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Ethiopians, often refugees themselves, welcome newcomers, cardinal says

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Ethiopia is now managing nearly a million refugees from South Sudan, Somalia, Eritrea, Sudan, Yemen and even Syria, said Ethiopian Cardinal Berhaneyesus Souraphiel. Because so many Ethiopians are refugees, those who remain in the country work to make newcomers feel welcome.
          

South Sudan bishops: Pope's peace gesture should not be in vain (Fides)

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The nation of 10.2 million (map), most of whose people are animist or Christian, gained independence from largely Muslim Sudan in 2011. The South Sudanese Civil War began in 2013; the war has left...
          

Irish nun, winner of State Department award, promotes girls' education in South Sudan (Vatican News)

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In March, Sister Orla Treacy received the US State Department's International Woman of Courage Award.
          

AP journalist’s expulsion another blow to press freedom in South Sudan

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News
Reporters Without Borders (RSF) is concerned by the recent expulsion of AP journalist Sam Mednick from South Sudan following the Media Authority’s decision to revoke her press pass. Mednick was one of very few foreign print journalists working in the country. The move is the latest blow to press freedom in South Sudan, where impunity continues for the killing of at least 10 journalists during the country’s ongoing civil war, including British-American freelance journalist Christopher Allen.

Canadian journalist Sam Mednick has been forced to leave South Su


          

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World: More than 52 million people across Africa going hungry as weather extremes hit the continent [EN/AR]

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Source: Oxfam
Country: World, Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Millions displaced; women, girls hit hardest; crises compounded by conflicts, poverty and inequality; $700m average climate-related losses; urgent action needed now

More than 52 million people in 18 countries across southern, eastern and central Africa are facing up to crisis levels of hunger as a result of weather extremes, compounded by poverty and conflict.

Some areas are facing a second extreme drought in four years and worse than that sparked by El Nino in 1981.

In the South, parts of Zimbabwe have had their lowest rainfall since 1981 which has helped push more than 5.5m people into extreme food insecurity. Zambia’s rich maize-growing area has been decimated and exports are now banned; 2.3m people there are food insecure. The situation is worsening including in Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar, Namibia and Zimbabwe. There are reports of farmer suicides in South Africa.

Drought has also hit the East and Horn of Africa particularly Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. At the same time, record-breaking temperatures in the Indian Ocean have dumped ultra-heavy rainfalls into Kenya and South Sudan, causing flash-flooding especially along major river arteries. South Sudan has declared a state of emergency with more than 900,000 people hit by floods.

In Africa extreme weather events have hit many countries already suffering from ongoing conflict. Across the continent, 7.6 million people were displaced by conflict in the first six months of 2019, and another 2.6 million by extreme weather. In the Horn, Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan have simultaneously faced over 750 000 people displaced by conflict and 350 000 displaced by extreme weather.

Scientists have demonstrated how climate change is increasing the frequency or severity of many extreme weather events. Over the last decade, these 18 African countries have collectively suffered average annual losses of $700m from climate-related disasters– and this is without counting the cost of these latest crises, says Oxfam. However, there has been minimal progress globally in raising funds specifically to address loss and damage from climate change. Africa contributes less than 5% of total global emissions but is suffering some of the most severe impacts of the climate crisis.

Officials will meet at the African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN) in Durban Nov 11-15 to discuss the future of Africa’s “environmental sustainability and prosperity”. Oxfam urges ministers to demand that industrial nations honor their promises to avoid escalating human and financial costs and to pay for damages.

“We are witnessing millions of already poor people facing extreme food insecurity and exhausting their reserves because of compounding climate shocks that hit already vulnerable communities hardest. They need help urgently. The scale of the drought devastation across southern Africa is staggering,” said Oxfam’s Southern Africa Regional Director Nellie Nyang'wa.

“In western Kenya, the crop harvest is 25% down and in parts of Somalia up to 60%. Livestock in many rural areas are emaciated and milk production is down. Cereal prices in some areas have rocketed up to five-year highs, pricing out poorer people. Nearly 7m people in the region are living just below the catastrophic hunger line,” said Oxfam’s Horn, East and Central Africa regional director Lydia Zigomo. “It is a vicious cycle where poor and marginalized communities, mostly women and girls, are more exposed to the climate crisis and less able to cope and recover from its harm.”.

Mithika Mwenda, chief executive of Oxfam’s partner PACJA, said “communities at the frontline of this climate crisis are overstretched and may be facing potential annihilation. But local people are doing everything that can to overcome the challenge. There are unprecedented levels of organization happening where governments have let local people down.”

“We’re seeing people trying to cope with shifting seasons and erratic rainfall by finding new ways to make a living off-farm. Women are coming together to pool their resources through small internal lending communities, buying food together, growing sweet potatoes instead of maize – all without outside support. Local people have the solutions but what they lack is resources, especially funding.

“Our leaders should look to support these community solutions to build up people’s resilience to climate change. For 35 years AMCEN has been a very important platform with impactful policies that have helped to create awareness of environmental sustainability. It needs to move away now from policy making to policy implementation.”

Oxfam is currently reaching more than 7 million people in ten of the hardest hit countries with food and water support, and long-term development projects to help people cope better with climate-related shocks. Oxfam plans to reach 10% of those most in need in these ten countries and is trying to raise $65m to do so.

Oxfam is calling on African ministers at the AMCEN meeting to:
• Insist rich industrialised countries decrease their CO2 emissions in line with the Paris Agreement's goal of limiting global heating to below 1.5C, and honour their commitment to mobilise $100bn a year by 2020 to fund climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts in developing countries;
• Demand governments agree to develop a new funding mechanism for “loss and damage” from climate change at the upcoming UN climate conference (COP25);
• Invest more into universal, high-quality and gender-responsive public services and strengthen tax systems in African countries to close the gap between rich and poor;
• Improve their disaster warning and management systems, and commit to re-greening and agricultural policies that target women and men small-scale farmers;
• Invest in “social accountability” projects that ensures climate finance can reach the communities that need it most, and empowering them in their own decision-making
• Engage women and girls in the planning, design and implementation of early warning systems and climate mitigation and adaptation programs
• Protect people who are forced to move so that they are able to do so in safety, dignity and on their own terms.

CONTACTS
• Spokespersons available. To arrange for interviews contact:
• At the AMCEN event in Durban: Asanda Ngoasheng; Oxfam South Africa Media Lead: Asanda.Ngoasheng@oxfam.org.za +27826109374
• Nesrine Aly; Global Media Lead: nesrine.aly@oxfam.org +447503989838; +201222486964

Note to editors
The 18 African countries analysed are Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Oxfam’s estimate of economic damages from climate-related disasters is based on figures from EM-DAT: The Emergency Events Database: www.emdat.be. Oxfam's estimate of displacement from extreme weather events and from conflict if based on figure from IDMC : Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre: http://www.internal-displacement.org/

In 2013, CoP agreed to establish the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage which outlines the responsibility of rich developed nations to help communities overcome the loss and damage from climate disasters. Since then, zero progress has been made in ensuring financial support for loss and damage to these communities.

Oxfam is responding to the humanitarian needs in Ethiopia, DRC, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. For more details please check Oxfam.org


          

World: Knowledge for Children in Africa: 2019 Publications Catalogue

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Source: UN Children's Fund
Country: Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Foreword

Every year, UNICEF and partners generate a wealth of evidence on the situation of children in Africa. Knowledge and evidence are essential to informing the development, implementation, and monitoring of relevant policies and programmes for the realization of children’s rights. To this end, UNICEF Regional Directors in Africa are pleased to present the 2019 edition of the Knowledge for Children in Africa Publications Catalogue.

The 2019 edition of the catalogue features 107 reports and studies on the situation of children, young people, and women in Africa. These publications represent the collective knowledge generated by UNICEF Country and Regional Offices during the year, and capture the work of UNICEF and partners to support the rights and well-being of children across the continent.
The publications cover a wide range of topics. Publications are listed under the following categories:

  • Child Poverty
  • Child Protection
  • Child-Sensitive Social Protection
  • Education and Early Childhood Development
  • Financing for Development: Public Finance for Children
  • HIV and AIDS
  • Humanitarian Action, Resilience and Peacebuilding
  • Maternal, Newborn and Child Health
  • Nutrition
  • Situation Analysis and Socioeconomic Development
  • Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

Many of the publications are, or will be, available online. The entry for each study or report includes a short description, as well as information on the authors and contributors, planned publication date, and contact details for obtaining additional information.
Evidence plays a critical role in shaping successful initiatives in support of children and women.
We sincerely hope that you will find the publications listed in this catalogue to be a helpful resource for evidence-based decision making and programming.

Ted Chaiban Regional Director UNICEF Middle East and North Africa

Mohamed Malick Fall Regional Director UNICEF Eastern and Southern Africa

Marie-Pierre Poirier Regional Director UNICEF West and Central Africa


          

Mali: WHO AFRO Outbreaks and Other Emergencies, Week 44: 28 October - 3 November 2019 Data as reported by: 17:00; 3 November 2019

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Source: World Health Organization
Country: Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, South Sudan, Togo, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia

Overview

This Weekly Bulletin focuses on public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 68 events in the region. This week’s main articles cover key new and ongoing events, including:

  • Measles in Lesotho

  • Hepatitis E in Namibia

  • Humanitarian crisis in Mali

  • Ebola virus disease in Democratic Republic of the Congo.

For each of these events, a brief description, followed by public health measures implemented and an interpretation of the situation is provided.

A table is provided at the end of the bulletin with information on all new and ongoing public health events currently being monitored in the region, as well as recent events that have largely been controlled and thus closed.

Major issues and challenges include:

  • The hepatitis E outbreak first identified in Namibia in December 2017 continues, despite response efforts made to date to halt ongoing transmission of the virus. The major drivers of the outbreak remain the same, limited access to safe drinking water, inadequate sanitation and poor personal and food safety practices. Novel initiatives are therefore needed to address the outbreak such as finalising the review of the relevance and feasibility of a vaccination intervention. There is also a need to sustain conventional control activities, particularly in the informal settlements, and strengthen surveillance and coordination mechanisms in all the affected areas.

  • The humanitarian situation in Mali remains complex and volatile. The number of IDPs has continued to rise as a result of the deteriorating security context and the impact of floods experienced earlier in the year. As well as supporting the immediate needs of the population, the resilience of the health system to epidemics and public health emergencies needs to be reinforced.
    Furthermore, local and international authorities and partners must continue to advocate for peace in the region in order to relieve the suffering of this vulnerable population.


          

Democratic Republic of the Congo: République démocratique du Congo : Perspectives sur la sécurité alimentaire - octobre 2019 à mai 2020

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Source: Famine Early Warning System Network
Country: Angola, Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, South Sudan

Démarrage normal de la saison agricole A à l’Est de la RDC favorisé par une pluviométrie normale

MESSAGES CLÉS

  • Les nouveaux affrontements entre milices armés dans les hauts plateaux de Minembwe et d’Itombwe au Sud-Kivu ont exacerbé la dégradation de la situation humanitaire et occasionné des nouvelles vagues de déplacement des populations, soit environ 3 300 personnes entre le 27 et 29 septembre 2019. Ce regain de violence dans les hauts plateaux affectera aussi bien les ménages qui auront un accès limité à leurs sources de revenus que les humanitaires qui éprouveront des difficultés pour acheminer leur assistance aux vulnérables.

  • Les précipitations normales au démarrage de la saison agricole A sur l’ensemble de la partie Est du pays ont permis un démarrage effectif de la saison agricole A avec le semis des principaux vivriers comme le maïs, l’arachide et le haricot. Par ailleurs, les précipitations au-dessus de la normale dans le Maniema ont causé d’importants dégâts matériels et destruction des stocks alimentaires des ménages avec environ 2000 habitations détruites. Ceci présage d’une baisse des récoltes en fin de campagne.

  • Pendant que la Maladie à Virus Ebola (MVE) semble être maitrisée par les équipes de riposte dans les zones affectées (Beni et Lubero), avec l’implication des communautés, on note par ailleurs des projections négatives, pour le choléra dans 21 provinces sur les 26 que compte la RDC. Ce qui laisse craindre une flambée de l’épidémie dans les prochains mois. On compte depuis janvier 2019, 21 600 cas de choléras enregistrés avec une létalité globale de 2 pourcents. Cette situation nécessite une veille épidémiologique efficace.

  • Durant cette période de scenario qui va alterner les pics de soudure et les périodes de récoltes, et tenant compte de la faible performance des campagnes précédentes qui ont réduit la durée des stocks d’environ 2 mois, la situation de la sécurité alimentaire sur l’ensemble de la partie Est du pays sera marqué par des zones de Crise (Phase 3 de l’IPC) notamment dans les Kasaï, le Tanganyika, le Nord Kivu et l’Ituri jusqu’à janvier 2020. En fin de récolte des saisons A et B au debut de mars 2020, la situation alimentaire dans ces zones pourrait s’améliorer et passer en Stress (Phase 2 de l’IPC).


          

Africa: Refugee Camps Versus Urban Refugees - What's Been Said - and Done

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[The Conversation Africa] Tens of cities in Africa, such as Johannesburg, Dar es Salaam and Kampala are overwhelmed by an inflow of people fleeing conflicts in different parts of the continent. In particular people living in Mali, Somalia and South Sudan flee their home countries to seek safety.
          

Africa: Africa Must Not Watch South Sudan Descend Into War

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[East African] South Sudan citizens are, once again, suspended between fear and hope as Dr Riek Machar, the vice-president designate under the September 2018 compromise peace and power sharing agreement, dithers on his anticipated return to Juba.
          

UN policewoman recognized for ‘speaking up and speaking out’ on behalf of the vulnerable

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INTERNATIONAL, 5 November 2019, Peace and Security - At the core of peacekeeping lies the notion of shared responsibility, the UN peacekeeping chief said on Tuesday, presenting this year’s award for Female Police Officer of the Year, to a woman who “has made a career of speaking up and speaking out on behalf of all vulnerable populations”.

Police Major Seynabou Diouf has worked “tirelessly with her colleagues inside and outside the Mission to empower women, improve conduct, enhance protection, strengthen performance, and thereby build sustainable peace”, Jean-Pierre Lacroix, Peace Operations chief, told the heads of UN police and police experts from 14 peacekeeping operations, gathered at the award ceremony at UN Headquarters in New York.

Major Diouf is one of over 1,400 female police officers serving under the UN flag, carrying out a complex range of tasks – from capacity-building and reform, to community-oriented policing, investigations, protection of civilians, and prevention of sexual and gender-based violence.

“That is impressive enough”, asserted Mr. Lacroix, “but they also provide the added value of gender perspectives and mainstreaming at all levels and at all phases of engagement with host-State institutions and communities”.

He cited examples in South Sudan where female officers are helping women and youth attain better living conditions within and outside camps for the internally displaced; the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) where they are helping to build capacity and accountability in internal security forces; and Mali by promoting confidence-building between citizens and the reconstituted internal defence and security forces.

