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Ethiopians, often refugees themselves, welcome newcomers, cardinal says

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Ethiopia is now managing nearly a million refugees from South Sudan, Somalia, Eritrea, Sudan, Yemen and even Syria, said Ethiopian Cardinal Berhaneyesus Souraphiel. Because so many Ethiopians are refugees, those who remain in the country work to make newcomers feel welcome.
          

Doubts and death in Darfur, as PM promises brighter future

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Sudanese Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok has visited Darfur, promising to settle a near 17-year-old conflict. But displaced people in the war-torn region says they've heard it all before. David Doyle reports.

          

South Sudan bishops: Pope's peace gesture should not be in vain (Fides)

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The nation of 10.2 million (map), most of whose people are animist or Christian, gained independence from largely Muslim Sudan in 2011. The South Sudanese Civil War began in 2013; the war has left...
          

Irish nun, winner of State Department award, promotes girls' education in South Sudan (Vatican News)

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In March, Sister Orla Treacy received the US State Department's International Woman of Courage Award.
          

"السرج قبل الحصان"… ما قصة أول قمر صناعي سوداني؟

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خلال ترؤسه اجتماعاً للجنة الأمن والدفاع السودانية، أعلن رئيس اللجنة عبد الفتاح برهان إطلاق بلاده أول قمر صناعي، بالتعاون مع "إحدى الدول الكبرى"، وذلك لأغراض عسكرية واقتصادية.

وأثار هذا الإعلان، على أهميته، استياء بين السودانيين الذين امتعضوا من الاستثمار في أمر مماثل والبلد غارق في أزماته المالية والاجتماعية، مشككين في أن يكون القمر قد قُدّم للحكومة مقابل مساومتها على أمور أخرى.

لخدمة الاقتصاد و"العسكر"

وذكرت وكالة السودان للأنباء (سونا)، نقلاً عن برهان، أن "القمر الصناعي يهدف إلى تطوير البحث في مجال الفضاء وامتلاك قاعدة بيانات واكتساب المعارف والعلوم الخاصة بالتقنيات الفضائية، إضافة لاكتشاف الموارد الطبيعية وخدمة الجوانب العسكرية في البلاد".

من جهته، أوضح المتحدث باسم المجلس الانتقالي محمد الفكّي سليمان لوكالة "فرانس برس" أن "القمر أُطلق بالتعاون مع الصين وسيديره السودان في غضون أشهر".

ولفت إلى أن الخرطوم تعتزم "إطلاق إصدار أحدث (من القمر الأول) في غضون عامين"، من دون إضافة تفاصيل عن مكان انطلاق القمر وزمانه.

حكومة السودان وصناعة الفضاء

كان موقع "أفريكا نيوز" أول من أعلن إطلاق القمر الصناعي السوداني الأول، في 3 تشرين الثاني/نوفمبر.

وكتب الموقع حينذاك: "في وقت مبكر من صباح 3 تشرين الثاني/نوفمبر، انطلق صاروخ لونغ مارش- 4 بي في تمام الـ11:22 (بتوقيت بكين) من مركز تاي يوان لإطلاق الأقمار الصناعية في مقاطعة شانشي (شمال الصين)، وعلى متنه اثنان من الأقمار الصناعية، أحدهما يخص الحكومة السودانية".

السودان يعلن رسمياً إطلاق أول قمر صناعي، لأغراض عسكرية واقتصادية... وسودانيون يعترضون على عدم شعور الحكومة بهمومهم الفعلية، وسط تساؤلات عن ثمن المشروع

وشدد على أن أهداف المشروع هي إنشاء قاعدة بيانات شاملة ودقيقة وفعالة من حيث التكلفة في ما يتعلق برسم الخرائط الطبوغرافية والموارد الطبيعية للتخطيط التنموي واستكشاف الموارد الطبيعية والمراقبة البيئية والرصد الزراعي وتقدير الغلة (المحاصيل)، بالإضافة إلى تطبيقات الأمن والدفاع (الاستخبارات) العامة.

البرنامج الفضائي السوداني

منذ عقود، اهتم السودان بامتلاك برنامج فضائي يشمل أنشطة عدة، منها الاستشعار عن بُعد ونظام التموضع الجغرافي (جي بي أس).

وفي عام 2009، قالت وزارة العلوم والتقانة السودانية إنها رفعت للجهات السيادية العليا خطتها لإطلاق قمر صناعي سوداني يُستخدم لأغراض تنموية ومدنية.

وكانت حكومة الرئيس السوداني المعزول عمر البشير، قد أنشأت، عام 2013، معهداً لأبحاث الفضاء ضمن خطة شاملة لتطوير قدرات البلاد في هذا الميدان. لكن الأوضاع الاقتصادية السيئة وندرة السلع الرئيسية دفعت السودانيين إلى الخروج ثائرين في وجه نظام البشير في كانون الأوّل/ديسمبر من العام الماضي.

ونجحت التظاهرات التي عمت البلاد في إطاحة البشير في نيسان/أبريل الماضي بعدما حكم ثلاثة عقود بقبضة من حديد.

"السرج قبل الحصان"

برغم أهمية الحدث لبلد كالسودان، لم يسعد الكثير من السودانيين بنبأ إطلاق أول قمر صناعي من بلد غارق في أزمة مالية واقتصادية خانقة.

وأعرب معلقون سودانيون، عبر تويتر، عن صدمتهم من أن يقوم "بلد الناس فيها جوعانة وعطشانة ومريضة وليس لديها ناقل طيران وطني" بإطلاق قمر صناعي، معتبرين أن بلدهم، بذلك، فعلت كمن "اشترى السرج قبل الحصان".

هذا الخبر أثار فضول آخرين فتساءلوا: "من أين جاءت الحكومة بالمال لشراء وإطلاق القمر؟ ومتى تمت الاتفاقات بشأنه؟" مشككين في أن يكون القمر قدم للحكومة مقابل "مساومات أخرى".

واعتبر بعض المعلقين أن هذا المشروع "وهم كبير"، ويعكس "عدم شعور الحكومة الحالية بهموم المواطن وحاجاته الأساسية".

في سياق متصل، انتقد مراقبون ومواطنون"السرية التامة" التي فرضت حول الاتفاق على القمر الصناعي وإطلاقه، والإعلان عنه عقب تقارير إعلامية خارجية، في إشارة إلى تقرير "أفريكا نيوز"، على ما يبدو.

على الجانب الآخر، أبدى قسم من السودانيين فرحه بالخبر، إذ رآه "بداية مبشرة لسودان متقدم وقوي". 


          

Trump Holds Talks with Foreign Ministers of Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan

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The three are in Washington on an invitation from Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin to discuss a giant hydropower dam project on Ethiopia's Blue Nile

          

Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan to try to resolve dam dispute by Jan 15 - Treasury

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The foreign ministers of Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan agreed on Wednesday to work toward resolving their dispute over the filling and operation of a massive dam project in Ethiopia by Jan. 15, 2020, the U.S. Treasury said.

          

Ein ewiges Hin und Her

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Ein ewiges Hin und Her
Widerstand gegen Vertreibung durch "Entwicklung" im Bewässerungsprojekt Office du Niger, Mali
info@zeitschri… 5 November, 2019 - 17:08

Keywords: land grabbing, development-induced displacement, resistance, transnational activism, Mali, Office du Niger, Afrique-Europe-Interact, African Development Bank, BMZ

Schlagwörter: landgrabbing, Vertreibung durch Entwicklung, Widerstand, transnationaler Aktivismus, Mali, Office du Niger, Afrique-Europe-Interact, Afrikanische Entwicklungsbank, BMZ

Historischer Hintergrund und theoretischer Zugang

Nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg entwickelte die französische Kolonialadministration die Idee, den Niger zur Bewässerung eines riesigen Gebiets in der Sahelzone zu nutzen. Baumwollanbau sollte die heimische Textilindustrie sanieren, Reisanbau die Versorgung der kolonisierten Gesellschaften Westafrikas sicherstellen. Nach der Gründung der Verwaltungsbehörde Office du Niger (OdN) und des gleichnamigen Bewässerungsprojekts in den 1930er Jahren wurden Menschen aus ganz "Französisch-Sudan" (heute Mali) in die entsprechende Region zwangsumgesiedelt, um das Land zu bewirtschaften. Die koloniale Geschichte des Projekts ist gekennzeichnet durch Vertreibung von Menschen in die ebenfalls gleichnamige Region des OdN zum Zwecke kapitalistischer Fertigung in der Metropole Frankreich. Die kolonialen Abhängigkeitsverhältnisse zwischen der Kolonialmacht Frankreich und den zur Arbeit gezwungenen Bewohner*innen von "Französisch-Sudan" finden heute ihre Fortführung in der Beziehung zwischen malischen Verwaltungs- und Wirtschaftseliten und der Landbevölkerung in der ebenfalls Office du Niger genannten Region (Coulibaly 2015). Hier geht es mir um heutige Strategien des Widerstands von Kleinbauern und -bäuerinnen gegen Vertreibung durch landgrabbing (Hoering 2011) in diesem fast hundert Jahre alten Entwicklungsprojekt.

Langanhaltender Widerstand gegen inländisches Unternehmen

Im Zentrum steht der Fall des größten malischen Unternehmers, Modibo Keïta. Dieser hat für das Unternehmen Complexe Agropastoral et Industriel (CAI), das Teil seiner Groupe de Sociétés Moulin Moderne du Mali ist, 2010 einen Pachtvertrag über 20.000 Hektar Land im Arrondissement Sansanding (heute Sana) von der Behörde OdN erhalten. Im Anschluss und damit verbunden hat er eine Fabrik -- Moulin Moderne du Mali -- in Ségou, der Hauptstadt der Region, bauen lassen. Sie dient der industriellen Verarbeitung der auf dem Pachtland angebauten Nahrungsmittel. Das Projekt Moulin Moderne du Mali wurde u.a. von der Afrikanischen Entwicklungsbank (African Development Bank -- AfDB) und damit auch mit Geldern des Bundesministeriums für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (BMZ) finanziert. Seit 2010 wehren sich einige betroffene Dörfer gegen den Land- und damit Einkommens- bzw. Subsistenzverlust in Zusammenarbeit mit Aktivist*innen aus Mali, den USA und Europa.

Das Spezifische an diesem Fall ist erstens, dass es sich bei dem Unternehmer, der sich den Boden der Kleinbäuerinnen und -bauern angeeignet hat, um einen Malier handelt, der explizit Grundnahrungsmittel für den Konsum in Mali produziert. Er hat sowohl die Landpacht vom malischen Staat als auch den Kredit von der AfDB unter dieser Bedingung erhalten. Ein beträchtlicher Teil der Literatur zu landgrabbing und Vertreibung durch Entwicklungsprojekte beschäftigt sich mit den Auswirkungen von Agrar- und Infrastrukturprojekten von Staaten oder transnationalen Unternehmen.[1] Zudem wurde in den Debatten nach der Nahrungsmittel- und Finanzkrise 2009/2010 vor allem der Anbau von Nahrungsmitteln bzw. Agrartreibstoffen für den Export kritisiert. In dem hier untersuchten Fall haben wir es mit einem Agrarprojekt zu tun, das aus einer Perspektive, die der Produktion für den Weltmarkt im Kontext neoliberaler Globalisierung kritisch gegenübersteht, positiv eingeschätzt werden könnte. Die Tatsache, dass der Unternehmer Modibo Keïta in Mali sehr gut verankert und vernetzt ist, hat zudem Auswirkungen auf die Möglichkeiten des Widerstands gegen seine wirtschaftlichen Aktivitäten.

Zweitens ist an diesem Fall bedeutsam, dass der kleinbäuerliche Widerstand seit fast einem Jahrzehnt anhält, vor allem in den zwei betroffenen Dörfern Sanamadougou und Sahou (S&S). Die Bevölkerung der betroffenen Dörfer hat das Land, das sie zuvor landwirtschaftlich nutzte, bereits 2010 verloren, die Dörfer existieren aber weiter und viele Bewohner*innen versuchen weiterhin, ihr verlorenes Land zurückzubekommen. Allerdings mussten etliche die Gegend wegen des Landverlustes über die Jahre verlassen. Insofern kann man von einem Fall langsamer "sekundärer" oder "indirekter" Vertreibung sprechen (Gellert & Lynch 2003). Die Untersuchungen zu diesem Fall durch international aktive NGOs wie dem Oakland Institute und das FIAN (FoodFirst Informations- und Aktions-Netzwerk) bzw. durch Wissenschaftler*innen liegen mehrere Jahre zurück (Baxter 2011; Seufert & Hategekimana 2013; Tasgian 2014) und fielen in die Zeit, in der landgrabbing politisch wie wissenschaftlich international ein heiß diskutiertes Thema war. Seitdem sich der erste Staub gelegt hat, erhielt der Fall wenig wissenschaftliche Aufmerksamkeit.

Wissensproduktion und Aktivismus

In diesem Aufsatz gehe ich der Frage nach, was die Herausforderungen und Erfolgsbedingungen für kleinbäuerlichen Widerstand gegen landgrabbing und damit verbundene Vertreibung sind. Er basiert auf Forschung in Mali seit Anfang 2018. Ich habe mit über 20 beteiligten Aktivist*innen und Politiker*innen (u.a. von der Coalition des Alternatives Africaines Dette et Développement, der Coordination d'Associations pour le Développement et la Défense des Droits des Démunies, Afrique-Europe-Interact, der Partei Solidarité Africaine pour la Démocratie et l'Indépendence und der Université Mandé Bakary) sowie mit Bewohner*innen/Aktivist*innen der betroffenen Dörfer über ihre Erfahrungen und Einschätzungen gesprochen und auch an Arbeitstreffen teilgenommen. Die Gespräche fanden auf Deutsch, Französisch und Bambara statt -- die meisten auf Bambara wurden von Aktivist*innen von Afrique-Europe-Interact (AEI) für mich konsekutiv ins Französische übersetzt. Die Gespräche habe ich aufgenommen und auf Französisch und Deutsch transkribiert und inhaltsanalytisch ausgewertet. Zudem bin ich seit über zwei Jahren bei dem transnationalen Netzwerk AEI aktiv, welches sich seit 2014 mit Menschen aus den Dörfern Sanamadougou und Sahou gegen den Verlust ihres Landes einsetzt. Mein Aktivismus hat mir überhaupt erst erlaubt, Zugang zu diesem Fall zu erhalten. Aktivist*innen von AEI waren es auch, die mir vorgeschlagen haben, dass ich mich mit dem zehnjährigen Verlauf des Kampfes von Sanamadougou und Sahou wissenschaftlich beschäftigen sollte -- etwas, zu dem vielen Aktivist*innen üblicherweise die Zeit fehlt. Diese Arbeit verstehe ich insofern als Beitrag zu den Bemühungen von Sanamadougou und Sahou, sich gegen Landverlust und die damit einhergehende Vertreibung zu wehren (Decoloniality Europe 2013). Neben Interviews und öffentlich zugänglichen Dokumenten kann ich durch meine Verbindung zu AEI auf Quellen wie unveröffentlichte Berichte der AfDB, Schreiben von AEI an das BMZ, die AfDB und malische Behörden sowie Bilder und Videos von öffentlichen Aktionen zurückgreifen.

Zunächst umreiße ich den spezifischen politischen und administrativen Kontext des Entwicklungsprojekts bzw. der Behörde Office du Niger sowie die Geschichte des Widerstands von S&S. In einem zweiten Schritt arbeite ich drei verschiedene Strategien der Politik von unten gegen landgrabbing heraus (Hall u.a. 2015) -- kollektives Vorgehen, Anrufung des Staates, nationale und internationale Allianzen -- und diskutiere deren Möglichkeiten und Beschränkungen. Sie werden betrachtet im Kontext mannigfaltiger Widersprüche zwischen und innerhalb der von landgrabbing betroffenen Dörfer (ebd.), postkolonialer staatlicher Rationalität (Randeria 2016) sowie der Kapazität, Verbündete zu mobilisieren (Borras Jr. & Franco 2013). Ich argumentiere, dass der Widerstand bis jetzt erfolglos war -- d.h., das Land wurde nicht zurückgewonnen bzw. es gab keine umfängliche Kompensation --, weil erstens zwischen den Betroffenen bzw. Akteur*innen des Widerstands unterschiedliche und wandelnde Positionen bestehen und zweitens die Behörde Office du Niger sich wie ein "listiger" Staat im Staat verhält. Der Widerstand ist hingegen in dem Sinne erfolgreich, als er bis heute anhält, was vor allem im Zusammenhang steht mit transnationalem Agieren und mit dem Versuch, "Geber" zur Rechenschaft zu ziehen.

Das Office du Niger und der Fall Sanamadougou und Sahou

80 Prozent der Bevölkerung Malis ist in der Landwirtschaft tätig (Inter-réseaux Développement Rural 2018: 2). Über 800.000 Haushalte kultivieren im Durchschnitt jeweils 4,7 Hektar, wobei ein Drittel davon weniger als einen Hektar zur Verfügung hat. Dem gegenüber hat die Regierung Malis große Landverträge mit Investoren abgeschlossen, zum Nachteil kleinbäuerlicher Landwirtschaft. So hielt das Oakland Institute beispielsweise 2011 fest, dass das Land, das von 22 Investoren bebaut wird und einige Tausend Arbeitskräfte beschäftigt, "leicht 112.537 Bauernfamilien, deutlich über eine halbe Mio. Menschen (686.478) versorgen könnte"[2] (Oakland Institute 2011).

Die Region Office du Niger gilt als "Reiskammer" Malis (Inter-réseaux Développement rural 2018: 6). Sie umfasst nach Schätzungen 420.000 Einwohner*innen auf einer weitgehend unerschlossenen Fläche von ca. 2,8 Mio. Hektar (Seufert & Hategekimana 2013: 15). Von diesen sind ca. 1,5 Mio. Hektar potentiell landwirtschaftlich erschließbar. Die französische Kolonialadministration setzte sich zum Ziel, 1 Mio. Hektar innerhalb von einem halben Jahrhundert an das Bewässerungssystem anzuschließen. Heute sind nur etwas über 120.000 Hektar bewässert und werden für den Reis-, Zuckerrohr- und Gemüseanbau genutzt (Inter-réseaux Développement rural 2018: 6; AfDB 2018: 9). Zwischen 2003 und 2012 wurden im OdN über 900.000 Hektar Acker- und Weideland an transnational operierende Banken, Investmentfonds und Konzerne verpachtet bzw. in Vorverträgen zur späteren Pacht versprochen (Bernau 2012). Bis heute kann das Projekt OdN nur mit der Finanzierung durch internationale entwicklungspolitische "Geber" am Laufen gehalten werden.

Politik, Verwaltung und Landwirtschaft im Office du Niger

Das Entwicklungsprojekt OdN ist von den Anfängen bis heute von "exogenen Entwicklungsdoktrinen" geprägt gewesen: vom "kolonialen Paradigma der Produktion über die Vision einer sozialistischen ländlichen Wirtschaft bis hin zu den liberalen Ansätzen der Zeit nach 1980" (Frey 2017: 34). Nach Marc Frey (ebd.) sei es neben grundlegendem institutionellem und sozialem Wandel geprägt von Kontinuitäten bezüglich struktureller Gewalt, der Betonung von Produktivität und hierarchischen Entscheidungsprozessen zum Nachteil der Kleinbauern und -bäuerinnen. Die in der Politik der "Geber" und der malischen Regierung sichtbare Präferenz sei nicht die Verbesserung der individuellen Lebenssituationen der Bewohner*innen des OdN, sondern der Ausbau eines agroindustriellen Großkomplexes mit dem Ziel der Steigerung des nationalen Wirtschaftswachstums und der städtischen Nahrungsmittelsicherheit. Auch die Nahrungsmittel, die vom Unternehmen Complexe Agropastoral et Industriel angebaut und in der Fabrik Moulin Moderne du Mali verarbeitet werden, sind nicht für die Versorgung der Landbevölkerung bestimmt, sondern für die für den Machterhalt der politischen Elite bedeutsameren Bewohner*innen von Bamako und anderer großer Städte.

Die Verwaltung des Entwicklungsprojekts OdN obliegt der gleichnamigen semi-autonomen Regierungsbehörde, einem "Staat im Staat" (Interview am 24.10.2018). Diese agiert nach anderen Regeln in Bezug auf Grund- und Bodenrechte als dies im Rest Malis der Fall ist. Während Dorfchefs in Mali Teil der Landverteilungsstruktur sind, ist im OdN allein die Behörde verantwortlich für die Verteilung von Landpachten. Land kann von der Behörde entschädigungslos konfisziert werden, wenn die Pächter*innen ihre Wasserrechnungen zu spät zahlen. Dabei spielt es keine Rolle, wie lange das Land schon von den Pächter*innen bewirtschaftet wurde oder ob die Verwaltung des OdN -- wie oft der Fall -- verantwortlich für den Zahlungsverzug ist. Dies ist beispielsweise der Fall, wenn der in seiner Verantwortung stehende Unterhalt des Kanalsystems unterlassen wird und die Ernte deswegen vertrocknet oder verschimmelt (Bernau 2012). Der Entzug von kleinbäuerlich bestelltem Land ist im Interesse der Behördenmitarbeiter*innen, die dieses regelmäßig entweder sich selbst oder ihrem persönlichen, wirtschaftlichen oder parteipolitischen Umfeld zusprechen (Interviews im Oktober 2018).

Ob sich die materiellen Lebensbedingungen der Bevölkerung im Office du Niger auf lange Sicht betrachtet verbessert haben, ist umstritten und hängt davon ab, welche Indikatoren betrachtet werden. So können Kleinbauern und -bäuerinnen beispielsweise ökonomisch davon profitieren, bewässertes Land für den kommerziellen Reisanbau zur Verfügung gestellt zu bekommen. Gleichzeitig herrscht Landknappheit, auch weil trotz steigender Bevölkerungszahlen vom OdN den Familien keine zusätzlichen Ackerflächen zur Verfügung gestellt werden (Bernau 2012). Intensivere Bewirtschaftung durch kürzere Brachzeiten haben zu sinkenden Erträgen, hohe Kosten für Dünger, Wasser und Saatgut zu hohen Verschuldungsraten geführt (ebd.). Kleinbauern und -bäuerinnen leben in der ständigen Angst, dass ihnen ihre Pachtflächen entzogen werden, wenn sie Abgaben nicht rechtzeitig zahlen (Gespräche mit Mitgliedern der Bauerngewerkschaft COPON [Collectif des Paysans de l'Office du Niger] im Februar 2018). Entsprechend bezeichnen Bäuerinnen und Bauern sowie Aktivist*innen die Behörde des OdN als ein sie aussaugendes "Vampir" (Interview am 25.10.2018). Aufgrund des repressiven Verwaltungssystems im OdN war diese Region auch immer von Widerstand durch zugezogene bzw. zwangsrekrutierte und alteingesessene Bäuerinnen und Bauern geprägt (Coulibaly 2015). Bereits in der Kolonialzeit gründete sich eine bäuerliche Gewerkschaft, die sich auch im antikolonialen Kampf engagierte. Zwischen 2005 und 2008 hat es einen "mittels massiver Repression erstickten Kampfzyklus gegen das Mikro-landgrabbing der Behörden gegeben" (Bernau 2012).

Sanamadougou und Sahou

In der Region, in der die Dörfer Sanamadougou und Sahou liegen, existierten schon vor der französischen Kolonisierung Dörfer. Sie wurden also im Gegensatz zu denen in anderen Gegenden nicht erst im Zuge der kolonialen (Zwangs-)Besiedlung des OdN geschaffen -- die Repräsentanten der Dörfer selbst sprechen von über 800 Jahren Bewirtschaftung (Les Chefs de Village de Sana-Madougou Bamana et de Sahou 2014: 3). Das Unternehmen Complexe Agropastoral et Industriel hat etlichen Familien das von ihnen seit langem bestellte Land weggenommen. Nach Abschluss des Pachtvertrags mit der Behörde Office du Niger hat das Unternehmen das Land mit Unterstützung staatlicher Sicherheitskräfte in Besitz genommen. Der Landentzug ist nach den Regularien des OdN grundsätzlich erlaubt, wenn dieser in öffentlichem Interesse ist. In diesem Fall hat es nach der Afrikanischen Entwicklungsbank allerdings weder ausreichende Konsultationen und Entschädigungen der Bevölkerung noch die gesetzlich vorgeschriebene Sozialverträglichkeitsstudie gegeben (AfDB 2018: 12). Eine direkte Vertreibung der Bevölkerung fand nicht statt. Jedoch mussten aufgrund fehlender Einkommens- bzw. Subsistenzmöglichkeiten durch den Landverlust viele Menschen ihre Dörfer verlassen, so dass diese um fast die Hälfte geschrumpft und ganze Viertel verwaist sind (Interview am 21.10.2018). Entwicklungspolitik zeigt auch in diesem Fall in der Vertreibung der Bevölkerung sein "ultimatives hässliches Gesicht" (Dwivedi 2002: 712). Der Landentzug wird sowohl von Seiten des Unternehmens als auch von Seiten der malischen Regierung und Behörden mit dem Verweis auf einen positiven Entwicklungsbeitrag des Projekts gerechtfertigt: Genannt werden "Ernährungssouveränität", "landwirtschaftliche Stärke Malis", "Entwicklung der Agro-Industrie" sowie "nachhaltige und integrierte Entwicklung" (Gouvernement du Mali u.a. 2010: 1). Die Regierung Malis evaluierte vier Jahre nach Unterzeichnung des Pachtvertrags "die Auswirkungen des Projekts auf die Ernährungssicherheit und die Entwicklung der Zone als nachweislich positiv" (Primature -- Cabinet du Premier Ministre 2014: 13).

Vielfalt von Positionen und kollektives Vorgehen

Für den Fall von Sanamadougou und Sahou sind weder Perspektiven, die von Bäuerinnen und Bauern als individuellen Nutzenmaximier*innen ausgehen, noch solche, die in diesen ein kollektives revolutionäres Subjekt sehen, erklärungskräftig für Widerstand bzw. dessen Abwesenheit. Der Zusammenhang zwischen Verlust von Land und Widerstand ist deutlich komplexer, hängt von diversen Faktoren ab und hat sich über die Jahre immer wieder gewandelt (vgl. Hall u.a. 2015: 469). Entsprechend verwende ich Kategorien wie lokale Gemeinschaft oder lokale Bevölkerung mit Vorsicht, da deren Gebrauch Gefahr läuft, "die tatsächlichen Dynamiken von Politik eher zu verdecken als zu erhellen" (Borras Jr. & Franco 2013: 1742):

"Wenn das Schreckgespenst des Landgrabbing allerdings eins gezeigt hat, dann ist es, dass lokale Gemeinschaften sozial differenziert sind und dass folglich die Auswirkung auf und innerhalb von Gemeinschaften ebenfalls differenziert sein wird, was wiederum zu einer Anzahl verschiedener Reaktionen führt." (ebd.: 1724)

Spaltungen zwischen und innerhalb von Dörfern

2009 versuchte der malische Großinvestor Modibo Keïta die Dorfbewohner*innen in der Kommune Pogo im Cercle Niono zu überzeugen, ihm ihr Land für seine agroindustriellen Pläne zu übertragen (Seufert & Hategekimana 2013: 30). Nachdem diese abgelehnt hatten, trat er in dem nahe gelegenen Cercle Sibila an die Dörfer Sanamadougou Bamana, Sahou, Sanamadougou Marka und Diado heran. Die letzten beiden einigten sich mit dem Unternehmer, so dass das Dorf Diado dem Complexe Agropastoral et Industriel (CAI) beispielsweise 800 Hektar übertrug (Les Chefs de Village de Sana-Madougou Bamana et de Sahou 2014; Seufert & Hategekimana 2013: 30). Die Chefs der Dörfer, die nicht auf die Wünsche von Modibo Keïta eingingen, taten sich zusammen und beklagten bei diversen öffentlichen Stellen Einschüchterungsversuche durch den Unternehmer (Seufert & Hategekimana 2013: 36). In dieser ersten Phase gab es also schon eine Trennung zwischen verschiedenen Dörfern, die unterschiedlich auf die Landnahmeversuche reagierten. Zudem gab es auch innerhalb von Dörfern unterschiedliche Positionen: Sieben der 120 Haushalte von Sanamadougou Bamana ließen sich ebenfalls auf den Deal mit Modibo Keïta ein. Die Dörfer und Haushalte, die der Übereinkunft zustimmten, erhielten Geschenke wie Schälmaschinen, Motorräder, Fußbälle und T-Shirts, aber auch Alternativflächen, Geld oder Zugang zu Krediten und temporäre Jobs auf den Baustellen und Feldern (Tasgian 2014: 607). Die Afrikanische Entwicklungsbank geht davon aus, dass lediglich 18 Empfänger*innen in Sanamadougou Marka Ersatzflächen nach den Richtlinien des OdN sowie elf weitere Kompensation, deren Höhe nicht nachzuvollziehen ist, erhalten haben (AfDB 2018: 12f).

Nachdem CAI im Mai 2010 einen über 30 Jahre laufenden Pachtvertrag von 7.400 Hektar mit dem OdN abschloss (mit der Option, in einer zweiten Phase weitere 12.600 Hektar zu erhalten), begannen im Juni 2010 Angestellte des Unternehmens ohne Vorankündigung die Felder von S&S mit Bulldozern zu zerstören und zahlreiche von S&S für die Agroforstwirtschaft genutzte Bäume zu fällen. Als Bewohner*innen von S&S dagegen protestierten, kamen über einhundert Gendarmen und gingen mit Gewalt gegen sie vor. Es gab mehrere, zum Teil schwer Verletzte und ca. 40 Verhaftungen. Die Verhafteten verbrachten mehrere Monate im Gefängnis, mindestens eine schwangere Frau erlitt aufgrund von Schlägen eine Fehlgeburt (Tasgian 2014: 607) und der Dorfchef von Sanamadougou soll an den Spätfolgen der Schläge gestorben sein (Interview am 19.10.2018). Nach anderen Angaben starben sechs Personen als Folge der Gewalt durch die Gendarmerie (Le Collectif des Chefs de village du Sana 2016a). Anschließend habe es weitere Übergriffe durch Angehörige der Gendarmerie in den Dörfern gegeben, bei denen auch Vergewaltigungen begangen wurden (AEI 2015).

Der Konflikt zwischen den Dörfern bzw. Menschen, die sich mit Modibo Keïta geeinigt haben, und denen, die sich ihm widersetzen, zieht sich bis heute hin.

"Das Review Panel hat eine Gemeinschaft vorgefunden, die tief entzweit war zwischen denen, die Kompensation angenommen haben, und denen, die sie nicht angenommen haben. Die, die Kompensation abgelehnt haben, sind er Ansicht, dass sie durch den Verlust ihres traditionell angestammten Landes und durch den Projekteingriff in ihre Gemeinschaftsrechte stark beeinträchtigt wurden. […] Die vom Projekt Betroffenen, die Kompensation angenommen haben, wünschen sich einzig einen Abschluss der Angelegenheit. Dadurch ist der IRM [Independent Review Mechanism] der Ansicht, dass der Landkonflikt den Zusammenhalt der Gemeinschaft schwerwiegend beeinträchtigt hat." (AfDB 2018: 13)

Die Dorfbewohner*innen werden von CAI und den Behörden des OdN gegeneinander ausgespielt. So schreiben die Chefs von S&S in einem Brief an das Justizministerium, dass Modibo Keïta bei Besuchen von Externen diesen vorspiele, dass die Dorfbewohner*innen in der Mehrheit seinem Projekt positiv gegenüberstünden, obwohl 90 Prozent der Bewohner*innen von Sanamadougou und Sahou dagegen seien (Les Chefs de Village de Sana-Madougou Bamana et de Sahou 2014: 5). So mache er externe Besucher*innen beispielsweise glauben, dass sie nach Sanamadougou Bamana kommen und mit den dortigen Bewohner*innen sprechen, während diese sich aber in Diado befinden -- also in dem Dorf, das sich mit ihm geeinigt hatte und für eine Beendigung des Widerstands ist (ebd.).

Veränderung von und Festhalten an Standpunkten

Innerhalb der Dörfer gibt es Personen, die mittlerweile für Entschädigungen und ein Ende der Konfrontation mit der Fabrik Moulin Moderne du Mali (M3) sind; andere wollen davon weiterhin nichts wissen, auch mit Verweis auf eine Pflicht, die sie gegenüber denen sehen, die für ihre Aktivitäten verfolgt und inhaftiert wurden. Die Gewalterfahrung im Juni 2010 bei der Wegnahme der Felder hat vor allem die Bewohner*innen des Dorfes Sanamadougou Bamana nachhaltig beeinflusst: "Danach war klar, die lassen sich auf nichts mehr ein. Ihre Würde wurde ihnen weggenommen. Und dann wollen sie auch keinen Kompromiss mehr." (Interview am 19.10.2019) Die Annahme von Kompensation verstünden die Bewohner*innen von S&S als Verrat an den Verstorbenen (Interview am 27.10.2018). Auch heute bekräftigen sie: "Nichts zählt außer unser Land. Wir wollen allein unser Land, das weggenommen wurde." (Berater des Dorfchefs von Sahou bei Versammlung, 22.10.2018) Über die Jahre sind immer mehr Menschen aus den vom Landverlust betroffenen Dörfern weggezogen, vor allem in die Hauptstadt Bamako. Hier besteht ein in Fällen von landgrabbing nicht unüblicher Generationenkonflikt (vgl. Hall u.a. 2015: 482f). Mir wurde berichtet, dass die jüngeren Menschen in der Stadt teilweise dafür sind, dass ihre im Dorf verbliebenen Familienangehörigen den Kampf um die Restitution der Flächen aufgeben und Kompensation erfragen: "Die Jungen, die dann halt sagen, sie haben nichts zu sagen, die sagen, das [die Ablehnung von Kompensation] ist totaler Quatsch." (Interview am 21.10.2018) Als Grund für diese Position würden die Jungen angeben, dass sie befürchten, dass CAI Sahou noch deutlich mehr Land wegnehmen wird. Dabei handelt es sich um solches, das die Dorfbewohner*innen zwar zurzeit noch bestellen können, das aber auf dem von CAI als Pacht zugewiesenen Gebiet liegt.

Aktivist*innen von AEI gehen zudem davon aus, dass es auch innerhalb der Gruppe aus S&S, die die letzten Jahre besonders prominent für eine Rückgabe des Landes eingetreten ist, Veränderung von Positionen gegeben hat. So ist eine Vermutung, dass Repräsentanten von S&S, die in Bamako leben und als Reishändler tätig sind, zunächst mit Modibo Keïta verhandelt hätten, um bei dem Geschäft etwas für sich herauszuschlagen (Interview am 19.10.2018). Als sie dann die gewaltsame Vertreibung im Juni 2010 und die dramatischen Folgen für die Dörfer realisiert hätten, hätten sie sich -- ggf. auch als so etwas wie eine Widergutmachung für ihre anfängliche Position -- besonders intensiv im Widerstand gegen CAI und Modibo Keïta engagiert. Da Modibo Keïta auch aus der gleichen Gegend kommt, mit ihnen bekannt und früher ebenfalls ein kleiner Reishändler wie sie war, wird auch Neid auf seinen wirtschaftlichen Erfolg als möglicher Grund für die Verweigerung jeglicher Verhandlungen um beispielsweise Kompensationen statt Landrückgabe angenommen.

Dass die Betroffenen nach Jahren erfolgloser Versuche, ihr Land zurückzuerhalten, und fehlender Anzeichen dafür, dass eine Rückgabe realistischer wird, weiterhin kategorisch ablehnen, über Ersatzflächen als Kompensation nachzudenken bzw. für diese zu kämpfen, wird von beteiligten Aktivist*innen von AEI als irrational gewertet:

"Das ist einfach suizidal, auf die Zukunft der Dörfer bezogen. Und man könnte eine Lösung finden, die den Dörfern als Dörfer den Weiterbestand ermöglicht. So wie das im Moment läuft, werden die Dörfer einfach Schritt für Schritt ausgeblutet. Und werden dann wahrscheinlich in zehn, 15 Jahren aufgegeben." (Interview am 21.10.2018)

Es wird angeführt, dass die Dorfbewohner*innen durch die Annahme von Kompensation sich und ihre Familien ernähren und gleichzeitig den Kampf weiterführen könnten (Interview am 27.10.2018). Hierbei ist allerdings einerseits angesichts der bisherigen Praktiken der Behörde OdN und der Groupe de Sociétés Moulin Moderne du Mali fraglich, ob diese Kompensation tatsächlich erfolgen würde bzw. ob sie dergestalt wäre, dass sie den Bedürfnissen der Enteigneten entspricht. Andererseits besteht bei der Aufnahme von Gesprächen über Kompensation die Gefahr, dass sich die Dorfbewohner*innen in eine Bittstellerposition begeben, die es ihnen verunmöglicht, weiterhin offensiv von landgrabbing zu sprechen und die Behörden des OdN bzw. Modibo Keïta öffentlich zu denunzieren.

Verlust von Würde und Identität spielen allerdings eine im Vergleich zu materiellen Überlegungen ungleich größere Rolle für viele Dorfbewohner*innen. Diese "Kosten" werden in der dominanten Diskussion um Vertreibung durch Entwicklung selten berücksichtigt (vgl. Dwivedi 2002). Auch der Behörde des OdN und Modibo Keïta scheint es um mehr als materielle Fragen zu gehen, denn sie hätten den Dorfbewohner*innen auch Ersatzflächen anbieten können, ohne diese Kompensation zu nennen und damit mit dem Anstrich der endgültigen Niederlage für die Kleinbäuerinnen und -bauern zu versehen: "Die wollen die Bauern in die Knie zwingen." (Interview am 15.10.2018)

Öffentlicher Widerstand

Nach der Gewalterfahrung zu Beginn des landgrabbing hat es lange Zeit keine kollektiven, direkten Aktionen von Seiten der Dorfbevölkerung in der Region gegeben. In Bamako nahmen sie allerdings im März 2012 an einer Großdemonstration gegen landgrabbing teil. Erst im Mai 2015 entschlossen sie sich nach einem großen Treffen in Sahou nochmal, sich dem Unternehmenskomplex CAI/M3 physisch in den Weg zu stellen. Bei einem von AEI unterstützten Treffen von Vertreter*innen der 35 Dörfer des Arrondissements Sana, zu dem auch Aktivist*innen und Mitglieder der Partei Sadi aus Bamako sowie Mitglieder der bäuerlichen Basisgewerkschaft COPON aus einem anderen Teil des OdN kamen. Die 300 bis 400 Personen entschlossen sich während des Treffens, einen Marsch zur Fabrik M3 durchzuführen und danach die Zufahrtsstraße für LKW mit einem Sit-In zu blockieren. Auf Bitte von Angestellten von M3 kamen unverzüglich Gendarmen aus der Stadt Ségou. Die Teilnehmer*innen des Treffens organisierten eine Woche lang jeden Tag Demonstrationen, die vor das Fabrikgelände führten. Diese wurden erst eingestellt, als Modibo Keïta zugestimmt hatte, Vertreter*innen von S&S zu einem klärenden Gespräch zu empfangen. Dies führte aber zu keiner Lösung des Konflikts: Modibo Keïta pochte auf sein Recht, das Land zu nutzen, gab aber auch an, dass er das Land räumen werde, wenn der malische Staat ihm seine Investitionen zurückzahle. Die Vertreter von S&S wollten keine Kompensation annehmen, sondern ihr Land zurück. 2016 gab es noch einmal den Versuch der Bewohner*innen von S&S, ihre verlorenen Felder zu besetzen, aber die Autoritäten in Ségou schickten sofort die Gendarmerie, um dies zu verhindern (Interview am 17.10.2018). Zudem wurden die beiden Dorfchefs und einige ihrer Berater nach Ségou bestellt und lange warten gelassen, was den Protest ausbremste. Derzeit planen Bewohner*innen aus S&S wieder eine öffentliche Aktion -- einen "Tag des Volksprotestes" -- mit anschließendem "Befreiungsmarsch" zu den verlorenen Felder (Information von Aktivist*in von AEI, 22.1.2019). Sie fühlen sich erneut ermutigt, weil im November 2018 bei dem jährlichen "Espace d'Interpellation Démocratique au Mali", bei dem Bürger*innen die Regierung direkt ansprechen dürfen, von Jurist*innen öffentlich ausgesagt wurde, dass es im Fall von S&S Verletzungen des Gewohnheitsrechts sowie Verfahrensfehler bei der allgemeinen Entschädigung der Bauern gegeben habe (Information von Aktivist*in von AEI, 22.1.2019). Diese Bürgeranhörung kann als "politische Möglichkeitsstruktur" für S&S verstanden werden, "sich auf öffentliche politische Auseinandersetzungen einzulassen, um in Bezug auf ihre Vertreibung zu kämpfen" (Borras Jr. & Franco 2013: 1733).

Über die Jahre hat es in S&S viele Treffen gegeben, um sich gegen das OdN zur Wehr zu setzen. Dabei kamen mit Unterstützung von AEI die 34 anderen Dörfer im Umkreis von S&S im Arrondissement Sana zusammen, um gemeinsam Druck auf die Autoritäten auszuüben. Entscheidungen werden mittlerweile von der Versammlung der Dorfchefs in Goma getroffen, die sich solidarisch mit den Entscheidungen der Dörfer S&S verhalten (Interview am 17.10.2018). Hier wird deutlich, dass es nicht unbedingt a priori Kollektivität gab, sondern diese immer wieder über die Jahre und im stetigen Austausch entstanden ist und erarbeitet werden musste. Ohne die Kollektivität von S&S -- und darin auch zwischen in die Stadt Gezogenen und im Dorf Verbliebenen -- sowie der Loyalität anderer Dörfer mit diesen beiden hätte der Widerstand nicht bis heute anhalten können.

