是在eBay上$300美元左右以下的標價(或成交價),所以像是Nikon、Pentax這些比較貴的就不考慮了。我知道Sigma也有一個1000mmf13.5,雖然不十分貴但也不便宜,而且經驗告訴我Sigma的反射鏡頭並不十分高明,所以就沒列在這一批,或許日後有機會弄到一個時再專文介紹,反正拍攝的景都是固定的而只有時間不同,在比較上不會有多大困難。 這次比較的鏡頭一共五個:CelestronC51250mmf/10、CelestronC901250mmf/13.8、Celestron橘筒C901000mmf/11、Meade1000mmf/11和Rubinar1000mmf/10Macro。除了Rubinar之外,其它四個都是天文(或觀測)望遠鏡設計,而Rubinar是攝影鏡頭。所以,我們可以預期用Rubinar拍攝會有比較好的效果,然而令人驚訝的是CelestronC5居然未必遜色,後者的拍攝結果就是証據。 這是篇圖多的長文,我們從各個鏡頭的介紹開始! 鏡頭說明 本文介紹的鏡頭一共五個(下面照片):自左而右是CelestronC5(白筒)、CelestronC90(橘筒)、CelestronC90(黑筒)、Meade和Rubinar;除了Rubinar是俄國貨之外,Celestron和Meade都是美國貨,但黑筒的C90是在大陸製造;Celestron和Meade到今天都是反射式望遠鏡的大廠。這五個鏡頭中,除了CelestronC5(以下簡稱C5)之外都是Maksutov-Cassegrain設計,但C5卻是Schmidt-Cassegrain設計。Schmidt-Cassegrain(一般簡稱為SCT,表示Schmidt-CassegrainTelescope)設計中最前方是一片薄的非球面透鏡,主要的用途是修正球面像差;入射光經過在後方的主反射鏡送回在前方透鏡中央的副反射鏡,最後再反射到達影像平面(下圖)。Maksutov-Cassegrain(通常簡稱做MAK或Mak甚至MCT)設計最前方是一片有相當厚度的負(或凹)新月型透鏡,其它部分和SCT相同。 這五個鏡頭中,除了Rubinar之外、其它四個都是相當傳統的望遠鏡設計:在鏡頭尾部沒有校正透鏡;換句話說,從鏡筒後面灌水進去,就直接會進入鏡筒內部。Rubinar後頭有校正透鏡,所以鏡筒是前後都封住的,因為這是個攝影鏡頭。正因為如此,Rubinar在邊角上的表現要比其它四個鏡頭好。 照片中除了Rubinar之外,每一個鏡頭都裝上了和該鏡頭相容的T2接環連接管,再加上一個T2到SonyE的接環。Rubinar的接環是T2(42x0.75mm),照片中是裝了一個有對焦環的M42到SonyE的接環。 以下我們先把各鏡頭稍做解釋後再看拍攝結果。 CelestronC5(簡稱C5)我們從C5談起,此地的鏡頭其實是第二代。Celestron在1970年推出CelestronC8,此地8指的是鏡頭口徑、單位是英吋,所以C8的口徑是203.2mm,又因為鏡頭的f值是f/10,所以C8的焦距是2032mm=203.2x10,這個時期的Celestron鏡頭的鏡筒是橘色。下面照片是C8,相機是NikonD7000。 Celestron在1971年推出C5、光圈仍然是f/10,所以C5的口徑約略是5英吋(12.7公分)、焦距是1250mm。我在1980年代曾經買過這(第)一代的C5的觀測版(黑筒)、沒有尋星鏡、但有一個可以接相機的T接環裝到SLR上拍攝。下面是從照片掃描用這個C5拍攝以前松山機場747起飛的照片,拍攝地點在敦化北路上民生東路和機場中央所在,時間大約是在1980年代中期。 在1990年代初Celestron重新設計C5上市,就是下面這個白筒版。鏡筒側面標了CELESTRON字樣(第一張照片),鏡筒前方是一片薄非球面鏡片,中間黑色圓形後面是副反射鏡(第二張照片)。副反射鏡很容易被震鬆或離開最佳位置,於是就會直接影響到影像品質,因此使用人得透過前方的三個螺絲把副反射鏡調回最佳位置。我這個C5已經十多年沒調過、而且也常把它放在車子裡頭帶出去拍攝,所以C5真正的影像品質應該不輸此地的拍攝結果。 鏡筒底部有燕尾榫式(dovetailmount)的安裝機制(第一張照片),一般可以直接裝上有Arca-Swiss機制的腳架頭(只要腳架座寛度夠,不然可以裝在ArcaSwiss的快拆板上),十分方便。C5的對焦機制是在鏡筒後方的銀色旋鈕(第二張照片),逆時針旋轉往無限遠方向對焦、順時針則往最近距離方向。這種旋鈕式對焦對長焦距鏡頭十分方便。因為旋轉鏡筒少許可能對焦平面就會移動很遠,加上長焦距鏡頭景深很淺,對焦平面差一點點,主體就不在景深範圍裡頭。旋鈕對焦經過齒輪等機制,可以做到非常精細的微調使對焦更準確。更重要的是,它通常可以對焦超過無限遠適應溫度變化,而且也彌補轉接環長度不準的常見問題(一些差的轉接環無法讓鏡頭對焦到無限遠)。 目前的CelestronC5當然不是這個白筒版,而是進入二十一世紀初的黑筒版,下面照片中黑筒是近期版、白筒是本文使用的鏡頭。 如果您對Celestron的發展史有興趣,CompanySeven的這篇介紹很値得看看。 CelestronC90(簡稱C90)CelestronC90是一個相當普及的産品,它在1978年發表、大約從1979年就開始生產。因為便宜而且體積又小,C90的銷售一向不弱,下面是1980年代初期的C90,它的鏡筒是橘色(和上一節提到的C8是同一時間)。以它的序列號碼9287來看,它應該是相當早期的產品,這個時期的橘筒C90有光學結構完全相同的三型:天文型有天文用腳架和其它機制、觀測型有尋星鏡但只有通用腳架孔(照片中的是觀測型、但尋星鏡和它的座已經取下)、和攝影型(只有鏡頭)。鏡筒上黑色有齒的是對焦環,沒有距離標示也沒有景深刻度,對焦方式和一般攝影鏡頭相同。第二張照片是底部的腳架座,它有一個目前常見尺寸的腳架孔。 C90是個Maksutov設計,所以常被簡稱為C90MAK。下面是鏡頭前方,中間亮銀圓形就是透鏡後方鍍銀的副反射鏡,一般的Maksutov設計就是如此。鏡頭前方是一片有相當厚度的凹鏡面,這可以從它上面的反光看出來。 這個早期的C90表示鏡頭口徑是90mm,焦距是1000mm、光圈為f/11。它的對焦機制非常簡單,常見的毛病就是時間久了裡頭的滑潤劑乾固使對焦不順暢或是根本轉不動,好在是C90很容易分解修理,網上多有說明。然而,它的更大問題(我的觀點)是轉那麼大的對焦環很容易讓鏡頭擺動,從而把鏡頭移離開目標;另外,對焦環移動幅度很大,非常不容易精準對焦。所以,個人比較喜歡用前面C5那樣的旋鈕對焦,用過了就知道好處、缺點就是慢。 從大約是1985年起C90變成黑筒,然後又有其它變化。目前市售的C90如下,鏡筒變成黒色而且也比較長。為什麼鏡筒比較長?原因是鏡頭的焦距加長到1250mm(第二張照片),由於口徑仍然是90mm,所以f值就是f/13.9=1250/90、大約是f/14。從照片中透鏡的反光也可以看出最前面的是凹的,因為這仍然是個MAK(Maksutov)設計的反射鏡頭。 下面第一張照片是鏡筒尾部,那個突出的黑色旋鈕是對焦鈕,逆(順)時針旋轉往無限遠(最近距離)方向對焦;說明書上指出,最短對焦距離是4.6公尺。前面講C5時提過,用對焦旋鈕對焦比較能精確對焦。第二張照片是鏡頭底部,也有一個燕尾榫式(dovetailmount)的安裝機制。 Meade97D(簡稱Meade)Meade的這個鏡頭通常叫做Series97D型,焦距是1000mm、光圈為f/11、口徑是90mm。Celestron和Meade是世界兩大望遠鏡製造商,幾乎囊括絶大部分的SCT和MCT市場,而且Meade比Celestron還要大,在二十世紀末還想把Celestron併吞,但因為反拖拉斯法經過聽証會後未能如願,所以今天才又回到兩強併列的態勢。 下面是Meade的側面,這是白筒,不過這一型似乎全是白筒。有顆粒狀的是對焦環,對焦距離是3m到無限遠。第二張照片是腳架座。 下面是鏡頭前方,中央有個銀色的圓點,所以這個Meade是標準的Maksutov設計;從鏡片的反光也可以看出前方是凹的。 雖然Meade這個鏡頭不論尺寸、焦距和光圈都和Celestron的橘筒C90近似,但是二手市場上卻不如C90那麼多,這多少是因為生産較晚(也許是1980年代晚期或1990年代初期開始生產),但是這個鏡頭的好評卻不太多(雖然C90也毀譽參半),所以銷售可能並不很理想也說不定。 如果您對Meade這家公司的發展有興趣,不妨參看CompanySeven的這篇文章,不過該文並沒有提此地介紹的鏡頭,想來它不是Meade的主力産品。 MCRubinar1000mmf/10Macro(簡稱Rubinar)Rubinar(Рубинар)是俄國LytkarinoPlantofOpticalGlass(簡稱LZOS)的產品。Rubinar系列有若干反射鏡頭,此地談的是1000mmf/10Macro(下面照片),因為焦距是1000mm、而光圈是f/10,所以口徑是100mm=1000/10,是此地介紹的五個鏡頭中第二大的。 下面照片是鏡筒前端,很明顯地會看到MC後面跟著紅色的俄文RUBINAR,下緣就是LZOS的商標。那個顆粒狀的寛環是對焦環,對焦距離大約是從4公尺到無限遠。鏡頭標上Macro的原因,是在最短距離時的放大率為1:4(也就是0.25X);至於1:4的放大率是否算是微距,那就見仁見智了。 下面是鏡頭前方的照片,從反光可以看出第一片透鏡是凹的、但卻沒有一個亮銀點,這是Maksutov設計嗎?是的,下面是我從網路上找到的這個鏡頭的結構。我們看到幾個重要的差異:(1)最前面並不是一片新月型透鏡、而是多了一片正的透鏡,兩片透鏡加起來完成原Maksutov設計應該有的修正。(2)副反射鏡裝在鏡頭前方突出的小圓筒中,於是到達副反射鏡的光線會先被第一片透鏡折射,反射出來的光線又再度被第一片透鏡折射,這是Mangin設計、可以縮短鏡筒的長度;但是,主反射鏡卻不是Mangin設計。日本生產的反射鏡頭幾乎全是Mangin設計,鏡筒明顯地比較短。(3)在鏡頭尾部還有一個複合透鏡做進一步修正,所以我們可以預期在攝影應用上影像品質會比較好。 (取自網路) 鏡頭底部有個十分「奇怪」的腳架座(下面照片),照片中腳架孔裝了個大頭螺絲、這是用來固定那個環的位置用的。換句話說,把這個螺絲轉鬆就可以把鏡筒在環中自由轉動,轉緊了就鎖住位置。腳架裝那兒?把那顆螺絲轉下來就是腳架孔,然而我試過五六個腳架的快拆板(包含ArcaSwiss),發現都可以裝進去,但螺絲長度都不夠,無法鎖緊鏡筒,在拍攝時鏡筒仍然可以自由轉動。 要如何鎖緊鏡筒呢?下面是鏡筒尾部,外圍厚厚的環就是可以轉動而且有腳架孔(6點鐘方向)的環,環上12點鐘方向有個小螺絲,把它轉緊就可以把鏡筒在環中鎖緊。您不覺得這是個很奇怪而且又有點莫名其妙的設計?大多數日系鏡頭都有個大螺絲頭可以轉鬆或轉緊,讓使用人隨時(不用任何工具)可以調整相機的旋轉角度。但是,這個鏡頭卻逼著使用人身上帶一個小螺絲起子。再說,那個腳架座實在太小、無法有效支撐那麽大的鏡頭。 我對俄國貨十分沒信心就是上面所講的。不但如此,這個鏡頭的小螺絲根本就鎖不緊鏡筒,小螺絲已經轉到不能動了,鏡筒卻仍然可以自由轉動。其實我有兩個這樣的鏡頭,另一個卻有準直校正(collimation)不足的問題,無法精確對焦。所以,玩俄國鏡頭心中要有品管差而造成的諸般問題的準備,弄到一個好鏡頭得靠點運氣。 這個鏡頭是用M42接環,但我手上的兩個都是用T2接環轉到其它機型。由於很多陸製接環的長度規格不足而無法對焦到無限遠,我決定把鏡頭上的T2接環拔掉而換成一個有對焦環的M42到NEX的接環。T2接環的規格是42x0.75mm,而M42的規格是42x1mm,兩者的口徑相同都是42mm,但紋距卻不同,所以把M42接環裝到T2螺紋裡頭不會十分密合(見下面照片)。好在是,因為有對焦環可以伸縮,這就彌補了不十分密合的問題,而且也可以對焦到無限遠。我的做法是,用鏡頭的對焦環約略對焦,再用轉接環上的對焦機制微調,手續麻煩些但可以對得很準、比轉鏡筒上對焦環準得多。 拍攝方式 在反射鏡頭系列的文章中都使用APS-C片幅相機拍攝,這一篇也不例外,不過我的NEX5已經退休,所以本篇改用SonyNEX6拍攝。因為是在APS-C機型上拍攝,於是1000mm和1250mm焦距的視角就分別相當於135底片上的1500mm和1875mm。為了儘可能避免相機的後製手續對影像品質影響太大,所有和影像後製的參數如果能夠關掉就關掉,要不然就定成中立(neutral)或低(low)。當然這表示是拍攝JPEG檔。 這五個鏡頭中的四個其實原來是天文望遠鏡,只有Rubinar是個攝影鏡頭,因此在取景拍攝時我用到了從無限透到非常近的距離,於是我們可以看出天文望遠鏡是否是只在遠距離表現理想。正因為如此,本篇的拍攝時間相當長、橫跨好幾月,文章的寫作時間自然也長。 有兩點得在此地先做個說明。第一,拍攝時都沒加遮光罩,因為有些鏡頭(譬如C5)無法裝遮光罩,所以儘可能順光拍攝。第二,長焦距鏡頭對焦十分不容易。由於景深很淺,稍許對焦失誤就有可能造成主體逸出景深範圍,加上反射鏡頭的對比低些,所以對焦極難非常準確,您不妨把本文的照片看成是最基本的影像品質,若對焦更準些(如果可能的話),影像品質會更好。 下面,我們就從無限遠起以距離遞降的方式看看各個鏡頭的表現。 實際拍攝:無限遠 第一景是在無限遠的月亮。因為五個鏡頭的焦距不同,拍到的月亮大小自然也不同,所以我們以CelestronC5為準(因為它的焦距1250mm最長,於是月亮拍得最大),把原畫面中包含了月亮的2700x2700裁下來再縮成600x600,這就是下面的結果。當然,CelestronC5和黑筒的CelestronC90因為焦距都是1250mm,拍得的月亮也最大;固然剩下的三個鏡頭的焦距都是1000mm,Meade的結果比CelestronC90橘筒和Rubinar的結果來得大一些,所以Meade的真正焦距應該在1000mm和1250mm之間。 下面是右下角第谷坑(TychoCrater)處的600x600裁切。很明顯地,在兩個1250mm鏡頭中,C5比黑筒的C90好很多。在三個1000mm中,Rubinar的對比和解像力都強些,個人以為橘筒的C90勝過Meade,因為後者會產生紫藍色色調,因此在實用上紫邊可能會相當明顯。C5和Rubinar相比,我覺得C5比較好,至於這有沒有可能是用Rubinar時對焦失準,就是一個手動對焦的問題了,因為人為誤差總是有的。