“Our female officers are also operating in areas affected by the Ebola virus disease, ensuring the required level of security for relief and humanitarian operations”, he maintained.

And female officers are a key element in the sensitization and delivery of training on sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) throughout all UN Missions.

“As part of female police officers’ networks, such as the one Major Diouf leads in MONUSCO [UN Stabilization Mission in the DRC], they help prevent, counter and investigate SEA-related offences, advancing the Organization’s zero-tolerance policy”, elaborated the peacekeeping chief. He congratulated Major Diouf “for her outstanding service” to the UN Nations and Congolese people and stated that “all UN police officers in the field and at the UN Headquarters are inspired” by her example to uphold the core values of the Organization.

Previous Awardees
  • 2018: Chief Supt. Phyllis Osei, Ghana, UNSOM
  • 2017: Assistant Inspector Annah Chota, Zimbabwe, UNISFA
  • 2016: Supt. Yvette Boni Zombre, Burkina Faso, MINUSCA
  • 2015: Chief Supt. Raluca Domuta, Romania, MINUSTAH
  • 2014: Inspector Shakti Devi, India, UNAMA
  • 2013: Commissioner Codou Camara, Senegal, MINUSTAH
  • 2012: Constable Rezi Danismend, Turkey, UNMIL
  • 2011: Deputy Supt. Shahzadi Gulfam, Pakistan, UNMIT

Mr. Lacroix also thanked her family for supporting her and making sacrifices during her long deployments. “The more women we have in peacekeeping, the more effective we all will be”, he concluded.

Going the extra mile

Top UN Police Adviser, Luis Carrilho, spoke about Major Diouf’s experience, noting that in her native Senegal she became the first female police officer to be honoured as a Gardien de la Paix, which was previously reserved for male officers.

“Since early in her career, she has shown her determination to make the extra effort, go the extra mile, to achieve her goals”, he spelled out, flagging that as the team leader of an SEA task force in Goma and president of the UNPOL Women’s Network, “she has demonstrated her commitment to giving women a voice and putting an end to SEA”.

“Her efforts have helped the mission to achieve zero SEA cases in 2018, compared to 140 cases between 2016 and 2017”, he attested, calling her “an incredible force for good in our ongoing efforts to root out SEA and ensure UN personnel at all levels perform to the highest standards”.

Motivated to do more

When Major Diouf learned that she had been selected to receive the award, she said she was proud, but also “humble to be recognized for something that has become almost second nature” to her and her life’s work.

“When I was young, I wanted to be a medical doctor but there was an urgent need to help support my family”, she told those assembled. “Being a police officer in the early years of female recruitment provided recognition and a decent salary, but it also allowed me to contribute to society in ways I had never thought possible”.

With this new accolade, Major Diouf says she now feels “motivated to do more” and will continue “to promote women's rights, speak out against sexual and gender-based violence, and fight marginalization and discriminatory customary and religious practices targeted at women and girls”.

UN Photo/Douglas Coffman
Police Commissioner Luis Carrilho looks on as UN Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Jean-Pierre Lacroix, shakes the hand of Major Seynabou Diouf, UN Female Police Officer of the Year. (5 November 2019)

          

Ebola emergency chief decries new attacks on frontline staff, after DR Congo worker death

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INTERNATIONAL, 4 November 2019, Health - Security measures for staff helping to fight health emergencies need to be stepped up urgently, a UN health agency top official said on Monday, after a frontline Ebola epidemic community worker was reportedly stabbed to death at his home in northeast Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).

Speaking at a public event in Geneva, Dr Mike Ryan from the World Health Organization (WHO), said that in his 25-year humanitarian career, violence carried out deliberately against health workers and hospitals had never been so bad.

The “overwhelming impact” had been on local health workers, not international staff, Dr Ryan told a Geneva Peace Week event, in his capacity as Director of WHO’s Health Emergencies Programme.

Despite the risks of working in insecure locations, “one doesn’t really have a choice but to go, as the epidemic will continue to spread and intensify like a fire if it’s not put out”, he said. “It does put our workers at the extreme edge of risk.”

Echoing Dr Ryan’s message of sympathy, WHO Regional Director for Africa, Dr Matshidiso Moeti tweeted her condolences to the family and friends of the worker killed in DRC.

In 2019 alone, there have been 862 reported attacks on healthcare workers and facilities from just 10 countries, resulting in 173 deaths and 557 significant injuries. “And that probably is a massive underestimation of the problem,” Dr Ryan insisted.

UN Photo/Martine Perret

Destroy a hospital and you destroy hope

Among the most shocking aspects of this growing trend for humanitarians was the effect it had on civilians, he added.

“One of the last hopes a community has in conflict is the ability to seek care for your children or the injured. The destruction of a health care facility is more than the destruction of a building; it tears the heart out of a community and it takes the hope away from the community, and as such its impact is much, much greater.”

In a joint UN-DRC Ministry of Health statement, both noted that the victim – who has not been officially named - also worked as a reporter at a community radio station in Lwemba, and that his partner was critically injured, suffering multiple wounds.

Two suspects have been arrested and the investigators are looking to see whether the murder is linked to the ongoing Ebola response, they added.

In Geneva, Dr Ryan also expressed his sympathies for the families of three UN Migration Agency (IOM) workers killed eight days ago near an Ebola screening point on South Sudan’s border with DRC last Wednesday.

No new information about South Sudan abductees

According to IOM, its staff were caught in crossfire during clashes between armed groups in Morobo County, in South Sudan’s Central Equatoria region.

A volunteer worker and a child were also abducted during the incident, prompting an appeal for their immediate and unconditional release by the agency, which on Monday said that it had no new information about the case.

Since 1 January, WHO has documented more than 300 attacks on health care facilities in DRC that have resulted in six deaths and 70 injuries of workers and patients.

The current Ebola outbreak, began in DRC last August, and is the most lethal in the nation’s history, although recent progress has seen cases fall. The virus has claimed more than 2,180 lives; more than 1,050 people have survived.

“It’s not just the physical attacks, it’s the harassment, it is the fear of going to work,” Dr Ryan said, highlighting the “tremendous psychological stress” on workers.

'We can't sit back and wait'

Welcoming continuing financial support among Member States including the Netherlands, Norway, Switzerland and the United States for frontline staff to operate with added security measures, he stressed too that the humanitarian community could do more to protect them.

“We can’t sit back and wait for international humanitarian law to change or political will to change,” he said. “We need to professionalize how we operate in these situations, we need to improve our security briefings for staff, we need to improve awareness among our staff…the stresses on our staff are extreme.”

He added: “We call on our donors to look positively on those costs because these are the real costs of doing business in humanitarian settings right now”.


          

SOUTH SUDAN : DMWA makes Salva Kiir backtrack on stance against prefinance deals

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The list of Africa nations in ascending order, by population VS new video of Michael Kiwanuka ‘You Ain’t The Problem’

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Djibouti Eswatini Equatorial Guinea Mauritius Guinea- Bissau Gabon Gambia Lesotho Botswana Namibia Mauritania Liberia Central African Republic Republic of The Congo Libya Sierra Leone Eritrea Togo (that’s 18 of 46 — it ends with Nigeria) South Sudan Burundi Benin (10,008,749) … Continue reading
          

SOUTH SUDAN / SUE CANTONMENT

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A joint monitoring and verification team comprised from UN officials and various South Sudan’s stakeholders found no child soldiers or abducted women at a military cantonment site located in the south west of South Sudan’s Western Equatoria area. UNMISS
          

“Peace in Sudan means peace in South Sudan”, says National Speaker

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UNESCO calls on South Sudan government to protect Journalist

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First juvenile reformatory centre inaugurated in Juba

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Officials from both the government and the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) on Wednesday inaugurated the first Juvenile Reformatory Centre (JRC) in Juba.
          

Bieh State lawmakers impeach speaker

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Lawmakers in South Sudan’s Bieh State assembly on Wednesday impeached the speaker over alleged absenteeism and misconduct.
          

Kiir, Machar arrive in Entebbe for tripartite talks

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South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir and opposition leader Riek Machar have arrived on separate flights this morning in Entebbe, Uganda.
          

Sudan arrests 17 South Sudanese officials in border town

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Authorities in Northern Upper Nile State said a number of South Sudanese employees have been arrested by Sudanese security agents since late October.
          

Kiir blames finance ministry for failure to pay MPs, civil servants

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South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir has blamed the finance ministry for the delay in payments of outstanding emoluments for MPs, constitutional post holders and civil servants.
          

South Sudan rivals urged to compromise

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A South Sudanese civil society activist said rival leaders should strike a compromise if a lasting peace process was to be achieved.
          

UN urges South Sudan warring parties to fulfill peace deal

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The U.N. Security Council is calling on South Sudan's warring parties to publicly reaffirm their commitment to fully implement a peace deal signed over a year ago that calls for a coalition government to be formed on Nov. 12
          

South Sudan rival leaders meet in Uganda for peace talks

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KAMPALA, Uganda (AP) — South Sudan President Salva Kiir and opposition leader Riek Machar have gone into a meeting in Uganda Thursday to try to salvage the peace deal designed to prevent the country from sliding back into civil war. The rival leaders have said they are not ready to form a coalition government on […]
          

South Sudan ‘Barreling Toward Crisis’: Group

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World: Opening statement at the 70th session of the Executive Committee of the High Commissioner’s Programme

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Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Mexico, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World

By Filippo Grandi, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
07 October 2019

Mr. Chairman,
Deputy Secretary-General,
Distinguished Delegates,
Ladies and Gentlemen,

The modern concept of refugee protection was born in the middle of the last century, as the world emerged from two devastating global conflicts and was preparing to enter the Cold War. Millions had been uprooted from their homes, as wars cast people adrift, empires disintegrated, borders were redrawn, and minorities and political opponents were persecuted and expelled. Ensuring the safety of those displaced, and resolving displacement, were among the earliest priorities of the United Nations.

Seven decades on, forced human displacement remains a global concern. The context is different, but the complexity remains immense. Today’s refugee crises are part of a growing flow of human mobility, driven by many overlapping elements.

Resource-based conflicts that transcend borders, shaped by a mosaic of local, regional and international interests; fueled by extremism, criminal networks and urban gangs.

Loss of hope, as global advances in prosperity, education and the fight against hunger and disease fail to reach those most in need.

Conflicts premised on ethnic and religious differences, stoked by others for political and financial gain.

Collapsing eco-systems and weather-related disasters that destroy homes and livelihoods, forcing millions further into poverty.

Damaging forms of nationalism, and hate speech that – often through cyberspace – have found a new legitimacy in public discourse.

Refugees emerge from these widening fault-lines – a warning of things going wrong. This is why tackling forced displacement calls again for a bigger, broader ambition than we have managed to muster in the recent past.

This was the vision that drove the development of the Global Compact on Refugees. Addressing refugee crises cannot be done in isolation from larger global challenges, and from effective migration policies. The two compacts – on refugees, and on safe, orderly and regular migration – were designed to complement each other, and for good reason.

Look at the Sahel – a situation of enormous complexity, where insecurity, poverty and loss of traditional livelihoods are fracturing and uprooting entire communities, across the region and beyond. Protecting refugees and the internally displaced is vital. But this must be accompanied by a deeper and wider scope of action that cuts across the political, security, migration and development spheres.

Two aspects of the Global Compact on Refugees stand out.

One is its comprehensive approach. It accelerates a long-awaited shift in responses – from a traditional humanitarian angle, as the Deputy Secretary-General said, to one that preserves the humanitarian imperative, but matches it with a broader set of tools more adapted to the dynamics of today’s refugee flows.

This means peacemaking and peacebuilding, development action and private sector investment. It means sustained, strategic support to address the root causes of refugee movements and mixed population flows. The Deputy Secretary-General has just highlighted how this dovetails with the work to bring about a UN system that can best catalyze progress collectively towards the Sustainable Development Goals. Synergies between the compact and UN reforms are therefore relevant and strong.

Also, the compact makes tangible the commitment to international solidarity that underpins the refugee protection regime, but has never been fully realised. You will hear more about this from our new Assistant High Commissioner for Protection, Gillian Triggs, whom I am happy to introduce to you today.

Securing the refugee compact – a practical, concrete tool – proved that beyond the damaging, unilateral approaches that sometimes surface, a commitment to addressing refugee flows through international solidarity still prevails. At UNHCR, we are fully committed to this effort, and we count on all of you – our closest partners – to do the same. It is possible! The Global Refugee Forum, to be convened in December in this building, will be the opportunity to showcase what has been achieved, and make fresh commitments to further progress.

Mr Chairman,

The last year has underscored why the compact is needed, and how it is starting to re-shape our collective response. Let me share my thoughts on seven related challenges.

First, while much of the discussion on forced displacement has focused on arrivals in the global North, the most profound consequences by far are in host countries in the global South. Preserving asylum there, and helping host communities, requires more substantial and sustained international support. More than four million Venezuelans, for example, have left the country, the majority taking refuge in 14 nations in Latin America and the Caribbean. Most of these states have shown commendable solidarity, despite immense pressures. Colombia’s recent decision to grant citizenship at birth to the children of Venezuelans in the country is an example, and the Quito Process is helping shape a regional approach.

Sustaining this solidarity is vital, including through support to the services, infrastructure and economy of impacted countries. I welcome the engagement of the Inter-American Development Bank, and the World Bank’s decision to extend support to Colombia – and potentially also Ecuador – through its Global Concessional Financing Facility. I urge them to accelerate their contributions. The forthcoming Solidarity Conference convened by the European Union, together with UNHCR and the International Organisation for Migration, will be an opportunity to take stock and commit more.

Second, responses to 'mixed flows' of refugees and migrants continue to generate very divisive debates. Widespread political rhetoric exploits the anxieties prevailing among those excluded from the benefits of globalization, and directs those fears towards refugees and migrants – themselves among the most disenfranchised people on the planet. Pitting exclusion against exclusion is not only cynical and immoral – it rarely offers practical solutions to either. And measures taken or invoked to reduce flows – pushbacks, externalization of asylum processing, policies of deterrence – all erode refugee protection without really addressing the root causes of mixed flows, or the challenges of integration.

These situations are enormously complex – we must recognise that. I saw this last week in Mexico, where impressive examples of refugee integration are coupled with increasing migratory pressures from the region but also from Africa. A range of actions is undoubtedly needed to address these “mixed” flows. Several are included in that region under the MIRPS, a regional framework for protection and solutions which we have promoted; and we will contribute to UN efforts to support initiatives such as a regional development plan for Mexico and northern Central America, currently being discussed. In this context, saving lives and safeguarding the dignity and rights of all those on the move must remain central, together with access to international protection for those with valid claims. There and elsewhere, legal migration pathways would help prevent the abuse of asylum systems as substitutes of migration channels.