Der listige Staat (im Staat) als Gegenspieler

Bei Analysen zu landgrabbing ist es der Literatur nach zu urteilen unerlässlich, sich mit der Rolle des Staates zu beschäftigen (Wolford u.a. 2013). Dabei sind die beiden permanenten widersprüchlichen Aufgaben des kapitalistischen Staats zu beachten: Kapitalakkumulation zu ermöglichen und dabei ein minimales Level an politischer Legitimität aufrechtzuerhalten. In dieser Perspektive ist der Staat im Kontext von landgrabbing bzw. Vertreibung durch Entwicklung "sowohl Teil des Problems als auch Teil der Lösung" (Borras Jr. & Franco 2013: 1729):

"Er wird auf großflächige Landgeschäfte drängen und stark drängen, und in den meisten Fällen ist sogar er es, der direkt am Landgrabbing beteiligt ist -- aber gelegentliche 'Bremsen' werden angelegt, wenn die Art und das Ausmaß der Akkumulations- und Enteignungsprozesse die Legitimität des Staates bedrohen." (ebd.: 1729f)

Gleichzeitig "operieren Staaten nie mit einer Stimme" (Wolford u.a. 2013: 189): Im Fall der Behörde OdN haben wir es mit einer parastaatlichen Institution zu tun, mit einem "Staat im Staat". Das bedeutet, dass die parastaatliche Behörde des OdN über Sonderrechte und -befugnisse verfügt. Kleinbauern und -bäuerinnen im OdN unterstehen im Gegensatz zum Rest von Mali besonderer Gesetzgebung in Bezug auf Landrechte.

Ungreifbare Zwangsstrukturen

Die Verwaltungs- und Rechtsstruktur des OdN wird von Aktivist*innen entsprechend einhellig als eine Fortführung der kolonialen Zwangsstruktur beschrieben. Dessen Fortführung durch die post-kolonialen Eliten wird interpretiert als "ein Komplott des schwarzen Kolonisators, der die gleiche Grund- und Bodenordnung des weißen Kolonisators genommen hat und diese gegen seine eigene Bevölkerung angewendet hat" (Interview am 25.10.2018).

Die Nationalregierung nutzt das OdN als Struktur, in der sie Personen platzieren kann, denen sie einen Gefallen tun möchte -- denn in hier lässt sich in administrativen Positionen durch Korruption ungleich mehr Geld verdienen als in anderen Teilen des Landes. Nach einem Beobachter ist dies an der Tagesordnung, auch im Fall des CAI und der M3: "Modibo [Keïta] gibt allen Geld -- dem Präfekten, dem Unterpräfekten, dem Direktor des Office [du Niger], den Richtern. Er verteilt Geld in alle Richtungen." (Interview am 26.10.2018) Die Zentralregierung gibt oftmals an, von Vorgängen in der Behörde des OdN nichts zu wissen. Zuweilen ist dies auch der Fall, und sie werden nicht in Vorgänge eingeweiht (Interview am 26.10.2018). In der Literatur zu landgrabbing ist festzustellen, dass die "Spaltungen innerhalb des Staates […] zwischen Beamten auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene" und die dadurch bestehende "Konkurrenz zwischen diesen Akteur*innen Landerwerbungen ermöglichen, aber diese Konkurrenz kann auch politischen Raum öffnen oder die Möglichkeit von Widerstand schaffen" (Hall u.a. 2015: 476). Die Behörde des OdN lässt sich durch eine Übertragung des Konzepts des "listigen Staats" fassen (Randeria 2016). Sie gibt sich sowohl an- als auch abwesend, je nach bestehenden Interessen. Zuweilen agiert sie als mächtiger "Vampir", der die Bevölkerung aussaugt, zuweilen gibt sie sich machtlos, was beispielsweise die Bewirtschaftung der Kanalsysteme angeht.

Diverse Stakeholder des Widerstands gegen den Landentzug der Dörfer S&S sowie die Bewohner*innen der Dörfer selbst gehen seit Anfang an davon aus, dass Modibo Keïta sich anderes Land angeeignet hat als das, was ihm vom OdN zugesprochen wurde. Das ihm offiziell zugeteilte Land läge ca. 18 Kilometer vom tatsächlich angeeigneten Land entfernt. Hätte er die ihm dieser Interpretation zufolge zugeteilten Flächen bewirtschaften wollen, hätte das den aufwendigen und teuren Bau eines kilometerlangen Stichkanals bedeutet. Die Behörden des OdN sowie Modibo Keïta geben an, dass diese Interpretation nicht korrekt sei. Aktivist*innen von AEI hatten zwei Jahre lang, d.h. von 2014 bis 2016, die Annahme der anderen widerständigen Kräfte übernommen. Später überprüften sie es selbst über Google Maps und konnten ihrer Aussage nach feststellen, dass die Behörden und Modibo Keïta Recht hätten. Es habe ihrer Auffassung nach Missverständnisse gegeben, die mit den im Pachtvertrag genannten Namen der die Flächen begrenzenden Kanäle zu tun hätten (Interview am 21.10.2018). Ursächlich für solch ein Missverständnis ist, dass das OdN für die Abgrenzung der Flächen im Vertrag keine eindeutigen GPS-Daten verwendet hat, die überprüft werden könnten, sondern lediglich für Interpretation offene geographische Angaben (AEI 2015). Die Unklarheit bezüglich der Lage des Landes hat den Widerstand mehrere Jahre beschäftigt und die These der falschen Zuteilung wird bis heute als Argument ins Feld geführt, warum die Landnahme von Anfang an illegal war. Allerdings gibt es -- wie erwähnt -- ausreichend andere Argumente gegen die Art und Weise der Landaneignung, die den Kampf dagegen auch hätten tragen können. Fehlende Transparenz und Nachprüfbarkeit von Maßnahmen des OdN haben hier bis heute eine unklare Situation begünstigt.

Rechtsprechung als Sackgasse

Im Februar 2012 zogen S&S mit Hilfe der Malischen Koalition gegen landgrabbing (Convergence Malienne contre les Accaparements de Terres, CMAT)[3] vor Gericht und legten eine Beschwerde ein aufgrund der Verletzung ihrer

"Gewohnheitsbodenrechte auf ihrem angestammten Land, der Nichteinhaltung der Vorgaben der Pacht durch die Gesellschaft M3 in Bezug auf die Ortsbestimmung des Landes sowie der Komplizenschaft der malischen Behörden mit deren Verhalten" (Seufert & Hategekimana 2013: 37).

Im Dezember 2012 wurde der Prozess vom Gericht unterbrochen, mit dem Verweis auf die Anordnung der Bestellung eines Gutachters "der insbesondere zu der Frage Stellung nehmen soll, ob der von Modibo Keïta mit dem OdN abgeschlossene Pachtvertrag die Flächen der beiden Dörfer umfasst oder nicht" (AEI 2016). Der vom Gericht bestellte Gutachter ist drei Jahre lang nicht aktiv geworden und hat dann erklärt, dass er den Auftrag nicht übernehmen wolle (ebd.). Das ist nach Ansicht von AEI wissentlich durch das OdN vonstattengegangen, das sich eigentlich dafür einsetzen müsste, rechtstaatlichen Verfahren zu folgen, aber kein Interesse an einer Klärung hat. Hier zeigt sich das OdN als einflussreich durch Untätigkeit. Gleichzeitig hatte sich der Premierminister Oumar Tatam Ly nach seiner Ernennung im September 2013 beim Gouverneur der Region Ségou über S&S informiert und ihm war mitgeteilt worden, dass ein Richter die Angelegenheit bereits zu Ungunsten von S&S entschieden hätte (Interview am 26.10.2018). Dies war eine offensichtliche Falschinformation, um mögliche Interventionen durch die Zentralregierung zu umgehen, denn das Verfahren war eben lediglich unterbrochen worden.

Danach haben S&S 2016 versucht, eine Wiederaufnahme des Verfahrens zu erwirken. Als sie den zuständigen Richter kontaktierten, "um die Bestellung eines neuen Gutachters zu verlangen, erfuhren sie, dass in dem betreffenden Rechtsstreit ein Richterwechsel bevorstünde und dass sich erst der neue Richter mit der Angelegenheit befassen würde" (AEI 2016). Im Mai 2013 hatten die Dörfer außerdem einen Antrag auf einstweilige Unterbrechung der Arbeiten bis zur Klärung des eigentlichen Gerichtsverfahrens gestellt (AEI 2015). Dieser wurde jedoch sofort "aus formalen und inhaltlichen Gründen abgelehnt", wobei nach AEI hier unter anderem fälschlicherweise von eindeutigen GPS-Daten ausgegangen wurde. Es ist offensichtlich, dass der rechtliche Weg in dem hier untersuchten Fall nicht zielführend war, weil Verfahren immer wieder verzögert wurden und die Dorfbewohner*innen aus S&S wenig Erfahrung mit den rechtlichen Abläufen in Mali haben.

Korruption

Bestechung spielt im rechtlichen Umgang mit S&S eine große Rolle. 2013 war auf Druck von nationalen sozialen Bewegungen gegen landgrabbing eine Interministerielle Kommission zur Untersuchung des Falls von S&S versus Modibo Keïta ins Leben gerufen worden (siehe unten). Der Bericht, der wohl für S&S vorteilhaft war, wurde nie veröffentlicht, weil der im April 2014 ins Amt berufene Premierminister Moussa Mara davon nichts mehr wissen wollte. Dabei sei nach Auffassung eines Beraters der Regierung Geld im Spiel gewesen:

"Einige Tage nach seiner Ernennung habe ich erfahren, dass Modibo Keïta gekommen war, um den neuen Premierminister zu treffen. […] Der Premierminister hat Modibo Keïta empfangen ohne Anwesenheit seines Beraters für ländliche Entwicklung. […] Modibo war erfolgreich darin, ihn [den Bericht] verschwinden zu lassen." (Interview am 26.10.2018)

Dem Berater zufolge zeigt der Fall von S&S die Aktualität der Aussage eines Mandinka-Griots zum Ende der französischen Kolonialzeit, der anmerkte: "Wenn das Volk endgültig seine Seele verloren haben wird, wird es durch die Justiz passiert sein." (Interview am 26.10.2018) Bestätigt wird das in einer Rede einer Aktivistin und Bewohnerin von Sahou bei einer öffentlichen Veranstaltung: "Man denkt, dass das Gesetz in diesem Land herrscht, aber Modibo hat das Gegenteil bewiesen. Er hat öffentlich gezeigt, dass in Mali das Gesetz nur vom Geld bestimmt wird." (Bouba Gakou 2015) Die Korruption unter Richter*innen ist ein weit verbreitetes Phänomen in Mali. Der oberste Richter von Niono, einer großen Stadt im OdN, wurde vor ca. zwei Jahren u.a. aufgrund seiner Korruptheit von dschihadistischen Milizen entführt. Im Volksmund wird er "Zweihunderttausend" genannt, weil man bei ihm angeblich mit 200.000 CFA-Franc (ca. 300 €) jedes rechtliche Problem zum eigenen Vorteil regeln konnte.

Schriftverkehr und Repression

Eine Strategie von S&S und ihren Unterstützer*innen ist es seit langem, Schreiben an die Zentralregierung und das OdN zu verfassen. Gleich nach dem Landverlust schickten Repräsentant*innen von Sanamadougou und Sahou Briefe an die zuständigen Behörden. Seitdem sind Dutzende Schreiben verfasst worden. Jede schriftliche Antwort weckt bei den Repräsentanten der Dörfer große Hoffnung -- vor allem auch weil sie den Inhalt erstmal nicht in Erfahrung bringen können, denn sie können selbst weder Französisch noch lesen und schreiben. In den Antworten der angeschriebenen Stellen wird allerdings oftmals lediglich formal der Eingang des Schreibens oder die Weiterleitung an eine andere staatliche Stelle bestätigt.

Jedes Mal, wenn ein neuer Premierminister sein Amt antritt, schreiben die Dörfer diesen an und bitten ihn, sich der Sache anzunehmen. Die Strategie, das Thema immer wieder auf die Tagesordnung zu setzen, um Treffen mit Regierungsmitgliedern zu erreichen und insgesamt nicht locker zu lassen, ist nicht wirkungslos. Nach Aussage eines ehemaligen Beraters der Regierung habe das den Effekt, dass die Verantwortlichen "genervt sind", weil "man das Problem nicht beisetzen kann" (Interview am 26.10.2018). Gleichzeitig hält das permanente Hin und Her die Bewohner*innen der Dörfer beschäftigt und ermüdet diese. Und die einzige Maßnahme, die staatlicherseits in jedem Fall als Reaktion auf Briefe der Dörfer folgt, ist negativer Natur: Darüber in Kenntnis gesetzt, dass die Bäuerinnen und Bauern mal wieder versuchen würden, ihre Angelegenheit neu vorzubringen, reagieren die Regierungsvertreter im OdN mit Drohungen gegenüber den Verfasser*innen der Briefe (Interview am 27.10.2018).

Wenn die Dorfbewohner*innen oder deren Unterstützer*innen aktiv werden, hat das oftmals direkte Repressionen zur Folge. 2015 gaben sie sich noch konfrontativ, wie in der Aussage des Sohnes des Dorfchefs von Sanamadougou ersichtlich:

"Ich wurde zweimal wegen dieser Sache eingesperrt -- und es geht weiter. Wir sind bereit, im Gefängnis zu sterben, damit unser Land befreit wird. Wir werden niemals weichen, und er wird von uns gestoppt werden, unser Land zu nehmen." (Bouba Gakou 2015)

Seit einigen Jahren herrscht unter den Dorfbewohner*innen große Angst vor CAI/M3, weil die Unternehmen auf Protest umgehend damit reagieren, die Sicherheitskräfte des OdN zu mobilisieren. Bei meinem Besuch in Sahou wollten die anwesenden Vertreter*innen des Dorfes mir nicht die beschlagnahmten Felder zeigen. Sie meinten, dass CAI/M3 Sicherheitskräfte schicken würde, wenn man sie mit einem Weißen sähe (Beobachtung am 22.10.2018). CAI/M3 würde in einem solchen Fall vermuten, dass es politische Vernetzungsaktivitäten gebe. Man ging mit mir einen großen Umweg abseits der Straße und wollte sich dann auch nicht länger als möglich mit mir in der Nähe der nun von CAI bebauten Felder zeigen.

2016 drohten die Dorfbewohner*innen in einem Brief an das Ministerium für Gebietsverwaltung implizit mit einer Feldbesetzung: Die Bitte, ihre Felder bestellen zu dürfen, unterstrichen sie mit dem Verweis darauf, dass "wir daran nachdrücklich festhalten, um jeden Preis, denn unsere Not hat schon zu lange angedauert und unsere Geduld hat ihre Grenzen" (Le Collectif des Chefs de village du Sana 2016a). Daraufhin wurden sie vom Gouverneur der Region Ségou zu einem Treffen mit dem Unterpräfekten von Sansanding eingeladen. Sie waren der Annahme, dass über ihr Anliegen gesprochen werden würde. Dies war aber nicht der Fall. Bei dem Treffen wurde von Sicherheitskräften sichergestellt, dass nur einige Dorfchefs und ihre Berater -- aber keine Unterstützer*innen aus anderen Dörfern bzw. aus Bamako -- Zugang erhielten (Le Collectif des Chefs de village du Sana 2016b). Der Gouverneur habe dann unter Androhung von Gefängnisstrafe zu verstehen gegeben, dass die Vertreter*innen der Dörfer nie wieder die Frage der Restitution ihrer Ländereien aufwerfen sollten (Interview am 22.10.2018). Seitdem haben sich die Dorfbewohner*innen gegen direkte, öffentliche politische Aktionen ausgesprochen und die Direktion hat sich geweigert, Repräsentant*innen der Dörfer zu empfangen, solange diese keinen Antrag auf Kompensation stellen (Interviews am 22.10.2018 und am 17.10.2018).

Akteur*innen der nationalen Regierung und Verwaltung, des OdN und der Rechtsprechung lassen Versuche der Bäuerinnen und Bauern, ihren Fall vorzubringen, immer wieder ins Leere laufen. Wenn das nicht erfolgreich ist, gehen sie mit repressiven Maßnahmen wie Drohungen oder Einsatz von Sicherheitskräften gegen die Bäuerinnen und Bauern vor. Gleichzeitig hat das unermüdliche Anrufen staatlicher Stellen dazu geführt, dass weder der privatwirtschaftliche Akteure CAI/M3 noch das OdN die Auseinandersetzung um den Fall von landgrabbing beenden konnten.

Nationale und internationale Allianzen

In der Literatur zu landgrabbing wird davon ausgegangen, dass

"Gruppen, die in der Lage sind, eine breite Einheit innerhalb und zwischen betroffenen Gemeinschaften herzustellen, einflussreiche Verbündete innerhalb und jenseits ihrer Gemeinschaften (inklusive internationaler Akteur*innen) zu rekrutieren und zu mobilisieren […] Aussicht auf -- selbst wenn nur teilweisen -- Erfolg in ihrem politischen Kampf haben" (Borras Jr. & Franco 2013: 1728).

Die Frage der Einheit und Kollektivität innerhalb und zwischen den Gemeinschaften in Sana ist -- wie oben dargelegt -- ambivalent zu bewerten. In diesem Abschnitt wende ich mich dem Aspekt der externen Verbündeten -- auf nationaler und internationaler Ebene -- zu und frage danach, welchen Einfluss die Strategie der Zusammenarbeit mit Verbündeten auf den Kampf von Sanamadougou und Sahou (S&S) gegen landgrabbing hatten. Die Partei Sadi war von Anfang an in Kontakt mit den Bewohner*innen von S&S (Interview 2 am 23.10.2018). Darüber hinaus hat sich auch die Malische Koalition gegen landgrabbing CMAT früh eingebracht. Auf Anfrage der Bewohner*innen von S&S und durch Vermittlung der CMAT hat die international renommierte NGO FIAN 2013 einen Bericht publiziert (Seufert & Hategekimana 2013: 5). Vorher hatte bereits das international tätige Oakland Institute den Fall im Länderbericht für Mali behandelt (Baxter 2011). Im Folgenden konzentriere ich mich vor allem auf die Zusammenarbeit der Dörfer mit der CMAT und AEI in Bamako und Deutschland.

Externe Unterstützung gegen postkoloniale Herrschaftsstrukturen

Zunächst haben die Berichte vom Oakland Institute und FIAN, die Beteiligung der Partei Sadi sowie öffentlichkeitswirksame Aktionen der CMAT und später auch von AEI dazu geführt, dass der Fall in Mali in den Medien behandelt und im nationalen Parlament diskutiert wurde. Die spätere Arbeit von AEI hat dann auch den Effekt gehabt, dass sich das Parlament der BRD mit dem Fall beschäftigt[4] und die AfDB ihre Vergabepraxis kritisch unter die Lupe genommen hat (AfDB 2018). Die Zusammenarbeit mit nationalen und internationalen Akteuren hat den Fall von S&S also zu einem national und international diskutierten gemacht.

Die meisten Bewohner*innen von S&S -- und auch die Repräsentant*innen in Bamako -- sprechen, schreiben und lesen die Kolonialsprache Französisch nicht. Sämtliche Kommunikation im politischen und administrativen Bereich findet allerdings auf Französisch statt. Hier wird von Aktivist*innen kritisiert, dass allein das schon ein Mittel ist, um Herrschaft auszuüben. Ganz praktisch bedeutet es, dass Briefe immer mit Hilfe von Externen verfasst und gelesen werden müssen. Das impliziert zum einen jedes Mal beträchtliche zeitliche Verzögerung, zum anderen bietet es immer wieder Anlass für Misstrauen bezüglich der Frage, ob denn wirklich in den Briefen das steht, was die Unterstützer*innen von NGOs bzw. Initiativen in Bamako angeben. Der Zugang zu Behörden und Rechtsprechung ist allerdings nicht nur aufgrund von Schriftlichkeit und der Kolonialsprache Französisch für die Dorfbewohner*innen mit Hürden verbunden. Die Verwaltung und Regierungsstellen wirken für viele Bäuerinnen und Bauern "wie ein König" (Bernau 2012). Die Anwesenheit von Aktivist*innen aus Bamako, die oftmals formal besser gebildet sind und sich selbstsicherer im Umgang mit Behörden zeigen, aber insbesondere auch das Dabeisein von Aktivist*innen aus Deutschland bieten die Möglichkeit, Termine bei öffentlichen Stellen zu bekommen und gehört zu werden (eigene Beobachtung im Februar und Oktober 2018):

"Es gibt einen Unterschied zwischen uns -- den Menschen aus der Stadt -- und den Europäer*innen und den Dorfbewohner*innen. Wir sind in der Lage zu sprechen, all dem zu widersprechen, was sie [die Behörden des OdN, DB] sagen. Wir wissen, was sie wissen. […] Wir kennen auch die Regelungen zu all dem, was im Office passiert. Wir kennen auch das Vorgehen des Office gegenüber den Dorfbewohner*innen." (Interview am 17.10.2018)

Das Wissen darum, dass die Dorfbewohner*innen mit anderen Akteuren vernetzt sind, hilft ihnen, sich vor physischer Gewalt und Repression zu schützen. Noch hilfreicher ist es, wenn diese Akteure bei öffentlichen Aktionen direkt vor Ort sind. Ein Aktivist, der nach der Landwegnahme 2010 als Teil der Sadi in S&S war, gibt an, der Besuch der Festgenommenen auf der Gendarmerie und der Verletzten im Krankenhaus durch Mitglieder der Partei Sadi habe die Situation entspannt (Interview am 17.10.2018). Die Sicherheitskräfte und Behörden des OdN wüssten um die Verbindungen der Menschen zum Zentralstaat und würden dann weniger repressiv handeln. Als der gleiche Aktivist beim Sit-In und den Demonstrationen 2015 anwesend war, hat er bei Ankunft der Gendarmerie direkt mit einem Radiomoderator telefoniert, welcher ihn live in seine Sendung geschaltet hat. So wurde Gewaltanwendung durch die Gendarmerie erschwert. Seit der oben erwähnten angedrohten Feldbesetzung 2016, als die Gendarmerie sofort eingriff und der Gouverneur der Region Ségou eine klare Drohung an die protestierenden Dorfbewohner*innen aussprechen ließ, haben sich die Bewohner*innen von S&S allerdings nicht mehr getraut, sich öffentlich zu äußern. Und nach jedem Brief, den sie schreiben, ist wie oben erwähnt zu erwarten, dass sie von Seiten der Behörden des OdN oder von Vertretern der Regierung bedroht werden.

Untersuchungskommissionen, Manipulation und Spaltung

Durch die Durchführung bzw. Androhung von großen Demonstrationen und Blockaden haben nationale malische Initiativen gegen landgrabbing es geschafft, Untersuchungskommissionen der Regierung zu erzwingen. So wurde durch Druck der CMAT -- und insbesondere ihrer Mitgliedsorganisation UACDDDD (Coordination d'associations pour le Développement et la Défense des Droits des Démunies) -- auf Geheiß des damaligen Premierministers im Frühjahr 2013 eine Interministerielle Kommission ins Leben gerufen, die den Fall prüfen sollte (Interview am 26.10.2018). Diese Kommission verlangte nach Aussage eines damaligen Beraters der Regierung in ihrem Bericht, dass Modibo Keïta die angeeigneten Felder wieder freigibt und weiteres Vordringen auf die Felder der Kleinbäuerinnen und -bauern unterlässt (Interview am 26.10.2018). Der Minister für Raumplanung und Dezentralisierung forderte den zuständigen Gouverneur von Ségou dann in einem Brief ausdrücklich auf, dem menschenrechtswidrigen Treiben von Modibo Keïta Einhalt zu gebieten (AEI 2015). Dieser erste Bericht verschwand allerdings -- wie oben erwähnt -- nach Intervention durch Modibo Keïta in der Schublade.

Im April 2014 wurde auf Geheiß des Premierministers eine zweite Untersuchungskommission eingesetzt, an der auch Vertreter der UACDDDD beteiligt waren. Über deren Ablauf und dessen Ergebnis gibt es widersprüchliche Aussagen. Die UACDDDD präsentiert auf ihrer Internetseite einen Bericht, in dem von einer Reise im November 2014 nach S&S berichtet wird, um den Fortschritt des Berichts vom April zu untersuchen (Primature -- Cabinet du Premier Ministre 2015). Einen Bericht von der Untersuchungsreise im April haben sie allerding nicht auf ihrer Seite und dieser ist auch nirgendwo öffentlich zu finden. UACDDDD spricht davon, dass in dem vorgeblichen Bericht von April 2014 klar die Unrechtmäßigkeit der Landnahme festgestellt wurde. Aktivist*innen von AEI haben wiederum auf ihrer Internetseite einen Bericht einer Interministeriellen Kommission vom April 2014 veröffentlicht, der in Widerspruch zu dem von der UACDDDD erwähnten steht (Primature -- Cabinet du Premier Ministre 2014). Darin heißt es, dass die Zuteilung des Landes im Rahmen des Pachtvertrags korrekt erfolgt sei und dass der Widerstand gegen CAI auf Fehlinformationen und den Aktivitäten von Unruhestiftern beruhe.

Die UACDDDD gibt an, das Netzwerk AEI habe den auf seiner Internetseite zu findenden Bericht vom April 2014 gefälscht (Interview am 25.10.2018). Für die Version von AEI spricht, dass auf seiner Internetseite tatsächlich ein eingescanntes Dokument mit Unterschriften zu finden ist, während der Bericht vom November 2014 auf der Internetseite von URCDDDD lediglich eine Textversion ohne Unterschriften ist. Zudem ist der angebliche Bericht vom April 2014, auf den die UACDDDD verweist, nicht zu finden und ist mir auf Nachfrage auch nicht gezeigt worden. Festzustellen ist, dass sich die UACDDDD seitdem nicht mehr an konfrontativeren Aktionen im Sinne von S&S beteiligt hat und lediglich schriftlich auf die Umsetzung der in "ihrem" Interministeriellen Bericht erscheinenden Forderungen pocht (Interview am 25.10.2018).

Mitglieder von AEI werfen Repräsentanten der UACDDDD vor, manipulativ zu handeln, indem sie einerseits als Teilnehmer der Interministeriellen Kommission das Handeln des OdN und von M3 legitimierten, gleichzeitig aber den Dorfbewohner*innen fortwährend vermittelten, diese würden ihr Land zurückbekommen können (Interview am 21.10.2018). So würden die Versuche von AEI, eine zufriedenstellende Kompensationslösung zu erreichen, immer wieder torpediert. Nach Einschätzung von Mitgliedern von AEI möchte die UACDDDD eine solche Lösung verhindern: Dass sie mit ihrem langjährigen, von internationalen Geldgebern finanzierten Aktivismus keinen Erfolg hatte und dann aber eine deutlich weniger finanzstarke Organisation wie AEI Ergebnisse erzielt, ließe die UACDDDD in schlechtem Licht erscheinen. Konkurrenz untereinander und Versuche, möglichst viel Sichtbarkeit zu erreichen, auch um an Fördergelder zu kommen, ist ein weit verbreitetes Problem unter sozialen Bewegungen und NGOs in Mali. Während es als Erfolg gewertet werden kann, dass die Regierung gezwungen wurde, Interministerielle Kommissionen zu dem Fall von S&S einzurichten, ist der Effekt bis dato eher, dass es zu Konflikten zwischen UACDDDD und AEI und dadurch auch innerhalb der Dörfer gekommen ist (wobei zu erwähnen ist, dass AEI die UACDDDD nie öffentlich kritisiert hat). Der Kampf ist insofern durch eine fehlende Zusammenarbeit der beteiligten NGOs geschwächt worden und eine Lösung bspw. in Form umfänglicher und die Lebensgrundlage der Dorfbewohner*innen erhaltender Kompensation in weite Ferne gerückt.

Beschwerde bei "Gebern"

AEI hat sich seit 2014 etliche Male an das BMZ als Geldgeber des malischen Staates und der Afrikanischen Entwicklungsbank gewandt (AEI 2018). Mali ist stark von externen Geldern abhängig. Insbesondere das Budget für ländliche Entwicklung stammt zu zwei Dritteln bis drei Vierteln von internationalen "Gebern" (Inter-réseaux Développement rural 2018: 2). Im OdN haben "Geber" die Verantwortung für zentrale Bereiche wie den Unterhalt des Markala-Staudamms und der großen Kanäle faktisch übernommen (Frey 2017). Dass sich der malische Staat vor allem aus der Finanzierung des ländlichen Raums zurückzog, ist auch eine Folge der Konditionalität und Strukturanpassungspolitik der 1990er Jahre. Aufgrund der Abhängigkeit von externen Finanzierern sehen sich die Behörden des OdN nach Wahrnehmung meiner Interviewpartner*innen dazu veranlasst, sich mit dem Fall von S&S zu beschäftigen und bspw. Delegationen zu empfangen, wenn sie von westlichen Aktivist*innen Druck verspüren (Interview am 17.10.2018).

Die Öffentlichkeitsarbeit in der BRD sowie die Diskussionen im Bundestag dazu, ob Gelder aus der deutschen Entwicklungszusammenarbeit in Gestalt von Krediten über die AfDB[5] an das Unternehmen von Modibo Keïta geflossen sind, haben Wirkung gezeigt: Die Afrikanische Entwicklungsbank hat einen Independent Review Mechanism (IRM) gestartet und in diesem Rahmen im Februar 2018 einen Compliance Review Report erstellt (AfDB 2018). Die Beschwerde an die Compliance Review and Mediation Unit der AfDB hat AEI 2015 im Namen der vom Projekt betroffenen Menschen aus Sanamadougou und Sahou eingereicht. Der "Compliance Review Report" ist eine bankinterne Untersuchung mit dem Ziel zu überprüfen, ob das Management bzw. die Mitarbeiter*innen der AfDB gegen bankinterne Vorgaben verstoßen haben und ob durch die Finanzierung Menschen zu Schaden gekommen sind. Nach Aussage von deutschen Mitgliedern von AEI hätte es den Compliance Review niemals gegeben, wenn sie nicht immer wieder beim BMZ vorstellig geworden wären und dieses dann wiederum Druck auf die AfDB ausgeübt hätte (Interview am 15.10.2018).

Der Kredit an Modibo Keïta in Höhe von 16,8 Mio. € umfasst nur die Finanzierung der agro-industriellen Anlage, nicht die Landtransaktion mit der Behörde Office du Niger. Die entscheidende Frage, um die AfDB für ihre Kreditvergabepraxis zur Rechenschaft ziehen zu können, ist, ob ein Zusammenhang zwischen den gepachteten Landflächen und damit der Vertreibung der Bewohner*innen von S&S sowie dem Kredit für die Weiterverarbeitungsstätte besteht. Dies wird in dem AfDB-internen Bericht bejaht. Die AfDB sieht die Bevölkerung von S&S durch den Landkonflikt stark beschädigt (AfDB 2018: 13f). Interessanterweise weist sie auch darauf hin, dass CAI bis jetzt lediglich 2.500 der 20.000 gepachteten Hektar bewirtschaftet und den Rest ungenutzt lässt. Das ist nach den Regularien des OdN unzulässig und müsste den Verlust der Pacht nach sich ziehen. Entscheidend für den weiteren Kampf von S&S ist, dass der Compliance Review Report di

          

Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan to try to resolve dam dispute by January 15: Treasury

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The foreign ministers of Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan agreed on Wednesday to work toward resolving their dispute over the filling and operation of a massive dam project in Ethiopia by Jan. 15, 2020, the U.S. Treasury said.

          

Trump says talks on controversial Nile dam 'went well'

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WASHINGTON: US President Donald Trump on Wednesday (Nov 6) said he had hosted successful talks in the White House with representatives of Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan on a controversial dam being built on the Nile. Trump was mediating in a dispute over Ethiopia's construction of the huge dam which ...
          

AP journalist’s expulsion another blow to press freedom in South Sudan

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News
Reporters Without Borders (RSF) is concerned by the recent expulsion of AP journalist Sam Mednick from South Sudan following the Media Authority’s decision to revoke her press pass. Mednick was one of very few foreign print journalists working in the country. The move is the latest blow to press freedom in South Sudan, where impunity continues for the killing of at least 10 journalists during the country’s ongoing civil war, including British-American freelance journalist Christopher Allen.

Canadian journalist Sam Mednick has been forced to leave South Su


          

iLUCKI Casino Exclusive Free Spins

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#MERS-CoV in #Camels but Not Camel Handlers, #Sudan, 2015 and 2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)

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[Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full page: (LINK). Abstract, edited.] Volume 25, Number 12—December 2019 / Research Letter MERS-CoV in Camels but Not Camel Handlers, Sudan, 2015 and 2017 Elmoubasher Farag1, Reina S. Sikkema1, Ahmed A. Mohamedani, Erwin de Bruin, Bas B. Oude Munnink, Felicity Chandler, Robert Kohl, … Continue reading #MERS-CoV in #Camels but Not Camel Handlers, #Sudan, 2015 and 2017 (Emerg Infect Dis., abstract)
          

Religious Affairs Minister in Sudan Signals Freedom of Religion in New Era

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In marked contrast to Bashir regime, Christians are promised return of confiscated properties.
          

World: More than 52 million people across Africa going hungry as weather extremes hit the continent [EN/AR]

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Source: Oxfam
Country: World, Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Millions displaced; women, girls hit hardest; crises compounded by conflicts, poverty and inequality; $700m average climate-related losses; urgent action needed now

More than 52 million people in 18 countries across southern, eastern and central Africa are facing up to crisis levels of hunger as a result of weather extremes, compounded by poverty and conflict.

Some areas are facing a second extreme drought in four years and worse than that sparked by El Nino in 1981.

In the South, parts of Zimbabwe have had their lowest rainfall since 1981 which has helped push more than 5.5m people into extreme food insecurity. Zambia’s rich maize-growing area has been decimated and exports are now banned; 2.3m people there are food insecure. The situation is worsening including in Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar, Namibia and Zimbabwe. There are reports of farmer suicides in South Africa.

Drought has also hit the East and Horn of Africa particularly Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. At the same time, record-breaking temperatures in the Indian Ocean have dumped ultra-heavy rainfalls into Kenya and South Sudan, causing flash-flooding especially along major river arteries. South Sudan has declared a state of emergency with more than 900,000 people hit by floods.

In Africa extreme weather events have hit many countries already suffering from ongoing conflict. Across the continent, 7.6 million people were displaced by conflict in the first six months of 2019, and another 2.6 million by extreme weather. In the Horn, Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan have simultaneously faced over 750 000 people displaced by conflict and 350 000 displaced by extreme weather.

Scientists have demonstrated how climate change is increasing the frequency or severity of many extreme weather events. Over the last decade, these 18 African countries have collectively suffered average annual losses of $700m from climate-related disasters– and this is without counting the cost of these latest crises, says Oxfam. However, there has been minimal progress globally in raising funds specifically to address loss and damage from climate change. Africa contributes less than 5% of total global emissions but is suffering some of the most severe impacts of the climate crisis.

Officials will meet at the African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN) in Durban Nov 11-15 to discuss the future of Africa’s “environmental sustainability and prosperity”. Oxfam urges ministers to demand that industrial nations honor their promises to avoid escalating human and financial costs and to pay for damages.

“We are witnessing millions of already poor people facing extreme food insecurity and exhausting their reserves because of compounding climate shocks that hit already vulnerable communities hardest. They need help urgently. The scale of the drought devastation across southern Africa is staggering,” said Oxfam’s Southern Africa Regional Director Nellie Nyang'wa.

“In western Kenya, the crop harvest is 25% down and in parts of Somalia up to 60%. Livestock in many rural areas are emaciated and milk production is down. Cereal prices in some areas have rocketed up to five-year highs, pricing out poorer people. Nearly 7m people in the region are living just below the catastrophic hunger line,” said Oxfam’s Horn, East and Central Africa regional director Lydia Zigomo. “It is a vicious cycle where poor and marginalized communities, mostly women and girls, are more exposed to the climate crisis and less able to cope and recover from its harm.”.

Mithika Mwenda, chief executive of Oxfam’s partner PACJA, said “communities at the frontline of this climate crisis are overstretched and may be facing potential annihilation. But local people are doing everything that can to overcome the challenge. There are unprecedented levels of organization happening where governments have let local people down.”

“We’re seeing people trying to cope with shifting seasons and erratic rainfall by finding new ways to make a living off-farm. Women are coming together to pool their resources through small internal lending communities, buying food together, growing sweet potatoes instead of maize – all without outside support. Local people have the solutions but what they lack is resources, especially funding.

“Our leaders should look to support these community solutions to build up people’s resilience to climate change. For 35 years AMCEN has been a very important platform with impactful policies that have helped to create awareness of environmental sustainability. It needs to move away now from policy making to policy implementation.”

Oxfam is currently reaching more than 7 million people in ten of the hardest hit countries with food and water support, and long-term development projects to help people cope better with climate-related shocks. Oxfam plans to reach 10% of those most in need in these ten countries and is trying to raise $65m to do so.

Oxfam is calling on African ministers at the AMCEN meeting to:
• Insist rich industrialised countries decrease their CO2 emissions in line with the Paris Agreement's goal of limiting global heating to below 1.5C, and honour their commitment to mobilise $100bn a year by 2020 to fund climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts in developing countries;
• Demand governments agree to develop a new funding mechanism for “loss and damage” from climate change at the upcoming UN climate conference (COP25);
• Invest more into universal, high-quality and gender-responsive public services and strengthen tax systems in African countries to close the gap between rich and poor;
• Improve their disaster warning and management systems, and commit to re-greening and agricultural policies that target women and men small-scale farmers;
• Invest in “social accountability” projects that ensures climate finance can reach the communities that need it most, and empowering them in their own decision-making
• Engage women and girls in the planning, design and implementation of early warning systems and climate mitigation and adaptation programs
• Protect people who are forced to move so that they are able to do so in safety, dignity and on their own terms.

CONTACTS
• Spokespersons available. To arrange for interviews contact:
• At the AMCEN event in Durban: Asanda Ngoasheng; Oxfam South Africa Media Lead: Asanda.Ngoasheng@oxfam.org.za +27826109374
• Nesrine Aly; Global Media Lead: nesrine.aly@oxfam.org +447503989838; +201222486964

Note to editors
The 18 African countries analysed are Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Oxfam’s estimate of economic damages from climate-related disasters is based on figures from EM-DAT: The Emergency Events Database: www.emdat.be. Oxfam's estimate of displacement from extreme weather events and from conflict if based on figure from IDMC : Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre: http://www.internal-displacement.org/

In 2013, CoP agreed to establish the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage which outlines the responsibility of rich developed nations to help communities overcome the loss and damage from climate disasters. Since then, zero progress has been made in ensuring financial support for loss and damage to these communities.

Oxfam is responding to the humanitarian needs in Ethiopia, DRC, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. For more details please check Oxfam.org


          

World: Knowledge for Children in Africa: 2019 Publications Catalogue

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Source: UN Children's Fund
Country: Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Foreword

Every year, UNICEF and partners generate a wealth of evidence on the situation of children in Africa. Knowledge and evidence are essential to informing the development, implementation, and monitoring of relevant policies and programmes for the realization of children’s rights. To this end, UNICEF Regional Directors in Africa are pleased to present the 2019 edition of the Knowledge for Children in Africa Publications Catalogue.

The 2019 edition of the catalogue features 107 reports and studies on the situation of children, young people, and women in Africa. These publications represent the collective knowledge generated by UNICEF Country and Regional Offices during the year, and capture the work of UNICEF and partners to support the rights and well-being of children across the continent.
The publications cover a wide range of topics. Publications are listed under the following categories:

  • Child Poverty
  • Child Protection
  • Child-Sensitive Social Protection
  • Education and Early Childhood Development
  • Financing for Development: Public Finance for Children
  • HIV and AIDS
  • Humanitarian Action, Resilience and Peacebuilding
  • Maternal, Newborn and Child Health
  • Nutrition
  • Situation Analysis and Socioeconomic Development
  • Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

Many of the publications are, or will be, available online. The entry for each study or report includes a short description, as well as information on the authors and contributors, planned publication date, and contact details for obtaining additional information.
Evidence plays a critical role in shaping successful initiatives in support of children and women.
We sincerely hope that you will find the publications listed in this catalogue to be a helpful resource for evidence-based decision making and programming.

Ted Chaiban Regional Director UNICEF Middle East and North Africa

Mohamed Malick Fall Regional Director UNICEF Eastern and Southern Africa

Marie-Pierre Poirier Regional Director UNICEF West and Central Africa


          

Mali: WHO AFRO Outbreaks and Other Emergencies, Week 44: 28 October - 3 November 2019 Data as reported by: 17:00; 3 November 2019

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Source: World Health Organization
Country: Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, South Sudan, Togo, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia

Overview

This Weekly Bulletin focuses on public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 68 events in the region. This week’s main articles cover key new and ongoing events, including:

  • Measles in Lesotho

  • Hepatitis E in Namibia

  • Humanitarian crisis in Mali

  • Ebola virus disease in Democratic Republic of the Congo.

For each of these events, a brief description, followed by public health measures implemented and an interpretation of the situation is provided.

A table is provided at the end of the bulletin with information on all new and ongoing public health events currently being monitored in the region, as well as recent events that have largely been controlled and thus closed.

Major issues and challenges include:

  • The hepatitis E outbreak first identified in Namibia in December 2017 continues, despite response efforts made to date to halt ongoing transmission of the virus. The major drivers of the outbreak remain the same, limited access to safe drinking water, inadequate sanitation and poor personal and food safety practices. Novel initiatives are therefore needed to address the outbreak such as finalising the review of the relevance and feasibility of a vaccination intervention. There is also a need to sustain conventional control activities, particularly in the informal settlements, and strengthen surveillance and coordination mechanisms in all the affected areas.

  • The humanitarian situation in Mali remains complex and volatile. The number of IDPs has continued to rise as a result of the deteriorating security context and the impact of floods experienced earlier in the year. As well as supporting the immediate needs of the population, the resilience of the health system to epidemics and public health emergencies needs to be reinforced.
    Furthermore, local and international authorities and partners must continue to advocate for peace in the region in order to relieve the suffering of this vulnerable population.


          

Democratic Republic of the Congo: République démocratique du Congo : Perspectives sur la sécurité alimentaire - octobre 2019 à mai 2020

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Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Angola, Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan

Démarrage normal de la saison agricole A à l’Est de la RDC favorisé par une pluviométrie normale

MESSAGES CLÉS

  • Les nouveaux affrontements entre milices armés dans les hauts plateaux de Minembwe et d’Itombwe au Sud-Kivu ont exacerbé la dégradation de la situation humanitaire et occasionné des nouvelles vagues de déplacement des populations, soit environ 3 300 personnes entre le 27 et 29 septembre 2019. Ce regain de violence dans les hauts plateaux affectera aussi bien les ménages qui auront un accès limité à leurs sources de revenus que les humanitaires qui éprouveront des difficultés pour acheminer leur assistance aux vulnérables.