總之,以這個景而言,我認為: C5>Rubinar>橘筒C90>黑筒C90>Meade 實際拍攝:1.5公里 這個景是從1.5公里外的小山丘上拍攝城裡的地方法院。那天有點熱,所以熱氣上昇使對焦十分困難,縱使對焦凖確也會使拍到畫面的解像力和對比打了折扣,這是各位得了解的一點。另外,鏡頭裝卸和對焦費時、而且又是在傍晚拍攝,從拍第一張到最後一張差不多要30多分鐘,於是各張照片的日照角度也不盡相同,這也是看這組照片時應該注意的。下面是各個鏡頭拍到的結果: 下面是在畫面中央的裁切。毫無意外她,在兩個1250mm的鏡頭中,C5比黑筒的C90來得好。在三個1000mm鏡頭中,Rubinar仍然提供了比較多的細節,橘筒C90的細節也比Meade的多、後者在高對比區域邊緣有一層若有若無的紫色調(其實在暗部也有這個傾向)。在C5和Rubinar兩者,後者的對比高者,然而仔細看來卻並沒有提供更多細節(或許是因為放大率較小的緣故)。以窗戶的格子來看,C5的明顯地比較結實,所以我們結論仍然是: C5>Rubinar>橘筒C90>黑筒C90>Meade 實際拍攝:800公尺 這是此地鐵橋的景,照片是分兩天拍的,因為拍攝時風大、鏡頭可能晃動,所以隔一天再拍一次、從兩組照片中選較優的一組做準。下面是各個鏡頭拍到的結果,對焦部位是畫面中央的告示牌;因為水面熱氣蒸發使對焦困難、而且也會降低影像品質,但是所有鏡頭都會受到影響,因而大致扯平,不過先點出這項事實還是好些(上一個景也如此): 其次是中央告示牌部位的600x600裁切。很明顯地,Rubinar的對比最高、影像品質也最好(請不要忘了大氣擾動的影響)、其次是C5;這兩者在解析度上很難區分高下,但是Rubinar的影像結實些而且對比也高些。在解像力上,黑筒C90看起來並不弱,然而畫面卻總是有一層灰濛濛的感覺,這降低了對比、也降低了畫面的純淨度。橘筒C90的影像也相當結實,問題也是不太純淨;Meade的結果稍許鬆軟些(請看最下排的字)。所以,就中央部位的品質而言,我的看法是這樣的: Rubinar>C5>黑筒C90>橘筒C90>Meade 接着我們看畫面下緣的表現。因為各鏡頭的焦距不同、畫面下緣自然不同,而且(說老實話)很難把每一個鏡頭都正好對在同一地點,所以下頭的裁切不盡相同。然而,看各卯釘以及樓梯和欄桿的陰影就不難瞭解各鏡頭的表現。我們很容易看出,Rubinar最好、其次是C5,其它三個鏡頭都有霧霧的感覺,橘筒C90和Meade都有相當顯著的、蔓延出來的紫邊(C90還嚴重些);黑筒C90很難定位,它沒有明顯的紫邊、但畫面都是濛的。以我個人的觀點來看,在邊緣部位的表混我認為: Rubinar>C5>Meade>橘筒C90>黑筒C90 實際拍攝:400公尺 下面是距拍攝地點400公尺出頭的一楝房子,對焦部位是閣樓中間的屋頂。這個區域的對比不高,對焦相當困難。很明顯地,兩個C90和Meade的畫面對比都比較低。黑筒C90的影像周圍比較暗、而且畫面似乎有一層薄霧罩著,橘筒C90也有這個現象。 我們看看對焦部位的裁切。顯然地,C5和Rubinar提供了相當豐富的細節,而且C5好像分離這些細節的能力高些,雖然差別不大。其它三個鏡頭的對比不高,難以看到很多細節,所以,以這個景而言,我覺得: C5=Rubinar>黑筒C90>Meade>橘筒C90 實際拍攝:200公尺 接下來咱們看看200公尺的情況。這是本地礦區冶鍊場的一部分,廢置很久了,現在是當成古蹟保護。照片中的房子是一整片廠房的小部份,距離拍攝地點約200公尺出頭一點。從下面的照片不難看出,C5和Rubinar提供了更多細節,而且Rubinar的對比也較高,其它三個鏡頭對比低、畫面淡了些也少了些細節。另外,因為C5焦距比較長,於是景深也比較淺,所以前景的鐵絲網在C5的影像中比Rubinar的稍許模糊些。 下面是中央對焦部位的裁切,對焦部位就是那條斜斜的白線(漆?),因為它在磚頭上形成比較高的對比。毫無疑問地,因為對比高,Rubinar最好(看看燈的底座)。其次是差不遠的C5,事實上,如果不是有點朦朦的低對比,C5不會比Rubinar差太遠,把這個部分或整張照片的對比提高些,結果就會完全改觀。其餘的三個鏡頭表現相似,所以我認為: Rubinar>C5>黑筒C90>Meade>橘筒C90 http://www.cs.mtu.edu/~shene/FORUM/Taiwan-Forum/Mirror-Lens-Talk/04-1000mm-Mirror-Lens/RUIN-200m-Rubinar-C-X.jpg 實際拍攝:100公尺 拍攝100公尺出頭一艘船的引擎。那天風很強、浪也大,所以是躲在車子後面拍攝。船是泊在碼頭邊、移動不太大,不過按下快門時的確會稍許改變位置,好在是快門速度都夠高影響並不很大。下面是五個鏡頭拍攝的結果: 我們看中央部位的表現(見下面照片)。首先,C5的結果仍然比黑筒C90好很多。黑筒C90拍到的影像似乎都蒙上一層紗似地、比較淡而且對比低,都有暈、四角比較暗。其它三個鏡頭中,畫面純淨度方面只有Rubinar可以和C5一較長短;橘筒的C90和Meade除了對比高些之外,紫邊都十分明顯(特別是Meade),所以都不如黑筒C90。就中央部位的品質而言,我的看法是這樣的: C5=Rubinar>黑筒C90>橘筒C90>Meade 這個景的邊緣沒多少細節而且也可能不在景深範圍內,所以我打算看看引擎頂蓋的細節,下面是該處的裁切。五個鏡頤中,只有C5和Rubinar把Kicker這個字呈現得很好,而且Rubinar似乎好些。C5和黑筒C90很清楚地呈現了NOTICE這個字(右下角),但C5的效果好很多。Meade的紫邊相當嚴重,和橘筒C90相比是差了。以我個人的觀點來看,在邊緣部位的表現如下: C5=Rubinar>黑筒C90>橘筒C90>Meade 整體而言,我的看法是: C5=Rubinar>黑筒C90>橘筒C90>Meade 實際拍攝:40公尺 這個距拍攝地點約40公尺的景是對門鄰居的車庫燈,在這樣的距離下,大氣擾動的影響不會很大、鏡頭的品質比較容易看出來,不過有多少人會在40公尺處用1000mm的鏡頭拍攝就很難說了,因為往前走幾步路用200mm或300mm鏡頭拍攝的結果會好很多、而且還不需要用腳架。下面是各個鏡頭拍到的結果,對焦是燈座和底部的花紋: 其次是燈部位的600x600的裁切。首先,C5的表現比黑筒的C90好很多:燈座上的螺絲頭在C5的結果中十分清楚,但黑筒的C90就糊了而缺乏細節,燈泡底座也如此。三個1000mm鏡頭中,Rubinar仍然最好,其次是橘筒的C90、然而影像卻有點霧霧的,最差的還是Meade、紫邊已經相當明顯了。 比較C5和Rubinar兩張裁切很有意思。猛一看去,我們會覺得Rubinar的結果比較銳利、C5的結果有點糊;如果仔細些會發現牆壁上螺絲釘頭在C5的影像中似乎比Rubinar中有更多細節。這讓我想到C5的對焦是否偏後面,以致於前面稍許糊了些、但後方的表現卻比較好。一個1250mm鏡頭當對焦距離是40公尺而且光圈為f/10時的景深只有40公分左右、對焦點前後各約20公分,只要對焦點偏移少許,景深前緣和後緣的清晰程度就會有很顯著的變化。不論如何,以這一組照片來看,我認為: C5=Rubinar>橘筒C90>黑筒C90>Meade 實際拍攝:20公尺 下面的樹幹距相機大約是23公尺,對焦部位是畫面中央的陰影、對比較高的區域: 接下來是該區域的裁切。比較Rubinar和C5仍然有點問題,因為兩者的焦距不同,兩者解像力看起來相差不遠、很難斷定何者絶對較優,不過Rubinar的對比較高是明顯的。黑筒C90的解像力看來也不弱,但多出那層灰濛濛的霧使畫面失色不少;橘筒C90還原細節的能力也不俗,但也有一層若有若無的灰色甚至淺紫色的濛濛霧氣;Meade的解像力顯然弱了些、而且紫色調也更明顯。所以,以這個20公尺的景而言,我認為: C5=Rubinar>橘筒C90>黑筒C90>Meade http://www.cs.mtu.edu/~shene/FORUM/Taiwan-Forum/Mirror-Lens-Talk/04-1000mm-Mirror-Lens/TRUNK-Russian-C-X.jpg 實際拍攝:5公尺 這是最後一景,大約5公尺。我想不太會有人用1000mm的鏡頭在5公尺處拍攝的,加上這一景其實是想看看這幾個鏡頭在極端距離下的表現(譬如當近拍用)。請注意,一個f/10的1000mm鏡頭在對焦距離是5公尺時景深只有0.5公分左右,對焦一有差池影像的淸晰度就會有很大的差異。以下是用各個鏡頭拍攝的景: 這張照片的對焦部位是眼睛上方中央下垂的纖維,下面是各鏡頭拍攝結果的裁切。從這幾張裁切看來,各個鏡頭的解像力都不錯,但是Rubinar在物體周圍有暈、因而霧狀十分明顯;固然C5也有少許蔭開的現象,但是並沒有太大的影響,而且眼睛右側的細毛表現相當不錯;黑筒C90和C5相去不遠,但多出的一層薄霧降低了還原現場的能力,更重要的是暗角在這張背景均勻的畫面中十分清楚;橘筒的C90表現十分亮眼;最後的Meade影像似乎不夠紥實,不過我覺得是比Rubinar好。所以,我認為: C5>橘筒C90>黑筒C90>Meade>Rubinar 實際拍攝:邊緣的表現 一般而言,用那麼長的焦距拍攝時,主體差不多都在中央、畫面邊緣部份會被虛化變得不怎麽重要。本文的照片都是用APS-C機型拍攝,所以原鏡頭影像最邊緣的部位都已經被裁掉,那麼這些鏡頭在APS-C片幅下邊緣的表現如何呢?這倒是可以試試的。我只挑C5和Rubinar兩者,又手上正好有一支Nikon1000mmf/11的後期版,所以看看三支鏡頭的表現如何。選的景就是800公尺的橋,前面看過了,此地再重覆一次,下面是三支鏡頭的拍攝畫面: 下面是中央部位的裁切。Rubinar的對比仍然較高,但和Nikon的很難說有很大差異,而C5則是稍許弱一點。 我們再看畫面左緣。因為對焦距離是800公尺多一些、而且光圈都是f/10和f/11,景深高達180公尺以上,所以左緣橋的欄桿其實不但在景深內、而且還離對焦平面不遠,於是比較左緣還是有意義的。下面就是畫面左緣的裁切。我們可以看到Nikon比Rubinar好,而C5的已經糊了。由此觀之,如果鏡頭是在135底幅的相機上使用時,邊緣表現最好的應該是Nikon。若在APS-C片幅的相機上邊緣已經開始弱化,在更大片幅的相機上會更差,於是C5在135片幅上的表現,邊緣會相當弱。這不難理解,C5最前方的非球面透鏡可以把球面像差修正到某個程度,但對慧形像差和像場彎曲等卻沒有足夠的修正能力,所以攝影鏡頭在鏡筒後端加上另一組透鏡修正其它像差。因此,Nikon和Rubina在邊緣的表現會勝過C5是可以想見的,但C5在中央的表現居然那麽好的確令人驚艷。 綜合評論 本文提到的五個鏡頭都不是很貴的,橘筒C90和Meade的二手價通常在一百美元上下、C90新貨一般在200美元以下。C5當然會比較貴,但新版的黑筒C5也不過300多美元(只含鏡頭而不帶任何配件),不過別忘了一個接T2接環的管子和一個從T2到您的相機的轉接環,這筆花費也得算進去。Rubinar的價格和C5差不多,這是五個鏡頭中唯一為攝影設計的鏡頭。 五個鏡頭中,C5和Rubinar總是名列前矛,要取哪個?我多半會選C5,原因是(1)用這麼長的焦距拍攝時主體在絶大多數情況下會在中央,所以C5在邊緣表現較差的問題影響不會很大。(2)C5的焦距是1250mm,差這250mm就會差很遠,前面的照片說明了這一點。(3)Rubinar的腳架座實在令人不敢恭維,裝在腳架上很容易搖晃;以往日式的長鏡頭會在對焦環上裝一根小桿使對焦順暢(下面照片),Rubinar上卻沒有,於是粗大的鏡筒在對焦時轉動不便,使得精準對焦的難度相當高(C5的旋鈕對焦比較容易對得準、但卻慢)。(4)如果您手上已經有一個品質好的Rubinar,那就用它而不必考慮C5;如果您是才進場想找一支1000mm的反射鏡頭,記得要仔細檢查它的品質,慢慢對焦多試拍幾張再做決定。 剩下的三支1000mm又如何?如果您不放大看或者是只印成小張照片(譬如3x5或5x5)、或縮成小圖在網上傳閱分享,這三個比較便宜的鏡頭也未必會讓您失望,但是您得記住它們的對比都偏低、色彩有時會有點濁。解決之道是:(1)加一個足夠長的遮光罩,有需要的話就自己造一個,這樣可以降低泛光從而提高對比。(2)後製時提高對比、提高色彩飽和度、小心銳化,處理過的照片仍然是不錯的。(3)黑筒C90的暗角有時十分明顯,如果您的修圖軟體可以消除暗角就最好了,要不然在構圖時試著不要把主體放在角落或邊緣也是個辦法。 如果以容易攜帶為準,橘筒C90和Meade足夠小,可以放到相機包中,黑筒C90就比較長了。C5和Rubinar都相當大,得用另外的袋子或箱子(或筒子)裝才方便。這也是C90這一類型鏡頭曾經頗好賣的理由之一。另外,加一個目鏡和正像稜鏡,這些天文望遠鏡(除Rubinar之外)就可以是一支高倍率的觀測用、或者是觀測月球等的望遠鏡,這是十有方便的。Rubinar好像也有類似的望遠鏡套件,但似乎不容易找到,然而市面上不難找到為各大廠鏡頭設計的目鏡,用這些目鏡要比用天文望遠鏡的配件簡單,下面就是一個這樣的目鏡: 如果您問我要在這三支90mm口徑的鏡頭中會長挑哪個的話,我大致上會這樣做:如果結果是縮成小圖在網上分享,任何一支都行,但我比較偏好橘筒或稍後期的黑筒1000mmC90;Meade也行。如果期望解析度高些或産生較大的圖,那就得1250mm的黑筒C90,然而後製手續可能複雜些。無論如何,記得加一個夠長的遮光罩。 結論 本文介紹了五個相對便宜的1000mm反射式望遠鏡頭,其中只有Rubinar是個攝影鏡頭,其它四個是天文望遠鏡、需要相容的T接環管子、以及一個T2到相機的接環,好在是這些零件在網上多得很,找不到的話就到賣天文望遠鏡的店問就行了。 俗話說一分錢一分貨,比較貴的C5和Rubinar的確略勝一籌,但其它三個較便宜的(一般在$200美元以內)是差了些,然而如果只産生小圖或印成小張照片的話,提高對比、加點飽和度、再小心銳化,結果也是相當不錯的。 總之,本文的目的是討論五個1000mm左右、比較便宜的反射鏡頭和它們的表現,希望對您在挑選鏡頭時有更多的資訊。往後此地還會有更多的反射鏡頭介紹。 未經本人同意,請勿轉載轉貼本文任何片段,請尊重智慧財產(著作)權 引用方式:冼鏡光,談幾個便宜的1000mm反射鏡頭(CelestronC5和C90,Meade,和Rubinar),DCView.com達人部落格(http://blog.dcview.com/article.php?a=AT0CZwBjCjQGZA%3D%3D)
          