We observe these challenges not only in northern Central America and at the southern border of the United States, but also in southern Africa, and south-east Asia. In Europe, public confidence in asylum and migration management has been diminished, and must be restored through fast and fair procedures, good migration management that avoids overloading asylum systems, and investments in integration for those with a right to stay. Cooperation between governments is needed – including on the return of those who do not qualify for international protection or other stay arrangements.

I welcome the recent decisions of four EU States to establish a temporary cooperation mechanism for disembarking those rescued in the Mediterranean, and hope that this will galvanise broader EU engagement and revitalize rescue at sea arrangements. But this must also be matched by a broader ambition – investments in addressing the root causes of refugee flows, and supporting the efforts of refugee-hosting and transit countries. UNHCR continues to evacuate the most vulnerable from Libya – efforts for which Niger and now Rwanda are providing life-saving channels. Hopefully, others will join. We work closely with the International Organisation for Migration in these efforts, as elsewhere. But these operations pose enormous dilemmas, and can only be sustained as part of a comprehensive, responsibility-sharing approach that has the preservation of life, and access to international protection as central imperatives. There, as in several other operations, UNHCR colleagues and our partners are working – let us not forget that – under extremely dangerous conditions.

Third, long-standing and recurring displacement crises continue to persist, in the absence of political solutions. And other major crises are now becoming protracted too. In this context, the compact’s emphasis on inclusion, resilience and development action – pending solutions – is critical. This year marked the fortieth anniversary of the start of the Afghan refugee crisis. Regrettably, peace efforts seem once again to have stalled. I welcome Afghanistan’s decision to apply the comprehensive refugee response model in support of its initiatives to solve displacement, but solutions remain compromised by drought, insecurity and governance failures. Just 15,000 refugees returned home last year. The hospitality displayed by Pakistan and Iran, and their work on refugee inclusion and self-reliance, as well as on legal migration and stay options, are ground-breaking, but must receive more international support while the Afghan crisis continues.

In Somalia, too, while the commitment of the government to reduce forced displacement is evident and commendable, conflict and drought are still inhibiting solutions and driving new displacement. In this context, the regional application of the comprehensive response model by IGAD helps strengthen asylum, access to rights, and refugee inclusion in health, education and national economies.

Governments in the East and Horn of Africa have been in the forefront of the application of the comprehensive refugee response model. Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya and Uganda, among others, have made enormous strides with the support of the World Bank’s expertise and financing, bilateral development support and private sector investments. These are already transforming the lives of many refugees, as well as refugee-hosting communities across the region, and proving the validity of the model enshrined in the compact. They are giving concrete meaning to the African Union’s decision to declare 2019 the year of refugees, displaced people and returnees in Africa.

Fourth, the issue of repatriation continues to be the subject of much attention. A question we are increasingly asked is – how to advance solutions, when security in countries of origin remains fragile, and there is no end of hostilities? Can people return to their home countries in the absence of political settlements?

The answer is that returns must be driven by people, not by politics. Across UNHCR’s operations, we have an ongoing dialogue with refugees on return, and on the complex factors that influence their decisions. We work with governments to help create the conditions paving the way for returns. These must be voluntary and sustainable.

Take the example of Syria. Some 200,000 Syrian refugees have returned since 2016, and over three quarters of the almost six million refugees in neighbouring countries say they hope to return one day. We must continue to be guided by their views and decisions, and provide support to those who choose to return to avoid exposing them to further hardship.

Our policy is not to stand back and wait. We work with the Government of Syria to help address barriers to return and support confidence-building measures; hoping of course that recent political advances are consolidated; and that further humanitarian crises – especially in Idlib – can be avoided through concerted action by all parties.

In the meantime, international support to asylum countries must be sustained. Their outstanding generosity, and continuous donor support have helped Syrian refugees contend with long years in exile, even in places like Lebanon where the ratio of refugees to nationals continues to be the highest in the world. The achievements are significant: last year, 1.3 million Syrian refugee children were attending school, and 110,000 work permits were issued in Jordan and Turkey. However, acute poverty and vulnerability are weighing on people’s lives, and on host communities, and inevitably influencing their decisions.

In Myanmar, too, the Government has recognised the right of refugees in Bangladesh to return, and has started an important dialogue with the refugees, to build confidence and enable informed decisions. UNHCR and UNDP are working on social cohesion projects in northern Rakhine State to help pave the way for eventual returns. These are important steps, but need to be accompanied by more visible changes on key issues of refugee concern – freedom of movement, solutions for the internally displaced, clear information on a pathway to citizenship.

A second bilateral initiative to commence repatriation in August did not result in any refugees coming forward. But it sent important messages: the door is open, and voluntariness was respected. My hope is that this can now pave the way for a more strategic approach, in which refugee voices and choices are central. UNHCR stands ready to advise and support. There, and in other places, for example with Burundian refugees in Tanzania, and Nigerian refugees in the Lake Chad region, we are available to facilitate dialogue and solutions through tripartite approaches which include UNHCR.

Fifth, and closely linked to my previous point, we need to seize opportunities to accelerate solutions. Conflicts moving towards peace are rare, but when there is a chance, we have to pursue it. In this respect, we are closely following events in Sudan and South Sudan. The political transition in Sudan and the new Government’s commitment to a peace process have important implications for hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees, and for the internally displaced. The renewed momentum in the South Sudan peace process is also encouraging. Spontaneous refugee returns to South Sudan have already surpassed 200,000, and IDP returns are also under way.

Over the last two years, UNHCR and IGAD have been promoting the inclusion of refugees and internally displaced people in the South Sudan peace process. I hope that these recent developments will pave the way to a definitive end of the cycle of violence and displacement that has blighted the lives of generations of Sudanese and South Sudanese people.

Resettlement is another solution – albeit for very few. While some countries are stepping up their programmes, the overall number of places has plummeted. I am very disappointed by this. Resettlement saves lives and offers stability to refugees who are most vulnerable and at risk. I propose that we use more deliberately our new three-year strategy to intensify resettlement efforts, and expand private sector and community involvement.

The sixth major challenge relates to our engagement with the internally displaced. At the end of 2018, over 41 million people were living in displacement in their own countries. Major IDP operations, in Iraq, Syria, Yemen, the Lake Chad Basin, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Ukraine, remain among our most politically and operationally complex – but all are among our priorities. I wish to flag in particular that together with our partners, we are responding with more resources to the Ethiopian government’s call for support to address recent large-scale internal displacement in the country.

In sum, we are trying to better align our efforts to advance solutions for refugees and IDPs, and to design our operations more effectively, in the context of inter-agency efforts. Our new policy on internal displacement reflects our firm and revitalized commitment. This places particular emphasis on protection leadership, and aligning our interventions with those of our partners.

Mr. Chairman,

A few days ago, at the start of the 74th session of the General Assembly in New York, we heard calls to accelerate our responses to the climate emergency, before it is too late. Greta Thunberg, speaking for the next generations, and António Guterres, speaking as the world’s conscience, were adamant in asking all of us to take action – now.

These calls concern us, too, as we gather here to discuss issues of forced displacement. I have just presented six key displacement-related challenges. The seventh intersects and underpins them all.

Climate-related causes are a growing driver of new internal displacement, surpassing those related to conflict and violence by more than 50%. Climate is often also a pervasive factor in cross-border displacement.

The term “climate refugee” is not based in international law, and does not reflect the more complicated ways in which climate interacts with human mobility. But the image it conveys – of people driven from their homes as an outcome of the climate emergency – has rightly captured public attention.

I am often asked how the UN refugee organization can help respond to this challenge. I wish to take this opportunity to share a few thoughts for your consideration.

For some years, UNHCR has worked to highlight relevant legal frameworks and the protection gaps resulting from cross-border displacement in the context of climate change. We will continue to help steer international discussions and the legal and normative debate in this area, including through engagement with the Platform on Disaster Displacement, and other multilateral fora.

Forced displacement across borders can stem from the interaction between climate change and disasters with conflict and violence – or it can arise from natural or man-made disasters alone. Either situation can trigger international protection needs.

In the first case, these would normally be met through recognition as a refugee under the 1951 Convention or regional refugee frameworks. In the second, temporary protection or stay arrangements, on which UNHCR has expertise, can provide flexible and speedy responses.

Even more specifically, where disaster-related displacement occurs, a strong operational response, guided by protection considerations, is often needed. Here too, UNHCR will continue to work in inter-agency contexts to support governments – building on our strong expertise in emergency responses. The Global Compact on Refugees by the way calls for preparedness measures and evidence-based forecasting, and the inclusion of refugees in disaster risk reduction strategies.

There are other considerations. Climate factors drive people out of their homes – but large-scale refugee movements – whether or not climate-induced – have themselves in turn an environmental impact, and refugees are frequently located in climate hotspots. I am determined to make these considerations more relevant to the way we prepare for and respond to refugee crises.

At UNHCR, we have worked for years to reduce the environmental impact of refugee crises through renewable energy options, reforestation activities, and access to clean fuels and technology for cooking. We have now launched a revitalized energy strategy and are improving our tools to address these challenges. Private sector partners such as the IKEA Foundation have been invaluable in helping us develop new approaches.

And finally like other organizations, we recognise that our own operational footprint has an environmental impact, and are taking action accordingly. We are working, for example, to increase energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

Mr. Chairman,

Work to respond to these challenges is made possible by the strong confidence that UNHCR continues to receive from donor partners. We expect funds available this year to reach an estimated 4.82 billion US dollars. The United States’ contribution has continued to be the most substantial, and has been decisive in many challenging situations, and for this I am very grateful. I wish to thank the European Commission and Germany for their particularly strong support; and Sweden, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Norway and the Netherlands for providing critical, substantive unearmarked funding; and of course all other donors as well.

The gap between requirements and available resources nonetheless continues to grow in absolute terms and will reach around 3.82 billion US dollars this year. Private sector income is projected to increase by 11% over last year’s figure, to 470 million US dollars. We continue to work to diversify our funding base, in the spirit of responsibility-sharing and to ensure a stable platform for our work. Most importantly, our partnership with development organizations is becoming much stronger, and is helping us find ways to target our resources in ways that leverage those bigger programmes.

I am aware that donor generosity must be matched by constant improvements in how we manage the organization. In late 2016, I initiated a reform process to ensure an agile and effective UNHCR, with country operations equipped to pursue context-driven strategies, innovate, and respond to local and regional dynamics, as part of UN Country Teams. This was the rationale for our regionalisation and decentralization process, which is giving greater authority and flexibility to country offices, helping us get closer to refugees, and front-loading support through Regional Bureaux located in their regions.

We are entering the last phase of structural changes, which will involve adjustments to Headquarters Divisions and other entities in line with the new rebalanced authorities.

Of course, transformation is not only about structures and accountabilities, and is not a one-time exercise – it is also about transforming our organisational culture, investing in the quality of work, improving and streamlining systems and processes, and creating space for innovation.

We are working on evidence-based planning, on how we describe impact, and on increasing efficiency, in line with our Grand Bargain commitments and as an active participant, as the Deputy Secretary-General noted, in broader UN reforms. I recently endorsed a Data Transformation Strategy, and the new UNHCR/World Bank Joint Data Centre will be inaugurated this week in Copenhagen by the Secretary-General – a milestone of humanitarian/development cooperation.

We also continue to embed a strong risk management culture across the organisation, and to strengthen systems and tools for preventing and responding to misconduct. This includes sexual exploitation and abuse, and sexual harassment, for which we have implemented a broad range of measures and to which I am personally committed, also as Champion for this issue in the Inter-Agency Standing Committee. There is no place in the organization for perpetrators, and we will keep survivors and victims at the center of our response.

Mr. Chairman,

In 2011, my predecessor, the Secretary-General, convened a ministerial meeting on the 60th anniversary of the 1951 Refugee Convention, and the 50th of the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness. It is fair to say that until then, the statelessness mandate had been a rather peripheral aspect of UNHCR’s work. Clearly, you didn’t see it that way. More than 60 states and regional entities came forward with pledges aimed at reducing statelessness, and that groundswell of political will and commitment became the catalyst for the #IBelong campaign, launched in 2014. Spurred on by the energy that had emerged, we decided to fix a time limit – ten years – to bring statelessness to an end.

Now, as we mark the halfway point, it’s time to take stock and renew the commitment that set us on the path towards that bold ambition. This is the aim of the High-Level Segment that will follow in a few moments, as part of this Executive Committee meeting.

When we talk about statelessness, we often find ourselves speaking of laws, documents and other technicalities. These are critical, and are where the hard work has to happen, but when we frame statelessness purely in legal terms, we lose sight of the all-encompassing blight it casts on people’s lives, pushing them to the margins of society, denying them basic rights and a sense of identity. This is an area in which – for relatively little investment – wide-reaching impact is within our reach.

Some of you, last year, were present at an EXCOM side event at which a young woman who had grown up stateless became the citizen of a country for the first time. It was a deeply emotional experience for everyone present – and that moment, more than any speech or list of pledges, captured what it means to finally belong, after years spent living on the margins. She and a number of formerly stateless people are present here today, and I encourage you to talk to them and understand what citizenship has meant to them. Their stories are what will inspire us as we move ahead.

There have been important achievements in the first half of the campaign – tackling gender discrimination in nationality laws, introducing laws to avoid childhood statelessness, and developing procedures to find solutions for people who would otherwise be stateless. Certain protracted situations were finally resolved. Fifteen states acceded to one or both of the Statelessness Conventions. Kyrgyzstan became the first State to formally announce that all known cases of statelessness on its territory had been resolved – an achievement that should inspire others. I look forward to honouring a Kyrgyz champion of this campaign, Azizbek Ashurov, at the Nansen Award ceremony this evening.

I also wish to acknowledge the work of UNICEF, UNFPA, the World Bank, and civil society and academic networks – and especially the Geneva-based ‘Friends’ of the campaign, who have been persistent in their advocacy and support. The regional preparatory meetings have been characterized by energy and commitment. I am pleased to share that we have received 171 pledges ahead of today’s event, which has also galvanised other initiatives that may become concrete pledges later.

At a time when we are asking a lot of you, this is particularly commendable. At UNHCR, we will also step up our efforts even more to achieve the ambitious collective goal of ending statelessness once and for all.

Mr Chairman,

The first Global Refugee Forum will be convened in this building in just over two months. It comes at the end of a turbulent decade, in which people and communities have been uprooted across all regions. Nobody foresaw, ten years ago, the convergence of trends and events that would lead to a doubling in the number of people forcibly displaced, and the prominence that refugee and migrant flows would assume in domestic and international politics. Addressing and resolving forced displacement has rightly emerged as an urgent priority intertwined with other 21st-century global challenges, including climate change.

The big question now is – what are we going to make of the next decade? Will it be one that sees us in retreat – turning our backs on the hard-learned lessons of the twentieth century – or one in which we will have the courage of joining forces in spite of our different perspectives and interests, embracing the challenges and opportunities of international cooperation to address the plight of exile? These are the fundamental questions that the Forum will have to tackle. I hope – of course – that it will respond by clearly showing the second way. I encourage all of you to ensure high-level representation from States, share positive experiences, and make significant and impactful commitments that will greatly improve the future of refugees and host communities.