  • Les précipitations normales au démarrage de la saison agricole A sur l’ensemble de la partie Est du pays ont permis un démarrage effectif de la saison agricole A avec le semis des principaux vivriers comme le maïs, l’arachide et le haricot. Par ailleurs, les précipitations au-dessus de la normale dans le Maniema ont causé d’importants dégâts matériels et destruction des stocks alimentaires des ménages avec environ 2000 habitations détruites. Ceci présage d’une baisse des récoltes en fin de campagne.

  • Pendant que la Maladie à Virus Ebola (MVE) semble être maitrisée par les équipes de riposte dans les zones affectées (Beni et Lubero), avec l’implication des communautés, on note par ailleurs des projections négatives, pour le choléra dans 21 provinces sur les 26 que compte la RDC. Ce qui laisse craindre une flambée de l’épidémie dans les prochains mois. On compte depuis janvier 2019, 21 600 cas de choléras enregistrés avec une létalité globale de 2 pourcents. Cette situation nécessite une veille épidémiologique efficace.

  • Durant cette période de scenario qui va alterner les pics de soudure et les périodes de récoltes, et tenant compte de la faible performance des campagnes précédentes qui ont réduit la durée des stocks d’environ 2 mois, la situation de la sécurité alimentaire sur l’ensemble de la partie Est du pays sera marqué par des zones de Crise (Phase 3 de l’IPC) notamment dans les Kasaï, le Tanganyika, le Nord Kivu et l’Ituri jusqu’à janvier 2020. En fin de récolte des saisons A et B au debut de mars 2020, la situation alimentaire dans ces zones pourrait s’améliorer et passer en Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC).


          

Free State-Potchefstrom Call for Pure SSD Chemical Solution +27672493579 for Cleaning Black Coated Notes in Durban,Gauteng,Limpopo,Free State,Mpumalanga,KwaZulu

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Free State-Potchefstrom Call for Pure SSD Chemical Solution +27672493579 for Cleaning Black Coated Notes in Durban,Gauteng,Limpopo,Free State,Mpumalanga,KwaZulu Natal,Eastern Cape,Western Cape,North West,Northern Cape,Pretoria,Johannesburg,Harare,Sasolburg,South Africa,USA,Canada,Malawi,Ghana,United Kingdom,Italy,Morocco,Uganda,Rwanda,Kenya,Norway,Belgium,Switzerland,Zambia,Kenya,Qatar,Afghanistan,Sudan,Peru,Mexico,Morocco,Libya,Iran,Iraq,Zimbabwe,Ghana,Austria,Australia,Italy. we […]

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Africa: Some Govts Use Social Media to Monitor Citizens - Freedom House Report

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[Deutsche Welle] A report by US-based democracy watchdog Freedom House says many Africans are unknowingly under surveillance by their own states via social media platforms. Zimbabwe and Sudan are among the countries to be singled out.
          

Africa: Refugee Camps Versus Urban Refugees - What's Been Said - and Done

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[The Conversation Africa] Tens of cities in Africa, such as Johannesburg, Dar es Salaam and Kampala are overwhelmed by an inflow of people fleeing conflicts in different parts of the continent. In particular people living in Mali, Somalia and South Sudan flee their home countries to seek safety.
          

Africa: Africa Must Not Watch South Sudan Descend Into War

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[East African] South Sudan citizens are, once again, suspended between fear and hope as Dr Riek Machar, the vice-president designate under the September 2018 compromise peace and power sharing agreement, dithers on his anticipated return to Juba.
          

13TH STREET - Krimiserie - S2 / F13: Scorpion - Ewiges Eis

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09:15 Uhr - Ewiges Eis - Während eines ohnehin schon gefährlichen Einsatzes im Sudan, verliert eine amerikanische Spezialeinheit plötzlich den lebenssichernden Ko...
          

13TH STREET HD - Krimiserie - S2 / F13: Scorpion - Ewiges Eis

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09:15 Uhr - Ewiges Eis - Während eines ohnehin schon gefährlichen Einsatzes im Sudan, verliert eine amerikanische Spezialeinheit plötzlich den lebenssichernden Ko...
          

Mısır'dan, Hedasi Barajı görüşmeleriyle ilgili olumlu değerlendirme

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Mısır Dışişleri Bakanı Samih Şukri:- 'Üç ülke (Mısır, Etiyopya ve Sudan) arasında su kaynakları bakanları düzeyinde ve ABD ile Dünya Bankası'ndan temsilcilerin de katılımıyla 4 acil toplantı düzenlenmesi ve 15 Ocak 2020 tarihine kadar barajın doldurulması ve çalıştırılmasına ilişkin bir anlaşmaya varılmasına karar verildi'
          

Cholera prevention efforts underway to protect millions in Sudan’s Khartoum state

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INTERNATIONAL, 6 November 2019, Health - A campaign has got underway to prevent the spread of a deadly cholera outbreak to Sudan’s populous Khartoum state, home to more than eight million people, UN medics said on Wednesday.

Latest figures from Sudan’s health ministry indicate that there have been 332 suspected cases of cholera and eight deaths, mainly in Blue Nile and Sennar States, since the disease was declared on 2 September.

Two cases of cholera were confirmed in Khartoum state in mid-October.

“The risk of cholera spreading is very real,” said Dr Naeema Al Gasseer, World Health Organization (WHO) Representative in Sudan.

She added that the disease could have serious consequences if it is not properly managed in the region surrounding the capital. More than eight million people live there, but the health system has been affected by economic crisis, flooding, and other infectious diseases.

At the request of the Government, WHO has identified high-risk areas in the state which are more likely to be at increased risk of an outbreak, such as Sharq Elnil and Ombada localities.

The UN agency has also delivered cholera medicines and hundreds of rehydration tablets, along with 500 rapid diagnostic test kits for use in health facilities.

In addition, more than 1,700 volunteers have been tasked with raising community awareness about how to avoid cholera, which causes severe acute watery diarrhoea and can kill within hours if untreated.

“A key aspect of preventing and controlling cholera is how well at-risk communities are able to protect themselves by drinking safe water, properly handling food, avoiding defecation in open areas, handwashing, and knowing what to do when they see the first signs of infection,” said Dr Al Gasseer.

According to WHO, it takes between 12 hours and five days for a person to show symptoms after ingesting contaminated food or water.


          

UN policewoman recognized for ‘speaking up and speaking out’ on behalf of the vulnerable

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INTERNATIONAL, 5 November 2019, Peace and Security - At the core of peacekeeping lies the notion of shared responsibility, the UN peacekeeping chief said on Tuesday, presenting this year’s award for Female Police Officer of the Year, to a woman who “has made a career of speaking up and speaking out on behalf of all vulnerable populations”.

Police Major Seynabou Diouf has worked “tirelessly with her colleagues inside and outside the Mission to empower women, improve conduct, enhance protection, strengthen performance, and thereby build sustainable peace”, Jean-Pierre Lacroix, Peace Operations chief, told the heads of UN police and police experts from 14 peacekeeping operations, gathered at the award ceremony at UN Headquarters in New York.

Major Diouf is one of over 1,400 female police officers serving under the UN flag, carrying out a complex range of tasks – from capacity-building and reform, to community-oriented policing, investigations, protection of civilians, and prevention of sexual and gender-based violence.

“That is impressive enough”, asserted Mr. Lacroix, “but they also provide the added value of gender perspectives and mainstreaming at all levels and at all phases of engagement with host-State institutions and communities”.

He cited examples in South Sudan where female officers are helping women and youth attain better living conditions within and outside camps for the internally displaced; the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) where they are helping to build capacity and accountability in internal security forces; and Mali by promoting confidence-building between citizens and the reconstituted internal defence and security forces.

“Our female officers are also operating in areas affected by the Ebola virus disease, ensuring the required level of security for relief and humanitarian operations”, he maintained.

And female officers are a key element in the sensitization and delivery of training on sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) throughout all UN Missions.

“As part of female police officers’ networks, such as the one Major Diouf leads in MONUSCO [UN Stabilization Mission in the DRC], they help prevent, counter and investigate SEA-related offences, advancing the Organization’s zero-tolerance policy”, elaborated the peacekeeping chief. He congratulated Major Diouf “for her outstanding service” to the UN Nations and Congolese people and stated that “all UN police officers in the field and at the UN Headquarters are inspired” by her example to uphold the core values of the Organization.

Previous Awardees
  • 2018: Chief Supt. Phyllis Osei, Ghana, UNSOM
  • 2017: Assistant Inspector Annah Chota, Zimbabwe, UNISFA
  • 2016: Supt. Yvette Boni Zombre, Burkina Faso, MINUSCA
  • 2015: Chief Supt. Raluca Domuta, Romania, MINUSTAH
  • 2014: Inspector Shakti Devi, India, UNAMA
  • 2013: Commissioner Codou Camara, Senegal, MINUSTAH
  • 2012: Constable Rezi Danismend, Turkey, UNMIL
  • 2011: Deputy Supt. Shahzadi Gulfam, Pakistan, UNMIT

Mr. Lacroix also thanked her family for supporting her and making sacrifices during her long deployments. “The more women we have in peacekeeping, the more effective we all will be”, he concluded.

Going the extra mile

Top UN Police Adviser, Luis Carrilho, spoke about Major Diouf’s experience, noting that in her native Senegal she became the first female police officer to be honoured as a Gardien de la Paix, which was previously reserved for male officers.

“Since early in her career, she has shown her determination to make the extra effort, go the extra mile, to achieve her goals”, he spelled out, flagging that as the team leader of an SEA task force in Goma and president of the UNPOL Women’s Network, “she has demonstrated her commitment to giving women a voice and putting an end to SEA”.

“Her efforts have helped the mission to achieve zero SEA cases in 2018, compared to 140 cases between 2016 and 2017”, he attested, calling her “an incredible force for good in our ongoing efforts to root out SEA and ensure UN personnel at all levels perform to the highest standards”.

Motivated to do more

When Major Diouf learned that she had been selected to receive the award, she said she was proud, but also “humble to be recognized for something that has become almost second nature” to her and her life’s work.

“When I was young, I wanted to be a medical doctor but there was an urgent need to help support my family”, she told those assembled. “Being a police officer in the early years of female recruitment provided recognition and a decent salary, but it also allowed me to contribute to society in ways I had never thought possible”.

With this new accolade, Major Diouf says she now feels “motivated to do more” and will continue “to promote women's rights, speak out against sexual and gender-based violence, and fight marginalization and discriminatory customary and religious practices targeted at women and girls”.

UN Photo/Douglas Coffman
Police Commissioner Luis Carrilho looks on as UN Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Jean-Pierre Lacroix, shakes the hand of Major Seynabou Diouf, UN Female Police Officer of the Year. (5 November 2019)

          

Ebola emergency chief decries new attacks on frontline staff, after DR Congo worker death

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INTERNATIONAL, 4 November 2019, Health - Security measures for staff helping to fight health emergencies need to be stepped up urgently, a UN health agency top official said on Monday, after a frontline Ebola epidemic community worker was reportedly stabbed to death at his home in northeast Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

Speaking at a public event in Geneva, Dr Mike Ryan from the World Health Organization (WHO), said that in his 25-year humanitarian career, violence carried out deliberately against health workers and hospitals had never been so bad.

The “overwhelming impact” had been on local health workers, not international staff, Dr Ryan told a Geneva Peace Week event, in his capacity as Director of WHO’s Health Emergencies Programme.

Despite the risks of working in insecure locations, “one doesn’t really have a choice but to go, as the epidemic will continue to spread and intensify like a fire if it’s not put out”, he said. “It does put our workers at the extreme edge of risk.”

Echoing Dr Ryan’s message of sympathy, WHO Regional Director for Africa, Dr Matshidiso Moeti tweeted her condolences to the family and friends of the worker killed in DRC.

In 2019 alone, there have been 862 reported attacks on healthcare workers and facilities from just 10 countries, resulting in 173 deaths and 557 significant injuries. “And that probably is a massive underestimation of the problem,” Dr Ryan insisted.

UN Photo/Martine Perret

Destroy a hospital and you destroy hope

Among the most shocking aspects of this growing trend for humanitarians was the effect it had on civilians, he added.

“One of the last hopes a community has in conflict is the ability to seek care for your children or the injured. The destruction of a health care facility is more than the destruction of a building; it tears the heart out of a community and it takes the hope away from the community, and as such its impact is much, much greater.”

In a joint UN-DRC Ministry of Health statement, both noted that the victim – who has not been officially named - also worked as a reporter at a community radio station in Lwemba, and that his partner was critically injured, suffering multiple wounds.

Two suspects have been arrested and the investigators are looking to see whether the murder is linked to the ongoing Ebola response, they added.

In Geneva, Dr Ryan also expressed his sympathies for the families of three UN Migration Agency (IOM) workers killed eight days ago near an Ebola screening point on South Sudan’s border with DRC last Wednesday.

No new information about South Sudan abductees

According to IOM, its staff were caught in crossfire during clashes between armed groups in Morobo County, in South Sudan’s Central Equatoria region.

A volunteer worker and a child were also abducted during the incident, prompting an appeal for their immediate and unconditional release by the agency, which on Monday said that it had no new information about the case.

Since 1 January, WHO has documented more than 300 attacks on health care facilities in DRC that have resulted in six deaths and 70 injuries of workers and patients.

The current Ebola outbreak, began in DRC last August, and is the most lethal in the nation’s history, although recent progress has seen cases fall. The virus has claimed more than 2,180 lives; more than 1,050 people have survived.

“It’s not just the physical attacks, it’s the harassment, it is the fear of going to work,” Dr Ryan said, highlighting the “tremendous psychological stress” on workers.

'We can't sit back and wait'

Welcoming continuing financial support among Member States including the Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland and the United States for frontline staff to operate with added security measures, he stressed too that the humanitarian community could do more to protect them.

“We can’t sit back and wait for international humanitarian law to change or political will to change,” he said. “We need to professionalize how we operate in these situations, we need to improve our security briefings for staff, we need to improve awareness among our staff…the stresses on our staff are extreme.”

He added: “We call on our donors to look positively on those costs because these are the real costs of doing business in humanitarian settings right now”.


          

SOUTH SUDAN : DMWA makes Salva Kiir backtrack on stance against prefinance deals

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Odgovorio/la: Pozivni brojevi drzava

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+46 Švedska
+47 Norveška
+48 Poljska
+49 Nemačka

+500 Folklandska Ostrva
+501 Belize
+502 Gvatemala
+503 Salvador
+504 Honduras
+505 Nikaragva
+506 Kostarika
+507 Panama
+508 Sveti Petar i Mikelon
+509 Haiti
+51 Peru
+52 Meksiko
+53 Kuba
+54 Argentina
+55 Brazil
+56 Čile
+57 Kolumbija
+58 Venecuela
+590 Francuski Antili
+591 Bolivija
+592 Gvajana
+593 Ekvador
+594 Francuska Gvajana
+595 Paragvaj
+596 Martinik
+597 Surinam
+598 Urugvaj
+599 Holandski Antili

+60 Malezija
+61 Australija
+62 Indonezija
+63 Filipini
+64 Novi Zeland
+65 Singapur
+66 Tajland
+670 Istočni Timor
+673 Brunej
+674 Nauru
+675 Papua Nova Gvineja
+676 Tonga
+677 Solomonska Ostrva
+678 Vanuatu
+679 Fidži
+680 Palau
+681 Wallis i Futuna
+682 Kukova Ostrva
+683 Niue
+684 Američka Samoa
+685 Samoa
+686 Kiribati
+687 Nova Kaledonija
+688 Tuvalu
+689 Francuska Polinezija
+690 Tokelau
+691 Mikronezija
+692 Maršalova Ostrva

+7 Kazahstan
+7 Rusija

+800 Međunarodni besplatni telefon
+808 Usluge s podeljenim troškovima
+81 Japan
+82 Južna Koreja
+84 Vijetnam
+850 Severna Koreja
+852 Hong Kong
+853 Makao
+855 Kambodža
+856 Laos
+86 Kina
+870 Usluga Inmarsat "SNAC"
+871 Inmarsat (istočni Atlantik)
+872 Inmarsat (Tihi okean)
+873 Inmarsat (Indijski okean)
+874 Inmarsat (zapadni Atlantik)
+878 Univerzalne službene telekomunikacije
+880 Bangladeš
+881 Globalni mobilni satelitski sistem
+886 Tajvan

+90 Turska
+91 Indija
+92 Pakistan
+93 Avganistan
+94 Šri Lanka
+95 Burma (Mianmar)
+960 Maldivi
+961 Liban
+962 Jordan
+963 Sirija
+964 Irak
+965 Kuvajt
+966 Saudijska Arabija
+967 Jemen
+968 Oman
+970 Palestina
+971 Ujedinjeni Arapski Emirati
+972 Izrael
+973 Bahrein
+974 Katar
+975 Butan
+976 Mongolija
+977 Nepal
+979 Međunarodne usluge s dodanom vrednošću
+98 Iran
+991 ITPCS
+992 Tadžikistan
+993 Turkmenistan
+994 Azerbejdžan
+995 Gruzija
+996 Kirgistan
+998 Uzbekistan
          

Domenica 3 novembre 2019, ingresso gratuito nei Musei Civici per i residenti a Roma e nella Città Metropolitana

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Aperto al pubblico gratuitamente anche “Forum Pass. Alla scoperta dei Fori” il percorso unificato dell’area archeologica Foro Romano-Palatino e Fori Imperiali - realizzato grazie all’intesa siglata dalla Sovrintendenza Capitolina ai Beni culturali e dal Parco archeologico del Colosseo per conto di Roma Capitale e MIBACT -  alla quale si può accedere attraverso cinque ingressi: quattro del Parco Archeologico del Colosseo (largo Corrado Ricci, via Sacra in prossimità dell’arco di Tito, via di San Gregorio, via del Tulliano di fronte al carcere Mamertino) e uno della Sovrintendenza Capitolina (piazza della Madonna di Loreto, vicino alla Colonna Traiana). L’orario di apertura al pubblico è 8.30-16.30 (ultimo ingresso 15.30). Per informazioni www.sovraintendenzaroma.it

È possibile visitare gratuitamente le numerose e interessanti esposizioni in corso, a eccezione della mostra Canova. Eterna bellezza al Museo di Roma, nella quale è consentito l’ingresso con biglietto ridotto solo ai possessori della MIC Card.

Luca Signorelli e Roma. Oblio e riscoperte è la splendida esposizione ai Musei Capitolini, nelle sale di Palazzo Caffarelli, omaggio a uno dei più grandi protagonisti del Rinascimento italiano con una selezione di opere di grande prestigio provenienti da collezioni italiane e straniere. Nelle sale al piano terra di Palazzo dei Conservatori continua L’Arte Ritrovata, un mosaico di testimonianze archeologiche e storico artistiche, dall’VIII secolo a.C. all’età moderna, altamente simbolico e rappresentativo della pluridecennale azione di salvaguardia operata dall’Arma dei Carabinieri.

Alla Centrale Montemartini due importanti mostre di argomento diverso Colori degli Etruschi. Tesori di terracotta propone una straordinaria selezione di lastre parietali figurate e decorazioni architettoniche a stampo in terracotta policroma, provenienti dal territorio di Cerveteri (l’antica città di Caere) e in parte inedite. Sono esposti reperti archeologici di fondamentale importanza per la storia della pittura etrusca, recentemente rientrati in Italia grazie a un’operazione di contrasto del traffico illegale.
In corso inoltre 110 anni di luce. ACEA e ROMA, un’esposizione che celebra l’importante ricorrenza dei centodieci anni di vita ed attività dell’Azienda Comunale Energia e Ambiente, nata nel 1909.

Alla Galleria d’Arte Moderna prosegue fino al 10 novembre  Donne. Corpo e immagine tra simbolo e rivoluzione tra simbolo e rivoluzione, riflessione sulla figura femminile attraverso artisti di diverse correnti artistiche e temperie culturali tra fine Ottocento, lungo tutto il Novecento e fino ai giorni nostri. Inoltre, nel chiostro della Galleria, Wechselspiel, le installazioni di Paolo Bielli e Susanne Kessler costituiscono un doppio percorso che si collega sia alla mostra Donne sia alle sculture del chiostro.

Al Museo di Roma in Trastevere inaugura Taccuini romani. Vedute di Diego Angeli - Visioni di Simona Filippini con l’esposizione della serie di 76 piccoli dipinti a olio su carta, cartone e legno, eseguiti fra il 1885 e il 1936, che costituiscono un corpus di grande interesse delle collezioni del Museo. Proseguono inoltre, fino al 24 novembre, 1989: Rivoluzione di Velluto, alcuni scatti iconici eseguiti da quindici tra i migliori fotografi cechi, che documentano i momenti salienti della storia recente cecoslovacca, quando finì la quarantennale dittatura comunista. E PHOTO IILA - XI edizione Premio IILA-FOTOGRAFIA, che espone i progetti della vincitrice e delle finaliste del premio dedicato a fotografi latinoamericani under 35 realizzato in collaborazione con i Paesi latinoamericani membri dell’IILA.

Al Museo di Scultura Antica Giovanni Barracco, Il Leone e la Montagna presenta reperti provenienti dalla Missione Archeologica Italiana in Sudan, attiva da quasi cinquanta anni nel sito del Jebel Barkal, patrimonio mondiale Unesco.

Tre mostre da visitare nei musei di Villa Torlonia: al Casino dei Principi Luigi Boille. Luoghi di luce, scrittura del silenzio, curata da Claudia Terenzi e Bruno Aller, con il sostegno dell’Archivio Luigi Boille. Una panoramica di più di ottanta opere che raccontano il percorso artistico del Maestro dal 1958 al 2015.
Al Casino Nobile, Rifrazioni dell’Antico, l’opera di Sergio Monari incontra l’architettura del Casino e la collezione d’arte della famiglia Torlonia: un dialogo fra passato e presente che porta all’attenzione del pubblico l’attualità della mitologia greca. 
In Il Giardino delle meraviglie. Opere dell'artista Garth Speight, lo spirito del giardino della Casina delle Civette si materializza in 50 dipinti in acrilico nei quali campeggia la Natura tra uccelli acquatici, ninfee, iris bianchi e blu, fiori di campo, boschi di betulle e crisantemi.
Sempre alla Casina delle Civette è in corso Maria Paola Ranfi. Gioiello intimo colloquio, un’antologica dell’artista Maria Paola Ranfi orafa e scultrice, selezione di oltre 60 esemplari tra gioielli e sculture realizzati a cera persa in oro, bronzo, argento e con pietre preziose dai tagli rari e particolarissimi.

Al Museo Carlo Bilotti di Villa Borghese con la mostra Frank Holliday in Rome  propone 36 opere dipinte nello studio vicino a piazza Navona dove Holliday ha lavorato alacremente avendo come ispirazione le opere dei maestri della storia dell’arte. Il percorso espositivo comprende anche la proiezione del film inedito di Anney Bonney “Roman Holliday”.

Il Museo delle Mura ospita fino al 10 novembre Non farmi Muro! una selezione di oltre 40 fotografie che mettono in luce i cambiamenti storici che hanno coinvolto la città di Berlino dal 1989 ad oggi. 

Con la MIC - la card che al costo di 5 euro permette l’ingresso illimitato negli spazi del Sistema dei Musei Civici di Roma per 12 mesi per chi risiede o studia a Roma - sono gratuite le visite e le attività didattiche che rientrano nel biglietto d’ingresso al museo a cura dei funzionari della Sovrintendenza Capitolina, mentre non sono comprese le mostre al Museo di Roma a Palazzo Braschi e al Museo dell’Ara Pacis.

*Sono esclusi dalle gratuità gli spazi espositivi del Museo dell'Ara Pacis e del Museo di Roma a Palazzo Braschi

Info tel. 060608 (tutti i giorni dalle 9.00 alle 19.00)


          

Mostre, eventi e appuntamenti per il weekend nei Musei in Comune

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Mostre, eventi e appuntamenti per il weekend  

Roma Capitale della cultura anche per questo weekend con un fitto calendario di incontri, eventi, mostre, attività. Eccone alcuni per il fine settimana di venerdì 25, sabato 26 e domenica 27 ottobre.

INGRESSO COMPLETAMENTE GRATUITO per i possessori della MIC card 

Sono riservati in esclusiva ai possessori della MIC card, gratuitamente e previa prenotazione allo 060608, gli Open Days: aperture straordinarie e visite guidate, a cominciare da sabato 26 ottobre, dalle 9.00 alle 13.00, quando sarà possibile visitare: Casina del Cardinal Bessarione, Colombario di Pomponio Hylas, Porta Asinaria e dalle ore 14.00 alle 18.00  Insula di San Paolo alla Regola, Sepolcro degli Scipioni, Casa dei Cavalieri di Rodi. Anche domenica 27 ottobre, dalle 9.00 alle 13.00, saranno aperti: Insula dell’Ara Coeli, Mausoleo di Monte del Grano, Area Sacra di S. Omobono e dalle 14.00 alle 18.00 Auditorium di Mecenate, Ipogeo di Via Livenza, Casa dei Cavalieri di Rodi

Sabato 26 ottobre Bach Gala è, invece, l’evento culminante de I week end della MIC, con apertura serale straordinaria dalle 20.00 alle 24.00 dei Mercati di Traiano – Museo dei Fori Imperiali in collaborazione con Roma Tre Orchestra. Ingresso a 1 euro per tutti e gratuito per i possessori della MIC card.
 

INGRESSO GRATUITO PER TUTTI

Proseguono, inoltre, anche questo weekend i concerti di musica classica nei Musei Civici a ingresso gratuito per tutti, curati da Roma Tre Orchestra con il sostegno della Regione Lazio e parte integrante del Laboratorio di Linguaggio Musicale 2019. Sabato 26 ottobre alle 16.00 al Museo Napoleonico concerto “Flauto e pianoforte: un dialogo a due”.

EVENTI DEL WEEKEND

In questo fine settimana la Casina delle Civette di Villa Torlonia ha un intenso e vario programma di eventi. La mattina di sabato 26 ottobre, alle 10.30, è in programma il laboratorio per tutti Microgiardini di Francesca Vernile: terrari, kokedama e “miniature gardens” occupano poco spazio, ma sono in grado di ricreare la suggestione del giardino e regalare le gioie del contatto diretto con la natura.
Il pomeriggio, alle 17.00, in occasione della mostra Maria Paola Ranfi. Gioiello intimo colloquio è in programma una visita guidata con l’artista, orafa e scultrice per ammirarne gli oltre 60 esemplari tra gioielli e sculture realizzati a cera persa in oro, bronzo, argento e con pietre preziose dai tagli rari e particolarissimi. Infine, concerto del Duo Latinoamericando, domenica 27 ottobre, alle 11.00.  
Nel fine settimana è varia e ricca anche la scelta di appuntamenti tra gioco e apprendimento per i più giovani. Al Museo di Zoologia, si comincia con Scienza divertente. Vulcani dentro e fuori, sabato 26 ottobre dalle 15.30 (5-7 anni) e 16.00 (8-11 anni), un’avventura fino al centro della Terra, nelle “viscere” dei vulcani alla scoperta dei diversi tipi di eruzione e dei movimenti della crosta terrestre.
Dalla Terra all’Universo è in programma sabato 26 ottobre (ore 11.00, 12.00, 16.30 e 17.30) e domenica 27 ottobre (ore 11.00, 12.00 e 16.30) con un percorso attraverso la storia delle osservazioni astronomiche, dagli antichi calendari ai potenti telescopi spaziali, fino alle conoscenze attuali sulla vita delle stelle, sulla natura dei pianeti e sull’espansione dell’universo.
In arrivo un nuovo e speciale appuntamento del Museo-Game domenica 27 ottobre, 15.30-18.30, in cui i bambini saranno impegnati a trovare una misteriosa sala nascosta, una Discovery room in cui scoprire attraverso i sensi gli stravaganti gusti degli animali.
Ancora domenica 27 ottobre alle 17.30 Ecologia Cosmica propone una riflessione filosofica e scientifica sul ruolo dell’umanità rispetto al nostro pianeta Tana per il leone! è il titolo della caccia al tesoro per bambini tra i 5 e i 10 anni in programma al Museo di Roma domenica 27 ottobre alle 11.00, alla scoperta degli animali rappresentati nei diversi punti del Palazzo: soffitti, pareti, mobilio e caminetti. Attraverso un percorso a tappe, i bambini si muoveranno negli spazi del Museo, per poi disegnare l’animale che hanno adottato.  
Visita per famiglie con ragazzi dagli 11 anni in poi alla scoperta della Pinacoteca Capitolina domenica 27 ottobre alle 11.00. Il percorso inizia dall’esterno del Campidoglio e prosegue nel Palazzo dei Conservatori, nella sala degli Orazi e Curiazi e poi all’interno della Pinacoteca Capitolina, luogo ideale di conoscenza delle opere d’arte dal Medioevo fino al Seicento.  
Sia sabato 26 sia domenica 27 ottobre la grande mostra Canova. Eterna bellezza, ospitata al Museo di Roma a Palazzo Braschi, prolunga eccezionalmente l’orario di apertura fino alle 22.00 (la biglietteria chiude alle 21.00). Per i possessori MIC è previsto l’ingresso con biglietto ridotto. Domenica 27 ottobre alle 16.30 visita guidata alla mostra per ampliare la conoscenza di uno dei più importanti artisti dell’età moderna, metterlo in relazione con la Roma del suo tempo e, in particolare, con le vicende di costruzione di Palazzo Braschi e della famiglia committente e far riemergere il tema della tensione al bello, come chimera artistica del ’700 e come invito alla sua riscoperta oggi.  
Tra gli appuntamenti di Archeologia in Comune, questo fine settimana si segnalano sabato 26 ottobre alle 10.00 l’Area archeologica dei Fori Imperiali, a cura di Nicoletta Bernacchio, con appuntamento in Piazza della Madonna di Loreto, biglietteria presso la Colonna Traiana. Prenotazione allo 060608 a partire da sette giorni prima la data dell’evento.  

Sempre in tema di archeologia, con il ticket FORUM PASS. Alla scoperta dei Fori si può accedere al percorso unificato dell’area archeologica Foro Romano-Palatino e Fori Imperiali, realizzato grazie all’intesa siglata dalla Sovrintendenza Capitolina ai Beni culturali e dal Parco archeologico del Colosseo per conto di Roma Capitale e MIBACT. Sono cinque gli ingressi dai quali si può accedere: quattro del Parco Archeologico del Colosseo (largo Corrado Ricci, via Sacra in prossimità dell’arco di Tito, via di San Gregorio, via del Tulliano di fronte al carcere Mamertino) e uno della Sovrintendenza Capitolina (piazza della Madonna di Loreto, vicino alla Colonna Traiana). L’orario di apertura al pubblico è 8.30 - 18.30 dal 1 ottobre al 26 ottobre (ultimo ingresso un’ora prima della chiusura).
 
Ultime settimane per assistere agli spettacoli ai Fori (di Augusto e di Cesare) che terminano il prossimo 3 novembre, mentre proseguono con successo le esperienze immersive e multimediali al Circo Massimo e all’Ara Pacis.  
 
I due spettacoli multimediali dei Viaggi nell’antica Roma raccontano e fanno rivivere la storia del Foro di Cesare e del Foro di Augusto grazie ad appositi sistemi audio con cuffie, accompagnati dalla voce di Piero Angela e dalla visione di filmati e proiezioni che ricostruiscono i due luoghi così come si presentavano nell’antica Roma. Gli spettatori possono così godere di una rappresentazione emozionante e allo stesso tempo ricca di informazioni dal grande rigore storico e scientifico. I due spettacoli possono essere ascoltati in 8 lingue (italiano, inglese, francese, russo, spagnolo, tedesco, cinese e giapponese). Le modalità di fruizione sono differenti. Per il Foro di Augusto sono previste tre repliche ogni sera (durata 40 minuti) e gli spettatori assistono seduti su tribune allestite su via Alessandrina, mentre per il Foro di Cesare lo spettacolo è itinerante ed è possibile accedere ogni 20 minuti (lo spettacolo dura circa 50 minuti) dalla scala situata accanto alla Colonna Traiana. Per informazioni www.viaggioneifori.it.  
 
Dal lunedì alla domenica dalle 19.30 alle 23.00 (ultimo ingresso alle 22.00), è possibile ammirare L’Ara com’era attraverso un progetto multimediale che utilizza particolari visori in cui elementi virtuali ed elementi reali si fondono. I visitatori sono trasportati in una visita immersiva e multisensoriale all’altare voluto da Augusto per celebrare la pace da lui imposta in uno dei più vasti imperi mai esistiti. L’esperienza, tra riprese cinematografiche dal vivo, ricostruzioni in 3D e computer grafica, realtà virtuale e aumentata, della durata di circa 45 minuti, è disponibile in 5 lingue: italiano, inglese, francese, spagnolo e tedesco. I visori non sono utilizzabili al di sotto dei 13 anni. Info su www.arapacis.it.  
 
Con il nuovo progetto in realtà aumentata e virtuale, Circo Maximo Experience, il pubblico può vedere per la prima volta il Circo Massimo, il più grande edificio per lo spettacolo dell’antichità e uno dei più grandi di tutti i tempi, in tutte le sue fasi storiche: dalla semplice e prima costruzione in legno ai fasti dell’età imperiale, dal medioevo fino alla seconda guerra mondiale. È sufficiente indossare gli appositi visori e seguire le varie tappe del percorso itinerante. Si tratta di un progetto all’avanguardia che utilizza tecnologie interattive di visualizzazione mai realizzate prima in un’area all’aperto di così ampie dimensioni. L’esperienza è fruibile dal martedì alla domenica 9.30-19.00, con ingresso da viale Aventino, e dura circa 40 minuti. Ultimo ingresso ore 18.00. Per informazioni www.circomaximoexperience.it.
 

LE MOSTRE
Oltre al grande patrimonio di collezioni permanenti, nei Musei Civici della Capitale sono sempre numerose, varie e interessanti le mostre da visitare durante il weekend. Al Museo di Roma a Palazzo Braschi è in corso la mostra Canova. Eterna bellezza, incentrata sul legame tra Antonio Canova e la città di Roma, con oltre 170 opere e prestigiosi prestiti da importanti Musei e collezioni italiane e straniere.
Luca Signorelli e Roma. Oblio e riscoperte è la splendida esposizione ai Musei Capitolini, nelle sale di Palazzo Caffarelli, omaggio a uno dei più grandi protagonisti del Rinascimento italiano con una selezione di opere di grande prestigio provenienti da collezioni italiane e straniere. Negli ambienti al piano terra di Palazzo dei Conservatori continua L’Arte Ritrovata, un mosaico di testimonianze archeologiche e storico artistiche, dall’VIII secolo a.C. all’età moderna, altamente simbolico e rappresentativo della pluridecennale azione di salvaguardia operata dall’Arma dei Carabinieri.
Al Museo dell’Ara Pacis, Claudio Imperatore. Messalina, Agrippina e le ombre di una dinastia conduce alla scoperta di vita e regno del discusso imperatore romano, dalla nascita a Lione nel 10 a.C. fino alla morte a Roma nel 54 d.C., mettendone in luce la personalità, l’operato politico e amministrativo, il legame con la figura di Augusto e con il celebre fratello Germanico, il tragico rapporto con le mogli Messalina e Agrippina, sullo sfondo della corte imperiale romana e delle controverse vicende della dinastia giulio-claudia.
Colori degli Etruschi. Tesori di terracotta alla Centrale Montemartini propone una straordinaria selezione di lastre parietali figurate e decorazioni architettoniche a stampo in terracotta policroma, provenienti dal territorio di Cerveteri (l’antica città di Caere), in parte inedite. Sono esposti reperti archeologici di fondamentale importanza per la storia della pittura etrusca, recentemente rientrati in Italia grazie a un’operazione di contrasto del traffico illegale. In corso anche 110 anni di luce. ACEA e ROMA, dedicata all’importante ricorrenza dei centodieci anni di vita e attività dell’azienda capitolina.
Visibili fino al 10 novembre alla Galleria d’Arte Moderna Donne. Corpo e immagine tra simbolo e rivoluzione, una riflessione sulla figura femminile attraverso artisti di diverse correnti artistiche e temperie culturali tra fine Ottocento, lungo tutto il Novecento e fino ai giorni nostri. E Wechselspiel, le installazioni di Paolo Bielli e Susanne Kessler che costituiscono un doppio percorso collegato sia alla mostra sulle Donne sia alle sculture del chiostro.
Al Museo di Scultura Antica Giovanni Barracco Il Leone e la Montagna, una mostra sulla Missione Archeologica Italiana in Sudan, attiva da quasi cinquanta anni nel sito del Jebel Barkal, patrimonio mondiale Unesco.
Quattro le esposizioni nei Musei di Villa Torlonia: al Casino Nobile in Rifrazioni dell’Antico l’opera di Sergio Monari incontra l’architettura e la collezione d’arte della famiglia Torlonia: un dialogo fra passato e presente che porta all’attenzione del pubblico l’attualità della mitologia greca. Al Casino dei Principi Luigi Boille. Luoghi di luce, scrittura del silenzio costituisce una panoramica di più di ottanta opere che raccontano il percorso artistico del Maestro dal 1958 al 2015. Alla Casina delle Civette, nel Giardino delle meraviglie. Opere dell’artista Garth Speight, lo spirito del Giardino della Casina si materializza in 50 dipinti in acrilico nei quali campeggia la Natura tra uccelli acquatici, ninfee, iris bianchi e blu, fiori di campo, boschi di betulle e crisantemi. Inoltre, apre al pubblico sabato 26 ottobre l’antologica Gioiello intimo colloquio dell’artista Maria Paola Ranfi, orafa e scultrice, con una selezione di oltre 60 esemplari tra gioielli e sculture realizzati a cera persa in oro, bronzo, argento e con pietre preziose dai tagli rari e particolarissimi.
Al Museo di Roma in Trastevere in corso una mostra incentrata su alcuni scatti iconici, eseguiti da quindici tra i migliori fotografi cechi, dal titolo 1989: Rivoluzione di Velluto, che documenta i momenti salienti della storia recente cecoslovacca, da quando ha avuto termine la quarantennale dittatura comunista. Inoltre è appena stata inaugurata la mostra che presenta i progetti della vincitrice e delle finaliste di PHOTO IILA - XI edizione Premio IILA-FOTOGRAFIA.
Al Museo Carlo Bilotti di Villa Borghese, nella mostra Frank Holliday in Rome presenti 36 opere dipinte nello studio vicino a piazza Navona, dove Holliday ha lavorato alacremente avendo come ispirazione le opere dei maestri della storia dell’arte.
Al Museo delle Mura Non farmi Muro! una selezione di oltre 40 fotografie che mettono in luce come è cambiata la città di Berlino dal 1989 a oggi.
Nella mostra In Paradiso al Museo Civico di Zoologia Giorgio Marcoaldi, con le sue foto a colori, riesce a catturare momenti di vita degli animali che vivono nelle vallate alpine del Parco, cogliendoli nell’arco delle diverse stagioni. Tonino Mosconi, nelle sue foto in bianco e nero, racconta i ritmi delle popolazioni locali e delle loro tradizioni.  

Per i possessori della MIC card è libero l’accesso ai Musei Civici e ai siti archeologici e artistici della Sovrintendenza Capitolina. Sono inoltre incluse le visite e le attività didattiche effettuate dai funzionari della Sovrintendenza Capitolina che rientrano nel biglietto d’ingresso al museo mentre non sono comprese le mostre negli spazi espositivi del Museo di Roma a Palazzo Braschi e del Museo dell’Ara Pacis nonché le esperienze immersive e multimediali. La MIC, al costo di 5 euro, permette l’ingresso illimitato negli spazi indicati per 12 mesi.


          

Gender justice and women’s rights

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Justicia de género y derechos de las mujeres Anónimo (no verificado) Vie, 23/08/2019 - 14:25

Tanto si estamos respondiendo a una situación de emergencia, como trabajando en proyectos a largo plazo con comunidades o haciendo campaña para lograr un cambio duradero, combatimos la desigualdad y la discriminación arraigadas que mantienen a las mujeres sumidas en la pobreza. 

Cada día, las mujeres de todos los países del mundo sufren desigualdad y discriminación. Se enfrentan a situaciones de violencia, abusos y un trato desigual tanto en su hogar, como en su entorno de trabajo y sus comunidades solo por el hecho de ser mujeres. También se les niegan oportunidades para aprender, obtener ingresos, hacer oír su voz y liderar.

La mayor parte de las personas que viven en situación de pobreza son mujeres. En comparación con los hombres, tienen un menor acceso a recursos, poder e influencia, y pueden experimentar una mayor desigualdad debido a su clase, etnia o edad, así como debido a creencias religiosas y fundamentalistas.

La desigualdad de género es un factor clave de la pobreza y menoscaba gravemente los derechos de las mujeres.

La desigualdad de género en cifras

  • Las mujeres tan solo ocupan el 24% de los escaños parlamentarios a nivel mundial. En el ámbito municipal la situación es aún más grave, ya que tan solo ocupan el 5% de las alcaldías.
  • De media, en todas las regiones y sectores, el salario de las mujeres es un 24% inferior al de los hombres.
  • Casi dos terceras partes de los 781 millones de personas adultas analfabetas son mujeres, un porcentaje que se ha mantenido constante durante las dos últimas décadas.
  • 153 países tienen leyes que discriminan económicamente a las mujeres. En 18 de estos países, los maridos pueden impedir legalmente que sus esposas trabajen.
  • En todo el mundo, una de cada tres mujeres sufre o sufrirá violencias machistas en algún momento de su vida.

Justicia de género para vencer la pobreza

En Oxfam, entendemos la justicia de género como la igualdad y equidad total entre hombres y mujeres en todos los ámbitos de la vida. Como resultado, las mujeres, al igual que los hombres, pueden definir y contribuir al diseño de las políticas, estructuras y decisiones que afectan a sus vidas y a la sociedad en su conjunto.

Mejorar la legislación y las políticas es necesario, pero no suficiente. Si queremos poner fin a la pobreza y combatir la desigualdad, debemos transformar también las relaciones de género y poder, así como las estructuras, normas y valores sociales que las determinan.