Mark your calendars: Celestial event of the year Nov. 11 [Mercury Transit Sun]

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NEVER LOOK DIRECTLY AT THE SUN. SPECIAL GLASSES OR FILTER WILL BE NEEDED TO VIEW. Just like the solar eclipse in 2017, special glasses or filters will be required to view the transit. Since Mercury is so small, however, you will also need binoculars or a telescope to view. Use extreme caution when using magnification to look at the sun. If using binoculars or a telescope, make sure the proper solar film is installed on the front lens, not the eyepiece for safe viewing. An even safer way to view the sun is to project the image on to something.
          

Telescope

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Telescope
          

The View: Tulsi Gabbard, Hot Topics, Impeachapalooza

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Sunny is out today, back tomorrow

Tulsi Gabbard



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Y8ayIpjPvY

Two more clips behind the cut


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=msVhaPX18I8



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VOstWN4tvQk

Tulsi Gabbard wants you to know that she is a patriot but watch for Joy 😲 😃

Summary of conversation
[Omg @ Joy loooool who is pleasant but has less than zero f.cks to give]
Whoopi asks about Hawaii telescope on sacred land. Reminds about Sondland changing testimony, wonders if Tulsi was surprised. Tulsi ignores the question, goes right in to Hillary complaints, the accusations of being a Russian asset, trojan horse, a useful idiot. Gives imapatriot! speech, she’s intelligent woman of color. More speech. Joy says well Franklin Graham finds her refreshing, Richard Spencer white nationalist says he’d vote for her, says Tulsi goes on Tucker Carlson 16x. Joy pokes more about Hillary. Abby plays audio of Hillary remarks. Tulsi says it’s outrageous she would be accused of being a Russian asset. Lists her resume. Whoopi asks if she is surprised when everyone sees the bots propping her up, for people to think that. Tulsi says it’s offensive to be accused [but doesn’t answer question]. Joy wants to know what her evidence is that Hillary is a warmonger. Tulsi says Iraq war. Joy says, did Tulsi believe in it. Tulsi said she believed the lies. Joy says, well so did Hillary. Tulsi continues to talk about smear campaigns.

Abby says Tulsi’s not afraid to go against her own party. Tulsi said she won’t run as third party, she wants to do xyz. Talks her campaign. Meghan says she evokes really strong reactions, seems to be a threat to both sides. Tulsi says she can’t be controlled, everyone sees her as a threat.