I believe that in the Global Compact for Refugees, we have grounds for optimism. The momentum is there. We have a powerful tool that was born of a narrative of possibility. The Forum will be the occasion, I hope, to show that we do not shy away from the enormous responsibility placed on all of us – one that stems not only from the refugees and host communities looking to us for action, but also from the opportunity that we have to inspire new generations, and demonstrate, in so many practical, concrete ways, why international cooperation matters, and how it can be made to work.

Thank you.


          

World: Education Above All Foundation, World Bank Partner to Ensure Education for Two Million Out of School Children Around the World

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Source: World Bank, Education Above All
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Haiti, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Kenya, Lao People's Democratic Republic (the), Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Zambia

WASHINGTON DC, September 20, 2019 - This week, Education Above All Foundation (EAA) and the World Bank announced a ground-breaking partnership to enrol two million out of school children from more than 40 countries by 2025. During a meeting with World Bank President David Malpass, Her Highness Sheikha Moza bint Nasser, Founder and Chairperson of Education Above All Foundation, stressed the importance of this framework agreement.

The agreement commits up to $250 million in funding for developing countries striving to enable access to quality primary education for all of their still out-of-school children. Unlike traditional philanthropic efforts of organizations like EAA who usually fund local non-profits directly, this innovative funding model aims to take lessons learned in the field to scale, through direct support to participating countries with implementation, evaluation, and reporting - enabling accountability and systemic change at the national level.

Out of school children (OOSC) are among the hardest to reach in each country due to the many and often compounding barriers to education including extreme poverty, distance to school, and conflict. This new agreement calls on governments to utilise funds to prioritise out of school children by ensuring their access to quality primary education through results-based financing. The agreement highlights the importance of multi-stakeholder partnerships in supporting developing nations, in providing education for all, and meeting the UN Sustainable Development Goals, particularly SDG 4 (ensuring inclusive and quality education for all and promoting lifelong learning).

"The World Bank is committed to addressing the global learning crisis. The partnership with Education Above All is critically important in this effort. There are still too many out of school children around the globe. Together we will bring these children into school and help them learn and fulfil their potential. Learning for all is a foundation for building strong human capital for every country," said Jaime Saavedra, Global Director for Education at the World Bank.

"Our partnership with Qatar and Education Above All will play an especially important role in the Middle East and North Africa," said Ferid Belhaj, World Bank Vice President for the Middle East and North Africa. "As access to quality education is critical for the region to unlock the huge potential of its large youth population, whose energy and creativity could become a new source of dynamic and inclusive growth."

Through this new funding structure, EAA and The World Bank will support financing opportunities for resource mobilization, education advocacy, and poverty reduction in developing countries across three continents. Proposed targeted countries include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Haiti, India, Iran, Iraq, Kenya, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, and Zambia.

About Education Above All (EAA) Foundation

The Education Above All (EAA) Foundation is a global education foundation established in 2012 by Her Highness Sheikha Moza bint Nasser. The Foundation envisions bringing hope and real opportunity to the lives of impoverished and marginalized children, youth and women, especially in the developing world and in difficult circumstances such as conflict situations and natural disasters. It believes that education is the single most effective means of reducing poverty, generating economic growth and creating peaceful and just societies, as well as a fundamental right for all children and an essential condition to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). For more information, visit educationaboveall.orghttp://educationaboveall.org/.

About World Bank Group Work on Education

The World Bank Group is the largest financier of education in the developing world. We work on education programs in more than 80 countries and are committed to helping countries reach Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4, which calls for access to quality education and lifelong learning opportunities for all by 2030. In 2018, we provided about $4.5 billion for education programs, technical assistance, and other projects designed to improve learning and provide everyone with the opportunity to get the education they need to succeed. Our current portfolio of education projects totals $17 billion, highlighting the importance of education for the achievement of our twin goals, ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity.

For more information, please visit: worldbank.org/educationhttp://.worldbank.org/education educationaboveall.orghttp://www.educationaboveall.org


          

World: Global Humanitarian Overview 2019 [EN/AR/ES/FR/ZH]

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Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Aruba (The Netherlands), Bangladesh, Brazil, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Curaçao (The Netherlands), Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mexico, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

Global trends and challenges

More than 1 per cent of people across the planet right now are caught up in major humanitarian crises. The international humanitarian system is more effective than ever at meeting their needs – but global trends including poverty, population growth and climate change are leaving more people than ever vulnerable to the devastating impacts of conflicts and disasters.

Humanitarian needs are increasing despite global economic and development gains. In the past decade, the world has made profound development progress. Between 2008 and 2015, the number of people living in extreme poverty fell from 1.2 billion to 736 million. The world is also richer than ever before: global GDP rose from $63.4 trillion in 2008 to $80.7 trillion in 2017.
But in recent years, more than 120 million people each year have needed urgent humanitarian assistance and protection. There are more crises, affecting more people, and lasting longer today than a decade ago. Most humanitarian crises are not the product of any single factor or event, but of the interaction between natural hazards, armed conflict and human vulnerability.

People’s vulnerability to crises is not just about where they live, but also about how they live.
Poverty, inequality, population growth, urbanization and climate change can erode people’s resilience and make them more susceptible to shocks. Although development gains are being made, progress has been uneven. The rate of extreme poverty remains high in low-income countries and in countries affected by conflict. Crises have disproportionate consequences for the poor: people exposed to natural hazards in the poorest nations are at least seven times more likely to die from them than those in the richest nations.

Fragile and conflict-affected areas are growing faster and urbanizing more rapidly than the rest of the world

In the past five years, the world’s population has grown by 400 million people, from 7.2 billion in 2014 to 7.6 billion in 2017. Although global population growth has slowed compared with previous decades, the rate has been uneven. Today, an estimated 2 billion people live in fragile and conflict affected areas of the word, where they are extremely vulnerable to the impact of conflicts and disasters. This number is projected to increase, as the population in these areas is growing twice as fast as the rest of the world, with an annual growth rate of 2.4 per cent, compared with 1.2 per cent globally. And the urban population in fragile areas grows by 3.4 per cent each year, compared with the world average of 2 per cent. These trends can compound resource scarcity and increase vulnerability to disasters. Urban population density can also amplify the impact of disasters and conflicts. In 2017, when explosive weapons were used in populated areas, 92 per cent of casualties were civilians, compared with 20 per cent in other areas. The populations of countries affected by fragility, conflict and violence are also younger than the global average. Whereas the proportion of the world’s population under 14 years of age has been steadily declining to about 25 per cent today, the average for countries in fragile situations is 40 per cent. As a result, one in every four children in the world is living in a country affected by conflict or disaster, facing threats of violence, hunger and disease. In 2017, more than 75 million children experienced disruptions to their education because of humanitarian crises, threatening not only their present well-being, but their future prospects as well.

More people are being displaced by conflicts

By the end of 2017, war, violence and persecution had uprooted 68.5 million men, women and children around the world – the highest number on record, and nearly 10 million more people than in 2014. Just over 40 million people were internally displaced by violence within their own countries, and 25.4 million refugees and 3.1 million asylum seekers were forced to flee their countries to escape conflict and persecution. The levels of new displacements far outstrip returns or other solutions. In 2017, 5 million people returned to their areas or countries of origin, but 16.2 million people were newly displaced – an average of one person displaced every two seconds, and the highest level of new displacement on record.

The rise in forced displacement is not the result of an increase in conflicts. In fact, after peaking in 2014, the number of political conflicts worldwide decreased by about 10 per cent, from 424 in 2014 to 385 in 2017, although there are still more conflicts compared with a decade ago (328 in 2007). However, during the same period, the proportion of violent and highly violent conflicts, which are more likely to cause human suffering, destruction and displacement, increased from 53 per cent to 58 per cent of all conflicts worldwide.5 The total economic impact of conflict and violence has also increased, from $14.3 trillion in 2014 to $14.8 trillion in 2017.6 The major share of both the human and economic cost of conflicts is borne by developing countries, which host 85 per cent of refugees.


          

World: Humanitarian Funding Update October 2018 - United Nations Coordinated Appeals [EN/AR]

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Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Haiti, Indonesia, Iraq, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

United Nations-coordinated Appeals

FUNDING REQUIRED $25.20B

FUNDING RECEIVED $11.97B

UNMET REQUIREMENTS $13.23B

COVERAGE 47.5%

PEOPLE IN NEED 135.3 M

PEOPLE TO RECEIVE AID 97.9 M

COUNTRIES AFFECTED 41

Global Humanitarian Funding

FUNDING RECEIVED $17.98B

UN-COORDINATED APPEALS $11.97B

OTHER FUNDING $6.01B

Global Appeal Status

  • At the end of October 2018, 21 Humanitarian Response Plans (HRP) and the Syria Regional Response Plan (3RP) require US$25.20 billion to assist 97.9 million people in urgent need of humanitarian support. The plans are funded at $11.97 billion; this amounts to 47.5 per cent of financial requirements for 2018. Requirements are lower than in September 2018 due to revision of the Ethiopia Humanitarian and Disaster Resilience Plan (HDRP). For the remainder of 2018, humanitarian organizations require another $13.23 billion to meet the needs outlined in these plans.

  • Global requirements are $1.10 billion higher than at this time last year. Overall coverage and the dollar amount were only marginally higher in late October than at the same time in 2017.

  • On 8 October the Government of Ethiopia and humanitarian partners issued a Mid-Year Review of the HDRP. The revised plan reflects changes in the humanitarian context, and requires $1.49 billion for 2018, as opposed to the March 2018 requirement of $1.6 billion to reach some 7.88 million people in need of food or cash relief assistance and 8.49 million people with non-food assistance in the course of the year. Despite the general good performance of this year’s belg (spring) rains, the number of people targeted for relief food and cash support remains largely unchanged due to the significant spike in internal displacement since April 2018.

Security Council Briefings and High Level Missions

  • At a briefing to the Security Council on 23 October, Under-Secretary-General/Emergency Relief Coordinator (USG/ERC) Mark Lowcock called on all stakeholders to do everything possible to avert catastrophe in Yemen. In a follow up note on the humanitarian situation in Yemen of 30 October, the USG/ERC thanked the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, United States, Kuwait, the United Kingdom and all donors for the record amount raised for the humanitarian appeal in 2018 which had meant nearly 8 million people had received assistance across the country; more than 7 million people had received food and more than 420,000 children been treated for malnutrition; clean water, sanitation and basic hygiene support is now available to 7.4 million people and about 8 million men, women, girls and boys had benefited from health services.

  • At a Security Council briefing on the humanitarian situation in Syria on 29 October, the USG/ERC urged the Security Council and key Member States to ensure that the ceasefire holds in Syria's northwestern province of Idlib to prevent a military onslaught and overwhelming humanitarian suffering. He thanked donors for the $1.7 billion contributed so far towards the HRP for Syria, but pointed out that this HRP is currently funded at less than 50 per cent.

  • In her statement to the Security Council on 30 October, Assistant Under-Secretary-General/Deputy Emergency Relief Coordinator (ASG/DERC)
    Ursulla Mueller spoke of the steady decline in humanitarian funding for the Ukraine over the years and mentioned that the HRP for 2018 is funded at only 32 per cent. This is simply not enough to cover food, health care, water, sanitation and other life-saving assistance. ASG/DERC Mueller appealed to donors to increase their support for consolidating gains in anticipation of the fast-approaching winter.

  • During a joint mission to Chad and Nigeria (5-7 October) with UNDP Administrator Achim Steiner, as part of a series of country visits the two will make to advance humanitarian-development collaboration, the USG/ERC called on donors to fulfil pledges and announcements of over $2 million made in Berlin last month at the High Level Conference on the Lake Chad Region (3-4 September). He noted the importance of maintaining humanitarian response in the region as needs were still very high.

  • Following her visit to the Republic of the Philippines from 9 to 11 October, ASG/DERC Mueller announced that OCHA would continue advocating for sustained funding to address humanitarian needs of people displaced by the Marawi conflict while ensuring that support for the transition to longerterm and sustainable recovery is forthcoming.

Upcoming Event

  • The Global Humanitarian Overview 2019 and World Humanitarian Data and Trends will be launched in the course of joint event to take place in the Palais des Nations, Geneva, from 10:00 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. on 4 December 2018.

Pooled Funds

  • Between January and the end of October 2018, country-based pooled funds (CBPFs) have received a total of $708 million in contributions from 32 donors (including contributions through the UN Foundation). During the same period, a total of $616 million from the 18 operational funds was allocated towards 1,071 projects with 575 implementing partners. Nearly 40 per cent ($246 million) of the funds were allocated to international NGOs and some 26 per cent (approximately $160 million) to national NGOs. UN agencies received 32 per cent ($202 million) of the allocated funds and Red Cross/Red Crescent organizations received over 1 per cent (some $8 million) of all allocated funds. The largest allocations per sector went to health; food security; water, sanitation and hygiene; nutrition; emergency shelter and NFIs.

  • Between 1 January and 31 October 2018, the Emergency Relief Coordinator approved $477 million in grants from the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) to support life-saving activities in 45 countries. This includes $297.7 million from the Rapid Response Window and $179.7 million from the Underfunded Emergencies (UFE) Window. A total of $31.6 million in Rapid Response grants was approved in October in response to cholera outbreaks in Zimbabwe, Niger and Nigeria; flooding in Laos; and the population influx from Venezuela to Brazil, Ecuador and Peru; as well as to support Government relief efforts following the earthquake and tsunami in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The UFE 2018 second round was completed this month, with $30.6 million approved in September and the remaining $49.4 million of the round’s $80 million released in October to assist people caught up in nine chronic emergencies in Angola, Bangladesh, Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Libya,
    Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Sudan.

Country Updates

  • Funding for humanitarian activities in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) is at an all-time low. Nearly all agencies requesting financial support through the HRP have received less funding in 2018 than in previous years. This leaves humanitarian partners ill-placed to meet emerging needs or respond to the deterioration of the humanitarian situation in Gaza, where the rise in casualties during the recent demonstrations has stretched Gaza’s overburdened health system.
    Humanitarian agencies appealed in August for $43.8 million to respond to the Gaza crisis, particularly trauma management and emergency health care, in 2018. On 22 September, the Humanitarian Coordinator for the oPt launched an $8.3 million allocation from the oPt Humanitarian Fund to implement critical HRP projects, mainly in Gaza. Stocks of medical supplies are in extremely short supply and depleted to almost half of requirements. Since late October, the Gaza power plant has been providing up to eleven hours of electricity a day. However, around 250 health,
    WASH and essential solid waste facilities continue to rely on UN-procured emergency fuel for running back-up generators. This year’s intensive operations have depleted funds and stocks and the $1 million allocated by the oPt Humanitarian Fund for fuel supplies will only last until the end of November. Further and urgent financial support is therefore required.