Creemos que uno de los factores más importantes a la hora de mejorar de forma sostenida los derechos de las mujeres es que estas asuman el control y emprendan acciones colectivas, pues son una poderosa fuerza para poner fin a la pobreza de todas las personas.

Los derechos de las mujeres en el centro de todo nuestro trabajo

Tanto si estamos respondiendo a una situación de emergencia, como trabajando en proyectos a largo plazo con comunidades o haciendo campaña para lograr un cambio duradero, combatimos la desigualdad y la discriminación arraigadas que mantienen a las mujeres sumidas en la pobreza. Colaboramos estrechamente con organizaciones de defensa de los derechos de las mujeres para abordar las desigualdades de género de forma eficaz.

ogb_27653_india_agriculture_woman.jpg

Facilitar el acceso a recursos

Apoyamos a las mujeres en su lucha por la igualdad de oportunidades para acceder a empleos y salarios justos y equitativos que les permitan salir de la pobreza gracias a su trabajo.

Alzar su voz

Apoyamos a las mujeres en su lucha por acceder a los procesos de toma de decisiones a todos los niveles y promover su liderazgo y participación.

Acabar con las violencias contra mujeres y niñas

Trabajamos con organizaciones socias en más de 40 países para poner fin a las violencias contra las mujeres y las niñas cambiando las leyes y cuestionando prácticas culturales aceptadas que convierten a las mujeres en ciudadanas de segunda clase.

Lograr igualdad de género en las respuestas a emergencias

En todo el trabajo que realizamos en el ámbito humanitario, adaptamos nuestras actividades para cubrir las diferentes necesidades de hombres y mujeres, de tal forma que promovamos la igualdad.
 

Hemos sido testigos de los beneficios de garantizar un igual acceso a oportunidades laborales, a la salud, a la educación y a los procesos de toma de decisiones, así como de garantizar que las mujeres puedan vivir libres de violencia. También hemos sido testigos de los beneficios que aporta que las mujeres y las niñas puedan hacer sus propias elecciones y hacer oír su voz de forma colectiva, así como de que las instituciones tengan en cuenta sus necesidades e intereses.

La justicia de género no es únicamente garantizar derechos fundamentales. También se trata de garantizar medios clave para lograr sociedades más justas y, así, erradicar la pobreza. Y todos y todas tenemos un papel fundamental que desempeñar para lograr que esto sea una realidad.

Sudán del Sur mujeres con megáfonos. Crédito: Oxfam

          

Why the majority of the world’s poor are women

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¿Por qué hay más mujeres que hombres pobres en el mundo? isabellet Jue, 02/03/2017 - 11:53

La desigualdad de género es una de las formas de desigualdad más antiguas y enraizadas del mundo. Priva a las mujeres de tener voz propia, desvaloriza su trabajo y las pone en situación de desventaja frente a los hombres tanto en el ámbito del hogar como a escala nacional y mundial.

A pesar de algunos importantes avances a lo largo de los últimos años, no hay ningún país en el mundo en el que haya igualdad económica entre hombres y mujeres, y son ellas las que siguen teniendo más probabilidades de vivir en la pobreza.

Desigualdad laboral de género: salarios más bajos, trabajo no remunerado y contribución desvalorizada

  • Salarios bajos. En todo el mundo, las mujeres perciben los salarios más bajos. A nivel mundial, la brecha salarial entre hombres y mujeres es del 24%, y al ritmo actual, serán necesarios 170 años para cerrarla. Hay 700 millones menos de mujeres que hombres con trabajos remunerados.
     
  • Ausencia de empleos dignos. El 75% de las mujeres en las regiones en desarrollo trabajan sin contrato laboral, carecen derechos o no tienen acceso a la seguridad social.  Además, a menudo los sueldos que reciben no les permiten salir de la pobreza. Se calcula que 600 millones de mujeres trabajan en empleos muy inseguros en todo el mundo.
     
  • Trabajo de cuidados y doméstico no remunerado: Las mujeres asumen entre dos y diez veces más trabajo de cuidados no remunerado que los hombres, como las tareas del hogar y el cuidado de los niños y niñas. Se estima que la contribución a la economía mundial de este trabajo equivale a 10 billones de dólares al año (una octava parte del PIB mundial).  
     
  • Jornadas laborales más largas. Las mujeres trabajan más horas al día que los hombres si se contabiliza el trabajo remunerado y no remunerado en conjunto. Esto supone que en la actualidad, una mujer joven trabajará de media cuatro años más que un hombre a lo largo de su vida.

Tabitha Mwikali, 36, a domestic worker hanging clothes for her employer in Eastleigh, Nairobi, Kenya.Tabitha Mwikali, de 36 años, es trabajadora doméstica. Vive en Mukuru, uno de los asentamientos informales más grandes de Nairobi. Ella es de Matuu, en el sureste de Kenia, donde ha enviado a sus hijos a vivir, ya que con su salario semanal de 250 chelines (aproximadamente 2,5 dólares) no puede permitirse alimentarlos o enviarlos a la escuela. Foto: Allan Gichigi/Oxfam

Aumentar la igualdad económica de las mujeres reduciría el índice de pobreza en toda la población

La desigualdad económica de género supone un coste de 9 billones de dólares al año para las mujeres de los países en desarrollo. Esta cantidad no sólo daría un mayor poder adquisitivo a las mujeres y beneficiaría a sus familias y comunidades, sino que supondría un enorme impulso para el conjunto de la economía.

Los países que presentan una mayor igualdad de género suelen tener unos mayores niveles de ingresos, y datos empíricos de una serie de países y regiones indican que reducir la brecha entre hombres y mujeres lleva a su vez a la reducción de la pobreza.

En América Latina, por ejemplo, el aumento del número de mujeres en trabajos remunerados entre 2000 y 2010 fue responsable de cerca del 30% de la reducción de la pobreza en general y de la desigualdad de ingresos.

Para garantizar los derechos de las mujeres, reducir la pobreza y cumplir con el resto de objetivos de desarrollo, es fundamental apoyar el acceso de las mujeres a trabajos con unas condiciones dignas y a unos medios de vida mejorados.

El empoderamiento económico de las mujeres es un elemento fundamental para lograrlo. Necesitamos una economía humana que beneficie tanto a hombres como a mujeres, y que esté al servicio de todas las personas, no sólo de las élites.

igualdad de género mujeres trabajadoras derechos mujeres fortalecimiento económico de las mujeres pobreza
Hoan trabaja empaquetando camisetas y camisas para su exportación en la fábrica textil Tinh Loi, en el norte de Vietnam. Su jornada laboral supera las 62 horas a la semana y cobra aproximadamente 1$/hora.

A pesar de algunos importantes avances a lo largo de los últimos años, no hay ningún país en el mundo en el que haya igualdad económica entre hombres y mujeres. Necesitamos una economía humana que beneficie tanto a hombres como a mujeres, y que esté al servicio de todas las personas, no sólo de las élites.

Hoan trabaja empaquetando camisetas y camisas para su exportación en la fábrica textil Tinh Loi, en el norte de Vietnam. Su jornada laboral supera las 62 horas a la semana y cobra aproximadamente 1$/hora. Foto: Adam Patterson/Oxfam


          

En finir avec les violences faites aux femmes et aux filles

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Acabemos con las violencias contra mujeres y niñas de una vez por todas Elena Cornellana Mié, 23/11/2016 - 17:46

¿Sabías que al menos una de cada tres mujeres experimentará algún tipo de violencia a lo largo de su vida? Esto equivale a más de 1.000 millones de mujeres en todo el mundo.

La violencia contra las mujeres y las niñas es una lacra global que no conoce fronteras geográficas o culturales, Sin embargo, las mujeres en situación de exclusión, entre ellas las mujeres y niñas pobres, son el colectivo más vulnerable a padecer este tipo de violencia, a menudo a manos de sus maridos o parejas.

La violación de los derechos humanos más extendida

La violencia contra mujeres y niñas adopta diferentes formas, entre ellas la violencia en el hogar, los abusos sexuales, el matrimonio infantil, la trata sexual, los denominados "crímenes de honor" y la mutilación genital. Las violencias contra mujeres y niñas están radicadas en la desigualdad de género que las mujeres sufren durante toda su vida, desde la infancia hasta la vejez.

Quienes cometen este tipo de ataques creen que las violencias contra mujeres y niñas son algo normal o conductas aceptables, aprobadas por la sociedad. Creen que pueden infligir violencia con total impunidad. Todo lo contrario: es la más común violación de los derechos humanos y tiene devastadores efectos a largo plazo en las vidas de las mujeres, sus comunidades y la sociedad en general.

Ha llegado el momento de decir "basta". Queremos poner fin a las violencias contra mujeres y niñas.

Violencia masiva

  • El 30% de las mujeres experimentará violencia a manos de su actual o anterior pareja a lo largo de su vida. En algunos países, hasta un 70% de las mujeres.
  • Cerca de 650 millones de mujeres  han sido forzadas al matrimonio infantil. Más de una de cada tres, antes de los 15 años.
  • 200 millones de mujeres y niñas han sufrido mutilación genital, la mayoría antes de los 5 años de edad.
  • En conjunto, el 71% de todas las víctimas de la trata de personas registradas en el mundo son mujeres y niñas, mientras que tres de cada cuatro menores objeto de trata son niñas.

Maria Morales Jorge, 52, from Guatemala,is determined to change what’s normal and encourages other indigenous women to join her.María Morales, de 52 años, está decidida a cambiar los injustos estereotiopos sociales de su comunidad, en Guatemala. " Todas las personas tenemos la oportunidad de cambiar y rechazar cualquier tipo de violencia y opresión, y todas deberíamos tener la oportunidad de ser felices."

Violencia y pobreza: un círculo vicioso 

Creemos que las violencias contra mujeres y niñas son uno de los obstáculos más importantes en nuestra misión para poner fin a la pobreza.

No solo destrozan las vidas de las mujeres y dividen a sus comunidades, sino que además socavan los esfuerzos en el ámbito del desarrollo y la construcción de democracias más sólidas y sociedades más justas y pacíficas.

La violencia condena a las mujeres y a las niñas a la pobreza, limitando sus elecciones y su capacidad para acceder a la educación, obtener ingresos y participar en la vida pública y política. La pobreza les expone a un mayor grado de violencia y a la falta de opciones cuando ésta se produce.

Cambiemos las cosas

Podemos cambiar las creencias arraigadas y que tan daño hacen. Podemos desaprender lo aprendido. Ha llegado el momento de que todas las personas –mujeres, hombres, niñas y niños– y las instituciones públicas digamos "basta". Ha llegado el momento de acabar con las violencias contra mujeres y niñas.

igualdad de género violencia de género mujer niña
A pesar de su corta edad, Komal, de la India, ya se ha enfrentado a toda una vida de discriminación. Hoy está decidida a luchar activamente por la igualdad de género y lo hace a través del deporte.

¿Sabías que al menos una de cada tres mujeres (35%) experimentará algún tipo de violencia a lo largo de su vida? Ha llegado el momento de decir "basta".

Temas relacionados

A pesar de su corta edad, Komal, de la India, ya se ha enfrentado a toda una vida de discriminación. Hoy está decidida a luchar activamente por la igualdad de género y lo hace a través del deporte.


          

Su Ürünleri Kanunu’nda değişiklik teklifi TBMM Genel Kurulunda kabul edildi

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Denizlerde, doğal göl, baraj ve akarsularda yaşayan başta balıklar olmak üzere tüm su canlılarını korumak ve bu kaynakları gelecek nesillere daha sağlıklı şekilde bırakmak adına Su Ürünleri Kanunu’nda değişiklik içeren düzenleme TBMM Genel Kurulunda kabul edildi. Yapılan değişikliklerin sadece balık ve sucul biyoçeşitliliği değil, aynı zamanda alnının teriyle ekmeğini sudan çıkaran, kurallara uyan balıkçıların da haklarını koruyacağını vurgulayan Tarım ve Orman Bakanı Bekir Pakdemirli, “Kanunda yapılan değişiklikler kaçak avcılık yaparak dürüst balıkçıların ve denizin hakkını çalanların da sonunu getirecek, hatta balıkçılık alanında milat olarak kabul edilebilecek önemli bir adımdır” dedi.
          

Is this Iraq's Arab Spring?

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Iraq is currently facing such an alarming array of economic, political and social problems that many observers fear no-one will be up to the task of delivering the much-needed reforms. By Stasa Salacanin | Since the beginning of October thousands of protesters, mostly young Iraqis, from central and southern Iraqi major cities have been voicing their opposition to the deteriorating economic conditions, sectarian politics and rampant corruption that plague the country. Indeed, the country has been one of the most corrupt in the world for decades – according to Transparency International’s 2018 Corruption Index, Iraq ranks 168 out of 175 countries. Protestors are also expressing their anger over high unemployment and the common governmental practice of political staffing, where sectarian or ethnic quotas rather than qualifications apply. The majority accuse the ruling elite of abusing public funds and mismanaging the country’s national resources while completely failing to meet the needs of the Iraqi population. But perhaps one of the main – and most surprising – characteristics of the October protests is the fact that the protestors are mostly younger Shia citizens who have turned against a Shia-led political establishment. While there are very few Sunni Arabs or Iraqi Kurds among the protestors, with demonstrations taking place in central and southern Iraq, where the population is predominantly Shia, there has been an increase in the use of national symbols. Transcending sectarian and ethnic divisions The sentiment is Iraqi; these young people are not demonstrating as Shia Arabs, but as citizens who are furious with the system which was imposed upon them following the toppling of Saddam Hussein and the U.S.-led invasion in 2003. How the unrest in Iraq will impact on the region remains to be seen, but it is clearly posing a major threat to Tehran. Iran's state news agency IRNA has accused the U.S., Saudi Arabia and Israel of fomenting unrest in Iraq in order to sabotage Iran’s ties with Iraq and Syria. However, many Iraqis including the Shia are less than enamoured of the Popular Mobilisation Units (PMU), powerful non-state actors over which Bagdad has limited control, as many of them are heavily under the influence of Tehran. Among Iraqis, there is the overriding perception that their country is becoming a fiefdom for foreign political and paramilitary factions that many view as a blatant violation of Iraqi national sovereignty. Arab Spring in Iraq While the protests in southern Iraq in summer 2018 addressed similar issues, this time they are becoming increasingly militant and are not only calling for the resignation of the current government but aim to overthrow and change the entire political system.As the demonstrations appear to be leaderless and without a specific agenda, except for expressing general dissatisfaction and impatience with conditions in the country, it remains unclear, however, whether the protests will produce any of the desired changes.   Imad Harb, director of research and analysis at the Arab Center in Washington DC, writes that the protests "offer another example of an approaching, painful, and final collapse of the traditional Arab political order that has shown its impotence in addressing the myriad problems besetting Arab societies today." Furthermore, a commentary published by Middle East expert and head of research at Gulf State Analytics Giorgio Cafiero on LobeLog, posits that the recent unrest in Iraq should be interpreted in the wider context of turmoil that has been spreading all over the Arab region, as the citizens of Algeria, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco and Sudan express their deep dissatisfaction with their corrupt governments. According to him, "it is fair to conclude that the Arab Spring has reached Iraq." Can the government regain control of the situation? The government’s brutal response to the unrest and the high number of civilian casualties has put Iraqi Prime Minister Abdel Mahdi under great pressure. Despite promising reforms and ordering a broad cabinet reshuffle, he has so far struggled to address the protesters’ complaints and instead continues to make blunder after blunder. At the beginning of October, for instance, Staff Lieutenant General Abdul-Wahab al-Saadi, widely perceived as a national hero due to his role in fighting Islamic State, was demoted. Then there is the ongoing use of live ammunition and tear gas to disperse the protesters, which could prove the final nail in the prime minister’s coffin. In such circumstances, it is highly unlikely that mere promises will be able to calm tensions in the country. What is more, the fragile coalition over which Abdel Mahdi presides has begun to crack, making his position even more uncertain. While it is hard to imagine that the current Iraqi government will be able to introduce any major reforms, since the prime minister is actually a hostage to the powerful political and paramilitary factions, Mahdi is right about one thing – in his speech after the first wave of protests he declared that there are "no magical" solutions to the problems. The problems faced by the Iraqis are so numerous and complex that many observers fear that no-one will be up to the task of delivering the much-needed reforms. Solving the social and economic crisis that is at the heart of the protests would require painful cuts to the public sector, which already employs over 3 million Iraqis, as well as removing subsidies for gas, food and electricity. Unpopular at the best of times, such measures would merely be likely to provoke more unrest in the current climate.  Last but not least, even though the protests are not sectarian in motivation, sectarianism remains firmly rooted in Iraqi society. Powerful political factions such as the pro-Iranian Fatah party of Hadi al-Ameri, the Axis party of Khamis Khanjar favoured by Iraqi Sunnis and the Barzani clan’s Kurdistan Democratic Party all aim to limit the power of Bagdad’s central government and are thus largely contributing to the impotence of the Iraqi state. We must hope that Iraq is not heading towards disaster along Syrian lines.  Stasa Salacanin © Qantara.de 2019
          

Added on 11/07/2019

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Added Rosebud by Kay Nielsen.

Added Rumplestiltskin by Kay Nielsen.

Added Six Swans by Kay Nielsen.

Added Snow Queen by Kay Nielsen.

Added Snowdrop by Kay Nielsen.

Added Standing in the Earth up to their Necks by Kay Nielsen.

Added Tell Me the Way Then by Kay Nielsen.

Added The Flying Trunk by Kay Nielsen.

Added The Hardy Tin Solder by Kay Nielsen.

Added The Man Who Never Laughed by Kay Nielsen.

Added The Nightingale by Kay Nielsen.

Added The Princess and The Pea by Kay Nielsen.

Added The Shadow by Kay Nielsen.

Added The Story of a Mother by Kay Nielsen.

Added The Swineherd by Kay Nielsen.

Added The Tinder Box by Kay Nielsen.

Added The Unicorn by Kay Nielsen.

Added They Pulled Up the Princesses by Kay Nielsen.

Added Two Brothers by Kay Nielsen.

Added Alps by Night by William Stott.

Added The Amethyst Cloud, Jungfrau by William Stott.

Added Apple Tree in Blossom by William Stott.

Added Autumn by William Stott.

Added Awakening of the Spirit of the Rose by William Stott.

Added The Bathers by William Stott.

Added The Eiger by William Stott.

Added The Fairie Wood by William Stott.

Added The Happy Valley by William Stott.

Added Hide and Seek in the Garden of Epicurus, Leontium and Ternissa by William Stott.

Added Hollyhocks by William Stott.

Added Memory of an Island by William Stott.

Added My Father and Mother by William Stott.

Added The Nymph by William Stott.

Added Pastoral by William Stott.

Added Ravenglass by William Stott.

Added Robert Rattray Tatlock by William Stott.

Added Soft Winds by William Stott.

Added A Summer's Day by William Stott.

Added T. Millie Dow by William Stott.

Added The Two Sisters by William Stott.

Added Venus Born of the Sea Foam by William Stott.

Added The White Mountain by William Stott.

Added Wild Flower by William Stott.

Added Cornfield by William Stott.

Added A Bridge by William Stott.

Added Woodland Scene, Brantrake by William Stott.

Added A Freshet by William Stott.

Added Seascape by William Stott.

Added Old Sycamore by William Stott.

Added North Breeze by William Stott.

Added The Remnants of an Army by Elizabeth Butler.

Added After the Battle: Arrival of Lord Wolseley and Staff at the Bridge of Tel-el-Kabir by Elizabeth Butler.

Added Balaclava by Elizabeth Butler.

Added The Dorset Yeomen at Agagia, 26 February 1915 by Elizabeth Butler.

Added Elizabeth Southerden, née Thompson, Lady Butler by Elizabeth Butler.

Added Evicted by Elizabeth Butler.

Added Listed for the Connaught Rangers by Elizabeth Butler.

Added Patient Horses, a Royal Artillery Gun Team in Action, c 1882 by Elizabeth Butler.

Added Rescuing the Wounded under Fire by Elizabeth Butler.

Added The Return from Inkerman by Elizabeth Butler.

Added The Roll Call by Elizabeth Butler.

Added The Royal Horse Guards Retreat from Mons, 1914 by Elizabeth Butler.

Added Scotland For Ever! by Elizabeth Butler.

Added Study of a British Soldier with Two Camels, Camel Corps, Egypt, 1st Sudan War by Elizabeth Butler.

Added Study of a Wounded Guardsman, Crimea, c 1854 by Elizabeth Butler.

Added A 'V. C.' of the Seaforths by Elizabeth Butler.

Added A Yeomanry Scout Galloping with Despatches in the Boer War by Elizabeth Butler.

Added 11 artwork images

Added a new image of Nocturne: Blue and Gold ­ Old Battersea Bridge by James Abbott McNeill Whistler.

Added a new image of Nocturne: Blue and Gold ­ Old Battersea Bridge by James Abbott McNeill Whistler.

Added a new image of Arrangement in Grey and Black: Portrait of the Painter's Mother by James Abbott McNeill Whistler.

Added a new image of Valparaiso Harbor by James Abbott McNeill Whistler.

Added a new image of Symphony in White, No. 2: The Little White Girl by James Abbott McNeill Whistler.

Added a new image of Harmony in Grey and Green: Miss Cicely Alexander by James Abbott McNeill Whistler.

Added a new image of Nocturne: Black and Gold - The Fire Wheel by James Abbott McNeill Whistler.

Added a new image of Crepuscule in Flesh Colour and Green: Valparaiso by James Abbott McNeill Whistler.

Added a new image of Nocturne: Blue and Silver - Cremorne Lights by James Abbott McNeill Whistler.

Added a new image of Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of The Six Marks by James Abbott McNeill Whistler.

Added a new image of A Favourite Custom by Lawrence Alma-Tadema.


          

Afghanistan, Iran och Sudan på utrikesministermöte

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EU:s roll i Afghanistan och den regionala säkerheten i Persiska viken och Iran är ämnen som utrikesminister Ann Linde ska behandla med sina EU-kollegor 11 november i Bryssel. Utrikesministrarna kommer också diskutera situationen i Sudan.
          

Man grievously injured after three-storey fall

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A Sudanese man suffered grievous injuries fell from a three storey height while working on a residential balcony, the police said in a statement.

The accident took place at 10am, on Vjal ix-Xarolla - Zurrieq. The man was taken to Mater Dei Hospital and investigations are ongoing.



          

Unicef: "Dopo inondazioni a rischio 490 mila bambini nel Sud Sudan e 200 mila in Somalia

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Lanciato appello di emergenza di 10 milioni di dollari per rispondere ai bisogni immediati della popolazione più giovane


          

Kind of tripping on the Sudan archives thing coming to duNord in February

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riyl black violin izwhat aka Napoleon Maddox icky shuffle cesar Geronimo big red machine zoe keating steve Lopez LA Times column about mental illness cellist book movie Someone told me about a private function coming up at The Mitch with … Continue reading
          

The list of Africa nations in ascending order, by population VS new video of Michael Kiwanuka ‘You Ain’t The Problem’

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Djibouti Eswatini Equatorial Guinea Mauritius Guinea- Bissau Gabon Gambia Lesotho Botswana Namibia Mauritania Liberia Central African Republic Republic of The Congo Libya Sierra Leone Eritrea Togo (that’s 18 of 46 — it ends with Nigeria) South Sudan Burundi Benin (10,008,749) … Continue reading
          

Italy accepts over 100 Africans trapped in Libya

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from AHMED ZAYED in Tripoli, Libya TRIPOLI, (CAJ News) – MORE than 100 African nationals stranded in war-torn Libya have been relocated to Italy over the past year. Some 54 vulnerable refuges from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan were relocated to the European country on Tuesday this week. Among them are 23 children, 13 of […]
          

DHS Extends Temporary Protected Status and Work Authorization

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As a result of court orders prohibiting the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) from terminating Temporary Protected Status, DHS is again extending the program for certain countries. TPS Country Current Expiration Date New Expiration Date El Salvador 01/02/2020 01/04/2021 Haiti 01/02/2020 01/04/2021 Nicaragua 01/02/2020 01/04/2021 Sudan 01/02/2020 01/04/2021 Honduras 01/05/2020 01/04/2021 Nepal 03/24/2020 01/04/2021 In...… Continue Reading
          

SOUTH SUDAN / SUE CANTONMENT

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A joint monitoring and verification team comprised from UN officials and various South Sudan’s stakeholders found no child soldiers or abducted women at a military cantonment site located in the south west of South Sudan’s Western Equatoria area. UNMISS
          

Sudan says it will return confiscated property to Christians

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Minister of Religious Affairs Nasr al-Din Mufreh said that Christians and people of other beliefs are free to practice their faith in Sudan.
          

Lính mũ nồi xanh hứa quyết tâm với Bác trước khi lên đường làm nhiệm vụ gìn giữ hòa bình

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TGVN. Sáng 7/11, 70 cán bộ, y, bác sĩ thuộc Bệnh viện dã chiến cấp 2 số 2 đã dâng hương tại Đài tưởng niệm Bắc Sơn và thực hiện Lễ hứa quyết tâm tại Quảng trường Ba Đình (Hà Nội) trước khi lên đường làm nhiệm vụ gìn giữ hòa bình Liên hợp quốc tại Nam Sudan.
          

Bệnh viện dã chiến cấp 2 số 2 đã sẵn sàng lên đường tới Nam Sudan

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TGVN.Ngày 6/11, tại Cục Gìn giữ hòa bình Việt Nam (Thạch Thất, Hà Nội), Bộ Quốc phòng tổ chức họp Ban Chỉ đạo về tham gia hoạt động gìn giữ hòa bình Liên hợp quốc (GGHB LHQ) nhằm rà soát tổng thể các mặt công tác chuẩn bị triển khai Bệnh viện dã chiến cấp 2 số 2 (BVDC 2.2) trước khi lên đường thực hiện nhiệm vụ tại Nam Sudan.
          

What's going on Thursday?

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Tonight's NYC-area shows include King Diamond/Uncle Acid, Superchunk/Torres, New Pornographers/Lady Lamb, Sudan Archives, Talib Kweli, TWIABP, and more. Continue reading…
          

Trump Holds Talks with Foreign Ministers of Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan

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The foreign ministers of Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan met Wednesday in Washington with President Donald Trump and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin to discuss the Grand Ethiopia Renaissance Dam (GERD) on Ethiopia's Blue Nile.

The post Trump Holds Talks with Foreign Ministers of Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan appeared first on Worthy Christian News.


          

Nnamdi Kanu is a drunk fool – Buhari’s cousin — TalkParlour.com

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President Muhammadu Buhari’s cousin, Malam Adnan Nahabu Daura has describef leader of indeginous people of Biafra – IPOB, Nnamdi Kanu as drunk and a fool. He said this in an interview while dismissing claims by Kanu that the president Buhari is one Jibril Aminu from Sudan. Daura also spoke about the people he describes as […] via Nnamdi Kanu is a drunk fool – Buhari’s cousin …
          

AFRICA/SUD SUDAN - I Vescovi sono “Pastori e amministratori della delicata vigna di Dio”

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Juba – “Come Vescovi del Sudan e del Sud Sudan riteniamo prioritaria la tutela dei minori e ci impegniamo a lavorare per la prevenzione di ogni forma di abuso, atrocità e violenza contro i bambini. Sono contento che durante questa plenaria, tra i molti argomenti sia stata scelta la tutela dei minori”: lo ha detto mons. Edward Hiiboro, Vescovo di Tombura-Yambo e Presidente della Conferenza Episcopale del Sudan, a conclusione di un recente seminario organizzato a Juba dall’Associazione dei Vescovi delle conferenze episcopali dell'Africa orientale , che ha coinvolto i vescovi di Sudan e Sud Sudan sull’istituzione di un apposito Dipartimento per la tutela dei minori.
Oltre al tema della tutela dei minori, il Vescovo Hiiboro ha indicato che l'Assemblea Plenaria è stata “per i vescovi del Sudan e del Sud Sudan un'opportunità di connettersi in primis con Dio, fonte della loro vita; in secondo luogo per rafforzarsi reciprocamente come Pastori e amministratori della delicata vigna di Dio; che per meditare sulla loro missione verso il popolo di Dio nei due paesi.
I Vescovi di entrambi i Paesi, nonostante le difficoltà che stanno affrontando, hanno preso posizione e hanno voluto agire per proteggere, individuare e bloccare qualsiasi abuso contro i minori e contro le persone più vulnerabili. “L’incontro è partito dalle raccomandazioni di Papa Francesco”, ha detto il funzionario per la tutela dei minori dell'AMECEA George Thuku, che ha condiviso con i vescovi le politiche e le linee guida e le priorità stabilite da alcuni delle Conferenze episcopali nella regione.


          

Wednesday’s Daily Brief: Call for end to Haiti violence, Palestine refugee agency chief resigns, ICC on Libya, Mahira Khan new UNHCR ambassador

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A recap of stories this Wednesday: Statement by UN advisory group on Haiti’s crisis; Palestine refugee agency head steps down; Libya remains ensnared by violence; Cholera campaign to guard Sudan’s Khartoum; Pakistan’s Mahira Khan named UN Goodwill Ambassador.
          

Cholera prevention efforts underway to protect millions in Sudan’s Khartoum state

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A campaign has got underway to prevent the spread of a deadly cholera outbreak to Sudan’s populous Khartoum state, home to more than eight million people, UN medics said on Wednesday.
          

Egypt, Ethiopia, and Sudan Commit to Resolving Nile Dam Dispute

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[Deutsche Welle] The three African nations have said they will continue trying to resolve a conflict over plans for a massive Ethiopian-run dam along the Nile river. The project has raised concerns about shortages of drinking water.
          

Joint Statement Of Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan, The United States, And The World Bank

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[U.S. Treasury] Washington, DC -The foreign ministers of Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan and their delegations met with the Secretary of the Treasury and the President of the World Bank in Washington, D.C. on November 6, 2019.  The ministers reaffirmed their joint commitment to reach a comprehensive, cooperative, adaptive, sustainable, and mutually beneficial agreement on the filling and operation of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam and to establish a clear process for fulfilling that commitment in accordance with the 2015 Declaration
          

Trump Holds Talks with Foreign Ministers of Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan

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[VOA] White House -The foreign ministers of Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan met Wednesday in Washington with President Donald Trump and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin to discuss the Grand Ethiopia Renaissance Dam (GERD) on Ethiopia's Blue Nile.
          

Ministerial Meeting On GERD to Kick Off Wednesday in Washington

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[SNA] Khartoum -The especial ministerial meeting on Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam(GERD) is due to start Wednesday in Washington, capital of Uinted States and will be attended by foreign and irrigation ministers of Sudan, Egypt and Ethiopia at US invitation.
          

Madani Affirms Sudan's Keenness to Develop Economic and Trade Relations With Ethiopia

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[SNA] Khartoum -The Minister of Industry and Trade and acting Minister of Finance and Economic Planning Madani Abbas Madani has affimed his ministry's keenness on the development of the economic anf commercial relations with Ethipia for the mutual benefits of their both economies. The minister pointed out to the existence of various commercial and economic cooperation opportunities between the two countries.
          

Sudan and Ethiopia Discuss Ways to Strengthen Cooperation

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[SNA] Khartoum -The Prime Minister, Dr. Abdalla Hamdok, received in his office Wednesday the Ethiopian Minister of Finance, Ahmed Shaidi, and discussed ways to strengthen the cooperation between the two countries in all domains, especially in the economic and development fields.
          

Stuck on US terror list, Sudan turns to wealthy Gulf for aid

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CAIRO (AP) — Sudan's new prime minister has repeatedly urged the West to end his country's international pariah status. He says it's the only way to save the nation's fragile democratic transition from a plunging economy.

In September, Prime Minister Abdallah Hamdok said he was expecting a "big breakthrough" that would lead to removing Sudan from the U.S. list of state sponsors of terrorism and unlocking desperately needed foreign aid.

But so far, nothing has changed — except that Hamdok is now turning to two wealthy Gulf Arab monarchies, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, to secure the funds to keep his government afloat. Both countries are known for bankrolling military rulers in Egypt, Libya and, previously, Sudan.

The U.S. named Sudan a state sponsor of terrorism in 1993, and the designation stuck throughout President Omar al-Bashir's rule. The U.S. began a formal process to de-list Sudan in January 2017, but this was put on hold when Sudan's mass protests erupted last year. The uprising toppled al-Bashir and eventually forced the military into a power-sharing agreement with civilians.

Sudanese officials, speaking on condition of anonymity to talk to reporters, are warning the slow response and "empty promises" from Western governments could weaken Sudan's new civilian leaders, only three months after they were appointed.

"The West has not taken any concrete steps to help the Sudanese," said one official, a government minister. "What we see now are words but no actions. They are demanding things that might take years to address."

The officials said American and European officials have set conditions that include reaching a peace agreement with the country's rebel groups, as well as addressing the role of Sudan's security forces in the transition.

The...


          

Egypt's president lavishly praises Trump on social media

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CAIRO (AP) — Egypt's president lavished praise on President Donald Trump via social media, calling him a "man with unique power to confront crises."

Abdel-Fatah el-Sissi's comments were the latest public example of the two leaders' closeness.

El-Sissi thanked Trump for his "generous concern" for helping revive Egypt's deadlocked dispute with Ethiopia.

The two countries are at odds over Ethiopia's construction of a massive upstream Nile dam, which Egypt claims threatens its water supply.

The U.S. is to host talks on Wednesday between Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan to discuss the dam, Cairo announced last week.

El-Sissi is a former army general who came to power in 2013. Since then, he's carried out a widespread crackdown on dissent, silencing critics and jailing thousands.

Trump has avoided censuring el-Sissi for his repression, instead admiring his efforts to combat terrorism.

Trump has drawn criticism for his relationships with autocratic leaders such as North Korea's Kim Jong Un and Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman.

The most recent round of talks between the three Nile nations collapsed last month.

Pro-government media in Egypt have cast the dam as a national security threat that could warrant military action.

The White House said in October that it supports talks to reach a sustainable agreement while "respecting each other's Nile water equities."


          

How Africans Enlarge Their Penises – You Too Can

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How Africans Enlarge Their Penises - You Too Can Some tribes in Southern Sudan and many parts of East Africa have longer than normal penises. They achieve this fit through the usage of a herb locally known as 'Entengo' and exercising the penis. In fact w...
          

“Peace in Sudan means peace in South Sudan”, says National Speaker

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UNESCO calls on South Sudan government to protect Journalist

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Israeli occupation gunboats open fire at Palestinian fishing boats off Gaza’s Sudaniya seashore

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Πιλότος της Sudan Air ευχαρίστησε τον Αρχάγγελο Μιχαήλ Μανταμάδου

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Το απίστευτο περιστατικό που συνέβη στο Σουδάν περιγράφεται αναλυτικά στο βιβλίο του πρωτοπρεσβυτέρου Ευστρατίου Δήσσου «Το ιστορικό και τα θαύματα του Ταξιάρχη Μανταμάδου». Ήταν ένα ανοιξιάτικο πρωινό στή μακρινή χώρα κάτω, στο Σουδάν. Στό αεροδρόμιο της πρωτεύουσας παρατηρείτο μια ασυνήθιστη κίνηση. Εκτός των κανονικών δρομολογίων, ανέμελα νιάτα, μαθητές, με τους εκδρομικούς σάκους των, είχαν γεμίσει […]

Το άρθρο Πιλότος της Sudan Air ευχαρίστησε τον Αρχάγγελο Μιχαήλ Μανταμάδου εμφανίστηκε πρώτα στο Askitikon.


          

First juvenile reformatory centre inaugurated in Juba

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Officials from both the government and the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) on Wednesday inaugurated the first Juvenile Reformatory Centre (JRC) in Juba.
          

Bieh State lawmakers impeach speaker

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Lawmakers in South Sudan’s Bieh State assembly on Wednesday impeached the speaker over alleged absenteeism and misconduct.
          

Kiir, Machar arrive in Entebbe for tripartite talks

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South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir and opposition leader Riek Machar have arrived on separate flights this morning in Entebbe, Uganda.
          

Sudan arrests 17 South Sudanese officials in border town

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Authorities in Northern Upper Nile State said a number of South Sudanese employees have been arrested by Sudanese security agents since late October.
          

Kiir blames finance ministry for failure to pay MPs, civil servants

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South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir has blamed the finance ministry for the delay in payments of outstanding emoluments for MPs, constitutional post holders and civil servants.
          

South Sudan rivals urged to compromise

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A South Sudanese civil society activist said rival leaders should strike a compromise if a lasting peace process was to be achieved.
          

UN urges South Sudan warring parties to fulfill peace deal

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The U.N. Security Council is calling on South Sudan's warring parties to publicly reaffirm their commitment to fully implement a peace deal signed over a year ago that calls for a coalition government to be formed on Nov. 12
          

South Sudan rival leaders meet in Uganda for peace talks

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KAMPALA, Uganda (AP) — South Sudan President Salva Kiir and opposition leader Riek Machar have gone into a meeting in Uganda Thursday to try to salvage the peace deal designed to prevent the country from sliding back into civil war. The rival leaders have said they are not ready to form a coalition government on […]
          

Türkiye dünyanın en mutlu ülkeleri listesinde geriledi

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Birleşmiş Milletler tarafından hazırlanan raporda Türkiye'nin 'mutluluk' klasmanında 5 sıra gerilediği belirlendi. Dünyanın en mutlu ülkesi Finlandiya olarak açıklanırken, en mutsuz ülke ise genç ülkelerden olan Güney Sudan oldu.
          

v45: Avantgardet, Michael Kiwanuka, ALMA ft Tove Lo, Linda Pira

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Fyra år - fyra album. Avantgardet ångar vidare både live och i studion. "Mellan miljonprogram och Thailand" tar vid där "Alla känner apan slutade". Ett nytt kapitel från Sverige och verkligheten.

Michael Kiwanuka kommer till Stockholm för en spelning på Göta Lejon den 30 november och i fredags släpptes hans album "Kiwanuka", uppföljaren till 2016's "Home Again".

ALMA och Tove Lo följs nu åt! I augusti gästade ALMA Tove Los singel "Bas As The Boys" och nu gentjänstas detta när Tove Lo gästar ALMAS nya singel "Worst Behavior". I mars följer hon även med på Tove Los Nordamerikaturné "Sunshine Kitty Tour"!

Dessutom: Lupe Fiasco, Say Sue Me, Greentea Peng, Orla Gartland, Tame Impala, Sammi Lanzetta, Linda Pira

Lyssna gärna på hela rotationen här:
https://open.spotify.com/user/k103/playlist/6XUaCdWD0S6yHgZXr8NXpM?si=iv

Veckans playlist

ALBUMSPÅR

LÅTAR/SINGLAR

v 45 – Lupe Fiasco – Hey Lupe
v 45 – Say Sue Me – Good People
v 45 – Avantgardet – Cul de Sac
v 45 – Greentea Peng – Sane
v 45 – Linda Pira – Show för publik
v 45 – Michael Kiwanuka – Rolling
v 45 – Orla Gartland – Figure It Out
v 45 – Tame Impala – It Might Be Time
v 45 – ALMA ft Tove Lo – Worst Behavior
v 45 – Sammi Lanzetta – House Plants
v 44 – Little Dragon – Tongue Kissing
v 44 – King Princess – If You Think It's Love
v 44 – Allen Stone – Give You Blue
v 44 – I Am Karate – Original
v 44 – Banoffee ft Empress Of – Tennis Fan
v 44 – Grace Potter ft Lucius – Desire
v 44 - ALIENEMOJI – Maybach (Party for One)
v 44 – BENNETT – PEDIGREE
v 44 – Smino – Trina
v 43 – Cub Sport ft Darren Hayes – I Never Cried So Much In My Whole Life
v 43 – Deportees – Bright Eyes
v 43 – Det Brinner – Bara öppna ögon kan se
v 43 – Foals – Like Lightning
v 43 – Lamix ft Mwuana – Piruett
v 43 – Mayer Hawthrone – Over
v 43 – Sea Lion – tear the moon
v 43 – Sorry Girls – H.O.N.E.S.T.Y.
v 43 – Sudan Archives ft D-eight– Glorious
v 43 – Virginia and The Flood – For Dixie
v 42 – Näääk ft Jireel – Dela Min Tid
v 42 – Wynne ft JID – Ego Check
v 42 – Gaidaa – I Like Trouble
v 42 – Donika Nimani – Everyday
v 42 – Telian Akai – Dance
v 42 – Winona Oak – Let Me Know
v 42 – Sunset Sons – Heroes
v 42 – Son Little – hey rose
v 42 – Starcrawler – Home Alone
v 42 – Nilüfer Yanya – H34T RISES
v 41 - Joel Alme - Fri som du
v 41 - Foxhedge - Coast to Coast
v 41 - Tei Shi ft Blood Orange - Even If It Hurts
v 41 - King Nun - Bug
v 41 - Cherrie - Mazza
v 41 - Pale Honey - Set Me Free
v 41 - Danny Brown - Combat
v 41 - Llojd ft Johannes Räihä - Underbar och ghostad av alla
v 41 - Parham - Solstrålar
v 40 – Lucky Daye – Buying Time
v 40 – Ryan Hemsworth ft WEDNESDAY CAMPANELLA – Tiny Tea Room

UT FRÅN LISTAN

v 41 - barrie - Drag
v 40 – Sampa the Great ft Whosane – Any Day
v 40 – Linda Pira ft Masse – Gang Gang
v 40 – Veronica Maggio – Där hjärtat satt förut
v 40 – LITTLE INDIA – Diamonds
v 40 – Martha Hill – Pick Me Up
v 40 – Fallulah ft FVN – Oh Ay Oh
v 40 – Bror Gunnar Jansson – Will You Help Me When I'm Old?
v 39 – beabadobee – I Wish I was Stephen Malkmus
v 39 – Lime Cordiale – Robbery


          

In Sudan, Demands for Justice and Accountability Remain Unmet

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In Sudan, Demands for Justice and Accountability Remain Unmet Kurt Stand Sat, 11/02/2019 - 14:10
          

South Sudan ‘Barreling Toward Crisis’: Group

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‘4,000 Sudanese Militiamen Slain in Saudi-Led War Against Yemen’

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Latest World News, World News, Current Affairs, Daily Current Affairs

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Latest World News, World News, Current Affairs, Daily Current Affairs


Tweets For Today

Posted: 06 Nov 2019 10:32 PM PST











Picture Of The Day

Posted: 06 Nov 2019 10:24 PM PST

A B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber, assigned to the 509th Bomb Wing, Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri, sits on the flight line, Oct 24, 2019. Consistent training and exercising validates the B-2Õs ability to respond to challenges all over the globe. (Sr. Airman Thomas Barley/Air Force)

WNU Editor: The above picture is from this photo-gallery .... Best photos of the week: Nov. 4, 2019 (Defense News).