Joy repeats that there is a difference from being used (unwitting) vs being complicit. Asks why does Tulsi go on Fox with Tucker Carlson who is a liar, instead of other Fox reporters who are more balanced. Tulsi says she’s offended by being called a witting or unwitting asset [but doesn’t answer the question]. Whoopi brings up quote again. Tulsi says she’s going to speak to everyone, not just those who agree with her [but still doesn’t answer the question]. Meghan says Tulsi cares about the audience and doesn’t negate everyone. Joy says she’s not talking about all of Fox, she names Tucker and Sean Hannity who are repeated liars. Abby brings up Kamala saying her race and gender (speaking about herself) are the elephant in the room, wonders if Tulsi feels the same way. Tulsi talks about that topic. Whoopi asks Day 1 as Potus will Tulsi reverse tax laws. Tulsi talks healthcare and not having big insurance and big pharma at the table at the same time. Whoopi wants to know if she’s going to give money back. Tulsi talks tax generalities. Meghan is glad that Tulsi won’t take her guns.

I’m still lol @ Joy



Hot Topic #Impeachapalooza is Dumber Godfather© Stupider Watergate™



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FwH2BCNatA4

Sondland remembered he did know about quid pro quo, changed his testimony prior to his transcript release. He changed his testimony in lieu of perjury, after the transcripts released Monday revealed that he lied. Meghan goes in to detail. Abby says it wasn’t that long ago, so how silly it was that he forgot, then suddenly remembered. Joy mocks Lindsey Graham. Plays clip. The GOP is such a joke. It’s your job to read and stay on top of these things. Meghan still loves LG, says he’s doing what he thinks is best. But what he’s saying isn’t productive. Whoopi says there are certain jobs you have, you can’t say as an elected official that you’re refusing to read testimony paramount to your job. Abby says the goalposts keep moving. Says we have everything for impeachment.



Hot Topic Election Night Big Blue Wins



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wWCBPsrdWyM



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qN4_NHIqmD0

[There is an audience lady from KY who is asked some comments]
Tuesday Election Day results woo hoo. Virginia flipped state level House and Senate, they now have a state blue trifecta. KY Dem Governor beat incumbent even tho T45 warned voters at Mon Klan rally. Plays clip. The greatest defeat in the history of the world… You can’t let that happen to meeeee. Incumbent hasn’t conceded. Most politics are local, so stumping doesn’t matter. Joy says woman who flipped bird as T45 caravan was passing, she got fired over that incident but then she sued her company and won severance. Last night she won a seat on Board of Supervisors, beating incumbent GOP by 52%. Abby says KY Gov was really unpopular. Meghan lists reasons he was hated. Calls out woman in audience from KY. Audience lady says they’re not surprised but very happy. Joy says Moscow Mitch is next, how’s he taking it. Audience lady says she hopes he’s taking it very, very bad. Meghan talks tea leaves since T45 never takes accountability, normally if he stumps for candidate in super red state, the candidate is helped.

Whoopi has word salad some more about whatever. Thinks it’s a mistake to assume the party in power has a stranglehold on local race. Talks about what’s in your wallet. Show me the money. [Her obsession with bank accounts like she lives in poverty is really tiresome]. Joy lists more reasons Bevin was very unpopular. Abby supports states rights, thinks Dem won because he talked about local needs not T45. Mitch is most unpopular Senator, he should be worried. Brings up Amy who is running against Mitch. Meghan says she’s running a bad campaign. Audience lady talks about Bevin, doesn’t think Amy has run that kind of campaign.



Hot Topic Spicer on DWTS Youtried.gif



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tREKd31cdBU

Sean Spicer has more job security on DWTS but that may be ending soon, Whoopi wonders if judges are over him. Plays clip. Meghan says he’s the only part that she watches, he’s terrible, she loves it. Joy wonders when Rudy Colludy will be on the show. Abby says it’s like The Bachelor where even if you don’t like them, you don’t want them to leave, because it’s more fun for them to stay on. Whoopi is happy because she doesn’t watch tv, wonders about T45 tweeting for followers to vote for Spicer. How does someone in the WH have time to do this, but if she was getting impeached, then she’d have time, too. Abby says when there are important things, you don’t hear from T45, but he has time for DWTS. Meghan says Spicer is so bad. Whoopi wants Spicer to be dressed as a bush (looooooool omg that would be glorious).


Ontd do you want Spicey to be dressed on DWTS as that funny bush meme?

Source links are below each video or section
          

Mercury transit is coming to a sky near you Monday. And it won't happen again until 2032. - USA TODAY

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  1. Mercury transit is coming to a sky near you Monday. And it won't happen again until 2032.  USA TODAY
  2. This solar system event only happens 13 times a century. Here's how to watch it in Arizona  AZCentral
  3. Rare transit of Mercury to occur next week  WSVN 7News | Miami News, Weather, Sports | Fort Lauderdale
  4. Don't Miss Monday's Rare Transit of Mercury  Sky & Telescope
  5. A Transit Of Mercury Told Us The Scale Of The Universe  Forbes
  6. View full coverage on Google News

          

UCSC Resource Centers Statement on Thirty Meter Telescope

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The UCSC Resource Centers stand in solidarity with the Native Hawaiian community in their opposition to the building of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) on Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawai’i. This 18-story telescope will destroy sacred lands and cause substantial impact to the ecosystems of the island overall.
          

Comment on Nutty Post – Stream of Consciousness Saturday – Nuts by ghostmmnc

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Thanks, JoAnna! Yes, he was always trying something or other, like organic gardening when hardly anyone had ever heard of such, and constructing his own telescope. Apples & peanut butter = yum :)
          

The Thirty Meter Telescope Can Show Us the Universe. But at What Cost?

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Locating a telescope on a sacred mountain is one more injustice against Native Hawaiian culture.
          

Generic estreva online cost forming, estreva buy now florida

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As he prepares to unveil lowest price generic truvada 600 would-be Brexit Party MPs, Nigel Farage predicted the poll will result in another hung parliament. Train users can beat rising fares by buying separate tickets for a single journey, often cutting the cost of travel by a third. Experts estimate that the average saving is 20 per cent. The body of Bernard 'Butch' Gore, 71, was found inSydney's Westfield Bondi Junction in January 2017, three weeks after he walked into a stairwell and disappeared. We invite you to take a look price diltiazem comp at this years winners. NASA released an image from the Hubble Telescope that highlights two galaxies colliding into each other some 704 million light years way. The event has created a 'ghoulish' face order lybrel store just in time for Halloween. 'Go/no-go' teaches a person to push a button in response to healthy food. The technique has been proven to help people eat less junk and lose weight, researchers at Cardiff University argue, The U.S. official whose whistleblower complaint led to the impeachment inquiry against President Donald Trump offered to communicate directly with Republicans on the intelligence committee leading the inquiry, his lawyers said on Sunday. In a new biography of Thomas Edison, Edmund Morris tells the story in reverse starting at the end and going backward to his birth. David Benioff and D.B. Weiss, who have a deal with Netflix to create TV shows and feature films, reportedly said they felt they could not do justice to both buy mesalamine omaha their Netflix projects and the Star Wars films they had previously signed on for. There was a time lumigan without prescription prices when the possibilities of air travel seemed limitless. Boeing's 747 "Jumbo Jet" supersized commerical aviation, then Concorde took it supersonic. Mondays surprise move by G.M., Toyota and other car makers to back President Trump in his fight with California over pollution rules followed calls from the White House. Pearls, pastels and polka dots to up the ladylike charm If youve ever dreamed of making beautiful bouquets but cant be bothered with the classes, this fabulous new book by the aptly-named Rowan Blossom shows you how. Mark Waugh says he won't be rushing out to buy a bat he used to smash Australia's highest one-day cricket score which has turned up in the front window of a Sydney St Vincent de Paul store. Kayleigh Crowther, now 27, of Rawmarsh, South Yorkshire, felt 'disgusted' to look at her own reflection after her face began changing at 17. She was diagnosed with Parry-Romberg syndrome. Does a Saturday-to-Monday weekend mean savings and fewer crowds? We tested the model in four cities. One person died and at least 34 were injured on Monday in a grenade attack in Indian-administered Kashmir's main city of Srinagar, Indian officials said, in the bloodiest incident since New Delhi stripped the region order noroclav pills online shopping of special status on Aug. 5. Ral Esparza faces the realities of the restaurant business in Theresa Rebecks energetic but online samples uk formulaic art-versus-commerce comedy. Ecuador's military has extended curfews and transit restrictions throughout apetamin-p sales france the country following more than a week of violent protests. How Japan's Naomi Osaka has taken tennis by storm with back-to-back grand slam singles titles. What could be more undignified than donning unflatteringly tight gym wear and cycling in a frenzy on an eskazole online visa exercise bike? Answer doing the same, but wearing a virtual reality headset Many of Asia's biggest cities owe their skylines to long bamboo poles that allow construction workers to climb to great heights. Democrats in the U.S. Congress took a major step toward impeaching President Donald Trump this week when they agreed on the rules for publicly televised hearings after weeks of testimony behind closed doors. But it is also a step onto more politically perilous terrain for a party seeking to persuade Americans that their cause to remove Republican Trump, who they accuse of abusing his power, is just. A man convicted of the rape and murder of British embassy worker Rebecca Dykes in Lebanon has been sentenced to death, according to Lebanon's state-owned National News Agency. Today marks the 50th anniversary of the birth of the modern day internet and although designed to connect the world, its creators fear it has given hate, abuse and misinformation a platform. The measure, which would have applied only to football and buy clavaseptin 3mg bars mens and womens basketball, could have severely restricted graduate transfers. The photo, taken in the same week 39 migrants from China and Vietnam died in the back of a lorry entering the UK, appears to show the extent of the crisis facing British border officials. In Britains Brexit-scrambled politics, four parties are competing and the winning margins will be narrow. Nothing in this campaign is likely to go as the experts predict. Documents from the special counsels inquiry show that President Trumps former campaign chairman can i order rifadin visa shared the theory shortly after stolen Democratic emails were published that June. Pregnant Rachel Riley, 33, reveals she andhusband Pasha Kovalev, 39, are 'scared' to have a baby as she grows desvenlafaxine purchase visa usa ever closer to her due date. As he prepares to unveil 600 would-be Brexit Party MPs, Nigel Farage predicted the poll will result in another hung parliament. Gender indoctrination for the pre-K set. Health service bosses have told Boris Johnson and Jeremy Corbyn not to india online weaponise the NHS during the general election campaign and warned them against making 'undeliverable promises'. Team enalapril buy uk 50mg executives have fined Osemele for sitting out with a shoulder injury. Norville, who has been on Inside Edition since 1995, said she will make a speedy recovery and will not need chemotherapy or radiation therapy, but she will be off the show for some time. Mark Zuckerberg and wife Priscilla Chan (inset) pose before the Breakthrough Prize ceremony in Mountain View, California, on Sunday. Zuckerberg is seen above with Lenny Kravitz. Seven Worlds, One Planet had arguably the most shocking, sickening, piece of footage any David Attenborough show has ever featured. Google will be replacing all units of the Google Home and Google Home Mini smart home devices regardless of whether they are covered under warranty. The Bachelorette front-runnerCarlin Sterritt has all but confirmed he makes it to the final two after he was spotted catching a flight at Sydney Airport shortly before the last rose ceremony was filmed. Researchers from Saint Louis University in Missouri, who are studying what happens when people are infected with the flu, are paying $3,310 to those willing to be deliberately infected. Sir Dragonet has been drawn widest of all in stall 13 but a trickier inside berth has been handed to Hughie Morrison-trained Telecaster who must start from stall two. The sale is a key plank of chief executive Mark Reads turnaround plan to simplify the business that he inherited travoprost available usa cost last year from founder Sir Martin Sorrell. The company takes a stab at love, but what stands out this season is the birth of an elegant Apollo Calvin Royal III. The Johann Christian Oerter rifle, taken mupirocin order visa europe from Valley Forge State Park in 1971, will go on display at the Museum of the American Revolution in Philadelphia. banana incident shrieks farmers thanks reckon continue cakes older sew roar drives
          

Star formation in jellyfish galaxies

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• Observations of a jelly fish galaxy, JW100, by Astrosat using its Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) have thrown up interesting

The post Star formation in jellyfish galaxies appeared first on Aspirant World.