  • Conditions in Yemen continued to deteriorate in October, pushing the country to the brink of famine. On 23 October, the USG/ERC warned the Security Council that without urgent action, up to 14 million people – half the population – could face pre-famine conditions in the coming months.
    Assessments are currently under way, with initial results expected in mid-November. The economic crisis is raising the risk of famine. The Yemeni rial has depreciated by nearly 50 per cent over the last year. Commodity prices have soared, as Yemen imports 90 per cent of staple food and nearly all fuel and medicine.

Urgent steps are required to avert immediate catastrophe. First, a cessation of hostilities is needed; this is especially critical in populated areas.
Second, imports of food, fuel and other essentials must be able to enter Yemen without impediment. Roads must remain open so these goods can reach communities across the country. Third, the Yemeni economy must be supported, including by injecting foreign exchange, expediting credit for imports and paying salaries and pensions. Fourth, international funding must increase now to allow humanitarians to meet growing needs for assistance. Finally, all parties must engage with the UN Special Envoy to end the conflict. Yemen remains the largest humanitarian operation in the world, with more than 200 partners working through the Yemen HRP.


          

World: Humanitarian Funding Update September 2018 - United Nations Coordinated Appeals [EN/AR]

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Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

FUNDING REQUIRED $25.32B

FUNDING RECEIVED $10.63B

UNMET REQUIREMENTS COVERAGE $14.69B

COVERAGE 42%

PEOPLE IN NEED 133.8M

PEOPLE TO RECEIVE AID 97.4M

COUNTRIES AFFECTED 41

Spotlight on the recent disaster in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

On Friday 28 September, a 7.4 magnitude earthquake and tsunami struck Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. On 5 October, the Government and country team/regional office issued the Central Sulawesi Earthquake Response Plan to support the six priority areas identified by the Government. Some existing programmes in Sulawesi will be augmented and others entailing WASH, health, camp management and logistics activities will be developed.

The response plan will focus on immediate response over a three-month period. On 2 October and Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs, and Emergency Relief Coordinator Mark Lowcock (USG/ERC) announced an allocation of US$15 million from the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) to bolster relief assistance for people affected by this emergency

Global appeal status

At the end of September 2018, 21 Humanitarian Response Plans (HRP) and the Syria Regional Response Plan (3RP) require $25.32 billion to assist 97.4 million people in urgent need of humanitarian support. The plans are funded at $10.63 billion; this amounts to 42 per cent of financial requirements for 2018. For the remainder of 2018, humanitarian organizations require another $14.69 billion to meet the needs outlined in these plans.

Global requirements are $1.13 billion higher than at this time last year. Overall coverage and the dollar amount were only marginally higher in late September 2018 than at the same time in 2017.

High-level events The USG/ERC made a strong appeal for HRP funding for South Sudan and Yemen at two high-level events at UN headquarters last month. At an event on 25 September on the crisis in South Sudan during the General Assembly, the USG/ERC asked that donors sustain their generous and large response to the crisis to enable life-saving activities and to encourage a multi-year approach to crisis response with stronger focus on stabilization, resilience and recovery from the conflict. In his statement to the Security Council on Yemen on 21 September, he announced that we may now be approaching a tipping point beyond which it will be impossible to prevent massive loss of life as a result of widespread famine across the country.

Three days later, the Humanitarian Coordinator for Yemen reiterated the call for more funding and more humanitarian partners on the ground to respond to the unprecedented emergency in Yemen.
The UNHCR Commissioner and USG/ERC ended a mission to Afghanistan last month with a call for donors to urgently increase and sustain support for humanitarian response in the country, and to take measures to find durable solutions for millions of people caught up in Afghanistan’s displacement crisis.
On 3-4 September, in a follow-up event to the 2017 Oslo Humanitarian Conference on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region, Germany, Nigeria, Norway and the UN co-hosted the High-Level Conference on the Lake Chad Region in Berlin. On this occasion, UN Member States, international organizations and civil society actors discussed humanitarian assistance, stabilization and development cooperation in the region. Humanitarian and development announcements made at the conference totalled $2.17 billion and it is estimated that $1.02 billion was for humanitarian assistance in 2018 for Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. Of that amount, approximately $875 million (86%), has been made available to recipient organizations.

International financial institutions pledged an additional $467 million in concessional loans.

Concerning pledging conferences this year, according to data reported to FTS by donors and recipient organizations as of 18 September, 95 per cent of pledges have been fulfilled for Yemen, 91 per cent of pledges have been fulfilled for Somalia, and 82 per cent of pledges have been fulfilled for DRC. In each of these countries, many donors have contributed above and beyond their original announcements.
For Syria and the Region, the EU recently published a tracking report on announcements made in Brussels in April which can be accessed here:

www.consilium.europa.eu/media/36437/syria-report-six.pdf Donors are urged to quickly fulfil outstanding pledges made at the conferences and to consider providing additional funding before the end of the year.

Pooled funds

Between 1 January and 30 September 2018, the Emergency Relief Coordinator approved $395 million in grants from the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF), including $265 million from the Rapid Response Window and $130 million from the Underfunded Emergencies Window, for life-saving activities in 38 countries. A total of $40 million was released in September to assist people affected by underfunded emergencies in Angola, Bangladesh, Burundi, Central African Republic and Rwanda; as well as people affected by flooding in India and Myanmar, and Venezuelan refugees and migrants arriving in Ecuador and Peru.

Country-based pooled funds (CBPFs) have received a total of US$667 million from 31 donors between January and September 2018. During this period, the 18 operational funds have allocated $478 million to 921 projects, implemented by 525 partners. Over 60 per cent of all CBPF allocations were disbursed to NGOs, including 21 per cent ($100.6 million) directly to national NGOs. Another 36 per cent was allocated to UN agencies and a smaller portion to Red Cross/Red Crescent organizations, which have received 1.2 per cent of funding ($5.8 million) for direct project implementation. The first allocation for 2018 of the Yemen Humanitarian Fund (YHF) for $90 million is ongoing and focuses on covering gaps in first-line responses in cluster strategies and providing life-saving support to people in newly accessible and hard-to-reach areas. In Ethiopia, the Humanitarian Coordinator launched a $30 million reserve allocation targeting immediate and life-saving activities in the nutrition, health, WASH, agriculture/livestock, emergency shelter/NFI, education and protection sectors. Finally, reserve allocations were also ongoing in Afghanistan and Myanmar during September.

In Myanmar, an integrated CBPF and CERF allocation strategy ($1 million CBPF reserve and $2.95 million CERF) prioritized projects aligned with the Myanmar Humanitarian Fund (MHF) operating principles and the CERF Life Saving Criteria, aiming at achieving the main objective of addressing critical unmet needs of flood‐affected people across the country, particularly the most vulnerable people.

Country updates

The humanitarian situation in Afghanistan has deteriorated considerably over the past year, primarily due to the drought, but also as a result of worsening violence. Overall, the number of people in need of humanitarian assistance and protection services in Afghanistan has increased dramatically since the beginning of 2018, from 3.3 million people to 5.5 million people. Over half of the needs are generated by conflict and population movement. In the meantime, chronic vulnerabilities such as poverty, food insecurity, and unemployment are also increasing. Afghanistan is experiencing its most severe drought since 2011, with some 20 provinces affected by significantly reduced rainfall from winter snow. Some 2.2 million chronically food insecure people are on the verge of acute food insecurity, with four provinces – Badakhshan, Badghis, Faryab and Herat – likely to pitch into a state of emergency unless they receive comprehensive and sustained humanitarian assistance. Drought-related displacement is growing in volume and geographical scope – now constituting 40 percent (119,000) of the overall number of people displaced in Afghanistan in 2018. It is likely that the Afghan population – some 15 million of whom are dependent on the agriculture sector across these 20 provinces for livelihoods – will take years to recover. Overall, more than 12 million Afghans have been displaced internally or abroad during the last four decades of conflict, natural hazards, disasters and the resulting socio-economic upheaval.

Since 25 August 2017, extreme violence in Rakhine State, Myanmar, has driven over 727,000 Rohingya refugees across the border into Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. Statelessness imposed over generations has rendered this population seriously vulnerable, even before the severe traumas of this most recent crisis. The vast majority of these refugees now live in congested sites that are ill-equipped to handle the monsoon rains and cyclone seasons – with alarmingly limited options for evacuation. Low levels of funding are seriously hampering the capacity of humanitarian to respond effectively to the scale and scope of the humanitarian needs in the refugee camps, particularly to ensure safe shelter, appropriate educational options, nutritional support, and most critically, the quality of health services available for an extremely vulnerable population. For example, with the health sector only 23 per cent funded, programming for non-communicable diseases, malaria, TB, and HIV/AIDS remains insufficient, and partners are struggling to scale up service provision which is critical for emergencies including obstetric emergencies.

The alarming financial shortfall for humanitarian programmes in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has had detrimental consequences on the lives of the most vulnerable. More than 40 per cent (10.3 million) of the population remains undernourished. One in five children under-five is stunted with likely irreversible physical and cognitive repercussions. More than 9 million people lack access to essential health services. Pregnant women, young children and people living with diseases, in particular, struggle to access the care they need. Those living in rural areas are most at risk. Recent floods in North and South Hwanghae provinces have affected 280,000 people, killed 76 and displaced over 10,500 people, and chronic underfunding is making it difficult for UN agencies and their partners to respond to needs caused by the natural disasters that frequently hit the country. The 2018 Needs and Priorities plan seeks $111 million to assist 6 million out of 10.3 million people in need of humanitarian assistance.

The prospect of protracted displacement in Iraq is real, warranting a whole-of-system approach to respond to needs and work toward durable solutions. Some 1.9 million Iraqis remain displaced, with insecurity, lack of livelihood opportunities, destroyed housing, and explosive remnants of war contamination among the key barriers to returning. Considerable protection concerns exist, especially for women and children with perceived ties to ISIL. Critical funding gaps are hampering the response, particularly in food security, health, shelter and non-food item sectors, and the WASH sector. Urgent funding priorities include water supply interventions in the south, especially in Basra, which is experiencing water shortages and a gastrointestinal disease outbreak. Child health and nutrition services for up to 180,000 pregnant and lactating mothers, 300,000 children under the age of five and 5,000 newborn babies lack adequate funding.

The level of humanitarian need in Myanmar remains high and is driven by multiple factors including armed conflict, protracted displacement, inter-communal violence, statelessness, segregation, discrimination, food insecurity and vulnerability to natural disasters. More than 720,000 people – mostly stateless Rohingya Muslims – were forced to flee the country in August last year and there remains little tangible progress on addressing the root causes of violence and discrimination against this population. More than 128,000 Muslims confined in camps, some since violence erupted in 2012, have little to no access to essential services. In Kachin and Shan, persistent cycles of displacement due to conflict continue to raise serious protection concerns, with annual flooding exacerbating existing vulnerabilities. In both areas of the country, access remains a critical challenge.

Recent violence in Tripoli has highlighted the fragile situation in Libya. Thousands of people have been displaced, including families staying in schools converted into makeshift IDP shelters. The violence led to a breakdown in basic services, with frequent electricity cuts and compromised access to water. The situation is compounded by liquidity challenges which deepen needs among the most vulnerable. Humanitarian partners are responding to pre-existing and new needs, but the response is undermined by underfunding. With only 24 per cent of financial requirements covered, the ability of partners to provide assistance in life-saving sectors such as water, sanitation and hygiene and protection, as well as education, is limited. Additional funds are required to support a nation-wide measles vaccination campaign, targeting 3 million children against the backdrop of an ongoing outbreak.

South Sudan continues to experience extensive humanitarian needs, including dire levels of food insecurity and malnutrition. In September, 6.1 million people (59% of the population) faced crisis, emergency, or catastrophe levels (IPC Phase 3-5) of food insecurity. This includes 47,000 people in catastrophic conditions (IPC Phase 5). Urgent funding is needed in the coming months to procure and preposition food and other life-saving supplies during the approaching dry season, when these activities are most cost-effective. Food insecurity is expected to decline slightly following the October-December harvest, and rise again in January-March, when 5.2 million people are expected to be in IPC Phases 3-5, including 36,000 in IPC Phase 5. Resources are also needed to scale up preparedness and capacity to respond to Ebola Virus Disease. Though no cases have been reported in South Sudan, there is a risk of cross-border spread.

An agreement on 17 September to establish a demilitarized zone in Idlib, Syria, provided a reprieve for close to three million people placed at risk by a major military escalation in the area, of whom more than two million were already in need of humanitarian assistance. Civilian deaths and injuries due to airstrikes and shelling, as well as displacement and attacks impacting health facilities, were reported in the Idlib area in the weeks prior to the announcement of the agreement. Response and readiness efforts continued in Idlib and other parts of the north-west, drawing to a large extent on cross-border assistance channels from Turkey. Despite significant access challenges, humanitarian assistance continued to be provided across the country, including in areas that had recently come under Government control such as eastern Ghouta, northern rural Homs and much of the south-west. Cross-border assistance to the south-west under the framework of Security Council resolution 2393 remained suspended, but assistance was delivered from Damascus, primarily through the Syrian Arab Red Crescent (SARC). Deployment of an inter-agency convoy from Damascus to Rukban on the Syria-Jordan border became increasingly urgent, with reports of a deterioration of the humanitarian situation in a camp estimated to be hosting up to 45,000 people. The situation in eastern Deir-Ez-Zor, in the east of the country, also deteriorated, with clashes linked to counter-ISIL operations displacing thousands in rural areas with limited humanitarian access and reports of restrictions on the onward movement of displaced people.

Steep economic decline accelerated in Yemen in September, with the Yemeni riyal losing about 30 per cent of its value against the US dollar during the month. Because Yemen imports the vast majority of its food and other basic commodities, this has translated into sharp rises in prices of food, fuel and other essentials – placing these goods increasingly out of reach for millions of Yemenis at a time when famine remains a real threat. In parallel, conflict in Hudaydah has intensified, with about 550,000 people displaced by the violence since 1 June. Aid operations have dramatically expanded, reaching 8 million people with direct assistance across the country every month. Partners have provided rapid response kits to nearly all families recently displaced from Hudaydah, as well as additional assistance based on assessed needs. Generous funding has been key: the 2018 HRP has received US$1.96 billion, or 67 per cent of requirements. Despite these achievements, recent developments threaten to overwhelm the operation’s capacity to respond. Urgent steps are needed to stabilize the economy, keep all ports and main roads open, uphold international humanitarian law, and move towards a political solution. Partners are also seeking full funding for the $3 billion HRP in order to deliver all activities in the plan.


          

World: U.S. Agency for International Development Administrator Mark Green's Remarks at a "Celebrating World Humanitarian Day" Event

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Source: US Agency for International Development
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iraq, Mexico, Myanmar, Nigeria, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Uganda, United States of America, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

For Immediate Release
Monday, August 20, 2018 Office of Press Relations
Telephone: +1.202.712.4320 | Email: press@usaid.gov

Center for Strategic and International Studies
Washington, DC
August 20, 2018

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Good morning, everyone. Thank you, Dan, for that kind introduction and thanks to all of you for being here to help mark this very important occasion.