Majority Of U.S. Voters Say President Trump Will Be Re-Elected In 2020 Despite Impeachment Process

Posted: 06 Nov 2019 10:16 PM PST

U.S. President Donald Trump sits for an exclusive interview with Reuters journalists in the Oval Office at the White House in Washington, U.S. December 11, 2018. REUTERS/Jonathan Ernst

Daily Mail: Comfortable majority of voters say Trump WILL be re-elected in 2020 despite impeachment process – including one-third of Democrats

* A new poll found that 56 percent of registered voters believe President Trump will win again in 2020
* That includes 85 percent of Republicans, 51 percent of independents and 35 percent of Democrats, according to the Politico/Morning Consult survey
* Pollsters found that voters believed that Trump's voters were twice as likely than Hillary Clinton's to be 'very motivated' to go vote
* Another poll found that the percentage of voters who believe Trump should win re-election hasn't significantly changed since the impeachment inquiry opened

A majority of registered voters believe President Trump will win again in 2020.

A new Politico/Morning Consult poll found that 56 percent of all voters said Trump will be re-elected next year. The president obviously has an edge with Republicans, with 85 percent saying a Trump 2.0 is happening.

But a majority of independents - 51 percent - agreed. Even a third of Democrats, 35 percent, said they believed there would be four more years of President Trump.

Read more ....

WNU Editor: He will be difficult to defeat. President Trump has the advantage of the incumbency and the bully-pulpit. The economy is also doing well, and his base overwhelmingly supports him. The Democrat candidates for President are also not inspiring, and I have trouble seeing them being able to attract independent voters. But the election is still far away. A lot can happen in 12 months.

Should CIA Director Gina Haspel Protect The Ukraine Whistleblower From President Trump?

Posted: 06 Nov 2019 10:10 PM PST

CIA Director Gina Haspel is sworn by U.S. Vice President Mike Pence as President Donald Trump looks on and Secretary of State Mike Pompeo holds the bible during ceremonies at the headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency in Langley, Virginia, U.S. May 21, 2018. REUTERS/Kevin Lamarque © Reuters

NBC: Intel officials want CIA Director Gina Haspel to protect Ukraine whistleblower from Trump

As Trump allies denounce the whistleblower, pressure is building on CIA Director Gina Haspel to take a stand, say current and ex intelligence officials.

WASHINGTON — As President Donald Trump and his allies continue to denounce the CIA whistleblower whose complaint led to an impeachment investigation, pressure is building on the spy agency's director, Gina Haspel, to take a stand on the matter, current and former intelligence officials tell NBC News.

"It will be incumbent on her to protect the whistleblower — and by extension, the organization — moving forward," Marc Polymeropoulos, a recently retired CIA officer who oversaw operations in Europe and Russia, said in an interview. "This is a seminal moment for her leadership, and I'm confident she will do the right thing."

So far, Haspel has been publicly silent as Trump has railed about the whistleblower, a CIA analyst, on Twitter. So has the director of national intelligence, Joseph Maguire.

Read more ....

WNU Editor: There is a problem with this "CIA analyst". He was removed from the White House for lying and leaking. He is implicated in filing a complaint against President Trump and Ukraine that has led to this impeachment inquiry, even though his complaint is at odds with the transcript that was released. He is a well known Democrat activist who is closely affiliated with former Obama intelligence officials whose opposition to President Trump is well known. Bottom line. This is a person who has used his CIA position to pursue a political agenda against the President and his policies. In this context, this is someone that I am sure CIA Director Gina Haspel does not want to step in and defend.

Democrats' 'Star Impeachment Witness' Admits He Was Not On The Trump-Ukraine Call, And That His Sole Source Of Information Was From The NY Times

Posted: 06 Nov 2019 09:17 PM PST


Zero Hedge: Democrats' 'Star Witness' Admits He Wasn't On Trump-Ukraine Call, Sole Source Was NY Times

House Democrats have released the latest in the series of heavily-redacted transcripts of the secret hearings they had undertaken in recent weeks - that of Bill Taylor - the top US diplomat in Ukraine - ahead of his public testimony next week.

As The Hill notes, Taylor is viewed as a key witness who previously testified in meticulous detail about what he considered an effort by Trump and his allies to pressure Ukraine into opening investigations that would benefit Trump politically.

In leaked copies of his 15-page opening statement, Taylor voiced concerns that the Trump administration had withheld nearly $400 million in aid as leverage to get Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky to open investigations into interference in the 2016 election and former Vice President Joe Biden, one of his leading 2020 political rivals.

Read more ....

WNU Editor: When you listen to the main stream media they are saying that Ambassador Bill Taylor is a critical witness to President Trump's demand for a quid-pro-quo from the Ukraine government on military aid and an investigation on the Bidens .... Why William Taylor's testimony is central to the impeachment inquiry (PBS). But when you read his transcript .... READ: Testimony Of William Taylor, Acting U.S. Envoy To Ukraine (NPR), the story is very different where he admits that his source of information comes SOLELY from the New York Times?!?!?! You gotta be kidding me. His sole source of information that he is basing his testimony on is from the New York Times?!?!?! It is not surprising that the main stream media is ignoring this critical admission. Kudos to the above post from Zero Hedge and The Federalist .... Testimony Transcript Shows William Taylor Never Talked To Trump, Wasn't Even On July 25 Phone Call (The Federalist) for their summary and analysis on Bill Taylor's testimony. As for the Democrats hoping that he will be their "star witness" next week, my advice to them is that they find a better witness.

Saudi Arabia Recruited Twitter Workers To Spy On Critics Of Saudi Regime

Posted: 06 Nov 2019 08:47 PM PST



CNBC: Justice Department charges two former Twitter employees with spying for Saudi Arabia

* The Department of Justice on Wednesday charged two former Twitter employees for spying on users on behalf of Saudi Arabia.
* The charges allege that Ali Alzabarah and Ahmad Abouammo used their employee credentials to access information about specific Twitter users, including their email addresses, birth dates, phone numbers and internet protocol addresses.

The Department of Justice on Wednesday charged two former Twitter employees for spying on users on behalf of Saudi Arabia.

The charges allege that Ali Alzabarah and Ahmad Abouammo used their employee credentials to access information about specific Twitter users, including their email addresses, birth dates, phone numbers and internet protocol addresses. A third individual, Ahmed Almutairi, was also charged for acting as an intermediary between the Twitter employees and the Saudi government, the Justice Department said.

Read more ....

More News On Saudi Arabia Recruiting Twitter Workers To Spy On Critics Of Saudi Regime

US: Saudis recruited Twitter workers to spy on users -- AP
Two former Twitter employees accused of spying for Saudi Arabia -- Euronews/Reuters
Former Twitter employees charged with spying for Saudi Arabia -- The Hill
Saudis recruited Twitter workers to spy on critics of Saudi regime, U.S. charges -- NBC
Twitter employees recruited by Saudi Arabia to spy on kingdom's critics, US prosecutors say -- The Independent
Former Twitter employees charged with spying for Saudi Arabia by digging into the accounts of kingdom critics -- The Washington Post
Three charged in US with spying on Twitter users for Saudi Arabia -- Twitter

Commentaries, Analysis, And Editorials -- November 6, 2019

Posted: 06 Nov 2019 04:00 PM PST

Jesse Barajas searches for the remains of his brother José, who was was dragged from his ranch on 8 April 2019 and has not been seen since, last month near the town of Tecate. Photograph: Emilio Espejel/The Guardian

Tom Phillips, The Guardian: 'The disappeared': searching for 40,000 missing victims of Mexico's drug wars

José Barajas, who was snatched from his home, joins the ever-swelling ranks of thousands of desaparecidos, victims of the drug conflict that shows no sign of easing

As he set off into the wilderness under a punishing midday sun, Jesse Barajas clutched an orange-handled machete and the dream of finding his little brother, José.

"He's not alive, no. They don't leave people alive," the 62-year-old said as he slalomed through the parched scrubland of tumbleweed and cacti where they had played as kids. "Once they take someone they don't let you live."

Read more ....

Commentaries, Analysis, And Editorials -- November 6, 2019

Deadly ambush shows Mexico lost control of area -- Peter Orsi and Maria Verza, AP

The epic struggle behind Iraq's protests -- CSM Editorial

A Month of Anti-government Protests in Iraq -- Alan Taylor, The Atlantic

As US dithers over human rights, China opens its arms to Prabowo Subianto, the Indonesian defence minister with a chequered past - Amy Chew, SCMP

From Singapore to Sweden, China's overbearing campaign for influence is forcing countries to resist and recalibrate relations with Beijing -- Drew Thompson, SCMP

New Silk Road money is paving the Old Silk Roads -- Alexander Kruglov, Asia Times

Why India pulled out of the RCEP free trade deal -- Rahul Mishra, DW

Why is India's pollution much worse than China's? -- BBC

One year to go for Tanzania's President Magufuli and the reviews are mixed -- Cristina Krippahl, DW

Study: Russia's web-censoring tool sets pace for imitators -- Tami Abdollah, AP

UK election campaign: Who wants what on EU issues? -- Rob Mudge, DW

Explainer: Chile's constitutional conundrum - To change or not to change? -- Natalia A. Ramos Miranda, Reuters

Revisiting the End of the Cold War -- John Lewis Gaddis & Elmira Bayrasli, Project Syndicate

Why Are So Many Countries Witnessing Mass Protests? -- The Economist

World News Briefs -- November 6, 2019

Posted: 06 Nov 2019 03:36 PM PST

An Iranian flag flutters in front of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) headquarters in Vienna, Austria September 9, 2019. REUTERS/Leonhard Foeger/File Photo

Reuters: Iran fuels centrifuges, resumes uranium enrichment at Fordow

DUBAI (Reuters) - Iran resumed uranium enrichment at its underground Fordow nuclear facility, the country's Atomic Energy Organisation (AEOI) said on Thursday, further stepping away from its 2015 nuclear deal with major powers.

The agreement bans enrichment and nuclear material from Fordow. But with feedstock gas entering its centrifuges, the facility, built inside a mountain, will move from the permitted status of research plant to being an active nuclear site.

"After all successful preparations ... injection of uranium gas to centrifuges started on Thursday at Fordow ... all the process has been supervised by the inspectors of the U.N. nuclear watchdog," the AEOI said in a statement, Iranian media reported

Read more ....

MIDDLE EAST

Turkey's Erdogan speaks with Trump, to visit Washington next week.

Houthis fire missiles at Yemen's Mokha port, military coalition says.

Iraqi security forces break up protests in Battle of the Bridges.

Civilian deaths as Idlib hospital struck by Russian air raids.

Turkey says Kurdish fighters still remain in safe zone near Syrian border.

Iran begins process of fuelling centrifuges at Fordow.

Riyadh has 'open channel' with Yemen rebels: Saudi official. Riyadh in talks with Yemen rebels, Saudi official says.

Lebanon protesters seek to shut down key state institutions.

World Bank urges Lebanon to form govt, warns of recession.

Jordan police arrest man after stabbing attack at popular tourist site.

ASIA

China urges re-elected Canadian government to free Huawei executive Meng Wanzhou.

Over a dozen killed in attack in Thailand's Yala province. 15 defense volunteers killed in Thailand attack. 15 killed in suspected rebel attacks in Thailand's south.

Tajikistan: 17 killed in border outpost attack. ISIL blamed for deadly attack on Tajik border outpost.

Two suspected suicide bombers from Egypt killed in Philippines.

Hong Kong protesters don Guy Fawkes masks to mark month since mask ban. Water cannons deployed in Tsim Sha Tsui as Hong Kong protesters wearing 'V for Vendetta' masks test new 'flash mob' tactic of assembling at short notice.

Pro-Beijing lawmaker Junius Ho stabbed in Hong Kong.

Facebook video shows PNG police kicking, hitting and stomping on group of men.

Cambodian opposition leader Sam Rainsy announces Saturday return.

South Korea promotes DMZ 'peace zone' with new video.

AFRICA

At least 37 killed in attack on Canadian miner Semafo convoy in Burkina Faso.

Water crisis builds in Egypt as dam talks falter, temperatures rise.

France says its troops killed a leading jihadist in the Sahel.

10 civilians killed in militia attack in eastern DRCongo.

Sudan rebels insist new parliament be formed only after peace deal.

UN calls for action as Somalia floods affect 200,0000 children.

US Nile talks 'not a negotiation', says Ethiopia.

Two killed in strike on Libya police station: ministry.

Libya migrant attack: UN investigators suspect foreign jet bombed centre.

Mozambique detains elite police chief over election observer's murder.

EUROPE

Mike Pompeo carries divisive US messages to Germany.

Sweden charges man with spying on Iranian exiles.

Johnson tries to shake off rocky start as UK election begins.

PM's election campaign launch marred by gaffe, resignation and doctored video.

Spain's far-right Vox surges in wake of Catalan independence protests.

Local German conservatives cause uproar with call for talks with far right.

Putin: New weapons will offer Russia reliable protection.

EU urges faster Greece vetting of migrants as arrivals soar.

Hungarian mayor resigns after yacht orgy video.

Netherlands: '4,000 schools shut' in teacher strike.

Italy to become first country to make studying climate change compulsory in schools.

AMERICAS

Exclusive: Brazil likely to vote with U.S. against Cuba at U.N. over embargo.

US Diplomat had 'clear understanding' of Ukraine quid pro quo.

McConnell says Senate would acquit Trump if trial held today.

Democrats win control of Virginia Legislature. Democrat declares upset victory in Kentucky governor race.

Heavily armed hitman of rival El Chapo cartel is arrested over Mormon massacre after a stand-off at the US border where he held two HOSTAGES as heartbreaking photos show devastated relatives visiting the scene of the massacre.

Mexico ambush: Boy, 13, walked 23km for help after gun attack.

United States sanctions 5 Venezuelan officials.

Chile: president promotes minimum wage hike to quell unrest.

Chile's Pinera resists call to resign over protests.

Chilean protest footage captures police officers on fire after molotov cocktail explosion.

Thousands of Bolivians march over disputed election.

TERRORISM/THE LONG WAR

Pakistan failed to stop terror groups from recruiting & raising funds, US report сlaims.

German man fighting for Kurds killed in Syria.

Turkey captured al-Baghdadi's wife and didn't make fuss like US – Erdogan.

ECONOMY/FINANCE/BUSINESS

Wall St. ends near flat; healthcare shares gain but trade deal delay weighs.

Europeans look to China as global partner, shun Trump's US.

Xi Jinping's Brazil trip 'may be too soon' for China to sign partial US trade war deal.

Macron in China: Xi hails $15 billion trade contracts as 'strong signal of free trade'.

Michael Jackson's iconic moonwalk socks are tipped to sell for over $1MILLION at auction... more than a decade on from his passing.

Israel Expects To Be Engaged In A Major War Very Soon

Posted: 06 Nov 2019 03:01 PM PST

Ali Hashisho / Reuters

Michael Oren, The Atlantic: The Coming Middle East Conflagration

Israel is bracing itself for war with Iranian proxies, as Tehran escalates its provocations. But what will the United States do if conflict comes?

The senior ministers of the Israeli government met twice last week to discuss the possibility of open war with Iran. They were mindful of the Iranian plan for a drone attack from Syria in August, aborted at the last minute by an Israeli air strike, as well as Iran's need to deflect attention from the mass protests against Hezbollah's rule in Lebanon. The ministers also reviewed the recent attack by Iranian drones and cruise missiles on two Saudi oil installations, reportedly concluding that a similar assault could be mounted against Israel from Iraq.

The Israel Defense Forces, meanwhile, announced the adoption of an emergency plan, code-named Momentum, to significantly expand Israel's missile defense capacity, its ability to gather intelligence on embedded enemy targets, and its soldiers' preparation for urban warfare. Israeli troops, especially in the north, have been placed on war footing. Israel is girding for the worst and acting on the assumption that fighting could break out at any time.

Read more ....

WNU Editor: The Syrian conflict, unrest in Iraq, and the Yemen war is where the focus in the Middle East is right now. Another Hezbollah - Israel and/or Hamas - Israel war is not on people's radar.

Media Upset That Trump's Son Tweets Name Of Alleged Whistleblower Even Though His Name Was Revealed Last Week

Posted: 06 Nov 2019 01:00 PM PST


AFP: Impeachment: Trump's son tweets name of alleged whistleblower

Washington (AFP) - President Donald Trump's son published on Wednesday the name of the alleged anonymous whistleblower whose complaint fired the impeachment inquiry against Trump, breaking strict conventions for protecting officials who reveal wrongdoing in government.

Amid calls by the president himself to expose the whistleblower, Donald Trump Jr. tweeted the name of a CIA analyst which has circulated online for weeks, and linked to a Breitbart news article implying the person was pro-Democrat and anti-Trump.

AFP could not independently verify the whistleblower's identity and is not publishing the name.

Read more ....

WNU Editor: This is actually old news. The identity of the "whistle-blower" was revealed last week .... The Identity Of The Anonymous 'Whistleblower' Who Triggered Impeachment Proceedings Against President Trump Is Suspected To Be A Well Known Democrat Activist (October 31, 2019). A picture of the "whistle-blower" is below.

Special Operations Air Force Member Goes Missing During Training Jump Over Gulf Of Mexico

Posted: 06 Nov 2019 12:40 PM PST

The airman was a part of the 24th Special Operations Wing at Hurlburt Field in in Okaloosa County, Florida. He disappeared four miles south of the field over the Gulf of Mexico

Daily Mail: Desperate search launched for airman who fell out of Special Operations military plane 1,500 feet over the Gulf of Mexico and was last seen treading water after deploying his parachute

* A search is underway for a staff sergeant in training who disappeared into the Gulf of Mexico Tuesday afternoon during a training exercise
* The unidentified Air Force airman was from the 24th Special Operations Wing at Hurlburt Field in Okaloosa County, Florida
* He exited a C-130 four engine aircraft around 1.45pm from a height of 1,500 feet
* He deployed his parachute and was last seen treading water in the Gulf, approximately four miles south of Hurlburt Field
* As the aircraft turned to retrieve the man, crewmen lost sight of him
* Several vessels, three Air Force aircraft were deployed in the search
* The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and Coast Guard are also on the scene

A desperate search is underway for a missing airman who disappeared into the Gulf of Mexico after suffering a parachute-jump mishap while exiting a Special Operations military plane.

The unidentified Air Force airman from the 24th Special Operations Wing at Hurlburt Field was exiting a C-130 four-engine aircraft over the Gulf of Mexico during a training exercise around 1.45pm Tuesday when he suddenly vanished into the water below.

'The fall happened during a parachute-jump training exercise out of Hurlburt Field,' a report from the Air Force Times said.

The Coast Guard said the airman was a staff sergeant in training and fell out of the aircraft at 1,500 feet, according to WEAR.

Read more ....

More News On A Special Operations Air Force Member Going Missing During A Training Jump Over The Gulf Of Mexico

Special tactics airman missing in Gulf of Mexico; search underway -- Air Force Times
Airman who fell from plane above Gulf of Mexico still missing -- NBC
Mobile area Coast Guard continue search for airman who fell from plane into Gulf of Mexico -- Al.com
Air Force member goes missing during training jump over Gulf of Mexico -- CBS
Airman fell from C-130 military aircraft while training over the Gulf of Mexico -- Defence-Blog
Coast Guard, Air Force, local agencies searching for a airman in the water near Destin -- FOX 10

ISIS Launched A Failed Attack On A Tajikistan Border Outpost With Uzbekistan

Posted: 06 Nov 2019 11:00 AM PST


DW: Tajikistan: 17 killed in border outpost attack

Twenty masked gunmen launched a failed attack on a Tajik outpost on the border with Uzbekistan. The rare attack was quashed when border forces launched a counter operation and killed most of the raiders.

At least 17 people were killed in an overnight raid by armed men on an outpost on the border between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, Tajik authorities said on Wednesday.

"An armed group of 20 unknown masked individuals attacked a border outpost … using firearms," said Tajikistan's national security committee, according to Russian state-run news agency TASS.

Tajikistan's border forces said the assailants were members of the "Islamic State" (IS) militant group in Afghanistan.

At least five of the gunmen were detained and later provided critical intelligence during interrogations, authorities said.

Read more ....

WNU Editor: I agree with this analysis .... Reported Attack In Tajikistan Could Have Broad Implications For Central Asia (RFE).

More News On Today's ISIS Attack On A Tajikistan Border Outpost With Uzbekistan

Many dead in Tajikistan 'firefight with IS' -- BBC
Fifteen IS jihadists killed in Tajikistan border attack -- AFP
Tajikistan: 17 killed in attack on border checkpoint -- Eurasianet
ISIL blamed for deadly attack on Tajik border outpost -- Al Jazeera

World Leaders Warn Iran To Stick To Nuclear Deal

Posted: 06 Nov 2019 10:24 AM PST



ABC News Online: World leaders warn Iran to stick to nuclear deal, as it begins injecting uranium gas into centrifuges

World leaders have called on Iran to fulfil the terms of its 2015 nuclear deal, after it begins injecting uranium gas into centrifuges at its underground Fordow nuclear facility.

Iran has begun to further distance itself from a 2015 nuclear deal between Tehran and world powers that curbed its atomic work, local media reported on Wednesday (local time).

The deal bans nuclear material from Fordow and, with the injection of uranium gas into its centrifuges, the facility will move from its permitted status of research plant to become an active nuclear site.

Read more ....

WNU Editor: Aside from their rhetoric that everything is still OK .... Long way before JCPOA collapses, says Rouhani's chief of staff (MEHR News Agency), the Iranians are becoming more and more nervous .... Exclusive: Iran briefly held IAEA inspector, seized travel documents - diplomats (Reuters).

          

Amr Muneer Dahab: The impressive journey of an engineer who juggles professional career and creative writing

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BY USMAN MAMA Regardless of the artistic form, artistic talents are usually born in the artist at an early age. Amr Muneer Dahab, a Sudanese born essayist, literary critic and poet, is no exception....
          

Sudanese poet and essayist Amr Muneer Dahab’s cry against the dominance of the novel as a writing genre

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BY LOU SIFA In a series of forty-five short essays that constitute his latest book with the English translation titled “Damn the Novel: When a Privileged Genre Prevails Over All Forms of Creative Writing,”...
          

UNDER SHROUD OF SECRECY US WEAPONS ARRIVE IN YEMEN DESPITE CONGRESSIONAL OUTRAGE

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SOURCE: KRDO
The awkward camera angle is meant to hide the fact that the owner of the phone is filming, but there is no mistaking the outlines of the heavy cargo being deposited on the dock in the Yemeni port of Aden last week.

The distinctive shape of the US-made Oshkosh armored vehicle stands out in the early morning darkness, a piece of military hardware that is currently at the heart of a standoff between some American lawmakers and President Donald Trump’s administration.

Aden is controlled by the Saudi-led coalition in Yemen, whose main partners are continuing to ship American-made weapons into the country despite bipartisan outrage in Congress over the way the US is backing Riyadh in this bloody and bitter conflict.

This footage showing the unloading of a variety of US-made arms — which was filmed illicitly at the offloading site, then obtained and verified by CNN — is itself contentious. Multiple witnesses told CNN that Yemeni authorities, backed by the Saudi-led coalition, have been arresting and questioning those they suspect of leaking it to the media.

Using whistleblower accounts and port documents CNN has identified the ship which offloaded the US weaponry in Aden last week as the Saudi-registered Bahri Hofuf. Looking at tracking data, the vessel’s last recorded location was in the Saudi port of Jeddah on September 17, before it sailed to Port Sudan, arriving the following day


          

Immigrant of the Week: Lual Mayen

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Immigrant of the week

 

One of our fantastic lawyers, Lily Axelrod, specializes in asylum cases and nominated today’s immigrant of the week. Lual Mayen was recently recognized in the Washington Post for his extraordinary journey from fleeing the war in Sudan to launching …


          

Tarçınlı Suyun Faydaları

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Bilgi Rehberi
Bilgi Rehberi - Bir Garip Bilgi Bloğu

Tarçınlı suyun faydaları arasında regl dönemlerini rahatlatma, vücudun iltihaplanmasını iyileştirme, güçlü bağışıklığı destekleme, titreme Parkinson rahatsızlığı ve over sendromuna iyi gelmesi yer alır. Güçlü ve fark edilir bir kokusu bulunan tarçın birçok alanda kullanılabildiği gibi suya ekleyerek de tarçınlı suyun faydalarından yararlanabilirsiniz. Kan şekerinin düşmesinde ve zayıflamaya yardımcı olması açısından birçok Türk kadını tarçınlı sudan …

Tarçınlı Suyun Faydaları
Mehmet Çelik


          

Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan agree to settle GERD dispute by Jan 2020

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Trump met top representatives from the three countries to help solving the issue<br/><br/>The post Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan agree to settle GERD dispute by Jan 2020 appeared first on Daily News Egypt.
          

*%*+27715451704 (*GOOD NEWS FOR YOU*) HOW TO JOIN ILLUMINATI SECRET SOCIETY 666, FOR MONEY, POWER, W

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World: Opening statement at the 70th session of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner’s Programme

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Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Mexico, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World

By Filippo Grandi, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
07 October 2019

Mr. Chairman,
Deputy Secretary-General,
Distinguished Delegates,
Ladies and Gentlemen,

The modern concept of refugee protection was born in the middle of the last century, as the world emerged from two devastating global conflicts and was preparing to enter the Cold War. Millions had been uprooted from their homes, as wars cast people adrift, empires disintegrated, borders were redrawn, and minorities and political opponents were persecuted and expelled. Ensuring the safety of those displaced, and resolving displacement, were among the earliest priorities of the United Nations.

Seven decades on, forced human displacement remains a global concern. The context is different, but the complexity remains immense. Today’s refugee crises are part of a growing flow of human mobility, driven by many overlapping elements.

Resource-based conflicts that transcend borders, shaped by a mosaic of local, regional and international interests; fueled by extremism, criminal networks and urban gangs.

Loss of hope, as global advances in prosperity, education and the fight against hunger and disease fail to reach those most in need.

Conflicts premised on ethnic and religious differences, stoked by others for political and financial gain.

Collapsing eco-systems and weather-related disasters that destroy homes and livelihoods, forcing millions further into poverty.

Damaging forms of nationalism, and hate speech that – often through cyberspace – have found a new legitimacy in public discourse.

Refugees emerge from these widening fault-lines – a warning of things going wrong. This is why tackling forced displacement calls again for a bigger, broader ambition than we have managed to muster in the recent past.

This was the vision that drove the development of the Global Compact on Refugees. Addressing refugee crises cannot be done in isolation from larger global challenges, and from effective migration policies. The two compacts – on refugees, and on safe, orderly and regular migration – were designed to complement each other, and for good reason.

Look at the Sahel – a situation of enormous complexity, where insecurity, poverty and loss of traditional livelihoods are fracturing and uprooting entire communities, across the region and beyond. Protecting refugees and the internally displaced is vital. But this must be accompanied by a deeper and wider scope of action that cuts across the political, security, migration and development spheres.

Two aspects of the Global Compact on Refugees stand out.

One is its comprehensive approach. It accelerates a long-awaited shift in responses – from a traditional humanitarian angle, as the Deputy Secretary-General said, to one that preserves the humanitarian imperative, but matches it with a broader set of tools more adapted to the dynamics of today’s refugee flows.

This means peacemaking and peacebuilding, development action and private sector investment. It means sustained, strategic support to address the root causes of refugee movements and mixed population flows. The Deputy Secretary-General has just highlighted how this dovetails with the work to bring about a UN system that can best catalyze progress collectively towards the Sustainable Development Goals. Synergies between the compact and UN reforms are therefore relevant and strong.

Also, the compact makes tangible the commitment to international solidarity that underpins the refugee protection regime, but has never been fully realised. You will hear more about this from our new Assistant High Commissioner for Protection, Gillian Triggs, whom I am happy to introduce to you today.

Securing the refugee compact – a practical, concrete tool – proved that beyond the damaging, unilateral approaches that sometimes surface, a commitment to addressing refugee flows through international solidarity still prevails. At UNHCR, we are fully committed to this effort, and we count on all of you – our closest partners – to do the same. It is possible! The Global Refugee Forum, to be convened in December in this building, will be the opportunity to showcase what has been achieved, and make fresh commitments to further progress.

Mr Chairman,

The last year has underscored why the compact is needed, and how it is starting to re-shape our collective response. Let me share my thoughts on seven related challenges.

First, while much of the discussion on forced displacement has focused on arrivals in the global North, the most profound consequences by far are in host countries in the global South. Preserving asylum there, and helping host communities, requires more substantial and sustained international support. More than four million Venezuelans, for example, have left the country, the majority taking refuge in 14 nations in Latin America and the Caribbean. Most of these states have shown commendable solidarity, despite immense pressures. Colombia’s recent decision to grant citizenship at birth to the children of Venezuelans in the country is an example, and the Quito Process is helping shape a regional approach.

Sustaining this solidarity is vital, including through support to the services, infrastructure and economy of impacted countries. I welcome the engagement of the Inter-American Development Bank, and the World Bank’s decision to extend support to Colombia – and potentially also Ecuador – through its Global Concessional Financing Facility. I urge them to accelerate their contributions. The forthcoming Solidarity Conference convened by the European Union, together with UNHCR and the International Organisation for Migration, will be an opportunity to take stock and commit more.

Second, responses to 'mixed flows' of refugees and migrants continue to generate very divisive debates. Widespread political rhetoric exploits the anxieties prevailing among those excluded from the benefits of globalization, and directs those fears towards refugees and migrants – themselves among the most disenfranchised people on the planet. Pitting exclusion against exclusion is not only cynical and immoral – it rarely offers practical solutions to either. And measures taken or invoked to reduce flows – pushbacks, externalization of asylum processing, policies of deterrence – all erode refugee protection without really addressing the root causes of mixed flows, or the challenges of integration.

These situations are enormously complex – we must recognise that. I saw this last week in Mexico, where impressive examples of refugee integration are coupled with increasing migratory pressures from the region but also from Africa. A range of actions is undoubtedly needed to address these “mixed” flows. Several are included in that region under the MIRPS, a regional framework for protection and solutions which we have promoted; and we will contribute to UN efforts to support initiatives such as a regional development plan for Mexico and northern Central America, currently being discussed. In this context, saving lives and safeguarding the dignity and rights of all those on the move must remain central, together with access to international protection for those with valid claims. There and elsewhere, legal migration pathways would help prevent the abuse of asylum systems as substitutes of migration channels.

We observe these challenges not only in northern Central America and at the southern border of the United States, but also in southern Africa, and south-east Asia. In Europe, public confidence in asylum and migration management has been diminished, and must be restored through fast and fair procedures, good migration management that avoids overloading asylum systems, and investments in integration for those with a right to stay. Cooperation between governments is needed – including on the return of those who do not qualify for international protection or other stay arrangements.

I welcome the recent decisions of four EU States to establish a temporary cooperation mechanism for disembarking those rescued in the Mediterranean, and hope that this will galvanise broader EU engagement and revitalize rescue at sea arrangements. But this must also be matched by a broader ambition – investments in addressing the root causes of refugee flows, and supporting the efforts of refugee-hosting and transit countries. UNHCR continues to evacuate the most vulnerable from Libya – efforts for which Niger and now Rwanda are providing life-saving channels. Hopefully, others will join. We work closely with the International Organisation for Migration in these efforts, as elsewhere. But these operations pose enormous dilemmas, and can only be sustained as part of a comprehensive, responsibility-sharing approach that has the preservation of life, and access to international protection as central imperatives. There, as in several other operations, UNHCR colleagues and our partners are working – let us not forget that – under extremely dangerous conditions.

Third, long-standing and recurring displacement crises continue to persist, in the absence of political solutions. And other major crises are now becoming protracted too. In this context, the compact’s emphasis on inclusion, resilience and development action – pending solutions – is critical. This year marked the fortieth anniversary of the start of the Afghan refugee crisis. Regrettably, peace efforts seem once again to have stalled. I welcome Afghanistan’s decision to apply the comprehensive refugee response model in support of its initiatives to solve displacement, but solutions remain compromised by drought, insecurity and governance failures. Just 15,000 refugees returned home last year. The hospitality displayed by Pakistan and Iran, and their work on refugee inclusion and self-reliance, as well as on legal migration and stay options, are ground-breaking, but must receive more international support while the Afghan crisis continues.

In Somalia, too, while the commitment of the government to reduce forced displacement is evident and commendable, conflict and drought are still inhibiting solutions and driving new displacement. In this context, the regional application of the comprehensive response model by IGAD helps strengthen asylum, access to rights, and refugee inclusion in health, education and national economies.

Governments in the East and Horn of Africa have been in the forefront of the application of the comprehensive refugee response model. Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya and Uganda, among others, have made enormous strides with the support of the World Bank’s expertise and financing, bilateral development support and private sector investments. These are already transforming the lives of many refugees, as well as refugee-hosting communities across the region, and proving the validity of the model enshrined in the compact. They are giving concrete meaning to the African Union’s decision to declare 2019 the year of refugees, displaced people and returnees in Africa.

Fourth, the issue of repatriation continues to be the subject of much attention. A question we are increasingly asked is – how to advance solutions, when security in countries of origin remains fragile, and there is no end of hostilities? Can people return to their home countries in the absence of political settlements?

The answer is that returns must be driven by people, not by politics. Across UNHCR’s operations, we have an ongoing dialogue with refugees on return, and on the complex factors that influence their decisions. We work with governments to help create the conditions paving the way for returns. These must be voluntary and sustainable.

Take the example of Syria. Some 200,000 Syrian refugees have returned since 2016, and over three quarters of the almost six million refugees in neighbouring countries say they hope to return one day. We must continue to be guided by their views and decisions, and provide support to those who choose to return to avoid exposing them to further hardship.

Our policy is not to stand back and wait. We work with the Government of Syria to help address barriers to return and support confidence-building measures; hoping of course that recent political advances are consolidated; and that further humanitarian crises – especially in Idlib – can be avoided through concerted action by all parties.

In the meantime, international support to asylum countries must be sustained. Their outstanding generosity, and continuous donor support have helped Syrian refugees contend with long years in exile, even in places like Lebanon where the ratio of refugees to nationals continues to be the highest in the world. The achievements are significant: last year, 1.3 million Syrian refugee children were attending school, and 110,000 work permits were issued in Jordan and Turkey. However, acute poverty and vulnerability are weighing on people’s lives, and on host communities, and inevitably influencing their decisions.

In Myanmar, too, the Government has recognised the right of refugees in Bangladesh to return, and has started an important dialogue with the refugees, to build confidence and enable informed decisions. UNHCR and UNDP are working on social cohesion projects in northern Rakhine State to help pave the way for eventual returns. These are important steps, but need to be accompanied by more visible changes on key issues of refugee concern – freedom of movement, solutions for the internally displaced, clear information on a pathway to citizenship.

A second bilateral initiative to commence repatriation in August did not result in any refugees coming forward. But it sent important messages: the door is open, and voluntariness was respected. My hope is that this can now pave the way for a more strategic approach, in which refugee voices and choices are central. UNHCR stands ready to advise and support. There, and in other places, for example with Burundian refugees in Tanzania, and Nigerian refugees in the Lake Chad region, we are available to facilitate dialogue and solutions through tripartite approaches which include UNHCR.

Fifth, and closely linked to my previous point, we need to seize opportunities to accelerate solutions. Conflicts moving towards peace are rare, but when there is a chance, we have to pursue it. In this respect, we are closely following events in Sudan and South Sudan. The political transition in Sudan and the new Government’s commitment to a peace process have important implications for hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees, and for the internally displaced. The renewed momentum in the South Sudan peace process is also encouraging. Spontaneous refugee returns to South Sudan have already surpassed 200,000, and IDP returns are also under way.

Over the last two years, UNHCR and IGAD have been promoting the inclusion of refugees and internally displaced people in the South Sudan peace process. I hope that these recent developments will pave the way to a definitive end of the cycle of violence and displacement that has blighted the lives of generations of Sudanese and South Sudanese people.

Resettlement is another solution – albeit for very few. While some countries are stepping up their programmes, the overall number of places has plummeted. I am very disappointed by this. Resettlement saves lives and offers stability to refugees who are most vulnerable and at risk. I propose that we use more deliberately our new three-year strategy to intensify resettlement efforts, and expand private sector and community involvement.

The sixth major challenge relates to our engagement with the internally displaced. At the end of 2018, over 41 million people were living in displacement in their own countries. Major IDP operations, in Iraq, Syria, Yemen, the Lake Chad Basin, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Ukraine, remain among our most politically and operationally complex – but all are among our priorities. I wish to flag in particular that together with our partners, we are responding with more resources to the Ethiopian government’s call for support to address recent large-scale internal displacement in the country.

In sum, we are trying to better align our efforts to advance solutions for refugees and IDPs, and to design our operations more effectively, in the context of inter-agency efforts. Our new policy on internal displacement reflects our firm and revitalized commitment. This places particular emphasis on protection leadership, and aligning our interventions with those of our partners.

Mr. Chairman,

A few days ago, at the start of the 74th session of the General Assembly in New York, we heard calls to accelerate our responses to the climate emergency, before it is too late. Greta Thunberg, speaking for the next generations, and António Guterres, speaking as the world’s conscience, were adamant in asking all of us to take action – now.

These calls concern us, too, as we gather here to discuss issues of forced displacement. I have just presented six key displacement-related challenges. The seventh intersects and underpins them all.

Climate-related causes are a growing driver of new internal displacement, surpassing those related to conflict and violence by more than 50%. Climate is often also a pervasive factor in cross-border displacement.

The term “climate refugee” is not based in international law, and does not reflect the more complicated ways in which climate interacts with human mobility. But the image it conveys – of people driven from their homes as an outcome of the climate emergency – has rightly captured public attention.

I am often asked how the UN refugee organization can help respond to this challenge. I wish to take this opportunity to share a few thoughts for your consideration.

For some years, UNHCR has worked to highlight relevant legal frameworks and the protection gaps resulting from cross-border displacement in the context of climate change. We will continue to help steer international discussions and the legal and normative debate in this area, including through engagement with the Platform on Disaster Displacement, and other multilateral fora.

Forced displacement across borders can stem from the interaction between climate change and disasters with conflict and violence – or it can arise from natural or man-made disasters alone. Either situation can trigger international protection needs.

In the first case, these would normally be met through recognition as a refugee under the 1951 Convention or regional refugee frameworks. In the second, temporary protection or stay arrangements, on which UNHCR has expertise, can provide flexible and speedy responses.

Even more specifically, where disaster-related displacement occurs, a strong operational response, guided by protection considerations, is often needed. Here too, UNHCR will continue to work in inter-agency contexts to support governments – building on our strong expertise in emergency responses. The Global Compact on Refugees by the way calls for preparedness measures and evidence-based forecasting, and the inclusion of refugees in disaster risk reduction strategies.

There are other considerations. Climate factors drive people out of their homes – but large-scale refugee movements – whether or not climate-induced – have themselves in turn an environmental impact, and refugees are frequently located in climate hotspots. I am determined to make these considerations more relevant to the way we prepare for and respond to refugee crises.

At UNHCR, we have worked for years to reduce the environmental impact of refugee crises through renewable energy options, reforestation activities, and access to clean fuels and technology for cooking. We have now launched a revitalized energy strategy and are improving our tools to address these challenges. Private sector partners such as the IKEA Foundation have been invaluable in helping us develop new approaches.

And finally like other organizations, we recognise that our own operational footprint has an environmental impact, and are taking action accordingly. We are working, for example, to increase energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

Mr. Chairman,

Work to respond to these challenges is made possible by the strong confidence that UNHCR continues to receive from donor partners. We expect funds available this year to reach an estimated 4.82 billion US dollars. The United States’ contribution has continued to be the most substantial, and has been decisive in many challenging situations, and for this I am very grateful. I wish to thank the European Commission and Germany for their particularly strong support; and Sweden, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Norway and the Netherlands for providing critical, substantive unearmarked funding; and of course all other donors as well.

The gap between requirements and available resources nonetheless continues to grow in absolute terms and will reach around 3.82 billion US dollars this year. Private sector income is projected to increase by 11% over last year’s figure, to 470 million US dollars. We continue to work to diversify our funding base, in the spirit of responsibility-sharing and to ensure a stable platform for our work. Most importantly, our partnership with development organizations is becoming much stronger, and is helping us find ways to target our resources in ways that leverage those bigger programmes.

I am aware that donor generosity must be matched by constant improvements in how we manage the organization. In late 2016, I initiated a reform process to ensure an agile and effective UNHCR, with country operations equipped to pursue context-driven strategies, innovate, and respond to local and regional dynamics, as part of UN Country Teams. This was the rationale for our regionalisation and decentralization process, which is giving greater authority and flexibility to country offices, helping us get closer to refugees, and front-loading support through Regional Bureaux located in their regions.

We are entering the last phase of structural changes, which will involve adjustments to Headquarters Divisions and other entities in line with the new rebalanced authorities.

Of course, transformation is not only about structures and accountabilities, and is not a one-time exercise – it is also about transforming our organisational culture, investing in the quality of work, improving and streamlining systems and processes, and creating space for innovation.

We are working on evidence-based planning, on how we describe impact, and on increasing efficiency, in line with our Grand Bargain commitments and as an active participant, as the Deputy Secretary-General noted, in broader UN reforms. I recently endorsed a Data Transformation Strategy, and the new UNHCR/World Bank Joint Data Centre will be inaugurated this week in Copenhagen by the Secretary-General – a milestone of humanitarian/development cooperation.

We also continue to embed a strong risk management culture across the organisation, and to strengthen systems and tools for preventing and responding to misconduct. This includes sexual exploitation and abuse, and sexual harassment, for which we have implemented a broad range of measures and to which I am personally committed, also as Champion for this issue in the Inter-Agency Standing Committee. There is no place in the organization for perpetrators, and we will keep survivors and victims at the center of our response.