          

International interdisciplinary agreement - Camozzi will participate in the construction of the Giant Magellan Telescope

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The Italian Group Camozzi, through its fully owned subsidiary Ingersoll Machine Tools headquartered in Rockford (Illinois), has entered into an agreement in conjunction with MT Mechatronics, located in Mainz (Germany) - with GMTO, the organization managing the development of the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) on behalf of its US and...
          

Stihl HT 103 Powerful Professional Telescopic Pole Pruner (Collect In Store Only)

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Stihl HT 103 Powerful Professional Telescopic Pole Pruner (Collect In Store Only)

Stihl HT 103 Powerful Professional Telescopic Pole Pruner (Collect In Store Only)

The Stihl HT103 professional pole pruner for orchard and arborist work. Lightweight, compact transmission with captive nut on the sprocket cover, optimised cutting performance due to the 1/4" PM3 saw chain, 4-MIX® engine with a simplified start system. Highly ergonomic and very stable due to the reduced weight of the square-cut telescopic shaft. Total length: 270 – 390 cm.   Features and Benefits: STIHL 4-MIX engine : You can always rely on STIHL to keep setting new benchmarks this time with 4-stroke mixed lubrication technology. The STIHL 4-MIX engine, which runs on a fuel-oil mix just like a 2-stroke, offers the benefits without the compromises of 4-stroke power. STIHL 4-MIX engine technology provides fast acceleration, more power, added torque, lower noise, reduced emissions and increased fuel efficiency to complete jobs quickly, quietly and more easily. Side Chain tensioning : The side chain tension is used to adjust the chain tension safely and easily. Telescopic pole : With the practical telescope shaft that can be fixed from 2.70m to 3.90m, you can easily reach branches up to a height of 5m.Tool-free oil tank cap. Tool-free oil tank cap : Tool-free filler cap for opening and closing of the oil tank without tools.Multi-function control handle Multi-function control handle : This houses all the engine controls. Easy, comfortable thumb-operated control means the operator's hand never leaves the handle. Anti-vibration system : Intense vibration at the handles of power tools can lead to long-term effects on blood vessels in the hands and arms. STIHL has therefore developed an effective anti-vibration system whereby the oscillations from the machine's engine are dampened which significantly reduces vibrations at the handles. Decompression system : The decompression system allows some of the compression pressure in the cylinder to escape, so less force on the starter rope is needed.Manual fuel pump (purger) Manual fuel pump (purger) : A small fuel pump delivers fuel to the carburettor at the touch of a button. This reduces the number of starting pulls required following extended breaks in operations.   Technical Specification: Capacity cm3 : 31.4 Performance kW : 1.05 Performance hp : 1.4 Weight kg : 7.2 Sound pressure level dB(A) : 89 Sound power level dB(A) : 106 Vibration value, right m/s2 : 4.3 Vibration value, left m/s2 : 3.6 Total length (max) cm : 390 Standard Saw chain : PICCO 71 PM3 Chain pitch : 1/4"P  


          

Stihl HT 133 High Performance Pole Pruner for Professional Tree Maintenance (Collect In Store Only)

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Stihl HT 133 High Performance Pole Pruner for Professional Tree Maintenance (Collect In Store Only)

Stihl HT 133 High Performance Pole Pruner for Professional Tree Maintenance (Collect In Store Only)

*** COLLECT @ STORE ONLY *** The Stihl HT 133 pole pruner with an ideal power to weight ratio for powerful cutting work in orchards and professional tree maintenance. Lightweight, compact transmission with captive nut on the sprocket cover, maximum cutting performance due to the 1/4" PM3 saw chain, 4-MIX® engine with simplified start system. Highly ergonomic and very stable due to the reduced weight of the square-cut telescopic shaft. Total length: 270 – 390 cm. Features and Benefits: STIHL 4-MIX engine : You can always rely on STIHL to keep setting new benchmarks this time with 4-stroke mixed lubrication technology. The STIHL 4-MIX engine, which runs on a fuel-oil mix just like a 2-stroke, offers the benefits without the compromises of 4-stroke power. STIHL 4-MIX engine technology provides fast acceleration, more power, added torque, lower noise, reduced emissions and increased fuel efficiency to complete jobs quickly, quietly and more easily.Side Chain tensioningZoom Side Chain tensioning : The side chain tension is used to adjust the chain tension safely and easily.Telescopic poleZoom Telescopic pole : With the practical telescope shaft that can be fixed from 2.70m to 3.90m, you can easily reach branches up to a height of 5m.Tool-free oil tank capZoom Tool-free oil tank cap : Tool-free filler cap for opening and closing of the oil tank without tools.Multi-function control handleZoom Multi-function control handle : This houses all the engine controls. Easy, comfortable thumb-operated control means the operator's hand never leaves the handle.Anti-vibration systemZoom Anti-vibration system : Intense vibration at the handles of power tools can lead to long-term effects on blood vessels in the hands and arms. STIHL has therefore developed an effective anti-vibration system whereby the oscillations from the machine's engine are dampened which significantly reduces vibrations at the handles.Decompression systemZoom Decompression system : The decompression system allows some of the compression pressure in the cylinder to escape, so less force on the starter rope is needed.Manual fuel pump (purger)Zoom Manual fuel pump (purger) : A small fuel pump delivers fuel to the carburettor at the touch of a button. This reduces the number of starting pulls required following extended breaks in operations.Shoulder strap / carrying systemZoom Shoulder strap / carrying system : Using a STIHL shoulder strap or carrying harness with soft padding makes work more comfortable, particularly during lengthy jobs.   Technical Specification: Capacity cm3 : 36.3 Performance kW : 1.4 Performance hp : 1.9 Weight kg : 7.2 Sound pressure level dB(A) : 93 Sound power level dB(A) : 109 Vibration value, right m/s2 : 4.3 Vibration value, left m/s2 : 3.6 Total length (max) cm : 390 Standard Saw chain : PICCO 71 PM3 Chain pitch : 1/4"P


          

Space exploration : a history in 100 objects by Odenwald, Sten F., author.

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"From Galileo's telescope to the International Space Station - a stunningly photo-filled tour through the milestones of space exploration, examining iconic objects from Sputnik to Skylab and their effect on what we know and how we think about space."--
          

NASA Reveals Tricks for James Webb Space Telescope Pumpkin Carving

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NASA has shared three templates of patterns of James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) pumpkin carving for Halloween. These templates contain instructions for three different pumpkin carving patterns for fans to carve NASA-themed jack-o’-lanterns. The Level 1 of James Webb Space pumpkin carving template shows the pattern for a profile view of orbiting observatory. The Level ...
          

Formation - Agrément Télescope JM Salomon

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Date : Du samedi 9 au 10 mai 2020 - Lieu : Centre d'astronomie Jean-Marc Salomon - Buthiers (77760) - L’agrément TJMS vous permet d’apprendre à utiliser le Télescope Jean-Marc Salomon (600 mm) et son instrumentation (CCD, coronographe, ordinateurs et logiciels), ainsi que les locaux (réservation, accès), le tout en complète autonomie. À l’issue de la formation, l’utilisateur·rice (dit « agréé·e TJMS ») sera capable...
          

Gerucht: Samsung Galaxy S11 camera heeft codenaam ‘Hubble’

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De periscoop-camera van de aankomende Samsung Galaxy S11 heeft de codenaam ‘Hubble’. Dat blijkt uit informatie die ons bereikte, en zou goed passen bij een camera met opvallende zoom-kwaliteiten. De Hubble Space Telescope (afb.: NASA, bron) Galaxy S11 camera: Hubble? Samsung heeft grootse plannen voor de camera van haar volgende toptoestel, de vermeende Galaxy S11. […]

Het bericht Gerucht: Samsung Galaxy S11 camera heeft codenaam ‘Hubble’ verscheen eerst op Galaxy Club - dé onafhankelijke Samsung experts.


          

Science and Technology - Latest SKA developments in astronomy

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SAfm — The MeerKat telescope - a precursor to the Square Kilometre Array or SKA, continues to make new discoveries. Scientists say it's just a fraction of what is yet to come. The SKA and the African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network or AVN, as well as other initiatives, aim to develop astronomy in the nine African SKA partner countries, which are Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia. Guest: Takalani Nemaungani - Director of Multi-wavelength Astronomy at the Department of Science and Technology.
          

Large Prisms for Demanding Spectroscopic Applications (From Optical Surfaces Ltd.)

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Optical Surfaces Ltd. is a leading manufacturer of large, high quality prisms for spectroscopic, surveying and telescope applications. Prisms are solid optics that are ground and polished into geometrical and optically significant shapes where the angle, position, and number of surfaces help define the type and function. Spectroscopic applicatio
          

Telescope 50x 100x

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Telescope 50x 100x
          

Hubble Space Telescope 1990 Onwards Including All Upgrades An Insight Into The History Development Collaboration Construction And Role Of Space Telescope

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Hubble Space Telescope 1990 Onwards Including All Upgrades An Insight Into The History Development Collaboration Construction And Role Of Space Telescope
          

Ciencia: Enlaces y Recursos (59)

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Anterior Post

Long-Lived Stellar Blast Kindles Hope of a Supernova We’ve Never Seen Before
https://www.quantamagazine.org/long-lived-stellar-blast-kindles-hope-of-a-pair-instability-supernova-20190912/

Two neutron stars collided near the solar system billions of years ago
https://phys.org/news/2019-05-neutron-stars-collided-solar-billions.html

The Sun Is Stranger Than Astrophysicists Imagined
https://www.quantamagazine.org/gamma-ray-data-reveal-surprises-about-the-sun-20190501
/

Quantum Supremacy Using a Programmable Superconducting Processor
https://drive.google.com/file/d/19lv8p1fB47z1pEZVlfDXhop082Lc-kdD/view
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1-7_CzhOF7wruqU_TKltM2f8haZ_R3aNb/view

Planet WASP-12b Might Be on a Death Spiral into its Parent Star
https://www.skyandtelescope.com/astronomy-news/planet-wasp-12b-death-spiral/

Evidence Found for a New Fundamental Particle
https://www.quantamagazine.org/evidence-found-for-a-new-fundamental-particle-20180601/

Are We All Wrong About Black Holes?
https://www.quantamagazine.org/craig-callender-are-we-all-wrong-about-black-holes-20190905/

Strange Metal-like Bonds Discovered in Customized Crystals
https://www.quantamagazine.org/strange-metal-like-bonds-discovered-in-colloidal-crystals-20190903

Nos leemos!

Angel "Java" Lopez
http://www.ajlopez.com
http://twitter.com/ajlopez


          

Nylon Fusion Will Present the NYC Premiere Of Michaela Jeffery's THE LISTENING ROOM at The New Ohio

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Nylon Fusion Theatre Company will present the New York Premiere of The Listening Room, written by Michaela Jeffery (National Enbridge Playwrights Award recipient; Playwrights Guild of Canada's RBC Emerging Playwright Award finalist). and directed by Ivette Dumeng (Malan American Reconciliation at Royal Family: Jack in the Box/Medusa at Planet Connections) & Lori Kee (Luft Gangster at The Sheen Center) at The New Ohio Theatre (154 Christopher Street, New York, NY 10014), November 30 - December 21. Performances will be on Saturday, November 30 at 8pm, Sunday, December 1 at 8pm, Monday, December 2 at 8pm, Friday,

December 6 at 8pm, Saturday, December 7 at 8pm, Sunday, December 8 at 3pm, Thursday, December 12 at 8pm, Friday, December 13 at 8pm, Saturday, December 14 at 3pm, Sunday, December 15 at 8pm, Wednesday, December 18 at 8pm, Thursday, December 19 at 8pm, and Saturday, December 21 at 8pm. Tickets ($29) are available for advance purchase at www.nylonfusion.org. The performance will run approximately 85 minutes, with no intermission. The Listening Room will run in rep with Nylon Fusion's World Premiere of ray gun sayonara by Steven Tenney.