As we begin, as we call it in Congress, I'd like to start with a point of personal privilege. I'd like to take this opportunity this morning to express our sadness over the death of Kofi Annan. He was a giant who has spent his entire life advocating for peace, and the for the protection of humanitarian workers, something that we'll be talking about today. As he so often said, "People, not states, should be at the center of what we do." His passing makes this World Humanitarian Day even more poignant.

This morning, on behalf of USAID, I hope to convey two important messages to all of you. The first is, as Dan was alluding to, relates to the rapidly-evolving nature of humanitarian relief and assistance.

The second, as we mark this day, is simply our deep, deep admiration and gratitude for the many heroes of our humanitarian work. They, and many of you, are truly extraordinary and heroic.

I have to say that before I joined USAID, I didn't really appreciate the scope and range of what it is that we do in our humanitarian work. You can see it in some of the numbers. In 2017, USAID responded to 53 crises in 51 countries. For only the second time in our agency's history, we had six DART teams, Disaster Assistance Response Teams, deployed simultaneously around the world. The first time that happened was the preceding year.

At this very moment, we have pre-positioned resources and experts in just about every part of the world. We have seven emergency stockpiles in places like Djibouti, South Africa, and Malaysia. We have full-time response staff in 30 countries. We have six regional offices and 11 adviser offices, located with partners like the military's combatant commands.

One of my most vivid memories from my first year as Administrator was, essentially, a crash course in how some of this works. One day, during last year's UN General Assembly meetings, we received word of a terrible earthquake, the second one that had struck Mexico City. One evening that week, I was walking down the street between back-to-back dinners with two different mobile phones: one with the White House, one with the DART team leader.

I was dodging pedestrians, I'm sure looking ridiculous, while the disaster professionals were helping me navigate something much more serious: how to rapidly mobilize an emergency response team to Mexico City to help our neighbors to the South respond to its second earthquake in just a few weeks' time.

The government said to us that they'd welcome the assistance of a highly-specialized type of international search and rescue team, something really hard to find, especially in a hurry. But, thanks to the White House, our talented team here in D.C., our network of first responders, and the DOD, we were able to transport and stand up just such a team in Mexico City before breakfast the next morning. I'm honored to be part of a network, which includes many of you, that can make something like that happen.

But, as we gather to mark World Humanitarian Day this year, we have to acknowledge that natural disaster responses no longer epitomizes today's humanitarian work. We still do that, to be sure, and I think we do it well. But, these days, we face vast other challenges all around the world.

Our humanitarian resources are increasingly being deployed, not for storms and quakes and the like, but for man-made disasters, from conflict-driven displacement to tyranny-driven economic collapse.

Our DARTs are more likely to be deployed for those types of crises, and by far, most of our humanitarian assistance dollars are being allocated for those kinds of needs. There's the ongoing tragedy in Syria, a horrific conflict in its seventh year and one of the most complex crises of our time. Over 13 million people, more than 80 percent of the current population, need humanitarian assistance. There's the ongoing struggle in Afghanistan, where 3.3 million people need humanitarian assistance. A recent upturn in violence has claimed 1,700 civilian lives this year alone.

A dozen or so years ago, I travelled to Afghanistan as a congressman. And, in those days, our presence was measured by the tens of thousands of military boots on the ground. These days, we still have some troops there, but our boots on the ground are increasingly humanitarian and development workers, some of whom have been back to work in Afghanistan two, three, and even four times.

Nine hundred aid workers have been killed in Afghanistan in the last decade.

There's South Sudan, the most dangerous place of all for humanitarian workers. Seven million people in South Sudan, including 1 million living on the brink of famine, depend on international assistance just to survive.

Then there are the man-made crises far closer to home. One of the most underreported catastrophes in the world today is what's happening in and around Venezuela. More than 2.3 million Venezuelans have already fled. It's the largest single mass exodus in the history of the Western Hemisphere. And it's ongoing. I saw this first hand when I visited Cucuta, in Colombia, and the Bolivar Bridge last month. Five thousand new migrants enter Colombia each and every day. They're desperately seeking food and emergency medical care. They're seeking survival.

This isn't merely Colombia's challenge. Venezuelans are fleeing to places like Brazil and Ecuador, as we read over the weekend, and northward to the Caribbean. The list of man-made, conflict-caused, and regime-driven humanitarian crises goes on and on. After all, there are roughly 70,000,000 displaced people in the world today.

Since humanitarian needs and crises are changing, we're doing our best our to change and to respond to them, with the best tools and ideas that we can find. We're applying lessons learned over and over again. And we're fostering innovation.

This past February, USAID and our British cousins, DFID, joined in launching the first-ever Humanitarian Grand Challenge. The Grand Challenge mechanism is a way for the world's best thinkers, from organizations large and small, for-profit and non-profit, business, academia, to offer new ideas in helping (inaudible) relief to the most vulnerable, hardest to reach communities in the world.

It's a chance for us to identify and invest in the best and the brightest. We've already received 615 applications from 86 different countries, including a third from women and nearly half from lower and middle income countries. We're excited to see and mobilize the results, and they're due out this fall.

Given how much of our humanitarian response is in conflict zones and fragile states, we're paying more attention than ever to the obstacles and challenges that factions, gangs, militias, and corrupt officials are throwing at relief teams. Case in point. In April of this year, a leading humanitarian agency reported that it had encountered no fewer than 70 checkpoints on the 300-mile trip from Aden to Sanaa, in Yemen. I'm sure those were just helpful citizens offering directions along the way.

But it's the kind of situation that caused us to launch the Strengthening Field Level Capacity on Humanitarian Access and Negotiations program last August.

It's aimed at helping relief team members better understand practical negotiation techniques and safe, effective field-level decision making.

Because there is nothing more important to us, nothing more important to me, than the safety and security of our humanitarian network, that's the area that we're especially focusing on. We must stay ahead of threats and potential threats. So we're supporting organizations dedicated to improving security standards and training for NGO staff. We're modifying our policy so that security, costs for equipment, staff, training and site enhancements can be more easily built into your contracts and grant budgets.

We're investing in new tools to help us map and minimize risk to operations at the most basic level, the level of, for example, moving food from a plane to a truck, to a warehouse and distribution center. But, let's face it: we can take every possible step to minimize risk. We can't make it go away.

And many of you here know that all too well. One of the most inspiring and humbling parts of my job is getting to meet the heroes who know the risks but carry on just because they care.

I saw firsthand, when I visited IDP camps just outside of Raqqa. I heard stories of challenges that humanitarian heroes face each day, as they strive to bring water and food and medical care to those who've been victimized by the years of conflict. With Assad's regime still holding sway in parts of the country, there's no real, legitimate government partner with whom to work. And their path is riddled with unexploded ordinance, which is going off at the rate of, roughly, three dozen per day.

The shelters they sleep in at night shake with the dropping of bombs each and every day. And yet, somehow, because of their commitment to others, they wake up the next morning and they do it all over again. These are the heroes that we hold high this World Humanitarian Day.

People like Iraq's Salam Muhammad. When Anbar and Kirkuk were liberated from ISIS at the end of last year, humanitarians were the first ones on the ground, providing food, water, and medical care. Iraq staff with the U.S.-funded NGO spend their days clearing mines and educating their neighbors about the dangers the ordinance poses.

Salam decided to joint this particular NGO after witnessing several tragedies that left some of his relatives and friends injured, or killed. He was one of the NGO's first recruits in Iraq. Every day is challenging for the de-miners; any accident can be fatal. But Salam and his staff love their jobs and show up for work every day filled with passion because they know what they're doing matters.

There's Jay Nash, a regional adviser who has lived and worked for USAID in the Democratic Republic of the Congo for the past 20 years. The DRC is, as you know, no stranger to aid worker attacks, with 210 people being killed, wounded, or kidnapped since 2000.

In 1999, while visiting a university in the DRC, Jay was ambushed by a mob of students who thought he was a spy for neighboring Rwanda. The mob torched the U.S. embassy vehicle he had been driving, but Jay escaped after a group of brave students made a ring around him, guarding him until they were able to duck him into the girls' dormitory.

Sitting in that dorm, trapped for hours with a mob threatening to break down the doors, Jay said he had one thought: he thought of the children with disabilities that he was helping in his free time. DRC has a higher than average rate of disability. And he thought to himself, if he died in that girls' dorm, who would take care of those kids?

After eight hours, he made a run for it, and he didn't look back. Not only did he stay in DRC working for USAID, in 2001, he started his own NGO called StandProud. It provides treatment and equipment to young people with disabilities, helping them gain dignity, mobility, and independence.

There's Fareed Noori, one of the victims of last month's attack on a government building in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. The blast killed 15 people. Fareed had been working in Afghanistan since 2010 for a USAID partner the International Rescue Committee, as a water, sanitation, and hygiene engineer. As his colleagues noted, whenever there was an emergency, Fareed was the first in the field to help with whatever was needed.

Fareed was in an emergency meeting at the time of the attack. He was killed doing the work of helping others, to which he had committed his life. Fareed leaves behind four children, two girls, two boys, all under the age of 9.

Another victim of that attack was Bakhtawara; it's a pseudonym, a bright and impressive 22-year-old woman. She was working for the International Organization for Migration, another USAID partner. She had married very early and had a child by the age of 16. But, despite being a young mother in a conservative community, she fought for her education and learned English. After school, she knew she wanted to help people. She convinced her family to let her, not just get job, but get a career as a humanitarian.

When her husband was killed in a bombing three years ago, she continued working as a 19-year-old single mother. Her job took her to the very government offices that were often targeted by insurgents. On the day she was killed, she was attending one of the meetings that she had hoped would help her find better ways to deliver aid to people in need. The building was bombed and then overrun with gunfire. She died doing what she focused her life on, helping people build a brighter future.

Extremist insurgents in Afghanistan like to target these workers. There's a special place in hell...

There's the story of the seven aid workers killed in South Sudan in March of this year. They were killed when their car was ambushed along the 185-mile route of the badly rutted roads in South Sudan's remote east. Their vehicle had been labeled as belonging to an NGO right down to the license plates. It didn't matter. Six of the seven worked for a small Sudanese NGO called the Grass Roots Empowerment and Development Organization, GREDO, which is supported by USAID and worked to promote sustainable development at the grassroots level.

Three of the victims were helping to build a youth center. Two taught English. One was also a driver and the father of a newborn. Three were new recruits. Humanitarian heroes, one and all. And there were thousands of others. And I stand in awe of what they do.

Final thoughts. Why do they do it? What causes them to go out and take these risks? I learned the answer, and (inaudible), when I visited Bangladesh and Burma with Secretary Pompeo earlier this year. In Bangladesh, I went to a Cox's Bazaar, and I saw the hundreds of thousands of Rohingya who are barely surviving in that camp.

They are vulnerable to monsoons and cyclones and without the humanitarian workers, life would be very different. It's bad enough already.

And then I went to Burma, and I travelled to an IDP camp near Sittwe. And what I saw there was the most disturbing thing I have ever seen in development. I saw young families trapped. I saw young families unable to go to school and completely dependent upon the emergency food assistance that we provide.

So, those workers take the risks because they are all that is standing between an even worse catastrophe and death in these young people, these victims. Today we celebrate them. Thank you.

MODERATOR: Thank you. (inaudible) I'm also the director of the Humanitarian Agenda, as Dan mentioned, which is what this event is a part of, it's a new partnership as as we have this conversation. Firstly, I want to ask you -- well, one, congratulations; it's been about a year now since you've been appointed, and you've been back one year? So, happy anniversary.

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Pretty close. Thank you -- ask my staff.

MODERATOR: (inaudible) We're all very happy that you were chosen to be in this position because, as Dan alluded to, your deep background in international developments. One of the things that you said a lot in this position is talking about, "The purpose of foreign aid is to end the need for its existence." It's one of your key messages that we hear time and time again. So, I want you to elaborate on sort of how that squares with humanitarian assistance. Right? There's a big difference of international developments for, you know, economic growth and being self-reliant. But humanitarian assistance is so often, as you mentioned, driven by tyranny and regimes, and it's about saving lives. So, how do you marry those two?

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Well, first off you're right. What I've said since the day that I was first announced is that the purpose of our foreign assistance must be ending its need to exist. And what I mean by that is, we should look every day at ways of helping people take on their own challenges. Not because we want to do less or walk away, but because we believe in human dignity, and we believe in the innate desire of everyone -- every individual, every family, every community, every country -- to want to craft their own bright future.

In the area of humanitarian assistance, what I always say is, look, we will always stand with people when crisis strikes because that is who we are, that is in the American DNA. But at the same time we'll also look for ways to foster resilience so that we can help countries and communities withstand future shocks. And we've seen promising results in places like Ethiopia. You mentioned on the food security front, Ethiopia's a country that's had six consecutive years of drought and yet not falling into full famine. And that obviously is about much more than the work we're doing, but I think we're making a difference in helping Ethiopians build their ability to withstand consecutive years of drought.

So, I see the two as fitting very well together, and the other piece to it is, on the humanitarian front, again, we have natural disasters and man-made disasters. The man-made disasters are coming at us fast and furious. It's also about preventing the next generation of crisis and conflict. I'm often asked what it is that keeps me up at night, and what keeps me up at night are our children being born in camps, and growing up in camps, and getting educated in camps. And when, God willing, the walls come down and the gate opens up, the question is, are those young people going to be prepared to take on the challenges of the world? Are they connected to the communities around them?

And so with the humanitarian work that we do in many of these places, it's really aimed towards the future. And so I think it fits in well; it's a longer term of view, but I see them -- really is all going in the same direction.

MODERATOR: I'm actually headed out to Nigeria in a few weeks and doing some research looking at Feed the Future portfolio there, but really looking at the nexus between that humanitarian and development assistance, you know, how that would work in an unstable environment. So, I'm anxious to see what I learn from that as well. You know, the Trump administration has called for reduction, of course, of U.S. foreign assistance, but, regardless of that, the U.S. continues to be -- and dominate as the largest donor worldwide.

When you're talking to your colleagues in this administration, what is it that you talk about in terms of why it's so important for us to sustain this leadership? I mean, I could throw out numbers and I'll do a little bit.

In 2018, the U.S. pledged 29 billion foreign assistance. Five billion of that was dedicated to humanitarian assistance. I was looking this morning at how that compares to others, and, I mean, the UK -we're event twice what they do. So, you know, we're such a leader in this space. Why is that so important? Why should we dedicate American tax dollars or more importantly to cleaning up other people's wars?

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Well, first off, you're correct; we're far and away the world's humanitarian leader, and, quite frankly, two or three or four of them together don't really add up to what we're doing. We need other countries to do more because, with those challenges that I laid out, those man-made challenges, I don't see an end in sight, quite frankly, in any of them. So, these are open-ended challenges, and while we are proud to be the world's leader, we need others to step up to the plate. I will tell you, what I worry about is, because these man-made disasters, man-made, often regime-driven disasters, because they are open-ended, there's a real risk that it will begin to take up so much of our budget that it threatens our ability to do some of the development investments that we all want to do, including quite frankly, some of the resilience work that we want to do.