Mr. Chairman,

In 2011, my predecessor, the Secretary-General, convened a ministerial meeting on the 60th anniversary of the 1951 Refugee Convention, and the 50th of the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness. It is fair to say that until then, the statelessness mandate had been a rather peripheral aspect of UNHCR’s work. Clearly, you didn’t see it that way. More than 60 states and regional entities came forward with pledges aimed at reducing statelessness, and that groundswell of political will and commitment became the catalyst for the #IBelong campaign, launched in 2014. Spurred on by the energy that had emerged, we decided to fix a time limit – ten years – to bring statelessness to an end.

Now, as we mark the halfway point, it’s time to take stock and renew the commitment that set us on the path towards that bold ambition. This is the aim of the High-Level Segment that will follow in a few moments, as part of this Executive Committee meeting.

When we talk about statelessness, we often find ourselves speaking of laws, documents and other technicalities. These are critical, and are where the hard work has to happen, but when we frame statelessness purely in legal terms, we lose sight of the all-encompassing blight it casts on people’s lives, pushing them to the margins of society, denying them basic rights and a sense of identity. This is an area in which – for relatively little investment – wide-reaching impact is within our reach.

Some of you, last year, were present at an EXCOM side event at which a young woman who had grown up stateless became the citizen of a country for the first time. It was a deeply emotional experience for everyone present – and that moment, more than any speech or list of pledges, captured what it means to finally belong, after years spent living on the margins. She and a number of formerly stateless people are present here today, and I encourage you to talk to them and understand what citizenship has meant to them. Their stories are what will inspire us as we move ahead.

There have been important achievements in the first half of the campaign – tackling gender discrimination in nationality laws, introducing laws to avoid childhood statelessness, and developing procedures to find solutions for people who would otherwise be stateless. Certain protracted situations were finally resolved. Fifteen states acceded to one or both of the Statelessness Conventions. Kyrgyzstan became the first State to formally announce that all known cases of statelessness on its territory had been resolved – an achievement that should inspire others. I look forward to honouring a Kyrgyz champion of this campaign, Azizbek Ashurov, at the Nansen Award ceremony this evening.

I also wish to acknowledge the work of UNICEF, UNFPA, the World Bank, and civil society and academic networks – and especially the Geneva-based ‘Friends’ of the campaign, who have been persistent in their advocacy and support. The regional preparatory meetings have been characterized by energy and commitment. I am pleased to share that we have received 171 pledges ahead of today’s event, which has also galvanised other initiatives that may become concrete pledges later.

At a time when we are asking a lot of you, this is particularly commendable. At UNHCR, we will also step up our efforts even more to achieve the ambitious collective goal of ending statelessness once and for all.

Mr Chairman,

The first Global Refugee Forum will be convened in this building in just over two months. It comes at the end of a turbulent decade, in which people and communities have been uprooted across all regions. Nobody foresaw, ten years ago, the convergence of trends and events that would lead to a doubling in the number of people forcibly displaced, and the prominence that refugee and migrant flows would assume in domestic and international politics. Addressing and resolving forced displacement has rightly emerged as an urgent priority intertwined with other 21st-century global challenges, including climate change.

The big question now is – what are we going to make of the next decade? Will it be one that sees us in retreat – turning our backs on the hard-learned lessons of the twentieth century – or one in which we will have the courage of joining forces in spite of our different perspectives and interests, embracing the challenges and opportunities of international cooperation to address the plight of exile? These are the fundamental questions that the Forum will have to tackle. I hope – of course – that it will respond by clearly showing the second way. I encourage all of you to ensure high-level representation from States, share positive experiences, and make significant and impactful commitments that will greatly improve the future of refugees and host communities.

I believe that in the Global Compact for Refugees, we have grounds for optimism. The momentum is there. We have a powerful tool that was born of a narrative of possibility. The Forum will be the occasion, I hope, to show that we do not shy away from the enormous responsibility placed on all of us – one that stems not only from the refugees and host communities looking to us for action, but also from the opportunity that we have to inspire new generations, and demonstrate, in so many practical, concrete ways, why international cooperation matters, and how it can be made to work.

Thank you.


          

World: Education Above All Foundation, World Bank Partner to Ensure Education for Two Million Out of School Children Around the World

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Source: World Bank, Education Above All
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Haiti, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Kenya, Lao People's Democratic Republic (the), Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Zambia

WASHINGTON DC, September 20, 2019 - This week, Education Above All Foundation (EAA) and the World Bank announced a ground-breaking partnership to enrol two million out of school children from more than 40 countries by 2025. During a meeting with World Bank President David Malpass, Her Highness Sheikha Moza bint Nasser, Founder and Chairperson of Education Above All Foundation, stressed the importance of this framework agreement.

The agreement commits up to $250 million in funding for developing countries striving to enable access to quality primary education for all of their still out-of-school children. Unlike traditional philanthropic efforts of organizations like EAA who usually fund local non-profits directly, this innovative funding model aims to take lessons learned in the field to scale, through direct support to participating countries with implementation, evaluation, and reporting - enabling accountability and systemic change at the national level.

Out of school children (OOSC) are among the hardest to reach in each country due to the many and often compounding barriers to education including extreme poverty, distance to school, and conflict. This new agreement calls on governments to utilise funds to prioritise out of school children by ensuring their access to quality primary education through results-based financing. The agreement highlights the importance of multi-stakeholder partnerships in supporting developing nations, in providing education for all, and meeting the UN Sustainable Development Goals, particularly SDG 4 (ensuring inclusive and quality education for all and promoting lifelong learning).

"The World Bank is committed to addressing the global learning crisis. The partnership with Education Above All is critically important in this effort. There are still too many out of school children around the globe. Together we will bring these children into school and help them learn and fulfil their potential. Learning for all is a foundation for building strong human capital for every country," said Jaime Saavedra, Global Director for Education at the World Bank.

"Our partnership with Qatar and Education Above All will play an especially important role in the Middle East and North Africa," said Ferid Belhaj, World Bank Vice President for the Middle East and North Africa. "As access to quality education is critical for the region to unlock the huge potential of its large youth population, whose energy and creativity could become a new source of dynamic and inclusive growth."

Through this new funding structure, EAA and The World Bank will support financing opportunities for resource mobilization, education advocacy, and poverty reduction in developing countries across three continents. Proposed targeted countries include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Haiti, India, Iran, Iraq, Kenya, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, and Zambia.

About Education Above All (EAA) Foundation

The Education Above All (EAA) Foundation is a global education foundation established in 2012 by Her Highness Sheikha Moza bint Nasser. The Foundation envisions bringing hope and real opportunity to the lives of impoverished and marginalized children, youth and women, especially in the developing world and in difficult circumstances such as conflict situations and natural disasters. It believes that education is the single most effective means of reducing poverty, generating economic growth and creating peaceful and just societies, as well as a fundamental right for all children and an essential condition to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). For more information, visit educationaboveall.orghttp://educationaboveall.org/.

About World Bank Group Work on Education

The World Bank Group is the largest financier of education in the developing world. We work on education programs in more than 80 countries and are committed to helping countries reach Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4, which calls for access to quality education and lifelong learning opportunities for all by 2030. In 2018, we provided about $4.5 billion for education programs, technical assistance, and other projects designed to improve learning and provide everyone with the opportunity to get the education they need to succeed. Our current portfolio of education projects totals $17 billion, highlighting the importance of education for the achievement of our twin goals, ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity.

For more information, please visit: worldbank.org/educationhttp://.worldbank.org/education educationaboveall.orghttp://www.educationaboveall.org


          

World: Global Humanitarian Overview 2019 [EN/AR/ES/FR/ZH]

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Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Aruba (The Netherlands), Bangladesh, Brazil, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Curaçao (The Netherlands), Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mexico, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

Global trends and challenges

More than 1 per cent of people across the planet right now are caught up in major humanitarian crises. The international humanitarian system is more effective than ever at meeting their needs – but global trends including poverty, population growth and climate change are leaving more people than ever vulnerable to the devastating impacts of conflicts and disasters.

Humanitarian needs are increasing despite global economic and development gains. In the past decade, the world has made profound development progress. Between 2008 and 2015, the number of people living in extreme poverty fell from 1.2 billion to 736 million. The world is also richer than ever before: global GDP rose from $63.4 trillion in 2008 to $80.7 trillion in 2017.
But in recent years, more than 120 million people each year have needed urgent humanitarian assistance and protection. There are more crises, affecting more people, and lasting longer today than a decade ago. Most humanitarian crises are not the product of any single factor or event, but of the interaction between natural hazards, armed conflict and human vulnerability.

People’s vulnerability to crises is not just about where they live, but also about how they live.
Poverty, inequality, population growth, urbanization and climate change can erode people’s resilience and make them more susceptible to shocks. Although development gains are being made, progress has been uneven. The rate of extreme poverty remains high in low-income countries and in countries affected by conflict. Crises have disproportionate consequences for the poor: people exposed to natural hazards in the poorest nations are at least seven times more likely to die from them than those in the richest nations.

Fragile and conflict-affected areas are growing faster and urbanizing more rapidly than the rest of the world

In the past five years, the world’s population has grown by 400 million people, from 7.2 billion in 2014 to 7.6 billion in 2017. Although global population growth has slowed compared with previous decades, the rate has been uneven. Today, an estimated 2 billion people live in fragile and conflict affected areas of the word, where they are extremely vulnerable to the impact of conflicts and disasters. This number is projected to increase, as the population in these areas is growing twice as fast as the rest of the world, with an annual growth rate of 2.4 per cent, compared with 1.2 per cent globally. And the urban population in fragile areas grows by 3.4 per cent each year, compared with the world average of 2 per cent. These trends can compound resource scarcity and increase vulnerability to disasters. Urban population density can also amplify the impact of disasters and conflicts. In 2017, when explosive weapons were used in populated areas, 92 per cent of casualties were civilians, compared with 20 per cent in other areas. The populations of countries affected by fragility, conflict and violence are also younger than the global average. Whereas the proportion of the world’s population under 14 years of age has been steadily declining to about 25 per cent today, the average for countries in fragile situations is 40 per cent. As a result, one in every four children in the world is living in a country affected by conflict or disaster, facing threats of violence, hunger and disease. In 2017, more than 75 million children experienced disruptions to their education because of humanitarian crises, threatening not only their present well-being, but their future prospects as well.

More people are being displaced by conflicts

By the end of 2017, war, violence and persecution had uprooted 68.5 million men, women and children around the world – the highest number on record, and nearly 10 million more people than in 2014. Just over 40 million people were internally displaced by violence within their own countries, and 25.4 million refugees and 3.1 million asylum seekers were forced to flee their countries to escape conflict and persecution. The levels of new displacements far outstrip returns or other solutions. In 2017, 5 million people returned to their areas or countries of origin, but 16.2 million people were newly displaced – an average of one person displaced every two seconds, and the highest level of new displacement on record.

The rise in forced displacement is not the result of an increase in conflicts. In fact, after peaking in 2014, the number of political conflicts worldwide decreased by about 10 per cent, from 424 in 2014 to 385 in 2017, although there are still more conflicts compared with a decade ago (328 in 2007). However, during the same period, the proportion of violent and highly violent conflicts, which are more likely to cause human suffering, destruction and displacement, increased from 53 per cent to 58 per cent of all conflicts worldwide.5 The total economic impact of conflict and violence has also increased, from $14.3 trillion in 2014 to $14.8 trillion in 2017.6 The major share of both the human and economic cost of conflicts is borne by developing countries, which host 85 per cent of refugees.


          

World: Humanitarian Funding Update October 2018 - United Nations Coordinated Appeals [EN/AR]

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Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Haiti, Indonesia, Iraq, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

United Nations-coordinated Appeals

FUNDING REQUIRED $25.20B

FUNDING RECEIVED $11.97B

UNMET REQUIREMENTS $13.23B

COVERAGE 47.5%

PEOPLE IN NEED 135.3 M

PEOPLE TO RECEIVE AID 97.9 M

COUNTRIES AFFECTED 41

Global Humanitarian Funding

FUNDING RECEIVED $17.98B

UN-COORDINATED APPEALS $11.97B

OTHER FUNDING $6.01B

Global Appeal Status

  • At the end of October 2018, 21 Humanitarian Response Plans (HRP) and the Syria Regional Response Plan (3RP) require US$25.20 billion to assist 97.9 million people in urgent need of humanitarian support. The plans are funded at $11.97 billion; this amounts to 47.5 per cent of financial requirements for 2018. Requirements are lower than in September 2018 due to revision of the Ethiopia Humanitarian and Disaster Resilience Plan (HDRP). For the remainder of 2018, humanitarian organizations require another $13.23 billion to meet the needs outlined in these plans.

  • Global requirements are $1.10 billion higher than at this time last year. Overall coverage and the dollar amount were only marginally higher in late October than at the same time in 2017.

  • On 8 October the Government of Ethiopia and humanitarian partners issued a Mid-Year Review of the HDRP. The revised plan reflects changes in the humanitarian context, and requires $1.49 billion for 2018, as opposed to the March 2018 requirement of $1.6 billion to reach some 7.88 million people in need of food or cash relief assistance and 8.49 million people with non-food assistance in the course of the year. Despite the general good performance of this year’s belg (spring) rains, the number of people targeted for relief food and cash support remains largely unchanged due to the significant spike in internal displacement since April 2018.

Security Council Briefings and High Level Missions

  • At a briefing to the Security Council on 23 October, Under-Secretary-General/Emergency Relief Coordinator (USG/ERC) Mark Lowcock called on all stakeholders to do everything possible to avert catastrophe in Yemen. In a follow up note on the humanitarian situation in Yemen of 30 October, the USG/ERC thanked the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, United States, Kuwait, the United Kingdom and all donors for the record amount raised for the humanitarian appeal in 2018 which had meant nearly 8 million people had received assistance across the country; more than 7 million people had received food and more than 420,000 children been treated for malnutrition; clean water, sanitation and basic hygiene support is now available to 7.4 million people and about 8 million men, women, girls and boys had benefited from health services.

  • At a Security Council briefing on the humanitarian situation in Syria on 29 October, the USG/ERC urged the Security Council and key Member States to ensure that the ceasefire holds in Syria's northwestern province of Idlib to prevent a military onslaught and overwhelming humanitarian suffering. He thanked donors for the $1.7 billion contributed so far towards the HRP for Syria, but pointed out that this HRP is currently funded at less than 50 per cent.

  • In her statement to the Security Council on 30 October, Assistant Under-Secretary-General/Deputy Emergency Relief Coordinator (ASG/DERC)
    Ursulla Mueller spoke of the steady decline in humanitarian funding for the Ukraine over the years and mentioned that the HRP for 2018 is funded at only 32 per cent. This is simply not enough to cover food, health care, water, sanitation and other life-saving assistance. ASG/DERC Mueller appealed to donors to increase their support for consolidating gains in anticipation of the fast-approaching winter.

  • During a joint mission to Chad and Nigeria (5-7 October) with UNDP Administrator Achim Steiner, as part of a series of country visits the two will make to advance humanitarian-development collaboration, the USG/ERC called on donors to fulfil pledges and announcements of over $2 million made in Berlin last month at the High Level Conference on the Lake Chad Region (3-4 September). He noted the importance of maintaining humanitarian response in the region as needs were still very high.

  • Following her visit to the Republic of the Philippines from 9 to 11 October, ASG/DERC Mueller announced that OCHA would continue advocating for sustained funding to address humanitarian needs of people displaced by the Marawi conflict while ensuring that support for the transition to longerterm and sustainable recovery is forthcoming.

Upcoming Event

  • The Global Humanitarian Overview 2019 and World Humanitarian Data and Trends will be launched in the course of joint event to take place in the Palais des Nations, Geneva, from 10:00 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. on 4 December 2018.

Pooled Funds

  • Between January and the end of October 2018, country-based pooled funds (CBPFs) have received a total of $708 million in contributions from 32 donors (including contributions through the UN Foundation). During the same period, a total of $616 million from the 18 operational funds was allocated towards 1,071 projects with 575 implementing partners. Nearly 40 per cent ($246 million) of the funds were allocated to international NGOs and some 26 per cent (approximately $160 million) to national NGOs. UN agencies received 32 per cent ($202 million) of the allocated funds and Red Cross/Red Crescent organizations received over 1 per cent (some $8 million) of all allocated funds. The largest allocations per sector went to health; food security; water, sanitation and hygiene; nutrition; emergency shelter and NFIs.

  • Between 1 January and 31 October 2018, the Emergency Relief Coordinator approved $477 million in grants from the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) to support life-saving activities in 45 countries. This includes $297.7 million from the Rapid Response Window and $179.7 million from the Underfunded Emergencies (UFE) Window. A total of $31.6 million in Rapid Response grants was approved in October in response to cholera outbreaks in Zimbabwe, Niger and Nigeria; flooding in Laos; and the population influx from Venezuela to Brazil, Ecuador and Peru; as well as to support Government relief efforts following the earthquake and tsunami in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The UFE 2018 second round was completed this month, with $30.6 million approved in September and the remaining $49.4 million of the round’s $80 million released in October to assist people caught up in nine chronic emergencies in Angola, Bangladesh, Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Libya,
    Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Sudan.

Country Updates

  • Funding for humanitarian activities in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) is at an all-time low. Nearly all agencies requesting financial support through the HRP have received less funding in 2018 than in previous years. This leaves humanitarian partners ill-placed to meet emerging needs or respond to the deterioration of the humanitarian situation in Gaza, where the rise in casualties during the recent demonstrations has stretched Gaza’s overburdened health system.
    Humanitarian agencies appealed in August for $43.8 million to respond to the Gaza crisis, particularly trauma management and emergency health care, in 2018. On 22 September, the Humanitarian Coordinator for the oPt launched an $8.3 million allocation from the oPt Humanitarian Fund to implement critical HRP projects, mainly in Gaza. Stocks of medical supplies are in extremely short supply and depleted to almost half of requirements. Since late October, the Gaza power plant has been providing up to eleven hours of electricity a day. However, around 250 health,
    WASH and essential solid waste facilities continue to rely on UN-procured emergency fuel for running back-up generators. This year’s intensive operations have depleted funds and stocks and the $1 million allocated by the oPt Humanitarian Fund for fuel supplies will only last until the end of November. Further and urgent financial support is therefore required.

  • Conditions in Yemen continued to deteriorate in October, pushing the country to the brink of famine. On 23 October, the USG/ERC warned the Security Council that without urgent action, up to 14 million people – half the population – could face pre-famine conditions in the coming months.
    Assessments are currently under way, with initial results expected in mid-November. The economic crisis is raising the risk of famine. The Yemeni rial has depreciated by nearly 50 per cent over the last year. Commodity prices have soared, as Yemen imports 90 per cent of staple food and nearly all fuel and medicine.

Urgent steps are required to avert immediate catastrophe. First, a cessation of hostilities is needed; this is especially critical in populated areas.
Second, imports of food, fuel and other essentials must be able to enter Yemen without impediment. Roads must remain open so these goods can reach communities across the country. Third, the Yemeni economy must be supported, including by injecting foreign exchange, expediting credit for imports and paying salaries and pensions. Fourth, international funding must increase now to allow humanitarians to meet growing needs for assistance. Finally, all parties must engage with the UN Special Envoy to end the conflict. Yemen remains the largest humanitarian operation in the world, with more than 200 partners working through the Yemen HRP.


          

World: Humanitarian Funding Update September 2018 - United Nations Coordinated Appeals [EN/AR]

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Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

FUNDING REQUIRED $25.32B

FUNDING RECEIVED $10.63B

UNMET REQUIREMENTS COVERAGE $14.69B

COVERAGE 42%

PEOPLE IN NEED 133.8M

PEOPLE TO RECEIVE AID 97.4M

COUNTRIES AFFECTED 41

Spotlight on the recent disaster in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

On Friday 28 September, a 7.4 magnitude earthquake and tsunami struck Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. On 5 October, the Government and country team/regional office issued the Central Sulawesi Earthquake Response Plan to support the six priority areas identified by the Government. Some existing programmes in Sulawesi will be augmented and others entailing WASH, health, camp management and logistics activities will be developed.

The response plan will focus on immediate response over a three-month period. On 2 October and Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs, and Emergency Relief Coordinator Mark Lowcock (USG/ERC) announced an allocation of US$15 million from the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) to bolster relief assistance for people affected by this emergency

Global appeal status

At the end of September 2018, 21 Humanitarian Response Plans (HRP) and the Syria Regional Response Plan (3RP) require $25.32 billion to assist 97.4 million people in urgent need of humanitarian support. The plans are funded at $10.63 billion; this amounts to 42 per cent of financial requirements for 2018. For the remainder of 2018, humanitarian organizations require another $14.69 billion to meet the needs outlined in these plans.

Global requirements are $1.13 billion higher than at this time last year. Overall coverage and the dollar amount were only marginally higher in late September 2018 than at the same time in 2017.

High-level events The USG/ERC made a strong appeal for HRP funding for South Sudan and Yemen at two high-level events at UN headquarters last month. At an event on 25 September on the crisis in South Sudan during the General Assembly, the USG/ERC asked that donors sustain their generous and large response to the crisis to enable life-saving activities and to encourage a multi-year approach to crisis response with stronger focus on stabilization, resilience and recovery from the conflict. In his statement to the Security Council on Yemen on 21 September, he announced that we may now be approaching a tipping point beyond which it will be impossible to prevent massive loss of life as a result of widespread famine across the country.

Three days later, the Humanitarian Coordinator for Yemen reiterated the call for more funding and more humanitarian partners on the ground to respond to the unprecedented emergency in Yemen.
The UNHCR Commissioner and USG/ERC ended a mission to Afghanistan last month with a call for donors to urgently increase and sustain support for humanitarian response in the country, and to take measures to find durable solutions for millions of people caught up in Afghanistan’s displacement crisis.
On 3-4 September, in a follow-up event to the 2017 Oslo Humanitarian Conference on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region, Germany, Nigeria, Norway and the UN co-hosted the High-Level Conference on the Lake Chad Region in Berlin. On this occasion, UN Member States, international organizations and civil society actors discussed humanitarian assistance, stabilization and development cooperation in the region. Humanitarian and development announcements made at the conference totalled $2.17 billion and it is estimated that $1.02 billion was for humanitarian assistance in 2018 for Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. Of that amount, approximately $875 million (86%), has been made available to recipient organizations.

International financial institutions pledged an additional $467 million in concessional loans.

Concerning pledging conferences this year, according to data reported to FTS by donors and recipient organizations as of 18 September, 95 per cent of pledges have been fulfilled for Yemen, 91 per cent of pledges have been fulfilled for Somalia, and 82 per cent of pledges have been fulfilled for DRC. In each of these countries, many donors have contributed above and beyond their original announcements.
For Syria and the Region, the EU recently published a tracking report on announcements made in Brussels in April which can be accessed here:

www.consilium.europa.eu/media/36437/syria-report-six.pdf Donors are urged to quickly fulfil outstanding pledges made at the conferences and to consider providing additional funding before the end of the year.

Pooled funds

Between 1 January and 30 September 2018, the Emergency Relief Coordinator approved $395 million in grants from the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF), including $265 million from the Rapid Response Window and $130 million from the Underfunded Emergencies Window, for life-saving activities in 38 countries. A total of $40 million was released in September to assist people affected by underfunded emergencies in Angola, Bangladesh, Burundi, Central African Republic and Rwanda; as well as people affected by flooding in India and Myanmar, and Venezuelan refugees and migrants arriving in Ecuador and Peru.

Country-based pooled funds (CBPFs) have received a total of US$667 million from 31 donors between January and September 2018. During this period, the 18 operational funds have allocated $478 million to 921 projects, implemented by 525 partners. Over 60 per cent of all CBPF allocations were disbursed to NGOs, including 21 per cent ($100.6 million) directly to national NGOs. Another 36 per cent was allocated to UN agencies and a smaller portion to Red Cross/Red Crescent organizations, which have received 1.2 per cent of funding ($5.8 million) for direct project implementation. The first allocation for 2018 of the Yemen Humanitarian Fund (YHF) for $90 million is ongoing and focuses on covering gaps in first-line responses in cluster strategies and providing life-saving support to people in newly accessible and hard-to-reach areas. In Ethiopia, the Humanitarian Coordinator launched a $30 million reserve allocation targeting immediate and life-saving activities in the nutrition, health, WASH, agriculture/livestock, emergency shelter/NFI, education and protection sectors. Finally, reserve allocations were also ongoing in Afghanistan and Myanmar during September.

In Myanmar, an integrated CBPF and CERF allocation strategy ($1 million CBPF reserve and $2.95 million CERF) prioritized projects aligned with the Myanmar Humanitarian Fund (MHF) operating principles and the CERF Life Saving Criteria, aiming at achieving the main objective of addressing critical unmet needs of flood‐affected people across the country, particularly the most vulnerable people.

Country updates

The humanitarian situation in Afghanistan has deteriorated considerably over the past year, primarily due to the drought, but also as a result of worsening violence. Overall, the number of people in need of humanitarian assistance and protection services in Afghanistan has increased dramatically since the beginning of 2018, from 3.3 million people to 5.5 million people. Over half of the needs are generated by conflict and population movement. In the meantime, chronic vulnerabilities such as poverty, food insecurity, and unemployment are also increasing. Afghanistan is experiencing its most severe drought since 2011, with some 20 provinces affected by significantly reduced rainfall from winter snow. Some 2.2 million chronically food insecure people are on the verge of acute food insecurity, with four provinces – Badakhshan, Badghis, Faryab and Herat – likely to pitch into a state of emergency unless they receive comprehensive and sustained humanitarian assistance. Drought-related displacement is growing in volume and geographical scope – now constituting 40 percent (119,000) of the overall number of people displaced in Afghanistan in 2018. It is likely that the Afghan population – some 15 million of whom are dependent on the agriculture sector across these 20 provinces for livelihoods – will take years to recover. Overall, more than 12 million Afghans have been displaced internally or abroad during the last four decades of conflict, natural hazards, disasters and the resulting socio-economic upheaval.

Since 25 August 2017, extreme violence in Rakhine State, Myanmar, has driven over 727,000 Rohingya refugees across the border into Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. Statelessness imposed over generations has rendered this population seriously vulnerable, even before the severe traumas of this most recent crisis. The vast majority of these refugees now live in congested sites that are ill-equipped to handle the monsoon rains and cyclone seasons – with alarmingly limited options for evacuation. Low levels of funding are seriously hampering the capacity of humanitarian to respond effectively to the scale and scope of the humanitarian needs in the refugee camps, particularly to ensure safe shelter, appropriate educational options, nutritional support, and most critically, the quality of health services available for an extremely vulnerable population. For example, with the health sector only 23 per cent funded, programming for non-communicable diseases, malaria, TB, and HIV/AIDS remains insufficient, and partners are struggling to scale up service provision which is critical for emergencies including obstetric emergencies.

The alarming financial shortfall for humanitarian programmes in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has had detrimental consequences on the lives of the most vulnerable. More than 40 per cent (10.3 million) of the population remains undernourished. One in five children under-five is stunted with likely irreversible physical and cognitive repercussions. More than 9 million people lack access to essential health services. Pregnant women, young children and people living with diseases, in particular, struggle to access the care they need. Those living in rural areas are most at risk. Recent floods in North and South Hwanghae provinces have affected 280,000 people, killed 76 and displaced over 10,500 people, and chronic underfunding is making it difficult for UN agencies and their partners to respond to needs caused by the natural disasters that frequently hit the country. The 2018 Needs and Priorities plan seeks $111 million to assist 6 million out of 10.3 million people in need of humanitarian assistance.

The prospect of protracted displacement in Iraq is real, warranting a whole-of-system approach to respond to needs and work toward durable solutions. Some 1.9 million Iraqis remain displaced, with insecurity, lack of livelihood opportunities, destroyed housing, and explosive remnants of war contamination among the key barriers to returning. Considerable protection concerns exist, especially for women and children with perceived ties to ISIL. Critical funding gaps are hampering the response, particularly in food security, health, shelter and non-food item sectors, and the WASH sector. Urgent funding priorities include water supply interventions in the south, especially in Basra, which is experiencing water shortages and a gastrointestinal disease outbreak. Child health and nutrition services for up to 180,000 pregnant and lactating mothers, 300,000 children under the age of five and 5,000 newborn babies lack adequate funding.

The level of humanitarian need in Myanmar remains high and is driven by multiple factors including armed conflict, protracted displacement, inter-communal violence, statelessness, segregation, discrimination, food insecurity and vulnerability to natural disasters. More than 720,000 people – mostly stateless Rohingya Muslims – were forced to flee the country in August last year and there remains little tangible progress on addressing the root causes of violence and discrimination against this population. More than 128,000 Muslims confined in camps, some since violence erupted in 2012, have little to no access to essential services. In Kachin and Shan, persistent cycles of displacement due to conflict continue to raise serious protection concerns, with annual flooding exacerbating existing vulnerabilities. In both areas of the country, access remains a critical challenge.

Recent violence in Tripoli has highlighted the fragile situation in Libya. Thousands of people have been displaced, including families staying in schools converted into makeshift IDP shelters. The violence led to a breakdown in basic services, with frequent electricity cuts and compromised access to water. The situation is compounded by liquidity challenges which deepen needs among the most vulnerable. Humanitarian partners are responding to pre-existing and new needs, but the response is undermined by underfunding. With only 24 per cent of financial requirements covered, the ability of partners to provide assistance in life-saving sectors such as water, sanitation and hygiene and protection, as well as education, is limited. Additional funds are required to support a nation-wide measles vaccination campaign, targeting 3 million children against the backdrop of an ongoing outbreak.

South Sudan continues to experience extensive humanitarian needs, including dire levels of food insecurity and malnutrition. In September, 6.1 million people (59% of the population) faced crisis, emergency, or catastrophe levels (IPC Phase 3-5) of food insecurity. This includes 47,000 people in catastrophic conditions (IPC Phase 5). Urgent funding is needed in the coming months to procure and preposition food and other life-saving supplies during the approaching dry season, when these activities are most cost-effective. Food insecurity is expected to decline slightly following the October-December harvest, and rise again in January-March, when 5.2 million people are expected to be in IPC Phases 3-5, including 36,000 in IPC Phase 5. Resources are also needed to scale up preparedness and capacity to respond to Ebola Virus Disease. Though no cases have been reported in South Sudan, there is a risk of cross-border spread.

An agreement on 17 September to establish a demilitarized zone in Idlib, Syria, provided a reprieve for close to three million people placed at risk by a major military escalation in the area, of whom more than two million were already in need of humanitarian assistance. Civilian deaths and injuries due to airstrikes and shelling, as well as displacement and attacks impacting health facilities, were reported in the Idlib area in the weeks prior to the announcement of the agreement. Response and readiness efforts continued in Idlib and other parts of the north-west, drawing to a large extent on cross-border assistance channels from Turkey. Despite significant access challenges, humanitarian assistance continued to be provided across the country, including in areas that had recently come under Government control such as eastern Ghouta, northern rural Homs and much of the south-west. Cross-border assistance to the south-west under the framework of Security Council resolution 2393 remained suspended, but assistance was delivered from Damascus, primarily through the Syrian Arab Red Crescent (SARC). Deployment of an inter-agency convoy from Damascus to Rukban on the Syria-Jordan border became increasingly urgent, with reports of a deterioration of the humanitarian situation in a camp estimated to be hosting up to 45,000 people. The situation in eastern Deir-Ez-Zor, in the east of the country, also deteriorated, with clashes linked to counter-ISIL operations displacing thousands in rural areas with limited humanitarian access and reports of restrictions on the onward movement of displaced people.

Steep economic decline accelerated in Yemen in September, with the Yemeni riyal losing about 30 per cent of its value against the US dollar during the month. Because Yemen imports the vast majority of its food and other basic commodities, this has translated into sharp rises in prices of food, fuel and other essentials – placing these goods increasingly out of reach for millions of Yemenis at a time when famine remains a real threat. In parallel, conflict in Hudaydah has intensified, with about 550,000 people displaced by the violence since 1 June. Aid operations have dramatically expanded, reaching 8 million people with direct assistance across the country every month. Partners have provided rapid response kits to nearly all families recently displaced from Hudaydah, as well as additional assistance based on assessed needs. Generous funding has been key: the 2018 HRP has received US$1.96 billion, or 67 per cent of requirements. Despite these achievements, recent developments threaten to overwhelm the operation’s capacity to respond. Urgent steps are needed to stabilize the economy, keep all ports and main roads open, uphold international humanitarian law, and move towards a political solution. Partners are also seeking full funding for the $3 billion HRP in order to deliver all activities in the plan.


          

World: U.S. Agency for International Development Administrator Mark Green's Remarks at a "Celebrating World Humanitarian Day" Event

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Source: US Agency for International Development
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iraq, Mexico, Myanmar, Nigeria, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Uganda, United States of America, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

For Immediate Release
Monday, August 20, 2018 Office of Press Relations
Telephone: +1.202.712.4320 | Email: press@usaid.gov

Center for Strategic and International Studies
Washington, DC
August 20, 2018

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Good morning, everyone. Thank you, Dan, for that kind introduction and thanks to all of you for being here to help mark this very important occasion.

As we begin, as we call it in Congress, I'd like to start with a point of personal privilege. I'd like to take this opportunity this morning to express our sadness over the death of Kofi Annan. He was a giant who has spent his entire life advocating for peace, and the for the protection of humanitarian workers, something that we'll be talking about today. As he so often said, "People, not states, should be at the center of what we do." His passing makes this World Humanitarian Day even more poignant.

This morning, on behalf of USAID, I hope to convey two important messages to all of you. The first is, as Dan was alluding to, relates to the rapidly-evolving nature of humanitarian relief and assistance.

The second, as we mark this day, is simply our deep, deep admiration and gratitude for the many heroes of our humanitarian work. They, and many of you, are truly extraordinary and heroic.

I have to say that before I joined USAID, I didn't really appreciate the scope and range of what it is that we do in our humanitarian work. You can see it in some of the numbers. In 2017, USAID responded to 53 crises in 51 countries. For only the second time in our agency's history, we had six DART teams, Disaster Assistance Response Teams, deployed simultaneously around the world. The first time that happened was the preceding year.

At this very moment, we have pre-positioned resources and experts in just about every part of the world. We have seven emergency stockpiles in places like Djibouti, South Africa, and Malaysia. We have full-time response staff in 30 countries. We have six regional offices and 11 adviser offices, located with partners like the military's combatant commands.

One of my most vivid memories from my first year as Administrator was, essentially, a crash course in how some of this works. One day, during last year's UN General Assembly meetings, we received word of a terrible earthquake, the second one that had struck Mexico City. One evening that week, I was walking down the street between back-to-back dinners with two different mobile phones: one with the White House, one with the DART team leader.

I was dodging pedestrians, I'm sure looking ridiculous, while the disaster professionals were helping me navigate something much more serious: how to rapidly mobilize an emergency response team to Mexico City to help our neighbors to the South respond to its second earthquake in just a few weeks' time.

The government said to us that they'd welcome the assistance of a highly-specialized type of international search and rescue team, something really hard to find, especially in a hurry. But, thanks to the White House, our talented team here in D.C., our network of first responders, and the DOD, we were able to transport and stand up just such a team in Mexico City before breakfast the next morning. I'm honored to be part of a network, which includes many of you, that can make something like that happen.

But, as we gather to mark World Humanitarian Day this year, we have to acknowledge that natural disaster responses no longer epitomizes today's humanitarian work. We still do that, to be sure, and I think we do it well. But, these days, we face vast other challenges all around the world.

Our humanitarian resources are increasingly being deployed, not for storms and quakes and the like, but for man-made disasters, from conflict-driven displacement to tyranny-driven economic collapse.

Our DARTs are more likely to be deployed for those types of crises, and by far, most of our humanitarian assistance dollars are being allocated for those kinds of needs. There's the ongoing tragedy in Syria, a horrific conflict in its seventh year and one of the most complex crises of our time. Over 13 million people, more than 80 percent of the current population, need humanitarian assistance. There's the ongoing struggle in Afghanistan, where 3.3 million people need humanitarian assistance. A recent upturn in violence has claimed 1,700 civilian lives this year alone.

A dozen or so years ago, I travelled to Afghanistan as a congressman. And, in those days, our presence was measured by the tens of thousands of military boots on the ground. These days, we still have some troops there, but our boots on the ground are increasingly humanitarian and development workers, some of whom have been back to work in Afghanistan two, three, and even four times.

Nine hundred aid workers have been killed in Afghanistan in the last decade.

There's South Sudan, the most dangerous place of all for humanitarian workers. Seven million people in South Sudan, including 1 million living on the brink of famine, depend on international assistance just to survive.

Then there are the man-made crises far closer to home. One of the most underreported catastrophes in the world today is what's happening in and around Venezuela. More than 2.3 million Venezuelans have already fled. It's the largest single mass exodus in the history of the Western Hemisphere. And it's ongoing. I saw this first hand when I visited Cucuta, in Colombia, and the Bolivar Bridge last month. Five thousand new migrants enter Colombia each and every day. They're desperately seeking food and emergency medical care. They're seeking survival.

This isn't merely Colombia's challenge. Venezuelans are fleeing to places like Brazil and Ecuador, as we read over the weekend, and northward to the Caribbean. The list of man-made, conflict-caused, and regime-driven humanitarian crises goes on and on. After all, there are roughly 70,000,000 displaced people in the world today.

Since humanitarian needs and crises are changing, we're doing our best our to change and to respond to them, with the best tools and ideas that we can find. We're applying lessons learned over and over again. And we're fostering innovation.

This past February, USAID and our British cousins, DFID, joined in launching the first-ever Humanitarian Grand Challenge. The Grand Challenge mechanism is a way for the world's best thinkers, from organizations large and small, for-profit and non-profit, business, academia, to offer new ideas in helping (inaudible) relief to the most vulnerable, hardest to reach communities in the world.

It's a chance for us to identify and invest in the best and the brightest. We've already received 615 applications from 86 different countries, including a third from women and nearly half from lower and middle income countries. We're excited to see and mobilize the results, and they're due out this fall.

Given how much of our humanitarian response is in conflict zones and fragile states, we're paying more attention than ever to the obstacles and challenges that factions, gangs, militias, and corrupt officials are throwing at relief teams. Case in point. In April of this year, a leading humanitarian agency reported that it had encountered no fewer than 70 checkpoints on the 300-mile trip from Aden to Sanaa, in Yemen. I'm sure those were just helpful citizens offering directions along the way.

But it's the kind of situation that caused us to launch the Strengthening Field Level Capacity on Humanitarian Access and Negotiations program last August.

It's aimed at helping relief team members better understand practical negotiation techniques and safe, effective field-level decision making.

Because there is nothing more important to us, nothing more important to me, than the safety and security of our humanitarian network, that's the area that we're especially focusing on. We must stay ahead of threats and potential threats. So we're supporting organizations dedicated to improving security standards and training for NGO staff. We're modifying our policy so that security, costs for equipment, staff, training and site enhancements can be more easily built into your contracts and grant budgets.

We're investing in new tools to help us map and minimize risk to operations at the most basic level, the level of, for example, moving food from a plane to a truck, to a warehouse and distribution center. But, let's face it: we can take every possible step to minimize risk. We can't make it go away.

And many of you here know that all too well. One of the most inspiring and humbling parts of my job is getting to meet the heroes who know the risks but carry on just because they care.

I saw firsthand, when I visited IDP camps just outside of Raqqa. I heard stories of challenges that humanitarian heroes face each day, as they strive to bring water and food and medical care to those who've been victimized by the years of conflict. With Assad's regime still holding sway in parts of the country, there's no real, legitimate government partner with whom to work. And their path is riddled with unexploded ordinance, which is going off at the rate of, roughly, three dozen per day.

The shelters they sleep in at night shake with the dropping of bombs each and every day. And yet, somehow, because of their commitment to others, they wake up the next morning and they do it all over again. These are the heroes that we hold high this World Humanitarian Day.

People like Iraq's Salam Muhammad. When Anbar and Kirkuk were liberated from ISIS at the end of last year, humanitarians were the first ones on the ground, providing food, water, and medical care. Iraq staff with the U.S.-funded NGO spend their days clearing mines and educating their neighbors about the dangers the ordinance poses.

Salam decided to joint this particular NGO after witnessing several tragedies that left some of his relatives and friends injured, or killed. He was one of the NGO's first recruits in Iraq. Every day is challenging for the de-miners; any accident can be fatal. But Salam and his staff love their jobs and show up for work every day filled with passion because they know what they're doing matters.

There's Jay Nash, a regional adviser who has lived and worked for USAID in the Democratic Republic of the Congo for the past 20 years. The DRC is, as you know, no stranger to aid worker attacks, with 210 people being killed, wounded, or kidnapped since 2000.

In 1999, while visiting a university in the DRC, Jay was ambushed by a mob of students who thought he was a spy for neighboring Rwanda. The mob torched the U.S. embassy vehicle he had been driving, but Jay escaped after a group of brave students made a ring around him, guarding him until they were able to duck him into the girls' dormitory.

Sitting in that dorm, trapped for hours with a mob threatening to break down the doors, Jay said he had one thought: he thought of the children with disabilities that he was helping in his free time. DRC has a higher than average rate of disability. And he thought to himself, if he died in that girls' dorm, who would take care of those kids?

After eight hours, he made a run for it, and he didn't look back. Not only did he stay in DRC working for USAID, in 2001, he started his own NGO called StandProud. It provides treatment and equipment to young people with disabilities, helping them gain dignity, mobility, and independence.

There's Fareed Noori, one of the victims of last month's attack on a government building in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. The blast killed 15 people. Fareed had been working in Afghanistan since 2010 for a USAID partner the International Rescue Committee, as a water, sanitation, and hygiene engineer. As his colleagues noted, whenever there was an emergency, Fareed was the first in the field to help with whatever was needed.

Fareed was in an emergency meeting at the time of the attack. He was killed doing the work of helping others, to which he had committed his life. Fareed leaves behind four children, two girls, two boys, all under the age of 9.

Another victim of that attack was Bakhtawara; it's a pseudonym, a bright and impressive 22-year-old woman. She was working for the International Organization for Migration, another USAID partner. She had married very early and had a child by the age of 16. But, despite being a young mother in a conservative community, she fought for her education and learned English. After school, she knew she wanted to help people. She convinced her family to let her, not just get job, but get a career as a humanitarian.