On the fringes of a remote desert society, a group of teenage dissidents search for fragments of earlier civilizations still ricocheting between stars. Using antiquated 21st century radio telescopes, The Listeners risk everything to connect to a past that has faded both from memory and record. On the eve of a trial that would decide their fate, The Listeners must choose to conform, or to strike out and seize the future they want to inherit.

The cast will feature Matthew Carrasco (Marymount Manhattan College), Alex Chernin (Blood Wedding in Saratoga Springs), Tim Palmer (The Land of Promises at The Sheen Center), Taylor Petracek (The Academy at Theatre for the New City; The Seagull at Access Theater), and Sara Rahman (Scaly with Insommium Theatre Company) with Set Design by Raye Levine (Design Associate on Extinction at Guild Hall) with Associate Set Design and Props by Lili Jackson, Lighting Design by Gilbert Lucky Pearto (Quicksand with Everyday Infemo/IRT), Sound Design by Bryan Hamilton (Guards at the Taj at Times Square Arts Center) with Sound Consultant Andy Evan Cohen (NYIT Award winner for In the Soundless Awe with New Light Theater Project), and Costume Design by Denni Hobson (NYIT Award winner for Unmentionables with Nylon Fusion), and Fight Choreography by Randall Rodriguez. The Production Stage Manager will be Stanford Vogel.

Michaela Jeffery (Playwright) is an Alberta-based playwright and graduate of The National Theatre School of Canada (2016). Recent writing credits include: The Extractionist, commissioned by Vertigo Theatre (Calgary, AB), text creation for Persephone Bound for Imago Theatre (Montreal, OC), Wolf of the Ringstrasse with Spirit Fire Theatre (Calgary, AB), (WROL) Without Rule of Law, premiering in November 2019 at Persephone Theatre (Saskatoon, SK), The Listening Room with Cardiac Theatre (Edmonton, AB) in conjunction with The Azimuth Theatre & Downstage Performance Society. Always with The Clutch Emerging Artist Festival (Vancouver, BC), Hardscrabble Road, GODHEAD (Shortlist, Headwaters New Play Festival - Creede, Colorado: The Sunset Theatre, Wells, BC), Sundogs (Holding Hollow Productions; Edmonton International Fringe Festival), and others. Her short play Expanding Concepts of Dislocated Space (and Associated Boundaries) was recently published in the July 2018 edition of Bare Fiction Magazine (UK Publication). Michaela was a recent finalist in the Alberta Playwrights Network 2019 Alberta Playwrighting Competition with her play WROL (Without Rue of Law) as well as a finalist for the Playwrights Guild of Canada's RBG Emerging Playwright Award for her play The Listening Room and recipient of the national Enbridge Playwrights Award (Emerging Category) for her developing play, Going West. www.michaelajeffery.com

Ivette Dumeng (Director) is an award-winning director. She recently directed John Patrick Shanley's Malan American Reconciliation at Royal Family and a new play; I'm Going to Touch Your Neck. Other credits include Faster Than Shadows by Mathew Ethan Davis and Jack in the Box/Medusa by Don Nigo. She is the producing Artistic Director and founding member of Nylon Fusion Theatre Company, a member of The Actors Studio Playwrights Directors Unit, League of Professional Theatre Women, SAG/AFTRA, and TRU. https://ivettedumeng.com

Lori Kee (Director) is an award-winning director and experienced collaborator on new work. Notable projects: The Chaplin Plays, SWIPE- A New Musical, A light in the Dark, Blizzard Vacation..., The Fairy Tale Project, The Big Funk, Paper Dragon, Death... It Happens, and Male Man. New works by Lyle Kessler, Craig muMs Grant, Kristina Poe, Maggie Diaz Bofill, Arlene Hutton, James McLindon, Arlene Hutton, Don Nigro, and John Patrick Shanley. Resident Director/Member Nylon Fusion Theatre Company, Associate SDG, Actors Studio PDU. www.lorikee.com

Nylon Fusion Theatre Company Born of a fusion of New York and London creativity, Nylon Fusion is a theatre company committed to giving voice and perspective to established and emerging artists. We develop and produce plays that explore political, social, and cultural awareness. Named a "Young and Mighty Theater company" by Backstage. www.nylonfusion.org


          

How Shehu Sani’s Senatorial Ticket Was ‘Sold For $2M’ To Oshiomhole — Kaduna Telescope

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Details have emerged of how the Kaduna Central Senatorial District ticket of the All Progressives Congress (APC) was sold for $2million to Uba Sani, Political Adviser to Nasiru el-Rufa’i, Governor of Kaduna State, according to SaharaReporters. According to the source, the Managing Director of the Nigeria Ports Authority (NPA), Hadiza Bala Usman, single handedly gave […] via How Shehu Sani’s Senatorial Ticket Was ‘Sold For $2M’ …
          

Rx 7 Telescope

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Rx 7 Telescope
          

Bina Venkataraman on thinking ahead in a reckless age

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In a talk that draws on her new book The Optimist’s Telescope, Bina Venkataraman, the Director of Global Policy Initiatives at the Broad Institute of MIT & Harvard, illuminates our untapped power to think longer term.
          

A non-profit plans to reopen the historic Yerkes Observatory

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In the past 122 years, Yerkes has hosted three Nobel laureates, the world’s largest refracting telescope, and more than 170,000 photographic plates that led to countless discoveries.


          

The Fundamental Plane of cluster spheroidal galaxies at z$sim1.3$. Evidence for mass-dependent evolution. (arXiv:1911.01438v1 [astro-ph.GA])

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The Fundamental Plane of cluster spheroidal galaxies at z$sim1.3$. Evidence for mass-dependent evolution. (arXiv:1911.01438v1 [astro-ph.GA]) <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Saracco_P/0/1/0/all/0/1">P. Saracco</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Gargiulo_A/0/1/0/all/0/1">A. Gargiulo</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Barbera_F/0/1/0/all/0/1">F. La Barbera</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Annunziatella_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">M. Annunziatella</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/astro-ph/1/au:+Marchesini_D/0/1/0/all/0/1">D. Marchesini</a> We present spectroscopic observations obtained at the {it Large Binocular Telescope} in the field of the cluster XLSSJ0223-0436 at $z=1.22$. We confirm 12 spheroids […]
          

The Science Behind Dark Energy

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Major scientific breakthroughs happen precisely because of this singular psychological manifestation: scientists get excited about what they don’t know. Now, long the butt of jokes by laymen who don’t know the first thing about astrophysics, scientists may just have the last laugh.  A “super telescope” is about to reveal the secrets of time and space.  And if you didn’t realize you were obsessed with time and space, think again. We are a race consumed with time and space, as enshrined in our long-standing…
          

Inside the VST

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This seldom-seen perspective offers a true insider’s view of one of ESO’s world-leading telescopes: the VLT Survey Telescope, or VST.

The VST is installed at ESO’s Paranal Observatory in Chile. It is the largest telescope surveying the sky in light visible to humans and its cutting-edge design makes it a powerful tool for studying the Universe.  From this viewpoint the OmegaCAM instrument — a camera with a large field of view — can be seen front and centre, nestled inside its stabilising control structure.  

When night falls the telescope’s dome opens and the VST gets to work. The high altitude and arid conditions of the Atacama Desert provide the perfect conditions for astronomical observing, delivering cloud-free skies and very low light pollution for the vast majority of the year. This allows for truly spectacular views of the Milky Way overhead, complete with its array of striking colours, streaks of dark interstellar dust, and bright foreground stars — as seen here.


          

Another Year at Mount Glasgow

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This will make more sense if you have previously read about our first year at Mount Glasgow. 2015 was more settled and sensible for Kaz and I but we still kept pretty busy!

Having missed out on a more convenient option a couple of months earlier (while focussed on Cooinda Leader’s Weekend), I found and won a second-hand Sirius Observatory Dome on eBay at the end of 2014. The only challenge being that it was in Sydney. Steve 'Turtle' Thomas generously loaned me his ute and dad (now semi-retired) was up for the road trip with a hefty tandem trailer to collect said observatory. The trip up was uneventful but it was a late night by the time we had the dome carefully packed in pieces in the trailer. A quick sleep then a long drive home saw the dome safely parked in the shed – a project for later in the year. Thanks Dad and Steve!

In a long overdue move, I upgraded the Drupal content management system that runs this website and with help from the folks at "More Than Themes" installed the Photo Folio theme to bring it into the 21st century, supporting mobile viewing and making it a little more photo friendly. As a friend or two had said, the previous design was "so 2004" so I hope the current version is an improvement.

I also published a revision to my Shooting Stars eBook. Released in early 2012, this update reflected a few extra things I’d learnt running my workshops, updated the image processing sections and added field notes for all the DSLR camera models released in the last three years. You can point your friends to the eBook here: philhart.com/shooting-stars. Thanks Naomi again for the graphic design.

On the back of my Yukon Aurora Adventures in 2012, I had one particular video project in mind that was inspired by Harald Moltke’s paintings we had seen in Copenhagen. I made a deal with myself that I wouldn’t start work on the observatory until that video was finished. (Quote of the year goes to Marty for suggesting that attempting such focus is “no way to live” :-). I hope you can find seven minutes to enjoy the result with the lights down and the music up:

You can read plenty more about the video and Moltke’s paintings here: What the Aurora Really Looks Like. The soundtrack “The Fire” is by The Dirt Floor and our talented friends Dean and Dayna Roberts at Lithostylis. Three years after enjoying their generous hospitality, my hosts in the Yukon, Andrea and Florian made a visit to our side of the world and had a short stay in the studio after Easter – a far cry from the frozen shores of Lake Laberge!

Before those I.T. projects were completed, Tom Rogers returned for the Anzac Day Weekend and put a hard weekend into building a mezzanine room in the studio, at the top of the stairs we built together over Cup Weekend six months earlier. With a few more weekends of work after that, we now have a small but air-conditioned bedroom which makes summer a much more viable option for visitors.

The theme for the David Malin Astrophotography Awards this year was the “Southern Cross”. I had a few ideas but left my run very late. A couple of weeks before the deadline, I scouted out some local roads and on the second night’s attempt got the perfect combination of clouds and stars to make this image work:

South Along Bucklands Lane

South along Bucklands Lane

In July I made the road trip up to Parkes, NSW for the Central West Astronomical Society Astrofest, including the presentation of the Malin Awards. My “South along Bucklands Lane” image above won the themed category which was a nice bonus (but might irk my colleagues now that they know how last minute it was :-). Even more fun was a few days adventure with renowned night sky photographer Babak Tafreshi after the Astrofest. We got permission to visit Siding Springs near Coonabarabran. Skies were clear but it was a wild and windy and very challenging night - despite our collective experience we both had tripods blown over by the wind. Breaking up the drive home, we camped out the next night in farmland near a dry lake bed which turned into a safari adventure the following morning, with a few thousand sheep being 'driven' around us in the morning, which then blocked our primary route out. We headed across progressively more sketchy farm tracks, past kangaroos, emus and a close encounter with a wedge tailed eagle. Thanks Babak for the adventure! There’s a blog post to write about that, but a few pics have made it to SmugMug.

Skymapper Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory

SkyMapper Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory

Despite living under dark skies, I did surprisingly little astronomy or photography from home during 2015 but in mid-August there was an aurora alert with clear skies so I setup the camera and promptly retired to bed. If I’d waited ten minutes, I would have seen this with my own eyes (minus the colour):

Aurora at Home, 15th August 2015

In August, I went on another NSW Main Range back country ski tour with Tim and Eric and we picked probably the best few days of the season just before a wild and wet (rain) storm put a big dent in it. Unfortunately the blog post for that also hasn’t been written yet, but you can see the photos on SmugMug. A highlight was this snow shelter Eric constructed on our second night to give us impressive shelter from the cold air flowing down the slopes around us.