So, we do need others to step up to the plate. But in terms of, you know, what I say to the rest of the administration, it's not a hard cell, you know, pushing them to open a door. The administration is very supportive of our humanitarian work; we continue to be the world's leader; that's not going to change. And I think it's really -- the arguments for it fall on a number of different fronts. Number one, this is an expression of American values. This is who we are and always have been. It is a projection of the American spirit, in my view. So, I think that is very much alive and well in the American psyche, in the American DNA.

But secondly, it's in our interest. Just take for a moment the assistance that we're providing to Colombians, supporting Venezuelans who have fled the border, doing the same thing in some other countries. There is great American self-interest in supporting the ability of these communities to withstand this migration, to help afford some of those costs, because the instability that results from not being able to provide support, I think, is an issue, is a diplomatic issue, is a national security issue. And, as you heard me mention, I think particularly what is happening in the Western Hemisphere is completely underreported.

When I was at the Summit of the Americas, I heard from a number of countries, including Caribbean states, that they were starting to feel the presence of Venezuelans fleeing. And while they're all supportive of their neighbors, clearly it's not without a cost. But the same thing is true in many other parts of the world. So, the investments that we make on the humanitarian front are oftentimes in our self-interest. I look at the work that we're doing on the humanitarian front with an eye towards providing a lifeline so that those who've been displaced in parts of the Middle East can return. That's in our interest. That's a stated foreign policy priority. So, you know, yes, there is certainly -- I think the morality that we -- the expression of values that we've always supported. But I also believe it's in our interest and our national security interest.

MODERATOR: And thank you for reminding us in your speech about humanitarian heroes and what World Humanitarian Day is about. You talked about the unfortunate situation that in today's crises a lot of the time aid workers are targeted specifically. So, I want to ask you whether you feel like there's an erosion of international humanitarian law over, you know, that you talked about the evolution of humanitarian assistance. And so as the world gets more and more disorderly, we see more and more protracted conflicts. Do you feel that both governments and non-state actors alike are violating this law, and is there anything that we can or should be doing more I guess, particularly from the donor or U.S. government perspective, to hold them more accountable?

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Well, first off, we in the U.S. demand adherence to international law, international humanitarian law. So, we demand that unfettered access is provided, for example, in Rakhine, in Northern Rakhine in Burma. So, that's always been important for us. But if you're asking whether some non-state actors like ISIS are breaking international law, yeah. Having been to both Raqqa and Northern Iraq, what has been done there by ISIS is truly evil. There is simply no other word to describe what they've done: the desecration of graves, the desecration of churches, the disappearances of Yazidis. It's staggering and truly evil. Of course they are breaking every standard that we all know.

Yes, it is a challenge to international law; one of the best ways that we can respond is to say that, and to say it often, and to keep coming back to it. Because I do think the American opinion matters. And to say all across the political spectrum here in this country that we stand united and demand adherence to those standards and that what is happening is unacceptable.

MODERATOR: You brought up demanding unfettered access. I want to let our audience know that the Humanitarian Agenda will be going to the capitol this fall, and we're focusing specifically on the issue of humanitarian access. You brought up, of course, in Yemen, that's 70 choke hold points that David Miliband also talked about when he was here in Yemen -- in April on Yemen. I also want to say we're publishing a policy piece on Yemen here at CSIS that will come out this week.

I have many more questions, but I think we'll turn to the audience, so that we can engage them as well. So, if you have a question, please raise your hand. We will take it in rounds of threes, so announce yourself and where you're from. Please keep it concise, and at the end of it, there should be a question mark. So, who has a question? Yes, sir, right over here. Thanks, gentlemen.

QUESTION: I'll ask a real fast question, my name is Rob, I work for USAID, thank you, sir. My question is about the environment, I'm just back from the Congo, where Ebola is happening and I was just in Madagascar where there was a plague outbreak. A lot of the disasters you talked about have an environmental component, and we're doing some in the United States, but some people think we really need to do more, and that's a little bit against maybe some people in the administration, so I would love for you to talk about your thoughts about that.

MODERATOR: Great question. More? Let's do Julie Howard right there.

QUESTION: Thank you. Mr. Administrator, thank you for your comments. Could you comment on the recent story in the Washington Post about the potential pullback of $3 billion in foreign assistance funds and how that may affect our ability to respond to humanitarian as well as the resilience opportunities you described?

MODERATOR: And, Julie, will you introduce yourself for those that don't know you?

QUESTION: Sorry?

MODERATOR: Would you introduce yourself?

QUESTION: Oh, yes, okay. So, I'm a non-resident senior adviser here at CSIS, thank you.

MODERATOR: Julie and I are also going to be travel partners when I go to Nigeria. It's actually Julie that is leading that study. Let's take one more question right back here. Yes, thank you.

QUESTION: Hi, my name's (inaudible) a reporter from Voice of America. There are a number of humanitarian assistance and also food aid to North Korea spended by the United States Government. What are the key principles that all the United States Government providing assistance to North Korea and under which scenario can assistance to North Korea be resumed?

MODERATOR: Thank you.

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Sure.

MODERATOR: Easy questions, right?

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: On North Korea, simply put, there have been no discussions that I'm aware of regarding assistance into North Korea. I certainly haven't been part of any such discussions.

Secondly, on the pullback, while we haven't received official notification of anything, I've heard of nothing that would change our status as the world's leader in humanitarian assistance. I haven't seen anything. Third, on -- first off, it's interesting that you visited Ebola country and you talked about conservation, because their linked, obviously.

I think that's one of the reasons we've seen the outbreak of Ebola in other formerly, entirely rare diseases in some of the areas where we've seen deforestation and such. What we're trying to do at USAID, many of you are aware, we're developing metrics that are aimed at helping us to better understand a country's capacity and commitment in a number of sectors, and conservation's one of them.

So, we're looking at things like biodiversity and how resources are managed, because we think it's important, and it's something that we hope to be able to incentivize in the future and have conversations around. I have a personal interest in the conservation front and as you know, we recently made some announcements regarding assistance to Colombia and helping them in their natural resource management. So, I think it's an important area that shouldn't be divorced from the rest of development.

We think it is one of those key areas that needs to be assessed and looked at as we help countries, in what we call, as you know, probably ad nauseam as I talk about the journey to self-reliance. One of those areas is, in fact, conservation, biodiversity, and the capacity to manage resources.

MODERATOR: Let's take another round of questions. Raise your hand high. Joel?

QUESTION: Joel (inaudible) from Norwegian Refugee Council, thank you Administrator Green for your excellent remarks. I'm afraid I have to follow up on the rescission question. We're not going to let you off so easily.

What's been reported is that there's going to be a cut of a billion to UN peacekeeping operations, and that has the potential to not only disrupt work in South Sudan and Somalia and the Congo, but it also has the potential to disrupt, through further chaos in refugee flows, neighboring countries that we care about that are our allies, such as Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, and so on.

I guess -- the argument is that, even if USAID itself doesn't lose funding or doesn't lose out through the rescission, the work will lose out, I feel, if this really goes ahead. So, if you could just offer more thought on -- I mean, you said you're pushing on an open door when it comes to international work, and, honestly, it's not always obvious to see that from the outside. Thank you.

MODERATOR: Thanks, Joel. Let's do these two right here in the front, Haley, yep.

QUESTION: Thank you. Hi, good morning. Nicole (inaudible), I'm a senior associate here at CSIS. Thank you, Administrator Green, for your great comments. You mentioned briefly -- you touched on young people and so, given the disproportionate (inaudible) of people in these countries and how often humanitarian crises can disproportionately affect children and young people, can you talk a little bit more about some of the focus that you're keeping in these initiatives and on the work that you're doing to remedy the situation for youth? Thanks.

MODERATOR: Great, and I think there was a question right behind you if there still is, yeah.

QUESTION: Hello, my name is Jessica (inaudible), and I'm a Jeane Kirkpatrick Fellow at the American Enterprise Institute. You mention in your remarks about the man-made nature of a lot of the ongoing conflicts, and I was wondering if you could speak to USAID's role not only in providing humanitarian response in that context, but also the active role that the agency is taking in countering and preventing ongoing violent extremism.

MODERATOR: Great question.

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: That's a great question. Joel, on the budget front, I really don't have much more that I can provide. Part of it is I'm not attempting to duck, I just literally don't have more, I'd refer you to OMB quite frankly. But again, you know, they is simply looking at the numbers of the last year and what we're doing on the humanitarian front. There is simply no argument that we have backed away from our role as the world's leading humanitarian assistant. Just objectively, we are far and away the largest humanitarian donor.

We're the largest humanitarian donor in Syria; we're the largest humanitarian donor in conflict after conflict. I do think it is fair for all of us to talk about how it is that these resource needs can be met in the future. I don't mean just the immediate future, but the open-ended nature of these conflicts and this instability and this displacement is staggering.

It is what worries me, because these conflicts that we're seeing -- South Sudan; Yemen -- you and I have talked about Yemen a great deal in recent months. It's open-ended, and I do worry about that. I do worry about our ability to meet resource needs and, you know, the world meeting these resource needs. They're significant.

On the question of young people, particularly in displaced settings, we are looking at a number of ways of accelerating crisis situation education, conflict community education. We've received generous support from Congress, along with generous directives from Congress, in the area of education. What we've been trying to do, and Congresswoman Lowey has long been a great leader on this front, is to try to make sure that we are able to prioritize these crisis needs, and I do think that it's a crisis. It does worry me a great deal.

So, we're looking at some of the use of innovative technologies to see if that can help us in these settings, but it is a very focus and as we develop our basic education strategy going forward, I think you'll see a particular focus on those areas, because it is, as you suggest, very important for the future.

In terms of preventing violent extremism, we have, as you know, an important role under the National Security Strategy. We are investing in trying to identify the drivers of violent extremism.

One of my strong beliefs that comes, actually, from my time at International Republican Institute is that we shouldn't jump to conclusions and try to draw global assumptions and lessons. Instead, we need to look at local drivers. Experience shows us that it's often local drivers, community drivers that become flashpoints for extremism. And so, we're certainly investing research there, and some of the preventative tools that are there; from my days as an Ambassador in Tanzania, I often point out that after the terrible bombing, embassy bombing, the work that we did with our Tanzanian partners in the wake of that, to take on some of the drivers of poverty and despair, I believe was an important down payment for preventing violent extremism. So, I'm a big believer in tackling those drivers and tackling that which can lead to despair. So, that will always be a key part of our work.

MODERATOR: Mr. Green, at Davos this year, you talked about the importance of tapping into the creativity of the private sector, and how innovative financing mechanisms and other innovative technologies can really create better development outcomes. In your speech today, you talked about the Humanitarian Grand Challenges. Are there any specific companies or partnerships or technologies that you're most excited about right now. The things that you see that are happening in the field, you've been in in this career -- I mean, you've had a career for decades that are all related to development --

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Don't say decades.

MODERATOR: Okay, sorry -- you're very young. The last year that you've been an administrator, what are the -- what are the cool, new technologies that we should know about, that are out there, that the mainstream audience has no idea how we're delivering (inaudible) humanitarian assistance?

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Yeah, I mean, to be honest, there are countless. During global innovation we -- which we had last fall, whenever it was, and I had a chance to walk through the marketplace at the Ronald Reagan Building, and take a look at some of the innovations. Everything from lunchbox-size solar batteries allowing us to power work in refugee and displaced persons camps to some of the weather forecasting stations that are created with 3D printers. You go through there and it's extraordinary. And it fills you with great hope for our ability to reach out and touch more people in more settings than ever before. In the area of financing -- we announced in India last fall, the world's first Development Impact Bond for maternal and child health, and the largest development impact bond of its kind. So, what we did through that is to set outcomes that we needed to see in order to repay the investment, but in terms of the means, we turn the private sector loose.

And in the follow-up conversations that we had, you can see that our partners, some of whom are based here in D.C., were terribly excited. Because for the first time they didn't have us micro-managing each step along the way, but saying, "Look, these are the outcomes that we need, you go get them." And really tapping into the private sector, nonprofit and for-profit. Also, in the area of displaced communities on World Humanitarian Day, the use of biometrics to establish identification of refugees and IDPs as well as some of the digital technologies for delivering resources -- assistance so that recipients have modest purchasing power in surrounding communities, thereby not only providing assistance, not only holding onto human dignity and allowing them to make some decisions, but also providing a tangible benefit to those host communities which are often placing a disproportionate burden by those who are there. So, it -- it's really using business principles, human nature, and I'd like to say there are new technologies, but my kids will tell me very quickly they're old technologies, just new to someone like me. Tapping into these, I think, creates enormous, enormous hope for reaching into places we haven't before.

MODERATOR: I want to continue on that "hope" trend for a minute. So, you know, when you think about the crises, many of which are located in Syria, Yemen, in South Sudan --

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Is that the whole part?

MODERATOR: Now, I know. Well, this is where I'm kind of heading with this. Is there a crisis that you have your eyes on that you do see any reversal in terms of reversal trends, or any progress? Is there a place that you do think we're going to be able to see some positive outcomes in the next -- I should say decade there, because I know it takes time. But is there one that you see not going the wrong direction?

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Oh, sure. There are lots of promising stories. I think Ethiopia and Eritrea provide tremendous hope. One of the challenges, again, as an old democracy guy, one of the challenges that I saw was the enabling environment, for civil society and NGOs in a place like Ethiopia, and with the transition to a new government, we're having conversations that we didn't have before, in ways that I think will be very helpful. Also, I think that their willingness to partner with us more and more will help us make some investments in those areas -- in those resilience areas that will not only help Ethiopia and Eritrea, but also, quite frankly, I think will save us money in the long run. So, there are lots of stories like that, I think all around the continent of Africa and elsewhere. But there are -- every hopeful story is replaced by a new challenge. None of these challenges are inevitable, as problems. But they do require us to be innovative. They do require us to be engaged, they do require us to invest up front, and to be innovative in those procuring methods and how we partner. All of those things need to be done if we're going to turn -- either prevent the challenges from becoming crises, or turn problems into solutions.

MODERATOR: Thank you. I lived in Ethiopia for three years, and I have to say it's quite exciting to see the change that's happening there. I'd like to just turn it onto -- are there any more burning questions? No hands are shooting up; let's do one more right here in the front.

QUESTION: Hi, this is Chris (inaudible) with the State Department. Thank you so much for your leadership of USAID and development. I have a question regarding the nexus between humanitarian assistance, you've been mentioning the nexus with conflict development stabilization -- how does humanitarian assistance fit in, or is it just a one piece element that is disassociated from political issues?

MODERATOR: Great, and as you answer that and any other final remarks you'd like to make as well.

ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Sure. Thank you and again, thanks to all of you. So I think from the National Security Strategy, you see -- also the Stabilization Assistance Review, you see, I think, a clear multi-agency, multi-department approach to many of these challenges. Our relationship with the State Department is as close as it's ever been. I've received nothing but support and affirmation from Secretary Pompeo. We are working, as you know, closely because all of these challenges touch each of us in different ways and we each have different capacities.

You know, I think it's probably never been more clear than in a place like the Burma-Bangladesh crisis. So, you know, when Rohingya in one place their IDPs and when they're in another place, they're refugees, and then of course we all look at that and say, "forget the labels, they're people who we need to help out," and invest in, and so we do. Also, I would say that both State and AID have as close of a working relationship with DoD as we've had in a very long time. As many of you know, we have a couple dozen detailees over at the Pentagon and the Combatant Commands. DoD has made it clear that they don't want to do what we do or State does, and we certainly don't want to do what they do. So, I would think those seamless teams and close communications are helping us. And going back to the budget question, they have to; there's not enough money for duplication. There's not enough money for bureaucracy. We just have to stay in constant communication.

As to (inaudible) final remarks, I really would like to leave off with where my remarks, my opening remarks left off -- or left off. On this World Humanitarian Day, I would ask that we all think of those men and women who are in places in far places in world, in conflict zones, in fragile settings, day after day, delivering emergency medical assistance, food assistance, water and hygiene under the most trying of circumstances, difficult security situations. They do it because they care. They're my heroes. I'm sure they're your heroes. They are patriots. And what a wonderful expression of values and our priorities that with what they're doing each and every day. Thank you.


          

World: Forced Migration Review Issue 58: Economies: Rights and access to work

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Source: Forced Migration Review, University of Oxford
Country: Afghanistan, Chad, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Denmark, Ecuador, Eritrea, Germany, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Myanmar, Pakistan, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Uganda, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, World, Zambia

From the editors

When people are forced by conflict or other circumstances to leave their homes, they usually also leave behind their means of economic activity and subsistence. In their new location, they may not be able, or permitted, to work to support themselves. This has wide-ranging implications not only for people’s immediate earning capacity and well-being but also for community relations, economic development and the capacity of future generations to lead fulfilling lives. In our main feature on Economies, authors explore the complex interactions of the constraints and opportunities involved, drawing on case-studies from around the world and highlighting the roles of new actors, new technologies and new – or renewed – approaches.

We are also pleased to include two ‘mini-features’ in this FMR, one on Refugeeled social protection and one on Humans and animals in refugee camps. (See the back cover if you are interested in collaborating with FMR on a mini-feature – or a full feature.)

We would like to thank Karen Jacobsen (Tufts University) and Khalid Koser (Global Community Engagement and Resilience Fund) for their assistance as advisors to the Economies feature theme. We are also grateful to the following donors for their support of this issue: ESRC-AHRC (Economic and Social Research Council and Arts and Humanities Research Council) Global Challenges Research Fund, the Global Program on Forced Displacement of the World Bank Group, Mercy Corps, UNHCR Division of Resilience and Solutions (Livelihoods Unit) and the Wellcome Trust.

See www.fmreview.org/economies to access the magazine, its accompanying ‘digest’ and all individual articles. A podcast of each article is also available. FMR 58 will be available in English, Arabic, Spanish and French. For printed copies, please email us at fmr@qeh.ox.ac.uk.

Forthcoming issues (see www.fmreview.org/forthcoming)

• FMR 59: Twentieth anniversary of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement (October 2018)

• FMR 60: Education (February 2019)

Follow us on Facebook or Twitter or sign up for email alerts at www.fmreview.org/request/alerts.

Marion Couldrey and Jenny Peebles
Editors, Forced Migration Review


          

World: FPMA Bulletin #3, 10 April 2018

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Zambia

KEY MESSAGES

↗ International prices of wheat and maize rose in March for the third consecutive month and averaged more than 10 percent above their levels in December 2017. Prices were mainly supported by concerns over the impact of prolonged dryness in key-growing areas of the United States of America and Argentina, coupled with strong demand. International rice prices remained relatively stable.

↗ In South America, severe dry weather and strong demand underpinned the domestic prices of grains in key exporting country, Argentina, while the price of yellow maize spiked also in Brazil in March.

↗ In East Africa, in the Sudan, the strong upward surge in prices of coarse grains faltered in March but they remained at record or near-record highs, reflecting the removal of the wheat subsidies and the strong depreciation of the local currency.

↗ In Southern Africa, in Madagascar, prices of locally-produced and imported rice declined in February from the record highs reached in January with the harvesting of the minor season paddy crop and following an appreciation of the Malagasy Ariary.


          

World: FPMA Bulletin #2, 9 March 2018

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

KEY MESSAGES

↗ International prices of wheat and maize increased further in February, mainly supported by weather-related concerns and currency movements. Export price quotations of rice also continued to strengthen, although the increases were capped by subsiding global demand for Indica supplies.

↗ In East Africa, in the Sudan, prices of the main staples: sorghum, millet and wheat, continued to increase in February and reached record highs, underpinned by the removal of the wheat subsidies and the strong depreciation of the Sudanese Pound.

↗ In Southern Africa, in Madagascar, prices of rice hit record highs at the start of the year, as a result of tight supplies following a sharp drop in the 2017 output to a substantially below-average level and a weaker currency.

↗ In West Africa, prices of coarse grains continued to generally increase in February and reached levels above those a year earlier despite the good harvests gathered in late 2017, due to a strong demand for stock replenishment, coupled with localized production shortfalls and insecurity in some areas.


          

World: FPMA Bulletin #1, 16 February 2018

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Key messages

  • International prices of wheat and maize were generally firmer in January, supported by weather-related concerns and a weaker US dollar. Export price quotations of rice also strengthened mainly buoyed by renewed Asian demand.

  • In East Africa, in the Sudan, prices of the main staples: sorghum, millet and wheat, rose sharply for the third consecutive month in January and reached record highs, underpinned by the removal of wheat subsidies and the strong depreciation of the Sudanese Pound.

  • In West Africa, prices of coarse grains were at relatively high levels in January, despite the good harvests gathered in late 2017, due to strong demand for stock replenishment and insecurity in some areas.


          

World: FPMA Bulletin #11, 11 December 2017

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Key messages

↗ International prices of wheat and maize remained relatively stable in November, reflecting good supply conditions, while export quotations of rice strengthened amid increased buying interest and currency movements.

↗ In East Africa, prices of cereals in November continued to decline in most countries with the ongoing 2017 harvests and were at levels around or below those a year earlier with a few exceptions. By contrast, in the Sudan, prices surged and reached record highs in some markets, mainly underpinned by the sharp depreciation of the Sudanese Pound in the parallel market.

↗ In Central America, after the sharp increases recorded in the previous month, prices of white maize eased in November as market flows returned to normal, after disruption caused by severe rains in the previous month. Good domestic availabilities kept prices at levels below those a year earlier.


          

World: Education in Emergencies - ECHO Factsheet

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Source: European Commission's Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations
Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen

Key messages

Education is lifesaving. Education is crucial for both the protection and healthy development of girls and boys affected by crises. It can rebuild their lives; restore their sense of normality and safety, and provide them with important life skills. It helps children to be self-sufficient, to be heard, and to have more influence on issues that affect them. It is also one of the best tools to invest in their long-term future, and in the peace, stability and economic growth of their countries.

Education in emergencies actions can help prevent, reduce, mitigate and respond to emergency-related academic, financial, social, institutional, physical and infrastructural barriers to children's education, while ensuring the provision of safe, inclusive and quality education.

In 2017, the EU dedicates 6% of its annual humanitarian aid budget to education in emergencies, one of the most underfunded sectors of humanitarian aid. In 2018, this amount will increase to 8%.

4.7 million girls and boys in 52 countries have benefited from EUfunded education in emergencies actions between 2012 and 2017.


          

World: FPMA Bulletin #10, 10 November 2017

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Key messages

  • The benchmark US wheat price declined in October mostly because of higher supply prospects while maize quotations firmed due to rain-induced harvest delays. International rice prices strengthened in October, mainly reflecting seasonally tight Japonica and fragrant supplies.

  • In East and West Africa, cereal prices declined in October with the 2017 ongoing or recently-started harvests. However, concerns over crop outputs and civil insecurity kept prices at high levels in some countries, particularly in Ethiopia, Nigeria and South Sudan.

  • In Central America, heavy rains in October led to unseasonal increases in maize and bean prices. They remained, however, at levels well below those a year earlier as a result of adequate domestic supplies, following the overall good outputs in 2016 and the 2017 first season harvests.


          

World: FPMA Bulletin #9, 10 October 2017

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Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Key messages

  • International prices of wheat increased in September mostly because of weather-related concerns, while maize quotations fell further on crop harvest pressure. International rice prices remained generally firm, supported by seasonally tight availabilities of fragrant rice and strong demand for higher quality Indica supplies.

  • In East Africa, prices of cereals remained at levels above those of a year earlier in most countries, particularly in Ethiopia reflecting seasonal tightness amid concerns over the impact of the Fall Armyworm infestation on the main harvest and in South Sudan mainly due to the ongoing conflict.

  • In Asia, prices of rice in Bangladesh increased again in September and reached record highs, with seasonal patterns exacerbated by the reduced 2017 main season output and concerns over the impact of the July-August floods on the second season crop, to be harvested from November.


          

Government and UNMISS Inaugurate South Sudan’s First Juvenile Reformatory Centre in Juba

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Download logo Today, the United Nations Deputy Special Representative of the Secretary-General, Mr. Moustapha Soumaré, and the Deputy Minister of Interior, Hon. Gen. Majak Akech Malok, dedicated South Sudan’s first Juvenile Reformatory Centre (JRC) in Juba. The project, which is part of ongoing technical cooperation between the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) and […]
          

South Sudan Silences a Witness to Its Horrors

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Sam Mednick of The Associated Press was expelled for telling the truth.
          

South Sudan Rival Leaders Meet in Uganda for Peace Talks

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Rival leaders have said they are not ready to form a coalition government on November 12
          

South Sudan rival leaders given 100 days to form unity government

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South Sudan President Salva Kiir and rebel leader Riek Machar have been given another 100 days to form a power-sharing government after failing to resolve differences over a peace deal.
          

South Sudan Promoting Adult Literacy to Maintain Peace

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As South Sudan slowly stabilizes after decades of conflict, the world's youngest nation continues to fight a battle against illiteracy.  South Sudan has the lowest literacy rate in world -- just 27 percent of the adult population can read and write. To combat the problem, authorities have been launching thousands of adult education centers across the country, as Sheila Ponnie reports from Juba.
          

Marie Himes posted a discussion

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Marie Himes posted a discussion

Supporting Students’ Science Content Knowledge through Project-Based Inquiry (PBI) Global

Your Name and Title: Marie Himes, Research AssociateSchool or Organization Name: The Friday Institute for Educational Innovation, NC State UniversityCo-Presenter Name(s): Cameron Good, Graduate AssistantDr. Hiller Spires, Distinguished Graduate Professor of Literacy EducationDr. Erin Krupa, Assistant Professor of Math EducationArea of the World from Which You Will Present: Raleigh, North Carolina, United StatesLanguage in Which You Will Present: EnglishTarget Audience(s): K-20 Teachers and School AdministratorsShort Session Description (one line): Supporting Students’ Science Content Knowledge through Project-Based Inquiry (PBI) GlobalFull Session Description (as long as you would like): For this two-year National Science Foundation (NSF) - DRK12 Exploratory grant-funded project, the New Literacies Collaborative at NC State University is partnering with two North Carolina Cooperative Innovative High Schools - one rural and one urban - to engage in and research Project-Based Inquiry (PBI) Global as an interdisciplinary instructional approach that supports growth of students’ science content knowledge. The goals for this session are to discuss the PBI Global process and design features, share past PBI Global projects, and preview our upcoming research on “STEMifying” PBI Global.PBI Global is a five-phase inquiry process that focuses student engagement on the enduring challenges enshrined in the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Dr. Hiller Spires has been working with this specific inquiry process for over a decade, engaging in PBI Globals with graduate students, teachers, and K-12 students. For the current NSF grant, the researchers are working with ten teachers and two administrators to develop interdisciplinary, inquiry-based curricular materials for UN Sustainable Development Goal six - ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030. Teachers will utilize these instructional materials while engaging in the five-phase PBI Global process with students. As part of the teachers’ preparation for PBI Global, they are participating in four days of professional development during which they will develop deeper understandings of the specific PBI Global inquiry process and the UN SDG six content. Teachers are also utilizing this time to collaboratively plan.Across the two-year project, the researchers will be assessing the change in teachers’ attitudes toward inquiry-based pedagogies through focus groups and a teacher inquiry survey.Approximately 240 9th grade students from these two schools will participate in PBI Global and the coinciding research. Focusing student inquiry on UN SDG six serves to deepen students’ knowledge on a complex issue that demands global attention. Students at the target schools come from ethnically and socio-economically diverse groups that are typically underrepresented in STEM fields. Prior to their inquiry, students will read A Long Walk to Water by Linda Sue Park as a grounding text. This novel shares the dual narrative of Salva Dut, a so-called “Lost Boy of Sudan,” and Naya, a fictional character living in modern day South Sudan. Throughout the book, Salva’s and Naya’s stories are intricately connected to the enduring water and sanitation challenges facing South Sudan. The common read serves to deepen students’ understandings of global water and sanitation issues and to spark students’ inquiry. As part of PBI Global, students will ask a compelling question; gather and analyze sources; creatively synthesize claims and evidences; critically evaluate and revise; and share, publish, and act (see Figure 1).Students will work in six-person teams with three members from each school. The collaborative inquiry portion of this project will last four weeks in spring 2020 and spring 2021. Students’ inquiry will culminate with a PBI Global showcase at the end of the four weeks at which students will also engage in collective action to bring awareness to UN SDG six.Figure 1: PBI Global model With students, researchers will be analyzing how the PBI Global inquiry process supports student science content knowledge and how PBI Global influences students’ motivation and engagement. To measure these constructs, the students will take a multiple choice pre-/post-assessment on water and sanitation science content knowledge with items taken from the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) 2061 Science Assessment Item Bank. Students will also take a pre-/post-survey on factors that affect student motivation and engagement during inquiry using Brett Jones’ MUSIC Inventory. Researchers will also lead before, during, and after focus groups with students, examining expectations for and experiences with PBI Global. Post-PBI Global, the researchers will analyze students’ multimodal learning products using an established rubric.Through this study, the researchers seek to advance both theory and practice of interdisciplinary learning through developing improved inquiry-based instructional materials and researching impacts on teachers and students. Moreover, the researchers aim to better understand how inquiry-based learning can promote high levels of science achievement and find broad application across multiple disciplines.Websites / URLs Associated with Your Session: www.fi.ncsu.eduwww.newlit.orgwww.pbi-global.comSee More



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