When her husband was killed in a bombing three years ago, she continued working as a 19-year-old single mother. Her job took her to the very government offices that were often targeted by insurgents. On the day she was killed, she was attending one of the meetings that she had hoped would help her find better ways to deliver aid to people in need. The building was bombed and then overrun with gunfire. She died doing what she focused her life on, helping people build a brighter future.

Extremist insurgents in Afghanistan like to target these workers. There's a special place in hell...

There's the story of the seven aid workers killed in South Sudan in March of this year. They were killed when their car was ambushed along the 185-mile route of the badly rutted roads in South Sudan's remote east. Their vehicle had been labeled as belonging to an NGO right down to the license plates. It didn't matter. Six of the seven worked for a small Sudanese NGO called the Grass Roots Empowerment and Development Organization, GREDO, which is supported by USAID and worked to promote sustainable development at the grassroots level.

Three of the victims were helping to build a youth center. Two taught English. One was also a driver and the father of a newborn. Three were new recruits. Humanitarian heroes, one and all. And there were thousands of others. And I stand in awe of what they do.

Final thoughts. Why do they do it? What causes them to go out and take these risks? I learned the answer, and (inaudible), when I visited Bangladesh and Burma with Secretary Pompeo earlier this year. In Bangladesh, I went to a Cox's Bazaar, and I saw the hundreds of thousands of Rohingya who are barely surviving in that camp.

They are vulnerable to monsoons and cyclones and without the humanitarian workers, life would be very different. It's bad enough already.

And then I went to Burma, and I travelled to an IDP camp near Sittwe. And what I saw there was the most disturbing thing I have ever seen in development. I saw young families trapped. I saw young families unable to go to school and completely dependent upon the emergency food assistance that we provide.

So, those workers take the risks because they are all that is standing between an even worse catastrophe and death in these young people, these victims. Today we celebrate them. Thank you.

MODERATOR: Thank you. (inaudible) I'm also the director of the Humanitarian Agenda, as Dan mentioned, which is what this event is a part of, it's a new partnership as as we have this conversation. Firstly, I want to ask you -- well, one, congratulations; it's been about a year now since you've been appointed, and you've been back one year? So, happy anniversary.

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Pretty close. Thank you -- ask my staff.

MODERATOR: (inaudible) We're all very happy that you were chosen to be in this position because, as Dan alluded to, your deep background in international developments. One of the things that you said a lot in this position is talking about, "The purpose of foreign aid is to end the need for its existence." It's one of your key messages that we hear time and time again. So, I want you to elaborate on sort of how that squares with humanitarian assistance. Right? There's a big difference of international developments for, you know, economic growth and being self-reliant. But humanitarian assistance is so often, as you mentioned, driven by tyranny and regimes, and it's about saving lives. So, how do you marry those two?

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Well, first off you're right. What I've said since the day that I was first announced is that the purpose of our foreign assistance must be ending its need to exist. And what I mean by that is, we should look every day at ways of helping people take on their own challenges. Not because we want to do less or walk away, but because we believe in human dignity, and we believe in the innate desire of everyone -- every individual, every family, every community, every country -- to want to craft their own bright future.

In the area of humanitarian assistance, what I always say is, look, we will always stand with people when crisis strikes because that is who we are, that is in the American DNA. But at the same time we'll also look for ways to foster resilience so that we can help countries and communities withstand future shocks. And we've seen promising results in places like Ethiopia. You mentioned on the food security front, Ethiopia's a country that's had six consecutive years of drought and yet not falling into full famine. And that obviously is about much more than the work we're doing, but I think we're making a difference in helping Ethiopians build their ability to withstand consecutive years of drought.

So, I see the two as fitting very well together, and the other piece to it is, on the humanitarian front, again, we have natural disasters and man-made disasters. The man-made disasters are coming at us fast and furious. It's also about preventing the next generation of crisis and conflict. I'm often asked what it is that keeps me up at night, and what keeps me up at night are our children being born in camps, and growing up in camps, and getting educated in camps. And when, God willing, the walls come down and the gate opens up, the question is, are those young people going to be prepared to take on the challenges of the world? Are they connected to the communities around them?

And so with the humanitarian work that we do in many of these places, it's really aimed towards the future. And so I think it fits in well; it's a longer term of view, but I see them -- really is all going in the same direction.

MODERATOR: I'm actually headed out to Nigeria in a few weeks and doing some research looking at Feed the Future portfolio there, but really looking at the nexus between that humanitarian and development assistance, you know, how that would work in an unstable environment. So, I'm anxious to see what I learn from that as well. You know, the Trump administration has called for reduction, of course, of U.S. foreign assistance, but, regardless of that, the U.S. continues to be -- and dominate as the largest donor worldwide.

When you're talking to your colleagues in this administration, what is it that you talk about in terms of why it's so important for us to sustain this leadership? I mean, I could throw out numbers and I'll do a little bit.

In 2018, the U.S. pledged 29 billion foreign assistance. Five billion of that was dedicated to humanitarian assistance. I was looking this morning at how that compares to others, and, I mean, the UK -we're event twice what they do. So, you know, we're such a leader in this space. Why is that so important? Why should we dedicate American tax dollars or more importantly to cleaning up other people's wars?

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Well, first off, you're correct; we're far and away the world's humanitarian leader, and, quite frankly, two or three or four of them together don't really add up to what we're doing. We need other countries to do more because, with those challenges that I laid out, those man-made challenges, I don't see an end in sight, quite frankly, in any of them. So, these are open-ended challenges, and while we are proud to be the world's leader, we need others to step up to the plate. I will tell you, what I worry about is, because these man-made disasters, man-made, often regime-driven disasters, because they are open-ended, there's a real risk that it will begin to take up so much of our budget that it threatens our ability to do some of the development investments that we all want to do, including quite frankly, some of the resilience work that we want to do.

So, we do need others to step up to the plate. But in terms of, you know, what I say to the rest of the administration, it's not a hard cell, you know, pushing them to open a door. The administration is very supportive of our humanitarian work; we continue to be the world's leader; that's not going to change. And I think it's really -- the arguments for it fall on a number of different fronts. Number one, this is an expression of American values. This is who we are and always have been. It is a projection of the American spirit, in my view. So, I think that is very much alive and well in the American psyche, in the American DNA.

But secondly, it's in our interest. Just take for a moment the assistance that we're providing to Colombians, supporting Venezuelans who have fled the border, doing the same thing in some other countries. There is great American self-interest in supporting the ability of these communities to withstand this migration, to help afford some of those costs, because the instability that results from not being able to provide support, I think, is an issue, is a diplomatic issue, is a national security issue. And, as you heard me mention, I think particularly what is happening in the Western Hemisphere is completely underreported.

When I was at the Summit of the Americas, I heard from a number of countries, including Caribbean states, that they were starting to feel the presence of Venezuelans fleeing. And while they're all supportive of their neighbors, clearly it's not without a cost. But the same thing is true in many other parts of the world. So, the investments that we make on the humanitarian front are oftentimes in our self-interest. I look at the work that we're doing on the humanitarian front with an eye towards providing a lifeline so that those who've been displaced in parts of the Middle East can return. That's in our interest. That's a stated foreign policy priority. So, you know, yes, there is certainly -- I think the morality that we -- the expression of values that we've always supported. But I also believe it's in our interest and our national security interest.

MODERATOR: And thank you for reminding us in your speech about humanitarian heroes and what World Humanitarian Day is about. You talked about the unfortunate situation that in today's crises a lot of the time aid workers are targeted specifically. So, I want to ask you whether you feel like there's an erosion of international humanitarian law over, you know, that you talked about the evolution of humanitarian assistance. And so as the world gets more and more disorderly, we see more and more protracted conflicts. Do you feel that both governments and non-state actors alike are violating this law, and is there anything that we can or should be doing more I guess, particularly from the donor or U.S. government perspective, to hold them more accountable?

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Well, first off, we in the U.S. demand adherence to international law, international humanitarian law. So, we demand that unfettered access is provided, for example, in Rakhine, in Northern Rakhine in Burma. So, that's always been important for us. But if you're asking whether some non-state actors like ISIS are breaking international law, yeah. Having been to both Raqqa and Northern Iraq, what has been done there by ISIS is truly evil. There is simply no other word to describe what they've done: the desecration of graves, the desecration of churches, the disappearances of Yazidis. It's staggering and truly evil. Of course they are breaking every standard that we all know.

Yes, it is a challenge to international law; one of the best ways that we can respond is to say that, and to say it often, and to keep coming back to it. Because I do think the American opinion matters. And to say all across the political spectrum here in this country that we stand united and demand adherence to those standards and that what is happening is unacceptable.

MODERATOR: You brought up demanding unfettered access. I want to let our audience know that the Humanitarian Agenda will be going to the capitol this fall, and we're focusing specifically on the issue of humanitarian access. You brought up, of course, in Yemen, that's 70 choke hold points that David Miliband also talked about when he was here in Yemen -- in April on Yemen. I also want to say we're publishing a policy piece on Yemen here at CSIS that will come out this week.

I have many more questions, but I think we'll turn to the audience, so that we can engage them as well. So, if you have a question, please raise your hand. We will take it in rounds of threes, so announce yourself and where you're from. Please keep it concise, and at the end of it, there should be a question mark. So, who has a question? Yes, sir, right over here. Thanks, gentlemen.

QUESTION: I'll ask a real fast question, my name is Rob, I work for USAID, thank you, sir. My question is about the environment, I'm just back from the Congo, where Ebola is happening and I was just in Madagascar where there was a plague outbreak. A lot of the disasters you talked about have an environmental component, and we're doing some in the United States, but some people think we really need to do more, and that's a little bit against maybe some people in the administration, so I would love for you to talk about your thoughts about that.

MODERATOR: Great question. More? Let's do Julie Howard right there.

QUESTION: Thank you. Mr. Administrator, thank you for your comments. Could you comment on the recent story in the Washington Post about the potential pullback of $3 billion in foreign assistance funds and how that may affect our ability to respond to humanitarian as well as the resilience opportunities you described?

MODERATOR: And, Julie, will you introduce yourself for those that don't know you?

QUESTION: Sorry?

MODERATOR: Would you introduce yourself?

QUESTION: Oh, yes, okay. So, I'm a non-resident senior adviser here at CSIS, thank you.

MODERATOR: Julie and I are also going to be travel partners when I go to Nigeria. It's actually Julie that is leading that study. Let's take one more question right back here. Yes, thank you.

QUESTION: Hi, my name's (inaudible) a reporter from Voice of America. There are a number of humanitarian assistance and also food aid to North Korea spended by the United States Government. What are the key principles that all the United States Government providing assistance to North Korea and under which scenario can assistance to North Korea be resumed?

MODERATOR: Thank you.

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Sure.

MODERATOR: Easy questions, right?

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: On North Korea, simply put, there have been no discussions that I'm aware of regarding assistance into North Korea. I certainly haven't been part of any such discussions.

Secondly, on the pullback, while we haven't received official notification of anything, I've heard of nothing that would change our status as the world's leader in humanitarian assistance. I haven't seen anything. Third, on -- first off, it's interesting that you visited Ebola country and you talked about conservation, because their linked, obviously.

I think that's one of the reasons we've seen the outbreak of Ebola in other formerly, entirely rare diseases in some of the areas where we've seen deforestation and such. What we're trying to do at USAID, many of you are aware, we're developing metrics that are aimed at helping us to better understand a country's capacity and commitment in a number of sectors, and conservation's one of them.

So, we're looking at things like biodiversity and how resources are managed, because we think it's important, and it's something that we hope to be able to incentivize in the future and have conversations around. I have a personal interest in the conservation front and as you know, we recently made some announcements regarding assistance to Colombia and helping them in their natural resource management. So, I think it's an important area that shouldn't be divorced from the rest of development.

We think it is one of those key areas that needs to be assessed and looked at as we help countries, in what we call, as you know, probably ad nauseam as I talk about the journey to self-reliance. One of those areas is, in fact, conservation, biodiversity, and the capacity to manage resources.

MODERATOR: Let's take another round of questions. Raise your hand high. Joel?

QUESTION: Joel (inaudible) from Norwegian Refugee Council, thank you Administrator Green for your excellent remarks. I'm afraid I have to follow up on the rescission question. We're not going to let you off so easily.

What's been reported is that there's going to be a cut of a billion to UN peacekeeping operations, and that has the potential to not only disrupt work in South Sudan and Somalia and the Congo, but it also has the potential to disrupt, through further chaos in refugee flows, neighboring countries that we care about that are our allies, such as Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, and so on.

I guess -- the argument is that, even if USAID itself doesn't lose funding or doesn't lose out through the rescission, the work will lose out, I feel, if this really goes ahead. So, if you could just offer more thought on -- I mean, you said you're pushing on an open door when it comes to international work, and, honestly, it's not always obvious to see that from the outside. Thank you.

MODERATOR: Thanks, Joel. Let's do these two right here in the front, Haley, yep.

QUESTION: Thank you. Hi, good morning. Nicole (inaudible), I'm a senior associate here at CSIS. Thank you, Administrator Green, for your great comments. You mentioned briefly -- you touched on young people and so, given the disproportionate (inaudible) of people in these countries and how often humanitarian crises can disproportionately affect children and young people, can you talk a little bit more about some of the focus that you're keeping in these initiatives and on the work that you're doing to remedy the situation for youth? Thanks.

MODERATOR: Great, and I think there was a question right behind you if there still is, yeah.

QUESTION: Hello, my name is Jessica (inaudible), and I'm a Jeane Kirkpatrick Fellow at the American Enterprise Institute. You mention in your remarks about the man-made nature of a lot of the ongoing conflicts, and I was wondering if you could speak to USAID's role not only in providing humanitarian response in that context, but also the active role that the agency is taking in countering and preventing ongoing violent extremism.

MODERATOR: Great question.

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: That's a great question. Joel, on the budget front, I really don't have much more that I can provide. Part of it is I'm not attempting to duck, I just literally don't have more, I'd refer you to OMB quite frankly. But again, you know, they is simply looking at the numbers of the last year and what we're doing on the humanitarian front. There is simply no argument that we have backed away from our role as the world's leading humanitarian assistant. Just objectively, we are far and away the largest humanitarian donor.

We're the largest humanitarian donor in Syria; we're the largest humanitarian donor in conflict after conflict. I do think it is fair for all of us to talk about how it is that these resource needs can be met in the future. I don't mean just the immediate future, but the open-ended nature of these conflicts and this instability and this displacement is staggering.

It is what worries me, because these conflicts that we're seeing -- South Sudan; Yemen -- you and I have talked about Yemen a great deal in recent months. It's open-ended, and I do worry about that. I do worry about our ability to meet resource needs and, you know, the world meeting these resource needs. They're significant.

On the question of young people, particularly in displaced settings, we are looking at a number of ways of accelerating crisis situation education, conflict community education. We've received generous support from Congress, along with generous directives from Congress, in the area of education. What we've been trying to do, and Congresswoman Lowey has long been a great leader on this front, is to try to make sure that we are able to prioritize these crisis needs, and I do think that it's a crisis. It does worry me a great deal.

So, we're looking at some of the use of innovative technologies to see if that can help us in these settings, but it is a very focus and as we develop our basic education strategy going forward, I think you'll see a particular focus on those areas, because it is, as you suggest, very important for the future.

In terms of preventing violent extremism, we have, as you know, an important role under the National Security Strategy. We are investing in trying to identify the drivers of violent extremism.

One of my strong beliefs that comes, actually, from my time at International Republican Institute is that we shouldn't jump to conclusions and try to draw global assumptions and lessons. Instead, we need to look at local drivers. Experience shows us that it's often local drivers, community drivers that become flashpoints for extremism. And so, we're certainly investing research there, and some of the preventative tools that are there; from my days as an Ambassador in Tanzania, I often point out that after the terrible bombing, embassy bombing, the work that we did with our Tanzanian partners in the wake of that, to take on some of the drivers of poverty and despair, I believe was an important down payment for preventing violent extremism. So, I'm a big believer in tackling those drivers and tackling that which can lead to despair. So, that will always be a key part of our work.

MODERATOR: Mr. Green, at Davos this year, you talked about the importance of tapping into the creativity of the private sector, and how innovative financing mechanisms and other innovative technologies can really create better development outcomes. In your speech today, you talked about the Humanitarian Grand Challenges. Are there any specific companies or partnerships or technologies that you're most excited about right now. The things that you see that are happening in the field, you've been in in this career -- I mean, you've had a career for decades that are all related to development --

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Don't say decades.

MODERATOR: Okay, sorry -- you're very young. The last year that you've been an administrator, what are the -- what are the cool, new technologies that we should know about, that are out there, that the mainstream audience has no idea how we're delivering (inaudible) humanitarian assistance?

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Yeah, I mean, to be honest, there are countless. During global innovation we -- which we had last fall, whenever it was, and I had a chance to walk through the marketplace at the Ronald Reagan Building, and take a look at some of the innovations. Everything from lunchbox-size solar batteries allowing us to power work in refugee and displaced persons camps to some of the weather forecasting stations that are created with 3D printers. You go through there and it's extraordinary. And it fills you with great hope for our ability to reach out and touch more people in more settings than ever before. In the area of financing -- we announced in India last fall, the world's first Development Impact Bond for maternal and child health, and the largest development impact bond of its kind. So, what we did through that is to set outcomes that we needed to see in order to repay the investment, but in terms of the means, we turn the private sector loose.

And in the follow-up conversations that we had, you can see that our partners, some of whom are based here in D.C., were terribly excited. Because for the first time they didn't have us micro-managing each step along the way, but saying, "Look, these are the outcomes that we need, you go get them." And really tapping into the private sector, nonprofit and for-profit. Also, in the area of displaced communities on World Humanitarian Day, the use of biometrics to establish identification of refugees and IDPs as well as some of the digital technologies for delivering resources -- assistance so that recipients have modest purchasing power in surrounding communities, thereby not only providing assistance, not only holding onto human dignity and allowing them to make some decisions, but also providing a tangible benefit to those host communities which are often placing a disproportionate burden by those who are there. So, it -- it's really using business principles, human nature, and I'd like to say there are new technologies, but my kids will tell me very quickly they're old technologies, just new to someone like me. Tapping into these, I think, creates enormous, enormous hope for reaching into places we haven't before.

MODERATOR: I want to continue on that "hope" trend for a minute. So, you know, when you think about the crises, many of which are located in Syria, Yemen, in South Sudan --

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Is that the whole part?

MODERATOR: Now, I know. Well, this is where I'm kind of heading with this. Is there a crisis that you have your eyes on that you do see any reversal in terms of reversal trends, or any progress? Is there a place that you do think we're going to be able to see some positive outcomes in the next -- I should say decade there, because I know it takes time. But is there one that you see not going the wrong direction?

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Oh, sure. There are lots of promising stories. I think Ethiopia and Eritrea provide tremendous hope. One of the challenges, again, as an old democracy guy, one of the challenges that I saw was the enabling environment, for civil society and NGOs in a place like Ethiopia, and with the transition to a new government, we're having conversations that we didn't have before, in ways that I think will be very helpful. Also, I think that their willingness to partner with us more and more will help us make some investments in those areas -- in those resilience areas that will not only help Ethiopia and Eritrea, but also, quite frankly, I think will save us money in the long run. So, there are lots of stories like that, I think all around the continent of Africa and elsewhere. But there are -- every hopeful story is replaced by a new challenge. None of these challenges are inevitable, as problems. But they do require us to be innovative. They do require us to be engaged, they do require us to invest up front, and to be innovative in those procuring methods and how we partner. All of those things need to be done if we're going to turn -- either prevent the challenges from becoming crises, or turn problems into solutions.

MODERATOR: Thank you. I lived in Ethiopia for three years, and I have to say it's quite exciting to see the change that's happening there. I'd like to just turn it onto -- are there any more burning questions? No hands are shooting up; let's do one more right here in the front.

QUESTION: Hi, this is Chris (inaudible) with the State Department. Thank you so much for your leadership of USAID and development. I have a question regarding the nexus between humanitarian assistance, you've been mentioning the nexus with conflict development stabilization -- how does humanitarian assistance fit in, or is it just a one piece element that is disassociated from political issues?

MODERATOR: Great, and as you answer that and any other final remarks you'd like to make as well.

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Sure. Thank you and again, thanks to all of you. So I think from the National Security Strategy, you see -- also the Stabilization Assistance Review, you see, I think, a clear multi-agency, multi-department approach to many of these challenges. Our relationship with the State Department is as close as it's ever been. I've received nothing but support and affirmation from Secretary Pompeo. We are working, as you know, closely because all of these challenges touch each of us in different ways and we each have different capacities.

You know, I think it's probably never been more clear than in a place like the Burma-Bangladesh crisis. So, you know, when Rohingya in one place their IDPs and when they're in another place, they're refugees, and then of course we all look at that and say, "forget the labels, they're people who we need to help out," and invest in, and so we do. Also, I would say that both State and AID have as close of a working relationship with DoD as we've had in a very long time. As many of you know, we have a couple dozen detailees over at the Pentagon and the Combatant Commands. DoD has made it clear that they don't want to do what we do or State does, and we certainly don't want to do what they do. So, I would think those seamless teams and close communications are helping us. And going back to the budget question, they have to; there's not enough money for duplication. There's not enough money for bureaucracy. We just have to stay in constant communication.

As to (inaudible) final remarks, I really would like to leave off with where my remarks, my opening remarks left off -- or left off. On this World Humanitarian Day, I would ask that we all think of those men and women who are in places in far places in world, in conflict zones, in fragile settings, day after day, delivering emergency medical assistance, food assistance, water and hygiene under the most trying of circumstances, difficult security situations. They do it because they care. They're my heroes. I'm sure they're your heroes. They are patriots. And what a wonderful expression of values and our priorities that with what they're doing each and every day. Thank you.


          

World: Forced Migration Review Issue 58: Economies: Rights and access to work

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Source: Forced Migration Review, University of Oxford
Country: Afghanistan, Chad, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Ecuador, Eritrea, Germany, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Myanmar, Pakistan, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, World, Zambia

From the editors

When people are forced by conflict or other circumstances to leave their homes, they usually also leave behind their means of economic activity and subsistence. In their new location, they may not be able, or permitted, to work to support themselves. This has wide-ranging implications not only for people’s immediate earning capacity and well-being but also for community relations, economic development and the capacity of future generations to lead fulfilling lives. In our main feature on Economies, authors explore the complex interactions of the constraints and opportunities involved, drawing on case-studies from around the world and highlighting the roles of new actors, new technologies and new – or renewed – approaches.

We are also pleased to include two ‘mini-features’ in this FMR, one on Refugeeled social protection and one on Humans and animals in refugee camps. (See the back cover if you are interested in collaborating with FMR on a mini-feature – or a full feature.)

We would like to thank Karen Jacobsen (Tufts University) and Khalid Koser (Global Community Engagement and Resilience Fund) for their assistance as advisors to the Economies feature theme. We are also grateful to the following donors for their support of this issue: ESRC-AHRC (Economic and Social Research Council and Arts and Humanities Research Council) Global Challenges Research Fund, the Global Program on Forced Displacement of the World Bank Group, Mercy Corps, UNHCR Division of Resilience and Solutions (Livelihoods Unit) and the Wellcome Trust.

See www.fmreview.org/economies to access the magazine, its accompanying ‘digest’ and all individual articles. A podcast of each article is also available. FMR 58 will be available in English, Arabic, Spanish and French. For printed copies, please email us at fmr@qeh.ox.ac.uk.

Forthcoming issues (see www.fmreview.org/forthcoming)

• FMR 59: Twentieth anniversary of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement (October 2018)

• FMR 60: Education (February 2019)

Follow us on Facebook or Twitter or sign up for email alerts at www.fmreview.org/request/alerts.

Marion Couldrey and Jenny Peebles
Editors, Forced Migration Review


          

World: UNHCR Mapping of Social Safety Nets for Refugees: Opportunities and Challenges

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Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Colombia, Ecuador, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Kenya, Malaysia, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Rwanda, Sudan, Turkey, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

Purpose

The aim of the mapping of social safety nets (SSN) was to explore the potential for alignment between humanitarian cash assistance and SSN in forced displacement situations. It considered various aspects of SSN, including programme design, targeting and the legal and regulatory framework. The mapping categorised 18 countries based on the opportunities and challenges with including refugees in the national social safety nets.

Rationale

While recognising an increasing trend in inclusion in national systems, refugees in particular rarely enjoy the same rights as citizens. Only in every second UNHCR operation, refugees can choose their place of residence; in less than 50% they access national health care systems; in two third they access the national education systems; and in less than 40% they are allowed to work according to law and policy and in practice. In approximately 10% of UNHCR operations, refugees are included in the national or local development plans. Initiatives related to shock-responsive social protection rarely address conflict and include displaced people.

UNHCR is placing more emphasis on the additional value of cash beyond the monetisation of humanitarian assistance through promoting financial inclusion, social protection and socio-economic development. Implemented as part of the basic needs approach, multi-purpose cash grants, which represent 60% of UNHCR’s cash and link multi-sectoral cash assistance with the provision of essential services and protection, present important opportunities for leveraging social safety nets to include forcibly displaced people.

Key findings

Opportunities

• Growing opportunities for inclusion of displaced people in national social protection systems.

• The mapping found that inclusion can happen in 4 countries; may be possible in 10 countries; and will be challenging in the near future in 4 countries.

• In 6 countries, UNHCR’s cash assistance was to some extent aligned with the government’s in terms of targeting, transfer mechanisms, transfer value and monitoring.

• The interest in funding SSN in forced displacement contexts is growing among external stakeholders, notably as a potential exit strategy from humanitarian assistance and a more efficient means of managing protracted displacement.

• The Global Compact on Refugees and the World Bank IDA 18 Refugee and Host Community SubWindow provide opportunities for enhancing SSN for refugees.

• Refugees are increasingly accessing national services in certain contexts.

Challenges

• The majority of national social safety nets are not accessible to non-nationals. When refugees are granted partial access to SSN, full access is often limited due to restrictive legal frameworks.

• Governments rarely have capacity, tools and processes in place that can adapt to the impacts of mass displacement shocks.

• Complex targeting, across multiple safety nets, coordinated by numerous ministries make data analysis, accountability and coordination challenging.

• Funding of humanitarian and government safety nets often differ in terms of duration, political requirements, objectives and conditions, making alignment challenging.

• Refugees do not always have access to national services.


          

World: FPMA Bulletin #3, 10 April 2018

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Zambia

KEY MESSAGES

↗ International prices of wheat and maize rose in March for the third consecutive month and averaged more than 10 percent above their levels in December 2017. Prices were mainly supported by concerns over the impact of prolonged dryness in key-growing areas of the United States of America and Argentina, coupled with strong demand. International rice prices remained relatively stable.

↗ In South America, severe dry weather and strong demand underpinned the domestic prices of grains in key exporting country, Argentina, while the price of yellow maize spiked also in Brazil in March.

↗ In East Africa, in the Sudan, the strong upward surge in prices of coarse grains faltered in March but they remained at record or near-record highs, reflecting the removal of the wheat subsidies and the strong depreciation of the local currency.

↗ In Southern Africa, in Madagascar, prices of locally-produced and imported rice declined in February from the record highs reached in January with the harvesting of the minor season paddy crop and following an appreciation of the Malagasy Ariary.


          

World: FPMA Bulletin #2, 9 March 2018

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

KEY MESSAGES

↗ International prices of wheat and maize increased further in February, mainly supported by weather-related concerns and currency movements. Export price quotations of rice also continued to strengthen, although the increases were capped by subsiding global demand for Indica supplies.

↗ In East Africa, in the Sudan, prices of the main staples: sorghum, millet and wheat, continued to increase in February and reached record highs, underpinned by the removal of the wheat subsidies and the strong depreciation of the Sudanese Pound.

↗ In Southern Africa, in Madagascar, prices of rice hit record highs at the start of the year, as a result of tight supplies following a sharp drop in the 2017 output to a substantially below-average level and a weaker currency.

↗ In West Africa, prices of coarse grains continued to generally increase in February and reached levels above those a year earlier despite the good harvests gathered in late 2017, due to a strong demand for stock replenishment, coupled with localized production shortfalls and insecurity in some areas.


          

World: FPMA Bulletin #1, 16 February 2018

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Key messages

  • International prices of wheat and maize were generally firmer in January, supported by weather-related concerns and a weaker US dollar. Export price quotations of rice also strengthened mainly buoyed by renewed Asian demand.

  • In East Africa, in the Sudan, prices of the main staples: sorghum, millet and wheat, rose sharply for the third consecutive month in January and reached record highs, underpinned by the removal of wheat subsidies and the strong depreciation of the Sudanese Pound.

  • In West Africa, prices of coarse grains were at relatively high levels in January, despite the good harvests gathered in late 2017, due to strong demand for stock replenishment and insecurity in some areas.


          

World: FPMA Bulletin #11, 11 December 2017

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Key messages

↗ International prices of wheat and maize remained relatively stable in November, reflecting good supply conditions, while export quotations of rice strengthened amid increased buying interest and currency movements.

↗ In East Africa, prices of cereals in November continued to decline in most countries with the ongoing 2017 harvests and were at levels around or below those a year earlier with a few exceptions. By contrast, in the Sudan, prices surged and reached record highs in some markets, mainly underpinned by the sharp depreciation of the Sudanese Pound in the parallel market.

↗ In Central America, after the sharp increases recorded in the previous month, prices of white maize eased in November as market flows returned to normal, after disruption caused by severe rains in the previous month. Good domestic availabilities kept prices at levels below those a year earlier.


          

World: Education in Emergencies - ECHO Factsheet

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Source: European Commission's Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations
Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

Key messages

Education is lifesaving. Education is crucial for both the protection and healthy development of girls and boys affected by crises. It can rebuild their lives; restore their sense of normality and safety, and provide them with important life skills. It helps children to be self-sufficient, to be heard, and to have more influence on issues that affect them. It is also one of the best tools to invest in their long-term future, and in the peace, stability and economic growth of their countries.

Education in emergencies actions can help prevent, reduce, mitigate and respond to emergency-related academic, financial, social, institutional, physical and infrastructural barriers to children's education, while ensuring the provision of safe, inclusive and quality education.

In 2017, the EU dedicates 6% of its annual humanitarian aid budget to education in emergencies, one of the most underfunded sectors of humanitarian aid. In 2018, this amount will increase to 8%.

4.7 million girls and boys in 52 countries have benefited from EUfunded education in emergencies actions between 2012 and 2017.


          

World: FPMA Bulletin #10, 10 November 2017

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Key messages

  • The benchmark US wheat price declined in October mostly because of higher supply prospects while maize quotations firmed due to rain-induced harvest delays. International rice prices strengthened in October, mainly reflecting seasonally tight Japonica and fragrant supplies.

  • In East and West Africa, cereal prices declined in October with the 2017 ongoing or recently-started harvests. However, concerns over crop outputs and civil insecurity kept prices at high levels in some countries, particularly in Ethiopia, Nigeria and South Sudan.

  • In Central America, heavy rains in October led to unseasonal increases in maize and bean prices. They remained, however, at levels well below those a year earlier as a result of adequate domestic supplies, following the overall good outputs in 2016 and the 2017 first season harvests.


          

World: FPMA Bulletin #9, 10 October 2017

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Key messages

  • International prices of wheat increased in September mostly because of weather-related concerns, while maize quotations fell further on crop harvest pressure. International rice prices remained generally firm, supported by seasonally tight availabilities of fragrant rice and strong demand for higher quality Indica supplies.

  • In East Africa, prices of cereals remained at levels above those of a year earlier in most countries, particularly in Ethiopia reflecting seasonal tightness amid concerns over the impact of the Fall Armyworm infestation on the main harvest and in South Sudan mainly due to the ongoing conflict.

  • In Asia, prices of rice in Bangladesh increased again in September and reached record highs, with seasonal patterns exacerbated by the reduced 2017 main season output and concerns over the impact of the July-August floods on the second season crop, to be harvested from November.


          

Government and UNMISS Inaugurate South Sudan’s First Juvenile Reformatory Centre in Juba

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Download logo Today, the United Nations Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General, Mr. Moustapha Soumaré, and the Deputy Minister of Interior, Hon. Gen. Majak Akech Malok, dedicated South Sudan’s first Juvenile Reformatory Centre (JRC) in Juba. The project, which is part of ongoing technical cooperation between the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) and […]
          

World Health Organization (WHO) scales up cholera vigilance in Khartoum, Sudan

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Download logo To prevent a potential spread of the current cholera outbreak to Khartoum State – including to the country’s capital Khartoum City – and at the request of the Federal Minister of Health Dr Akram Eltoum, WHO is working closely with health partners, nongovernmental organizations, and at-risk communities to ensure that suspected cases are […]
          

South Sudan Silences a Witness to Its Horrors

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Sam Mednick of The Associated Press was expelled for telling the truth.
          

South Sudan Rival Leaders Meet in Uganda for Peace Talks

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Rival leaders have said they are not ready to form a coalition government on November 12
          

AFRICA/SUD SUDAN - I Vescovi sono “Pastori e amministratori della delicata vigna di Dio”

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Juba – “Come Vescovi del Sudan e del Sud Sudan riteniamo prioritaria la tutela dei minori e ci impegniamo a lavorare per la prevenzione di ogni forma di abuso, atrocità e violenza contro i bambini. Sono contento che durante questa Plenaria, tra i molti argomenti sia stata scelta la tutela dei minori”: lo ha detto Mons. Edward Hiiboro, Vescovo di Tombura-Yambo e Presidente della Conferenza Episcopale del Sudan, a conclusione di un recente seminario organizzato a Juba dall’Associazione dei Vescovi delle Conferenze episcopali dell'Africa orientale , che ha coinvolto i Vescovi di Sudan e Sud Sudan sull’istituzione di un apposito Dipartimento per la tutela dei minori.
Oltre al tema della tutela dei minori, il Vescovo Hiiboro ha affermato che l'Assemblea Plenaria è stata “per i vescovi del Sudan e del Sud Sudan, un'opportunità di connettersi in primis con Dio, fonte della loro vita; in secondo luogo per rafforzarsi reciprocamente come Pastori e amministratori della delicata vigna di Dio; infine per meditare sulla loro missione verso il popolo di Dio nei due paesi.
I Vescovi di entrambi i paesi, nonostante le difficoltà che stanno affrontando, hanno preso posizione e hanno voluto agire per proteggere, individuare e bloccare qualsiasi abuso contro i minori e contro le persone più vulnerabili. “L’incontro è partito dalle raccomandazioni di Papa Francesco”, ha detto il funzionario per la tutela dei minori dell'AMECEA George Thuku, che ha condiviso con i Vescovi le politiche e le linee guida e le priorità stabilite da alcune Conferenze episcopali della regione.


          

AFRICA/SUD SUDAN - I Vescovi ai politici: “Ricordatevi l’appello in ginocchio per la pace di Papa Francesco”

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Juba - “La nostra speranza è che i nostri leader politici nel Sud Sudan, del governo e dell'opposizione, la maggior parte dei quali sono cristiani, tengano presente l'appello e lo straordinario gesto del Santo Padre che li ha implorati di portare la pace ai loro fratelli nel Sudan del Sud” affermano i Vescovi del Sudan e del Sud Sudan, nel loro messaggio letto al termine della Messa del 1° novembre in tutte le chiese del Sud Sudan.
L’11 aprile, a conclusione del ritiro spirituale, presso la Domus Sanctae Marthae in Vaticano, dei leader politici del Sud Sudan , Papa Francesco si era inginocchiato davanti a loro lanciando un appello per il futuro del nuovo Stato che doveva nascere il 12 maggio, baciando i piedi al Presidente della Repubblica Salva Kiir Mayardit, e ai Vice presidenti designati presenti, tra cui Riek Machar e Rebecca Nyandeng De Mabior .
La formazione del nuovo governo di unità nazionale è stata però più volte rimandata: ora la data limite è il 12 novembre, ma il Presidente Salva Kiir ha lasciato intendere la formazione di un esecutivo senza la presenza di Riek Machar. Se così fosse si teme fortemente la ripresa della guerra civile, in un Paese allo stremo per le drammatiche conseguenze del conflitto scoppiato nel dicembre 2013, alle quali si aggiungono i danni causati della inondazioni che hanno colpito vaste aree del Sud Sudan .
Nel loro messaggio i Vescovi affermano: “Abbiamo visto le ferite e la miseria della nostra gente nei campi per sfollati all'interno dei nostri due Paesi e nei campi profughi nei Paesi vicini. Sentiamo e condividiamo le condizioni economiche insopportabili della nostra gente in Sudan e nel Sudan del Sud”.
Nel documento, pervenuto all’Agenzia Fides, si sottolinea che le radici del conflitto vanno ricercate nella bramosia di potere e di ricchezza, che a sua volta si serve delle divisioni etniche e tribali per spingere le popolazioni a combattere chi per l’una, chi per altra parte. I Vescovi concludono con un appello all’unità per far fronte insieme alle avversità e condividere le scarse risorse a favore di tutti.

          

AFRICA - Una pastorale basata sull'eredità dei Santi africani

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Kara – In Africa oggi “è necessario che i Santi africani occupino un posto fondamentale nei programmi di evangelizzazione in generale, e in particolare della catechesi, in modo che siano meglio conosciuti dagli stessi africani, per ispirare continuamente le loro azioni”. E’ quanto ha scritto a Fides il teologo ivoriano p. Donald Zagore, sacerdote della Società per le Missioni Africane, ricordando l’esperienza dei Santi Martiri dell'Uganda, Santa Giuseppina Bakhita del Sudan, la Beata Marie Clementine Anuarite dell'ex Zaire, il Beato Ghebre-Micheal dell'Etiopia. “L'Africa è davvero presente in Paradiso. Questi Santi africani sono l'espressione tangibile della vitalità spirituale del continente africano, ma rimangono molto spesso sconosciuti e quindi tagliati fuori dalla vita concreta della popolazione” rileva. “I nostri Santi – afferma - devono avere un impatto concreto sulla vita del nostro popolo. I Santi possono e devono svolgere un ruolo importante nel rinnovamento del continente africano. Il loro modello di virtù, esemplarità, integrità e fede – conclude il teologo - rimane un lascito fondamentale per forgiare la coscienza e l'azione dei nostri cristiani africani in tutti gli ambiti della vita, specialmente in quei contesti socio-politici fortemente segnati da violenza, odio, divisione e corruzione”.



          

UNHCR flight relocates 54 vulnerable refugees from Niger to Italy

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UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency relocated 54 vulnerable refugees from the Emergency Transit Mechanism (ETM) and urban areas in Niger to Italy. The group, who landed in Rome at around 17:00 local time, is made up of refugees from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan, including 23 children, 13 of whom have been separated from their parents and wider family. Most had previously been held in detention in Libya for prolonged periods, where they faced terrible conditions, appalling human rights ab...

Read the full story at https://www.webwire.com/ViewPressRel.asp?aId=249683


          

Female Arabic DJ

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DJ NADIA Female Arabic DJ Music to suit your taste. From a variety of Arabic (Yemeni, Lebanese, Egyptian, Moroccan, Algerian, Libyan, Syrian, Iraqi, Sudani and rest of Middle East), Somalian, English(RNB, soul, disco, hip hop etc) and other. Weddings, parties and other occasions with full equipment's. We provide national service for all United Kingdom, London, Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool, Cardiff, Sheffield and more. Booking in advance: 07789978895 IF YOU TRIED THE REST NOW TRY THE BEST
          

Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan Agree to Ink Deal on Nile Dam by 15 January 2020 - US Treasury

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The US Department of Treasury said in a statement on Wednesday that ministers from Egypt, Ethiopia, and Sudan reached "a comprehensive, cooperative, adaptive, sustainable, and mutually beneficial agreement on the filling and operation" of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD).
          

We offer any quantity of chestnut, elderberries, hawthorn fruits

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We offer any quantity of chestnut, elderberries, hawthorn fruits, echinacia grass, celandine grass, camomile bloom, mint grass and also other medicinal herbs. Prices, volumes and terms of delivery of orders are discussed individually. Sincerely, niculita ion ???: +38 0685015145 Viber +37369165128 WatsApp +37369165128 dog-rose peel, dog-rose bone, salty ramson, liquorice root, black cumin, senna leaf, Sudan Rose (carcade)
          

Uitzending van 7 november 2019

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Onze spraakmaker is Susan Blankhart, oud-ambassadeur in onder meer Egypte en Sudan. We hebben het met haar over de RNW Media, de voormalige Wereldomroep. Sinds het einde in 2012 heeft de omroep zich opnieuw uitgevonden als ngo. En daarover spreekt minister Kaag met de Tweede Kamer. En: vandaag is het Nationale Heldendag. Vanmiddag krijgen zeven Nederlanders een decoratie vanwege moed of een andere belangrijke reddingsactie. Voorzitter van het Carnegie Heldenfonds Jaap Smit vertelt waar een hedendaagse held aan moet voldoen. Spraakmakers is dé radiotalkshow van NPO Radio 1. Ghislaine Plag ontvangt bevlogen gasten die je nét even anders naar het nieuws laten kijken. Wil je meepraten met Spraakmakers? Meld je dan aan voor onze community.
          