Snow Camping with Tim and Eric

In the middle of the year I moved out of my part-time accommodation with Greg in Port Melbourne, initially house-sitting for mum and dad who were enjoying the benefits of (semi) retirement and travel. After that I made a bigger commitment to home at Mount Glasgow, staying just a night or two in Box Hill but otherwise doing the commute more regularly. Not long afterwards, an opportunity came up with Central Highlands Water in Ballarat that I guess you could say ‘had my name on it’. With very mixed feelings, I said farewell to my Melbourne Water colleagues and started full-time with Central Highlands Water in October. It's going to take some more time to adapt to the change from three days per week to a nine day fortnight.

A holiday with my sister Judy and her husband Stuart at Tathra Beach on the south coast of NSW fitted nicely into the gap between jobs. Whale watching turns out to be a lot like meteor spotting. We had balmy hot weather for early October which was enough to convince Kaz to give kayaking a go. We also caught up with the previous owners of our Mount Glasgow property, nicely but somewhat unintentionally settled in Mallacoota which suits them very nicely. Mallacoota is a remote and hidden gem for sure.

Whale Watching, Photo by Karen Goodwin

At the same time as managing the transition between jobs, I was working somewhat frantically with my good friend Geoff Adams to implement online applications for leaders and campers at Camp Cooinda. This was an overdue step into the future. Plenty of challenges and aspects that can be improved, but a significant step forward for the organisation which has been very rewarding to finally make happen.

When I announced my departure to my Melbourne Water colleagues, I offered them both a night sky photography workshop at Toorourrong Reservoir and the opportunity to “raise the dome roof” onto my observatory at a birthday bash in late November. This was somewhat ambitious given that aside from the fibreglass kit in the shed, not even the exact position of the observatory had been finalised. So with a frantic six weeks of planning, design and construction I managed to get the deck ready for the “dome raising” with 12 Melbourne Water colleagues/partners on the 21st November. Special thanks (again) to Tom Rogers for two weekends of construction and mixing a lot of concrete that made that deadline possible, with some hard labour also from Marty. Here’s a two minute video that shows the project coming together:

There has been no further progress on the observatory since then, which is still just a shell. Next steps are to get power and internet hooked up, install the motorisation for the dome and shutter and then get some gear inside and start taking images. It could be the best part of year three before I can say it’s fully functioning. Hopefully I enjoy taking images as much I enjoy building stuff these days!

Photo by Ben Johnston

Observatory Construction, Photo by Ben Johnston

In the lead-up to Christmas, Cooinda preparations accounted for most of my spare time, along with some fire season works and preparation around the property. There’s always more to do but with a few key changes based on Tony’s advice from the Melbourne Water weekend we feel reasonably well setup. While summer is horribly dry around here, the vegetation is consequently relatively sparse so the fuel loads around the house do not keep me awake at night. We’ve also joined the local CFA but it could also be another year before we can say anything about what that actually involves! To keep the garden alive, we’ve installed an additional water pump and reconfigured a lot of the irrigation systems around the garden and so far that seems to be doing a decent job of keeping things alive in the heat.

Kaz and I made a quick visit to Camp One to see our Cooinda friends, then settled in as Program Director and Cook for all the ten days of Camp Two. Our friends there understand just how much hard work it is, but also how rewarding it is and why we’ll keep coming back. We’ve slept solidly for a week since, as well as relaxing in front of the tennis. In another week or two we’ll be ready to start thinking about plans for the year ahead. Those plans now include looking after two ageing but enthusiastic Labradors - enthusiastic about anything they can eat at least.

Photo by Karen Goodwin

Living more remotely now, we love having friends come and stay – if you’re up for a visit let’s book it in soon :-).

 


          

Cosmic 3D mapping machine opens 5,000 robotic eyes

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Tucson AZ (SPX) Oct 29, 2019
A new instrument mounted atop a telescope in Arizona aimed its robotic array of 5,000 fiber-optic "eyes" at the night sky to capture the first images of its unique view of galaxy light. It was the first test of the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, or DESI, which is designed to explore the mystery of dark energy that makes up about 68% of the universe and is speeding up its expansion.
          

A Milestone Payload for Ariane 5: The JWST is Prepared for Liftoff With Arianespace

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With multiple pre-flight milestones achieved in recent months, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) – which will succeed the Hubble Space Telescope – is on course for its historic launch by Arianespace on an Ariane 5. As the world’s premier space science observatory, the JWST will solve mysteries of the solar system, look for distant worlds, and probe the mysterious structures and origins of the universe. It is an international project led by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space
          

Comment on The University Strikes are Back! by telescoper

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My current position in Ireland -as a Professor of the National University of Ireland - is effectively that of a civil servant (including the pension scheme..)
          

A perfect MeerKAT moment as the sun breaks through above the telescope

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This remarkable image captures the moment the sun shone on MeerKAT, the South Africa-based test bed for the Square Kilometre Array, the world’s most powerful telescope
          

WSC

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Since I saw that this assignment was unclaimed, I stayed for most of the first half and took photos. I have uploaded them to Flickr…
          

Palomar Womens Soccer vs San Diego City College

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Palomar College vs San Diego City College Match Up 11-1-19
          

Women’s cross country wins PCAC; eyes a Regional Championship

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Story by Jordan Spurgeon The Palomar Women’s Cross Country team won the Pacific Coast Athletic Conference Championship on Oct. 28. The top five runners for…
          

A Transit Of Mercury Told Us The Scale Of The Universe - Forbes

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  1. A Transit Of Mercury Told Us The Scale Of The Universe  Forbes
  2. Mercury transit is coming to a sky near you Monday. And it won't happen again until 2032.  USA TODAY
  3. Rare transit of Mercury to occur next week  WSVN 7News | Miami News, Weather, Sports | Fort Lauderdale
  4. This solar system event only happens 13 times a century. Here's how to watch it in Arizona  AZCentral
  5. Don't Miss Monday's Rare Transit of Mercury  Sky & Telescope
  6. View full coverage on Google News

          

Study provides insights into natural radioactivity in the Western Ghats

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Read time: 3 mins
Study provides insights into natural radioactivity in the Western Ghats

The Earth's crust contains copious amounts of primordial radioactive substances as a result of geological activities from the dawn of its time. Formed from the interstellar medium that gave rise to the solar system, these unstable elements are unequally distributed across the globe. Due to geological phenomena like weathering of rocks, radioactive substances like thorium-232, potassium-40, and uranium-238 surface from the crust and end up in the soil.

Taking millions of years to diminish to half their original quantity, these radioactive substances release energy in the form of weak gamma rays. While exposure to such weak radiation is typically considered harmless, their effects on humans and the environment, in general, are not well understood. Hence, there's a growing interest to understand the effects of low-level exposure to radioactivity. In a recent study, researchers from Sai Nath University, Ranchi, and Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, set out to quantify the impacts of natural radioactivity on the surrounding environment in the Nilgiris of Tamil Nadu. Their findings have been published in the Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences.

The weathering of rocks in the Western Ghats of southern India, along the coast of Kerala and parts of Tamil Nadu, has yielded monazite soil. Monazite soil is a dense rare-earth mineral often mined for cerium, which is used to polish optical surfaces, and for radioactive thorium, which is used to make telescope lenses. West-flowing rivers, like the Periyar and Pamba, deposit this soil in the jagged coastlines across Kerala, where human settlements are widespread. The natural radioactivity from these deposits releases the most potent dose of radiation, which is further intensified artificially by the fertilisers farmers use for farming.

The researchers of this study collected soil samples from around the Nilgiris and measured the intensity of gamma radiation from the samples. They then determined if this radiation released due to radioactivity in the soil is within the safety limits for long term exposure.

The radioactivity of different radionuclides — an atom with excess nuclear energy — is expressed relative to the radioactivity of radium. The researchers obtained the radium equivalent values for Thorium-232, Potassium-40, and Uranium-238 to determine the safety of the soil samples. These values are crucial to establish a baseline measurement of radioactivity to carry out further studies in the area, they say.

The researchers used a standard dosimeter — a device that measures the external radiation — to calculate the dose rate — the amount of radiation per unit time outdoors — at 25 different locations around the Nilgiris to ascertain the radiation in the air. Surprisingly, the average terrestrial dose rate over the sampled areas turned out to be almost two times the world average, with thorium alone contributing to over 70% of the radiation.

Although the mean radium-equivalent dose rate in the study area was well below the safety limits, the observed average rise in dose rate over the global average, the researchers speculate, is contributed by cosmogenic nuclides, which are formed when cosmic rays bombard the stable nuclides in the atmosphere. Since the Western Ghats is 2400 metres above sea level, the region is much more prone to cosmic rays than other low-level areas. Unlike in other areas, these atmospheric radionuclides play a significant role in defining the radioactivity of this region, say the researchers.

Further, the researchers also measured the exposure rates in humans living in the Western Ghats to quantify the risks involved due to long-term exposure to such radiations. Their calculations followed the standards set by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The results revealed that the risk of cancer is negligible since the value is well below the permissible limit. Although the average hazard indices, like the cancer risk index, are higher than in other parts of the world, the radioactivity in the region is not of serious concern. At the moment, they seem to have no profound effect on humans living in these parts, say the researchers. 


          

Classic 9728 Telescopes Owners

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Classic 9728 Telescopes Owners
          

70 Az T Telescopes Owners

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70 Az T Telescopes Owners
          

Five thousand eyes on the sky

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A cutting-edge new telescope instrument designed and built by an international team including Durham University has taken its first observations of the night sky.
          

Cleaners Greenwich

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If you can’t seem to spot the best deal on professional cleaning services in Greenwich, it’s not because the Royal Observatory haven’t polished their telescope lenses, but because all the sweet cleaning service deals are online! Want to see for yourself? Get on the internet and get in touch with Cleaners Greenwich SE8– they have all the best deals under one roof. The company works with both commercial and domestic customers and aims to provide them with extensive choice of professional grade cleaning services designed to serve a range of purposes and requirements.
          

Observatoorium hakkab partneritega kümneid miljoneid lõunataeva objekte vaatlema

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Tartu Ülikool allkirjastas koostööleppe Euroopa Lõunaobservatooriumi tulevase vaatlusprogrammi „4MOST“ konsortsiumiga, võimaldades Tartu observatooriumi teadlastel programmis osaleda. „4MOSTi“ eesmärk on viie aasta jooksul vaadelda kümneid miljoneid objekte lõunataevas.

Koostööleppe sõlmimiseni viis Tartu observatooriumi professori Elmo Tempeli viimase kolme aasta aktiivne töö. Professor Tempel liitus „4MOSTi“ programmiga 2016. aasta sügisel, kui alustas oma järeldoktorantuuri Saksamaal Potsdami astrofüüsika instituudis, kes on „4MOSTi“ konsortsiumi eestvedaja. Alates sellest ajast on professor aktiivselt „4MOSTi“ vaatlusstrateegia planeerimise ja väljatöötamise juures osalenud.

Aitab lahti mõtestada üht astrofüüsika suurimat küsimust

Programmile andis nime selles kasutatav instrument: neljameetrine mitme objekti spektroskoopiline teleskoop (4-metre Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope) 4MOST. Programmi käigus kavandatakse ja ehitatakse Euroopa Lõunaobservatooriumi neljameetrisele VISTA teleskoobile uue põlvkonna mitme objekti spektrograaf. 4MOST võimaldab mõõta spektri kuni 2436 objektist korraga. Tänu 4MOSTi nelja ruutkraadi suurusele vaateväljale saab vaadelda enamiku lõunataevast viie aasta jooksul.