شرح أون لاين _ تفسير القرآن الكريم _ سورة البقرة 95

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صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156654066774811.gif اعزائي واحبائي الساده الاعضاء والسادة الزوار اهلا وسهلا بكم جميعا في منتديات ال باسودان حيث المعلومه والفائدة دائما ان شاء الله اليوم معنا باقه متميزة جدا اليوم نقدم باقه مميزة من شرح الفقه والعقيدة والسنه وأهم الفتاوي وكل ما يهم العقيدة الاسلامية نفعنا الله واياكم بكل خير الحصري والجديد والمفيد فقط في منتديات ال باسودان صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156597374865591.png *https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bbKL4r2mG8E&list=PLV68oZLEBxKA_c0abAiPREVhAENZgw-1z&index=97*
          

شرح أون لاين _ تفسير القرآن الكريم _ سورة البقرة 94

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صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156654066774811.gif اعزائي واحبائي الساده الاعضاء والسادة الزوار اهلا وسهلا بكم جميعا في منتديات ال باسودان حيث المعلومه والفائدة دائما ان شاء الله اليوم معنا باقه متميزة جدا اليوم نقدم باقه مميزة من شرح الفقه والعقيدة والسنه وأهم الفتاوي وكل ما يهم العقيدة الاسلامية نفعنا الله واياكم بكل خير الحصري والجديد والمفيد فقط في منتديات ال باسودان صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156597374865591.png *https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2t09HhrKIlg&list=PLV68oZLEBxKA_c0abAiPREVhAENZgw-1z&index=96*
          

شرح أون لاين _ تفسير القرآن الكريم _ سورة البقرة 93

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صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156654066774811.gif اعزائي واحبائي الساده الاعضاء والسادة الزوار اهلا وسهلا بكم جميعا في منتديات ال باسودان حيث المعلومه والفائدة دائما ان شاء الله اليوم معنا باقه متميزة جدا اليوم نقدم باقه مميزة من شرح الفقه والعقيدة والسنه وأهم الفتاوي وكل ما يهم العقيدة الاسلامية نفعنا الله واياكم بكل خير الحصري والجديد والمفيد فقط في منتديات ال باسودان صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156597374865591.png *https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ctFgw6FqWl0&list=PLV68oZLEBxKA_c0abAiPREVhAENZgw-1z&index=95*
          

شرح أون لاين _ تفسير القرآن الكريم _ سورة البقرة 92

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صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156654066774811.gif اعزائي واحبائي الساده الاعضاء والسادة الزوار اهلا وسهلا بكم جميعا في منتديات ال باسودان حيث المعلومه والفائدة دائما ان شاء الله اليوم معنا باقه متميزة جدا اليوم نقدم باقه مميزة من شرح الفقه والعقيدة والسنه وأهم الفتاوي وكل ما يهم العقيدة الاسلامية نفعنا الله واياكم بكل خير الحصري والجديد والمفيد فقط في منتديات ال باسودان صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156597374865591.png https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SoLXqyoUFpI&list=PLV68oZLEBxKA_c0abAiPREVhAENZgw-1z&index=94
          

شرح أون لاين _ تفسير القرآن الكريم _ سورة البقرة 91

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صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156654066774811.gif اعزائي واحبائي الساده الاعضاء والسادة الزوار اهلا وسهلا بكم جميعا في منتديات ال باسودان حيث المعلومه والفائدة دائما ان شاء الله اليوم معنا باقه متميزة جدا اليوم نقدم باقه مميزة من شرح الفقه والعقيدة والسنه وأهم الفتاوي وكل ما يهم العقيدة الاسلامية نفعنا الله واياكم بكل خير الحصري والجديد والمفيد فقط في منتديات ال باسودان صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156597374865591.png
          

شرح أون لاين _ تفسير القرآن الكريم _ سورة البقرة 90

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صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156654066774811.gif اعزائي واحبائي الساده الاعضاء والسادة الزوار اهلا وسهلا بكم جميعا في منتديات ال باسودان حيث المعلومه والفائدة دائما ان شاء الله اليوم معنا باقه متميزة جدا اليوم نقدم باقه مميزة من شرح الفقه والعقيدة والسنه وأهم الفتاوي وكل ما يهم العقيدة الاسلامية نفعنا الله واياكم بكل خير الحصري والجديد والمفيد فقط في منتديات ال باسودان صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156597374865591.png
          

شرح أون لاين _ تفسير القرآن الكريم _ سورة البقرة 89

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صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156654066774811.gif اعزائي واحبائي الساده الاعضاء والسادة الزوار اهلا وسهلا بكم جميعا في منتديات ال باسودان حيث المعلومه والفائدة دائما ان شاء الله اليوم معنا باقه متميزة جدا اليوم نقدم باقه مميزة من شرح الفقه والعقيدة والسنه وأهم الفتاوي وكل ما يهم العقيدة الاسلامية نفعنا الله واياكم بكل خير الحصري والجديد والمفيد فقط في منتديات ال باسودان صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156597374865591.png *https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QYzZ-vTWKus&list=PLV68oZLEBxKA_c0abAiPREVhAENZgw-1z&index=91*
          

شرح أون لاين _ تفسير القرآن الكريم _ سورة البقرة 89

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صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156654066774811.gif اعزائي واحبائي الساده الاعضاء والسادة الزوار اهلا وسهلا بكم جميعا في منتديات ال باسودان حيث المعلومه والفائدة دائما ان شاء الله اليوم معنا باقه متميزة جدا اليوم نقدم باقه مميزة من شرح الفقه والعقيدة والسنه وأهم الفتاوي وكل ما يهم العقيدة الاسلامية نفعنا الله واياكم بكل خير الحصري والجديد والمفيد فقط في منتديات ال باسودان صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156597374865591.png *https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QYzZ-vTWKus&list=PLV68oZLEBxKA_c0abAiPREVhAENZgw-1z&index=91*
          

شرح أون لاين _ تفسير القرآن الكريم _ سورة البقرة 88

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صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156654066774811.gif اعزائي واحبائي الساده الاعضاء والسادة الزوار اهلا وسهلا بكم جميعا في منتديات ال باسودان حيث المعلومه والفائدة دائما ان شاء الله اليوم معنا باقه متميزة جدا اليوم نقدم باقه مميزة من شرح الفقه والعقيدة والسنه وأهم الفتاوي وكل ما يهم العقيدة الاسلامية نفعنا الله واياكم بكل خير الحصري والجديد والمفيد فقط في منتديات ال باسودان صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156597374865591.png *https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9gP6-fEs9CU&list=PLV68oZLEBxKA_c0abAiPREVhAENZgw-1z&index=90*
          

شرح أون لاين _ تفسير القرآن الكريم _ سورة البقرة 87

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صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156654066774811.gif اعزائي واحبائي الساده الاعضاء والسادة الزوار اهلا وسهلا بكم جميعا في منتديات ال باسودان حيث المعلومه والفائدة دائما ان شاء الله اليوم معنا باقه متميزة جدا اليوم نقدم باقه مميزة من شرح الفقه والعقيدة والسنه وأهم الفتاوي وكل ما يهم العقيدة الاسلامية نفعنا الله واياكم بكل خير الحصري والجديد والمفيد فقط في منتديات ال باسودان صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156597374865591.png *https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQbSCDqqiJ0&list=PLV68oZLEBxKA_c0abAiPREVhAENZgw-1z&index=89*
          

شرح أون لاين _ تفسير القرآن الكريم _ سورة البقرة 86

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صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156654066774811.gif اعزائي واحبائي الساده الاعضاء والسادة الزوار اهلا وسهلا بكم جميعا في منتديات ال باسودان حيث المعلومه والفائدة دائما ان شاء الله اليوم معنا باقه متميزة جدا اليوم نقدم باقه مميزة من شرح الفقه والعقيدة والسنه وأهم الفتاوي وكل ما يهم العقيدة الاسلامية نفعنا الله واياكم بكل خير الحصري والجديد والمفيد فقط في منتديات ال باسودان صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156597374865591.png *https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kzkmRAtoYp4&list=PLV68oZLEBxKA_c0abAiPREVhAENZgw-1z&index=88*
          

شرح أون لاين _ تفسير القرآن الكريم _ سورة البقرة 85

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صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156654066774811.gif اعزائي واحبائي الساده الاعضاء والسادة الزوار اهلا وسهلا بكم جميعا في منتديات ال باسودان حيث المعلومه والفائدة دائما ان شاء الله اليوم معنا باقه متميزة جدا اليوم نقدم باقه مميزة من شرح الفقه والعقيدة والسنه وأهم الفتاوي وكل ما يهم العقيدة الاسلامية نفعنا الله واياكم بكل خير الحصري والجديد والمفيد فقط في منتديات ال باسودان صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156597374865591.png *https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JWWBMSxzv2s&list=PLV68oZLEBxKA_c0abAiPREVhAENZgw-1z&index=87*
          

شرح أون لاين _ تفسير القرآن الكريم _ سورة البقرة 84

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صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156654066774811.gif اعزائي واحبائي الساده الاعضاء والسادة الزوار اهلا وسهلا بكم جميعا في منتديات ال باسودان حيث المعلومه والفائدة دائما ان شاء الله اليوم معنا باقه متميزة جدا اليوم نقدم باقه مميزة من شرح الفقه والعقيدة والسنه وأهم الفتاوي وكل ما يهم العقيدة الاسلامية نفعنا الله واياكم بكل خير الحصري والجديد والمفيد فقط في منتديات ال باسودان صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156597374865591.png *https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZTeKem9Jom4&list=PLV68oZLEBxKA_c0abAiPREVhAENZgw-1z&index=86*
          

شرح أون لاين _ تفسير القرآن الكريم _ سورة البقرة 83

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صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156654066774811.gif اعزائي واحبائي الساده الاعضاء والسادة الزوار اهلا وسهلا بكم جميعا في منتديات ال باسودان حيث المعلومه والفائدة دائما ان شاء الله اليوم معنا باقه متميزة جدا اليوم نقدم باقه مميزة من شرح الفقه والعقيدة والسنه وأهم الفتاوي وكل ما يهم العقيدة الاسلامية نفعنا الله واياكم بكل خير الحصري والجديد والمفيد فقط في منتديات ال باسودان صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156597374865591.png *https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O7DBYgV0AI8&list=PLV68oZLEBxKA_c0abAiPREVhAENZgw-1z&index=85*
          

شرح أون لاين _ تفسير القرآن الكريم _ سورة البقرة 82

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صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156654066774811.gif اعزائي واحبائي الساده الاعضاء والسادة الزوار اهلا وسهلا بكم جميعا في منتديات ال باسودان حيث المعلومه والفائدة دائما ان شاء الله اليوم معنا باقه متميزة جدا اليوم نقدم باقه مميزة من شرح الفقه والعقيدة والسنه وأهم الفتاوي وكل ما يهم العقيدة الاسلامية نفعنا الله واياكم بكل خير الحصري والجديد والمفيد فقط في منتديات ال باسودان صورة: https://www.basudan.com/up/uploads/basudan156597374865591.png *https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YwKxxLxLvk0&list=PLV68oZLEBxKA_c0abAiPREVhAENZgw-1z&index=84*
          

Salip Malaysia, Indonesia Tempati Peringkat Pertama di Pasar Keuangan Syariah Dunia

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Indonesia berhasil mengalahkan Malaysia, Iran, Arab Saudi dan Sudan.
          

Unpacking the PACBI Excuse (Divest This!)

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Last time, I pointed out the various excuses the boycott-Israel crowd uses when forced to confront their clear double-standard on human rights stances (i.e., Israel deserves to be boycotted for building a fence to keep suicide bombers from its cities, but Syria and China should not be boycotted since they merely killed 3-500,000 or 70,000,000 of their own people).
As noted, most of these excuses have the distinction of being both transparently self-serving and unbelievably lame. But one “reason,” the one claiming that the call to boycott Israel wells up from Palestinian civil society and is thus unique, begs for a more careful review.
The claim that BDS is a response to boycott calls originating from people in the region is based on the 2004 Palestinian Campaign for the Academic and Cultural Boycott of Israel (or PACBI). Whenever Naomi Klein or some other boycott advocate talk about a boycott call endorsed by over 200 Palestinian civic organizations, the groups on the list of original PACBI signatories is what they’re talking about.
Within that original list of participating organizations (which I can no longer find now that PACBI has been folded under a general BDS Web umbrella), 10-15% of the signatories were identified as originating outside Israel, the West Bank or Gaza, including over 20 organizations from surrounding countries (13 from Syria, 6 from Lebanon and 2 from Jordan) and another 9 from Europe or North America. Now it may be that some of these (as well as some of the organizations not identified by location) are refugee or Diaspora groups.  But given the large Syrian contingent on PACBI’s original roster, the notion that we’re talking entirely about un-coerced volunteers becomes shaky.
Second, as the name implies PACBI stands for an academic and cultural boycott (the least popular form of BDS, by the way), meaning those who signed up in 2004 were not necessarily joining a movement for wholesale economic isolation of the Jewish state. So those claiming that PACBI is the origin for broad-based BDS activities may be putting words into the mouths of Palestinian agricultural, medical and industrial unions/organizations, many of whom may not be that excited about economic boycotts that punish them as well as Israel.
On more meatier matters, the first group that topped the list of “Unions, Associations, Campaigns” supporting the PACBI boycott call is the Council of National and Islamic Forces in Palestine, a coalition that includes Hamas, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and some of the more violent sub-sets of Fatah. Call me crazy, but I suspect that it’s much easier for this Council to get the Palestinian Dentist’s Association (also a PACBI signatory) to agree to its requests that vice versa.
The potential that the PACBI boycott call arises from coercion within Palestinian society (vs. being a consensus welling up from the grass roots) also points out an interesting paradox. The claim that Israel uniquely deserves the BDS treatment is, to a certain extent, based on Israel supposedly being exceptional with regard to its level of human rights abuses (vs. Iran, China, North Korea, etc.). And yet the members making up PACBI can only be seen as legitimately representing Palestinian civic society if Israel’s “repression” does not extend to eliminating such civic space in both Israel and the West Bank.
Like the claim that Israel is inflicting a “Holocaust” on a Palestinian population that is simultaneously experiencing a population explosion, the very existence of PACBI demonstrates that the level of repression found in countries ignored by BDS activists (Sudan, Saudi Arabia, etc.) does not exist in Israel. And thus we are led back to the conclusion that the best way to avoid being a target of alleged “human rights” activists pushing boycott, divestment and sanction is to actually be a repressive dictatorship that crushes civic society rather than letting it exist to sign boycott petitions.
Finally, a note on dates. PACBI, as stated on their own Web site, made its “plea” for academic BDS in 2004, years after divestment programs originating at the 2001 Durban conference were well underway in North American and European universities, unions, churches and municipalities. In other words, the PACBI call was the result of the success BDS was seeing between 2001-2004, and being the result it could not have simultaneously been the cause.
Time travel underlies much of the BDS project, as is underlies much of what passes for analysis of the Middle East. My favorite example of this is the projection of today’s US support for Israel (which didn’t really kick into high gear until the 1970s) back to 1948 and beyond in hope of finding a US-Zionist conspiracy going back to before the founding of the Jewish state.
If ignorance is bliss, then the folks behind the PACBI excuse for BDS are either the happiest people on earth, or at least the most manipulative.





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Clitoraid: al via la seconda missione umanitaria in Kenya per la ricostruzione del clitoride

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San Francisco, California, 20 febbraio – Dal 4 al 14 marzo 2019, Clitoraid, organizzazione umanitaria con sede negli Stati Uniti, darà il via a Nairobi, in Kenya, alla sua seconda missione di ricostruzione chirurgica del clitoride. Lo scopo è quello di aiutare le vittime di mutilazioni genitali femminili (MGF) a recuperare la propria dignità e capacità di provare del piacere sessuale, grazie a un’innovativa tecnica sviluppata da un urologo francese.

"Secondo l'Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità (OMS), il 25% della popolazione femminile keniota ha subito l'orribile tradizione dell’escissione dei genitali, anche se oggi tale pratica è diventata illegale in Kenya", spiega Nadine Gary, direttrice delle operazioni di Clitoraid.

L'OMS stima che 125 milioni di donne in tutto il mondo siano state vittime di mutilazioni genitali non appena nate, quando erano solo delle bambine o poco più che adolescenti. Questa pratica vìola gravemente la Convenzione dell’UNICEF sui diritti dell’infanzia.

La dott.ssa Marci Bowers di San Francisco, negli USA, capo chirurgo volontario di Clitoraid, eseguirà l’intervento ricostruttivo del clitoride in collaborazione con il dott. Adan Abdullahi, affiliato alla ONG Garana.

"Saranno assistiti sia da medici locali che provenienti dagli Stati Uniti, dal Canada e dall’Australia", afferma la Gary.

Nel corso di questa missione umanitaria della durata di due settimana, circa 100 vittime di MGF, tra cui donne originarie della Tanzania, del Sudan e del Gambia, saranno sottoposte all’intervento chirurgico che si svolgerà a Nairobi presso la clinica del dott. Abdullahi", informa la Gary.

"A partire dal 2009, Clitoraid ha eseguito questa tecnica di chirurgia ricostruttiva del clitoride (CRC) su oltre 500 donne che hanno subito mutilazioni genitali. Questo è avvenuto per lo più negli Stati Uniti, dove oltre mezzo milione di vittime risiedono attualmente, secondo il Center for Disease Control", afferma la Gary. "Abbiamo anche operato in Kenya e in Burkina Faso, in Africa occidentale, dove il nostro ospedale realizzato specificatamente per le vittime delle MGF attende l’autorizzazione necessaria per l'apertura".

La creazione di Clitoraid è stata ispirata da Rael, leader spirituale di livello internazionale e instancabile difensore dei diritti umani e delle donne. Il diritto innato alla salute e alla propria realizzazione sessuale è un valore fondamentale che viene promosso dalla filosofia raeliana da quasi mezzo secolo ed è ora riconosciuto dall'Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità come un diritto umano fondamentale.

"La società deve liberarsi della vergogna e dei sensi di colpa instillati dalle religioni patriarcali arcaiche, siano esse tribali che tradizionali, che sono particolarmente offensive e degradanti verso le donne", afferma la Gary. "Reprimere la loro sessualità è stato un potente stratagemma per controllarle e soggiogarle per secoli".

La Gary conclude: "Oggi, con l'educazione, le donne si stanno rendendo conto che le tradizioni e le culture che vìolano la loro integrità e libertà sessuale rappresentano un oltraggio anche per la loro dignità di donne".

          

Trump Holds Talks with Foreign Ministers of Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan

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The foreign ministers of Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan met Wednesday in Washington with President Donald Trump and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin to discuss...

For more info go to the www.UObserver.com
          

Vorträge aus der Volkshochschule Innsbruck – Couchsurfing im mittleren Osten

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Reisen gegen Vorurteile – Couchsurfing im mittleren Osten. Vortrag von Daniela Kranzlmüller Iran, Afghanistan, Nordirak, Libanon, Sudan, Kuwait – für viele Menschen keine typischen Reiseziele. Die 27-jährige Tirolerin Daniela Kranzlmüller hat den mittleren Osten nicht nur bereist, sie hat dank „Couchsurfing“ besonders tiefe Einblicke in andere Lebensweisen erhalten. Daniela gibt in ihrem Vortrag hilfreiche Tipps […]
          

Sudan satellite hmasa ber kapchhuak

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Sudan satellite hmasa ber kapchhuak
          

Government creates #Food subsidy plan to alleviate hunger in Sudan

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It is also a move that other African countries can take a cue from when strategizing on post-conflict reforms. Governments should create sustainable development goals that will help alleviate hunger ...
          

Regeringsbildning i Sydsudan skjuts upp

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Egypt's top diplomat: Nile dispute to be resolved in January

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CAIRO (AP) — Egypt's Foreign Minister Sameh Shorky says the Nile water dispute between his country and Ethiopia should be resolved by mid-January.

Shokry released a statement on Thursday after U.S.-mediated talks with his Ethiopian and Sudanese counterparts that were held the previous day in Washington.

The talks aim to ease tensions among the three key Nile Basin countries — Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia — over Ethiopia's massive dam on the Blue Nile, which Egypt fears can affect its water supply.

Shokry says a timetable has been set for negotiations and that another two meetings will be held in the U.S. over the next two months to assess progress.

Last month, talks between the two countries collapsed, which prompted Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah El-Sissi to call on the U.S. to mediate the dispute.


          

South Sudan rival leaders given 100 days to form unity government

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South Sudan President Salva Kiir and rebel leader Riek Machar have been given another 100 days to form a power-sharing government after failing to resolve differences over a peace deal.
          

China launches Sudan’s first satellite that will research military

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Sudan’s first-ever satellite for conducting research in military, economic and space technology has been launched by China, the northeast African country’s ruling body said Tuesday. General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, who heads Sudan’s sovereign council, announced the launch of the satellite at a meeting of his top security officials held in Khartoum. China’s state news agency, […]

The Post China launches Sudan’s first satellite that will research military appeared first on
Latest Technology News


          

Sudan Coalition Wants Bashir Turned Over to ICC

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Forces for Freedom and Change Coalition wants ousted president to face trial for war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in Darfur 
          

South Sudan Promoting Adult Literacy to Maintain Peace

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As South Sudan slowly stabilizes after decades of conflict, the world's youngest nation continues to fight a battle against illiteracy.  South Sudan has the lowest literacy rate in world -- just 27 percent of the adult population can read and write. To combat the problem, authorities have been launching thousands of adult education centers across the country, as Sheila Ponnie reports from Juba.
          

Something in the air

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One of the many street artworks that have emerged as part of Lebanon's rebellion against corruption.
November 7, 2019

Looking through a collection of street art shared on social media from the Lebanese rebellion against corruption and inequality, I was reminded of the similar explosion in street art during the Sudanese rebellion, just a few months ago.

A quick online search came up with many more examples of powerful artworks produced as part of recent people's power movements around the world: Chile, Catalonia, Hong Kong, Brazil ... the list goes on.

It brought back feelings from a long time ago, when I was a teenager growing up through the late 1960s and ’70s: the feeling that something is in the air; that the ground is shifting and change is happening.

Back then, many young people first encountered that feeling through culture. It was pervasive in popular music and art. Discussion of social and political change seeped through the thickest walls of repression. It seemed to literally bubble up from the ground.

That is how it felt then — and how it is beginning to feel now.

That pervasive cultural mood in the ’60s and ’70s that was to become the youth culture of the era did not come from nothing. It grew out of millions of people engaged in sustained struggle over many years.

The same holds today. Behind the cultural expressions of rebellion lie real mass revolts, involving hundreds of thousands of people putting their lives on the line at the risk of beatings, pepper sprays, detention, torture or even death, particularly in the Global South.

A Palestinian friend reminded me of the great risks that today's young rebels in Iraq and Palestine face, when compared with the climate rebels in the West. The huge gap between the rights people have to protest in the rich countries and the Global South is stark.

So what chances are there of the people's movements in these two parts of the world coming together and making common cause?

I think the chances are good because, whether a people's movement is sparked by poverty, authoritarianism or the climate crisis, all these movements identify the global capitalist system as being at the heart of their problems.

Another reason is the globalisation of culture, boosted by new technologies and capitalism's drive to sell us more stuff, including stuff we do not need and cannot afford. More than ever, culture is today transmitted faster and further around the globe. And when real, sustained people's power movements emerge, its impact on popular culture is unstoppable.

There is a real rebellion taking place. It is time to choose sides.

One way to help the side of rebellion is by supporting people’s media, such as Green Left Weekly.

If you like our work, become a Green Left supporter today.

One of the many artworks that have emerged as part of Lebanon's rebellion against corruption.

          

Religious Affairs Minister in Sudan Signals Freedom of Religion in New Era

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(Morning Star News) – In another sign that Islamist elements hostile to Christianity in Sudan could be reined in, the minister of religious affairs has reiterated that Christian properties confiscated under the previous regime would be returned. Acknowledging that Christians were persecuted and endured “very bad practices” under the regime of former President Omar al-Bashir, … Continue reading
          

Marie Himes posted a discussion

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Marie Himes posted a discussion

Supporting Students’ Science Content Knowledge through Project-Based Inquiry (PBI) Global

Your Name and Title: Marie Himes, Research AssociateSchool or Organization Name: The Friday Institute for Educational Innovation, NC State UniversityCo-Presenter Name(s): Cameron Good, Graduate AssistantDr. Hiller Spires, Distinguished Graduate Professor of Literacy EducationDr. Erin Krupa, Assistant Professor of Math EducationArea of the World from Which You Will Present: Raleigh, North Carolina, United StatesLanguage in Which You Will Present: EnglishTarget Audience(s): K-20 Teachers and School AdministratorsShort Session Description (one line): Supporting Students’ Science Content Knowledge through Project-Based Inquiry (PBI) GlobalFull Session Description (as long as you would like): For this two-year National Science Foundation (NSF) - DRK12 Exploratory grant-funded project, the New Literacies Collaborative at NC State University is partnering with two North Carolina Cooperative Innovative High Schools - one rural and one urban - to engage in and research Project-Based Inquiry (PBI) Global as an interdisciplinary instructional approach that supports growth of students’ science content knowledge. The goals for this session are to discuss the PBI Global process and design features, share past PBI Global projects, and preview our upcoming research on “STEMifying” PBI Global.PBI Global is a five-phase inquiry process that focuses student engagement on the enduring challenges enshrined in the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Dr. Hiller Spires has been working with this specific inquiry process for over a decade, engaging in PBI Globals with graduate students, teachers, and K-12 students. For the current NSF grant, the researchers are working with ten teachers and two administrators to develop interdisciplinary, inquiry-based curricular materials for UN Sustainable Development Goal six - ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030. Teachers will utilize these instructional materials while engaging in the five-phase PBI Global process with students. As part of the teachers’ preparation for PBI Global, they are participating in four days of professional development during which they will develop deeper understandings of the specific PBI Global inquiry process and the UN SDG six content. Teachers are also utilizing this time to collaboratively plan.Across the two-year project, the researchers will be assessing the change in teachers’ attitudes toward inquiry-based pedagogies through focus groups and a teacher inquiry survey.Approximately 240 9th grade students from these two schools will participate in PBI Global and the coinciding research. Focusing student inquiry on UN SDG six serves to deepen students’ knowledge on a complex issue that demands global attention. Students at the target schools come from ethnically and socio-economically diverse groups that are typically underrepresented in STEM fields. Prior to their inquiry, students will read A Long Walk to Water by Linda Sue Park as a grounding text. This novel shares the dual narrative of Salva Dut, a so-called “Lost Boy of Sudan,” and Naya, a fictional character living in modern day South Sudan. Throughout the book, Salva’s and Naya’s stories are intricately connected to the enduring water and sanitation challenges facing South Sudan. The common read serves to deepen students’ understandings of global water and sanitation issues and to spark students’ inquiry. As part of PBI Global, students will ask a compelling question; gather and analyze sources; creatively synthesize claims and evidences; critically evaluate and revise; and share, publish, and act (see Figure 1).Students will work in six-person teams with three members from each school. The collaborative inquiry portion of this project will last four weeks in spring 2020 and spring 2021. Students’ inquiry will culminate with a PBI Global showcase at the end of the four weeks at which students will also engage in collective action to bring awareness to UN SDG six.Figure 1: PBI Global model With students, researchers will be analyzing how the PBI Global inquiry process supports student science content knowledge and how PBI Global influences students’ motivation and engagement. To measure these constructs, the students will take a multiple choice pre-/post-assessment on water and sanitation science content knowledge with items taken from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) 2061 Science Assessment Item Bank. Students will also take a pre-/post-survey on factors that affect student motivation and engagement during inquiry using Brett Jones’ MUSIC Inventory. Researchers will also lead before, during, and after focus groups with students, examining expectations for and experiences with PBI Global. Post-PBI Global, the researchers will analyze students’ multimodal learning products using an established rubric.Through this study, the researchers seek to advance both theory and practice of interdisciplinary learning through developing improved inquiry-based instructional materials and researching impacts on teachers and students. Moreover, the researchers aim to better understand how inquiry-based learning can promote high levels of science achievement and find broad application across multiple disciplines.Websites / URLs Associated with Your Session: www.fi.ncsu.eduwww.newlit.orgwww.pbi-global.comSee More

          

Sampai Bila Buta Begini? Kaji Perancangan Musuh.

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Hasil carian imej untuk Apabila umat Islam tak kenal musuh
Apabila umat Islam tak kenal musuh 
-MUHAMMAD MUJAHID IR HJ MOHAMMAD FADZIL
Hasil carian imej untuk Apabila umat Islam tak kenal musuh
PENTINGNYA mengkaji perancangan musuh 

Sebelum ini saya ada ceritakan tentang dua sunnah Nabi S.A.W yang diabaikan oleh umat Islam hari ini iaitu perisikan dan kewaspadaan. Kali ini ingin saya tekankan berkenaan cabang kepada sunnah Nabi ini.

(1) Cabang yang dimaksudkan ialah mengkaji strategi dan kekuatan musuh. Ia merupakan salah satu daripada cabang perisikan. Nabi S.A.W dalam proses berhijrah, Nabi S.A.W menghantar Abdullah bin Abu Bakar R.A.  

Tujuan Baginda S.A.W mengutuskannya tidak lain dan tidak bukan, untuk mengkaji dan meneliti pergerakan serta perancangan pembesar Makkah. Beliau juga berperanan mengkaji suasana politik Makkah ketika itu. 

(2)     Di dalam artikel sebelum ini juga saya ada menceritakan tentang kumpulan-kumpulan perisikan Rasulullah S.A.W khususnya dalam peperangan. Menunjukkan betapa pentingnya mengkaji kekuatan musuh. 

(3)     Di dalam kitab al Munqiz Minad Dholal  (المنقذ من الضلال), Imam Ghazali R.A mengkritik para Ulamak Mutakallimin yang cuba menyanggah Ahli Falsafah dengan sanggahan yang tidak jelas 

Mereka hanya sekadar menyanggah dengan istilah yang tidak difahami oleh masyarakat awam. Apatah lagi mereka yang baru nak merangkak untuk memahami falsafah, lebih sukar untuk memahami sanggahannya. 

Justeru, beliau menyatakan bahawa:


فعلمت أن رد المذهب قبل فهمه والإطلاع على كنهه رمى في عماية 


"Lalu aku sedar bahawa menyanggah sesuatu aliran itu sebelum memahaminya  dan meneliti intipatinya terlebih dahulu, seperti memanah dalam keadaan mata tertutup".



Siri-siri teguran buat umat Islam dan gerakannya 

(1)     Antara kelemahan Umat Islam hari ini apabila mereka tidak kenal musuh. Perkara ini mendorong Fathi Yakan mengarang buku Bahtera Penyelamat Dalam Kehidupan Pendakwah. Ia dimulai dengan menceritakan tentang musuh. 

(2)     Selain itu, beberapa Ulamak turut mengarang buku-buku yang berbentuk teguran terhadap ahli-ahli gerakan Islam. Antaranya Syeikh Yusof al Qaradhawi dalam kitabnya 'Di Mana Silapnya'  (أين الخلل). 

(3)     Apabila munculnya kebangkitan yang hanya berlandaskan semangat dan sentimen beliau mengarang kitab bersiri الصحوة الاسلامية, antaranya kitab yang masyhur الصحوة الاسلامية من المراهقة إلى الرشد. 

(4)     Apabila melihat kepincangan dalam organisasi gerakan Islam, Fathi Yakan mengarang أبجديات التصور الحركي للعمل الإسلامي 

(5)     Begitu juga apabila melihat penyakit jiwa yang melanda ahli gerakan Islam, Sayyid Nuh mengarang آفات على الطريق 

(6)     Apabila melihat kelemahan Umat Islam tidak bersikap realiti terhadap semasa dan keperluan masyarakat, Syeikh Abul Hassan Ali An Nadawi mengarang كي لا نمضي بعيداً عن إحتياجات العصر 

(7)     Ketika projek penjajahan Barat terhadap ekonomi dunia, Syed Qutb mengarang kitab معركة الاسلام والرأسمالية dan ketika dunia berhadapan dengan krisis penjajahan, beliau mendedahkan perancangan Barat dalam bukunya السلام العالمى والاسلام 

Banyak lagi karya-karya para Ulamak yang membahaskan tentang inti gerakan Islam. Malangnya Umat Islam masih ada yang memperleceh usaha usaha ini dengan sindiran dan falasi. 

Tokoh Islam dan gerakannya kadangkala terjerat 

Penulisan-penulisan mereka sangat berkait rapat dengan pertentangan idealogi. Sepertimana yang dikatakan oleh Imam Ghazali di awal tadi tentang keperluan untuk mengkaji idealogi musuh 

Ini kerana apabila kita mengenal idealogi mereka, kita tidak akan terjerat dengan perancangan dan strategi halus mereka, insyaAllah. Betapa halusnya perancangan mereka sehingga kadang kadang tokoh gerakan Islam sendiri ada yang terkandas. 

(1)     Antaranya tokoh gerakan Islam di Timur Tengah yang masyhur iaitu Syeikh Mustafa al-Siba’ie (1915-1964) pernah menulis sebuah buku berjudul Ishtirakiyyah al-Islam  اشتراكية الاسلام (Sosialis Islam). 

Tajuk buku tersebut telah menjadi kontroversi di kalangan ahli Gerakan Islam yang lain seperti Sayyid Qutb dan Abul A'la al-Maududi. Walau bagaimanapun, isinya tiada masalah. 

Setelah cetakan kedua buku tersebut, Syeikh Mustafa al-Siba’ie mula melihat kesan buruk istilah yang digunakan oleh beliau. Lalu beliau menyatakan kekesalannya terhadap tajuk bukunya kepada Syeikh Muhammad al-Ghazali 

Syeikh Muhammad al Ghazali menukilkan cerita ini di dalam bukunya الدعوة الاسلامية في القرن الحالى. Begitulah betapa seninya serangan idealogi terhadap Umat Islam yang lebih menuntut kepada kita untuk mengkajinya. 

(2)     1979 menyaksikan Revolusi Iran menggambarkan betapa kebangkitan Islam itu sudah mula sinarnya. Di ketika itu, gerakan-gerakan Islam seperti Ikhwan Muslimin Syria mula 'terkesima' dengan kebangkitan itu. 

Tidak sedikit ulamak Gerakan Islam yang menceritakan kehebatan kebangkitan ini, termasuk beberapa individu dalam PAS sendiri. Namun pandangan Imam Sa'id Hawwa R.A dalam hal ini agak berlainan. 

Beliau mengarang الخمينية شذوذ في العقائد وشذوذ في المواقف pada 1987. Beliau mendedahkan Revolusi Iran ini merupakan kebangkitan idealogi Khomeinism yang membawa kepada kesesatan aqidah, agar Umat Islam tidak tersilau. 

Hari ini bukan zaman 'The Golden Age Of Islam'

Para Ulamak Gerakan yang disenaraikan di atas, rata-rata berhadapan dengan rencam ketebalan Sekularism. Dalam masa yang sama masing-masing berhadapan dengan realiti serangan pemikiran. 

Musuh menyerang Islam dengan serangan idealogi bagi menggantikan Imperialism yang sepatutnya sudah lapuk. Masing-masing hidup subur setelah kejatuhan Khilafah Uthhmaniah. 

(1)     Zaman ketiadaan khalifah tidak sama dengan zaman 'Golden Age Of Islam'  di Baghdad satu ketika dahulu. 

(2)     Zaman para Ulamak mencari sanad dan hadis satu ketika dahulu tidak sama dengan hari ini, zaman pembukuan hadis. 

(3)     Zaman kegemilangan Uthmaniah di era Sultan Muhammad al Fateh (1432-1481) tidak sama dengan era khalifah makan dedak di era 18 dan 19 an. 

Di dalam sejarah Islam selepas kewafatan Baginda S.A.W, ada dua zaman ketiadaan khalifah, iaitu; 

(1)     1258-1299 selepas kejatuhan Abbasiah sehinggalah kemunculan Khilafah Turki Uthmaniah. 

(2)     Selepas kejatuhan Uthmaniah pada 1924, sehingga sekarang. 

Perbezaan zaman menunjukkan prioriti juga berbeza. Kalau hari ini Umat Islam dijajah, hak-hak orang Islam dirampas, tetapi ada segelintir orang Islam yang menghabiskan staminanya berbahas bab qunut seolah-olah hidup di zaman Golden Age Of Islam. 

Palestin dijajah secara 'rasmi', Sudan yang sedang dihuru-harakan, Libya dan Iraq yang sedang usaha campur tangan kuasa luar, Syria yang sedang bergolak, Somalia yang dikerat kerat, tetapi Umat Islam masih lagi sibuk bercakaran bab mazhab. 

Sebab itulah manhaj ilmu zaman Abu Mansur al Maturidi dan Imam Abu Hassan al Asy'ari tidak sama dengan Ibn Timiyyah, Syeikh al Izz Ibn Abdus Salam dan Imam Ibn Kathir. 

Kita bukan hidup di zaman Abrahah


Setiap zaman mempunyai dimensinya yang berbeza-beza. Kita boleh faham melalui; 

(1)     Muqaddimah Kitab الرحيق المختوم yang dikarang oleh Syeikh Sofiurrahman al Mubarakfuri. Di awal kitabnya, beliau menceritakan suasana geopolitik dunia ketika itu. 

Iaitu bagaimana suasana dunia ketika kelahiran Nabi S.A.W. Dunia yang dikuasai oleh Rom dan Parsi, serta latar belakang masyarakat Makkah yang tersesat, setelah kewafatan Nabi Ibrahim A.S. 

(2)     Dr Raghib as Sarjani antara ulamak kontemporari mengarang kitab ringkas yang bertajuk لسنا في زمان أبرهة (kita bukan di zaman Abrarah). Di dalam kitab ini menceritakan tentang kisah penjajahan Abrahah terhadap Mekah. 

Abrarah menceroboh Makkah yang dipimpin oleh Abd Mutalib untuk menghancurkan Kaabah. Dalam pencerobohan itu, mereka merampas 200 ekor unta Abd Mutalib. Lalu Abd Mutalib bertemu Abrarah menuntut untanya dikembalikan. 

Abrarah terkejut bagaimana seorang pimpinan hanya memikirkan tentang untanya dan tidak langsung memikirkan tentang Kaabah yang hendak dimusnahkan? Apabila ditanya, Abd Mutalib menjawab: 

أنا رب الإبل، وإنللبيت رباً سيمنعه 

Aku adalah tuan kepada unta, manakala Kaabah itu ada tuannya! 

Ya, zaman tersebut apabila ada kuasa luar ingin hancurkan Kaabah, Allah S.W.T akan melindunginya. Begitu juga zaman para Anbiya sebelumnya, apabila mereka berdoa kepada Allah S.W.T, Allah S.W.T turunkan bantuan. 

Doa Nabi Nuh A.S di dalam Surah al Qamar ayat 10, Doa Nabi Lut A.S di dalam Surah asy Syu'ara 169, begitu juga doa Nabi Musa A.S. Doa-doa ini terus dikabulkan oleh Allah S.W.T dengan mendatangkan pertolongan. 

Tetapi untuk Umat Muhammad S.A.W pada hari ini Allah S.W.T menetapkan bahawa pertolongan itu bukan percuma;



إن تنصروا الله ينصركم، ويثبت أقدامكم 

"Sekiranya kamu membantu agama Allah S.W.T, Allah S.W.T akan membantu kamu dan meneguhkan tapak pendirian kamu. 

(Muhammad: 7)



Apabila Umat Islam tidak kenal musuh 

Apabila kita melihat realiti Umat Islam hari ini, hidup dalam keadaan ketiadaan pemerintahan Islam yang berpusat dan negara-negara yang majoriti Umat Islam sedang di'hijack'  untuk kepentingan Barat. 

Anak-anak muda Islam yang ter'Barat' dengan idealogi sesat, ter'kuning' dengan budaya songsang dan sebagainya. Malangnya Umat Islam masih belum mengenal musuh dan buta terhadap perancangan mereka.

(1)     Kejatuhan Uthmaniah yang sepatutnya menjadi pengajaran apabila Uthmaniah menjadikan musuh sebagai kawan, dan dedak musuh dijadikan makanan, maka sangat rasional kalau khilafah itu tumbang. 

(2)     Bangsa Arab yang termakan dengan hasutan musuh akhirnya meletakkan diri mereka di atas papan catur yang dimainkan oleh kuasa-kuasa besar yang sedang mengintai peluang. 

Bangsa Arab tidak kenal musuh sehinggakan membiarkan British membawa masuk Israel ke dalam Palestin 1917 kerana ketika itu sedang fanatik terhadap Nasionalism Arab mengkritik Uthmaniah. 

Apabila ditanyakan persoalan kenapa Umat Islam sering terjerat dengan jerat musuh? Jawapannya mudah, kerana Umat Islam sendiri tak kenal siapa musuh, apatah lagi perancangannya. 

Justeru, pengkajian tentang perancangan musuh jangan dipandang sebelah mata. Selain daripada tak kenal musuh, Umat Islam tersilap mengenal musuh. Realitinya ialah, kawan dianggap musuh, musuh dianggap kawan. 

Boleh lihat apabila dengan gereja dan non-Muslim, boleh nampak mesra riang ria. Tetapi dengan ahli gerakan Islam dimusuhi, di'pengganas'kan, dikafirkan dan dihukum gantung. Mana musuh mana kawan? 

Prinsip 20: Bekalan menghadapi serangan Idealogi 

Kita juga boleh lihat beberapa buku gerakan Islam yang menentang idealogi sesat. Prinsip 20 antaranya yang sarat dengan fikrah Islam bagi berhadapan dengan idealogi songsang. 

(1)     Contohnya prinsip pertama menggariskan prinsip fikrah Islam bagi berhadapan dengan Sekularism yang menebal. 

(2)     Prinsip yang kedua menggariskan prinsip bagi berhadapan golongan Rasionalism, Exiatentialism, Empirisisme dan sebagainya. 

(3)     Apabila kita mengkaji sejarah zaman kegelapan Kristian kurun ke 4-14 Masihi, kita akan dapati Usul yang ketiga, keempat dan keenam seolah-olah menggariskan prinsip supaya umat Islam tidak tercopy-paste  budaya Kristian. 

(4)     Prinsip yang kelima, ketujuh, kelapan dan kesembilan, kesepuluh, kesebelas dan kedua belas, jelas menunjukkan bahawa Imam Hassan al Banna mengikuti perkembangan strategi musuh melagakan Umat Islam. 

Dan begitulah juga prinsip-prinsip yang lain sehinggalah prinsip yang kedua puluh. Setiap prinsip ditulis selari dengan realiti semasa Umat Islam pasca kejatuhan Uthmaniah, sehinggalah ke hari ini. 

Apa yang dihairankan apabila ahli gerakan Islam ada masih terkeliru antara Sifat 20 dan Usul 20. Ada pula pimpinan gerakan Islam yang pernah berucap di pentas menyatakan keterujaannya 'menemui' Usul 20. 

Seolah-olah Usul 20 adalah sesuatu yang baru dalam hidupnya. Golongan tradisionalis pula ada yang meng'wahhabi'kan Usul 20 dan menganggap usrah yang merupakan sunnah Nabi S.A.W itu sebagai medan menafsirkan al-Quran dengan akal. 

Sampai bilakah kita harus terbuta sebegini? - HARAKAHDAILY 4/11/2019




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