Ehitatav instrument võimaldab saada väärtuslikku infot meie kodugalaktika Linnutee keemilise ja dünaamilise koostise kohta, mis on ülimalt oluline, et mõista Linnutee tekkelugu. Peale selle võimaldab 4MOST kaardistada suure osa lõunataevas nähtavast universumist ning samal ajal saada infot galaktikate evolutsiooni kohta: see on tänapäeva astrofüüsikas üks aktuaalsemaid teemasid. Lisaks sisaldab „4MOSTi“ vaatlusprogramm ka kvasarite ja supernoovade vaatlusi.

Tartu observatoorium osaleb vaatlusstrateegia väljatöötamisel

„4MOSTi“ käigus tehtavad maapealsed spektraalsed vaatlused on planeeritud toetama Euroopa Kosmoseagentuuri (ESA) missioonide „Gaia“, „Euclid“ ja „PLATO“ ning Euroopa kosmosemissiooni „eROSITA“ vaatlusprogramme. Kui kombineerida „4MOSTi“ vaatlusi kavandatavate teleskoopide LSST ja SKA omadega, võib leida vastuseid muu hulgas sellistele küsimustele, mida veel ei ole osatud püstitadagi. Konsortsiumi tihe koostöö praegu käimasolevate ja kavandatavate kosmose ja maapealsete vaatlusmissioonidega teeb „4MOSTist“ ühe järgmiste aastakümnete olulisema vaatlusprogrammi.

Planeeritav vaatlusprogramm algab 2022. aasta lõpus ja selle nominaalne kestus on viis aastat. Tartu observatoorium panustab järgmistel aastatel programmis peamiselt vaatlusstrateegia väljatöötamisse ja vastutab ka vaatlusselektsioone puudutava tarkvara arendamise eest.

Tulevikus pakub 4MOSTi andmestik uurimisvõimalusi väga erinevatel teemadel. Lisaks meie Linnutee ja universumi uurimisele on 4MOSTi andmestik suurepärane uurimisobjekt andmeteadlastele. 4MOSTi kogutud galaktikate ja tähtede andmestik on tunduvalt suurem kui praegu olemasolevad andmed kokku. See annab võimaluse arendada ja rakendada suurandmete töötlemiseks mõeldud meetodeid.

Rohkem teavet on 4MOSTi veebilehel.

Lisateave: Elmo Tempel, TÜ Tartu observatooriumi astronoomia professor, 737 4534, elmo.tempel [ät] ut.ee


          

JUPITER

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Normally a mix of brown and red hues, this image of Jupiter made in near-infrared light has been colour-coded to show cloud height, from high altitude (white) through mid-range (blue) to low altitude (red). The so-called Great Red Spot and its neighbour Red Spot Junior top out at the highest altitudes, therefore appearing mainly as white in this image. Observers used the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii to capture this view.
          

Maison Tellier De La Prostitution Comme Telescope Et Microscope A La Vie De Province Guy De

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Maison Tellier De La Prostitution Comme Telescope Et Microscope A La Vie De Province Guy De
          

Maison Tellier De La Prostitution Comme Telescope Et Microscope A La Vie De Province Guy De

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Maison Tellier De La Prostitution Comme Telescope Et Microscope A La Vie De Province Guy De
          

8 Eq G Telescopes Owners

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8 Eq G Telescopes Owners
          

NGC7635 - Bubble Nebula - by: michael_murphy

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Hello All,

I acquired some sulphur for the Bubble.
Image is in the CFH palette (Ha red, O3 green, S2 blue)

Bubble Nebula in Ha and O3
16 300s Ha
11 300s O3
10 300s S2
Imager Atik 414ex
Telescope Skywatcher Blackdiamond ED80
Mount Skywatcher HEQ6

File Attachment:

Bubble CFH Palette
 by Michael Murphy , on Flickr
          

A nonprofit plans to reopen the historic Yerkes Observatory

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In the past 122 years, Yerkes has hosted three Nobel laureates, the world’s largest refracting telescope, and more than 170,000 photographic plates that led to countless discoveries.


          

24331 Telescopes Owners

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24331 Telescopes Owners
          

11 Eq Telescopes Owners

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11 Eq Telescopes Owners
          

7018 Telescopes Owners

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7018 Telescopes Owners
          

In other news...

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Monday morning (US time) there is a transit of Mercury. Where I am, it will be in progress at sunrise and continue until about 10AM. Transits of Mercury are problematic. The angular size of Mercury is too small for you to be able to see it with the unaided eye. But this event is Mercury passing in the front of the Sun from our point of view. Put those together and that means that in order to see it, you need to stare at the Sun through a telescope, which I DO NOT RECOMMEND. (Never look at the Sun through any magnifying or light-collecting apparatus, unless it's been set up by a professional. Even then, make the pro look first before you try it.) There are several ways to see this event safely, but it takes significant safety precautions and continuous attention. This can be done, but if you haven't done it before, you are taking an unwarranted risk. I have been in the dome with a telescope pointed at the Sun, when the heat melted the cement in the eyepiece and parts of the lens fell on the floor. Fortunately, no one was looking through it at the time. If you're really interested in this event, see if a local museum or educational institution is hosting a viewing session for it; those are much more likely to have the requisite equipment and expertise. Transits of Mercury are uncommon (very roughly several years to a decade between them), but occur much more often than the less-than-once-a-lifetime frequency that transits of Venus have. The next transit of Mercury after Monday is in 2032.
          

Cepheids and rotation in NGC 1866 (Costa et al.)

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Vol. 631
In section 5. Galactic structure, stellar clusters and populations

Multiple stellar populations in NGC 1866. New clues from Cepheids and colour-magnitude diagram

by G. Costa, L. Girardi, A. Bressan, Y. Chen, P. Goudfrooij, P. Marigo, T.S. Rodrigues, and A. Lanza 2019, A&A, 631, A128 alt

GC 1866 of the Magellanic Clouds is a young cluster with a turn-off mass of 4−5 Msol. The cluster not only contains a large number of evolved stars but also an extremely high number of Cepheid variables. Recent Hubble Space Telescope observations show the presence of an extended main-sequence turn-off (eMSTO) and a split main sequence, similar to what is observed in a few other clusters. Fast rotation is believed to contribute to the eMSTOs in clusters up to ages as long as 2 Gyr, and the cluster may also arguably harbor multiple stellar populations. The authors adopt the new PARSEC stellar evolutionary tracks with overshooting and rotation to obtain the ages and initial rotation velocities of five well-studied Cepheids of the cluster. Four Cepheids are found to belong to a young, initially slowly rotating, population. The fifth one, however, is significantly older with a high initial rotation velocity. The observed multiple main sequences and turn-offs indicate that the younger population is mainly made of slowly rotating stars, as is the case of the four younger Cepheids. However, the older population is mainly made of initially fast rotating stars, as is the case of the fifth Cepheid. The study reinforces that some young clusters harbor multiple populations. And more importantly, the study may indicate that the older first population may inherit the angular momentum from the parent cloud, while stars of the second younger population do not.


          

Bina Venkataraman on thinking ahead in a reckless age

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In a talk that draws on her new book The Optimist’s Telescope, Bina Venkataraman, the Director of Global Policy Initiatives at the Broad Institute of MIT & Harvard, illuminates our untapped power to think longer term.

          

Optics Racing Telescopes Owners

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Optics Racing Telescopes Owners
          

27182 Telescopes Owners

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27182 Telescopes Owners
          

Six Different Japanese Design Approaches for Collapsible/Folding Helmets

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When I lived in Japan, with its frequent mini-earthquakes, I quickly learned not to place items on top of high things in my apartment. In some of the space-tight apartments I visited in Tokyo, I saw that not keeping things atop bookshelves and cabinets was a luxury not everyone could afford.

Because Japan has a combination of frequent seismic activity and crowded interior spaces, there's a market for occasional-use helmets. These won't stop a girder from killing you, but are meant to prevent smaller items, like books or light fixtures, from landing on your head and possibly cutting you.

And because space is Japan is tight--every millimeter of storage space counts--having an occasional-use helmet that breaks down into a smaller shape would be greatly desirable. Particularly in group environments, like schools or offices, where the administration may require that multiple helmets be stored.

As with folding bike helmets, there is no one winning solution as of yet. Here are five design approaches we've found:

Tanizawa Portable Fold-up Disaster Helmet 


This interesting two-piece take on the helmet flips its lid, like a garbage can. That reduces its height by nearly fifty percent (from 140mm to 80mm), making it a bit easier to stow. Made from ABS.

Osamet Collapsible Safety Helmet




Made from ABS, the Osamet design telescopes down from helmet-height to about the thickness of an office binder (45mm).

Derucap Collapsible Safety Helmet

This fascinating spiral design eschews the ABS of the previous two, opting instead for polypropylene and polyethylene. It can collapse down to 40mm. As you'll see by looking at the following designs, the chinstrap in this one appears to be a bit of an afterthought; this design appears the most "designey" (in the pejorative sense of the word) to me.

Tatamet Designer Foldable Safety Helmet and Tatawing BCP

Designer Foldable Safety Helmet

Designer Foldable Safety Helmet

Designer Foldable Safety Helmet

Tatawing BCP

Tatawing BCP

Tatamet's two designs each fold flatter than any of the ones above, getting down to 35mm. Different from the previous three designs, they've gone with what look to be either PP or PE sheets, and their two designs look like they were the most complicated to engineer.

Also, one downside with the Designer model is that you need to use the included built-in tool (might be easy to lose?) in order to break the helmet down, as you can see in the demo video:



Flatmet Collapsible Helmet


Flatmet's design goes flatter than all of them, down to just 33mm. The designers have chosen to go with PP, ABS and polycarbonate, and unlike the others, this one looks the most form-follows-function.


My favorite design of all of them is the Flatmet, because it looks like the designers were not going for an aesthetic, but just trying to work with the material's properties--and then an aesthetic actually emerged.

Anyways, I will say that Japan is an amazing place to live, though I sure don't miss the earthquakes. If I had stayed there longer, I'd have probably purchased one of these to keep near my bed (being waken up by an earthquake is the worst in terms of fear factor). If you click on the links you'll see they're listed in the USD $70-range, but that's likely due to cost of importing; in Japan they go for the yen equivalent of about 30 bucks a pop.


          

Simple Telescope Diagram

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Simple Telescope Diagram
          

Optics Fluorostar 110 Telescopes Owners

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Optics Fluorostar 110 Telescopes Owners
          

Keeping the Dome Open

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TheSpaceWriter's Ramblings: Yerkes Observatory in the 21st Century There are a number of observatories around the world that fall into the category of “venerable and still usable”. Think of Mount Wilson and its 100-inch Hooker telescope. Or consider Palomar’s collection of scopes, including the 200-inch Hale. It also showcases the historic Samuel Oschin Telescope, a survey instrument that has produced mind-boggling images of the universe. Then, there are the facilities at Pic du Midi, in England, the observatories in Australia, and South Africa. These (and many others) are places where astronomy’s scientific advances into astrophysics began. And, of course, there’s Yerkes Observatory, one of the most venerated in the U.S. For multiple generations of astronomers, it was among the best places to do their science. They spread out to other observatories to teach their own students and continue the exploration of the universe. Yerkes Observatory as photographed by Wikipedia user Mumford. The facility is in Williams Bay, Wisconsin, and has been run by the University of Chicago for many years. A new agreement may see it transferred to a private foundation to continue its astronomy and education mission. I learned of the Yerkes history when I first visited it in the 1990s. ...
          

Hubble Catches One Galaxy Floating in a Cosmic City

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(Credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, A. Bellini et al.) The universe is vast, with galaxies containing gas, dust, stars, and planets sprinkled throughout. But this sprinkling isn’t random; although some galaxies are indeed truly alone, most are not congregating through gravity. NGC 1706, captured in this stunning Hubble Space Telescope image, is one of about 50 galaxies bound together in a group that lies in the direction of the southern constellation Dorado the Swordfish. The brilliant, face-on


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