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Gambia: Women Testify About Sex Abuse During Jammeh's Presidency

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[Thomson Reuters Foundation] Dakar -Speaking calmly through tears, in a hearing streamed live on YouTube, former beauty queen Fatou Jallow told how Gambia's ex-president Yahya Jammeh locked her in a room and raped her.
          

Planet The Gambia Senegal Travel Guide By Katharina Lobeck Kane 20090918

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Planet The Gambia Senegal Travel Guide By Katharina Lobeck Kane 20090918
          

OPINION on the draft Council decision on the conclusion of the Sustainable Fisheries Partnership Agreement between the European Union and the Republic of The Gambia and of the Protocol on the implementation of that Partnership Agreement - PE640.656v02-00

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OPINION on the draft Council decision on the conclusion of the Sustainable Fisheries Partnership Agreement between the European Union and the Republic of The Gambia and of the Protocol on the implementation of that Partnership Agreement
Committee on Budgets
Olivier Chastel

Source : © European Union, 2019 - EP
          

The list of Africa nations in ascending order, by population VS new video of Michael Kiwanuka ‘You Ain’t The Problem’

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Djibouti Eswatini Equatorial Guinea Mauritius Guinea- Bissau Gabon Gambia Lesotho Botswana Namibia Mauritania Liberia Central African Republic Republic of The Congo Libya Sierra Leone Eritrea Togo (that’s 18 of 46 — it ends with Nigeria) South Sudan Burundi Benin (10,008,749) … Continue reading
          

Vede la pattuglia, butta la droga e poi rompe la mano a un poliziotto

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Arrestato il 35enne di origini gambiane che lunedì pomeriggio ha aggredito un poliziotto della Locale di Brescia. Aveva...
          

Tiềm năng dầu khí ở ngoài khơi của Gambia lên đến 1,2 tỷ thùng

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FAR Gambia Ltd, một công ty con của FAR, đã hoàn thành các nghiên cứu chi tiết về mặt địa kỹ thuật cũng như phân tích các tài liệu địa vật lý của giếng khoan Samo-1 và đánh giá tiềm năng dầu khí tại hai Lô A2 và A5 nằm ở ngoài khơi Gambia.     
          

Turismo Solidario y Sostenible

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En la actualidad, la red de Turismo Solidario y Sostenible integra más de 300 alojamientos y 20 rutas turísticas en 12 países de África: Cabo Verde, Camerún, Etiopía, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea Ecuatorial, Mali, Marruecos, Mozambique, Namibia, Senegal y Tanzania. Leer
          

Colley convocato dal Gambia per i match contro Angola e Congo

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L'allenatore degli Scorpioni Tom Saintfiet ha reso pubblica la lista finale dei giocatori per i match qualificazioni della Coppa d'Africa 2021 contro Angola in trasferta e in casa contro la Repubblica.
          

Job Opportunity - Instructors  for International Mobile Education Team and Civil-Military Relations course (IMET) activities

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Strategic Opportunities International or SOI  is looking for Instructors/Facilitators to assist in an upcoming proposal. SOI's focus is on Sub Sahara Africa. Please submit resumes/CV to below listed email and/or website. Interested personnel will be required to sign a non-binding letter of Intent. Resumes/CVs need to list security clearance held (if any), foreign languages spoken and degree of fluency as well as educational level.

A series of  one to two-week long mobile events from the following course offerings, tailored to individual country requirements and developing needs over time to include:  Civil-Military Relations, Civil-Military Relations for Junior Military Leaders, Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration, Security Forces and the Electoral Process, Local Focus Program on Civil-Military Relations, National Security Planning Global Commons Security, Intelligence and Policymakers, Intelligence Fusion Centers, Women Integration in the Armed Forces, Cyber Security Policy and Practice, International Defense Transformation, Threat Assessment, Integrated Education And Outreach Programs, Managing Ethnic Conflict and Religious-Based Violence, and other courses. These tailored course series offerings are conducted to all levels of partner nation military officers and civilian leaders and are held abroad as necessary. These events occur in a wide variety of countries including, but not limited to: Cameroon, Chad, Chile, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Jordan, Mozambique, South Africa, Tunisia, Uganda. Please specify country/countries as well as topics of interest

 Submit Resume/CV to:

 paubrey@strategicopportunities.net

  - or - 

Submit resume/CV via portal on company website:  www.strategicopportunities.net



          

Paris Climate Accord Leaking Oil As Emissions Rise, Political Unrest Spirals

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The White House was roundly decried on the left for moving to cement the U.S. exit from the Paris agreement, but the sputtering 2015 climate accord has bigger problems than President Trump. Nearly four years after the advent of the international pact, only two of the 32 top-emitting countries — Morocco and the Gambia — […]
          

Best Indian Food in London at Kahani Restaurant

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Kahani is an exotic Indian restaurant in London that serves best Indian food in Chelsea. This Indian restaurant in Chelsea with amazingambiance provides authentic delicious Indian food to help you get a memorable dining experience.
          

Digital Rights and Inclusion Learning Lab (DRILL) Fellowship at Paradigm Initiative, Deadline : 20 December 2019

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Digital Rights and Inclusion Learning Lab (DRILL) Fellowship at Paradigm Initiative, Deadline : 20 December 2019

Paradigm Initiative (PIN) is a social enterprise that builds ICT-enabled support systems and advocates for digital rights in order to improve the livelihoods of under-served young Africans. Our digital inclusion programs include a digital readiness school for young people living in under-served communities (LIFE) and a software engineering school targeting high potential young Nigerians (Dufuna). Both programs have a deliberate focus to ensure equal participation for women and girls.

Our digital rights advocacy program is focused on the development of public policy for internet freedom in Africa, with offices in Abuja, Nigeria (covering the Anglophone West Africa region); Lome, Togo (Francophone West Africa); Yaoundé, Cameroon (Central Africa); Arusha, Tanzania (East Africa) and Lusaka, Zambia (Southern Africa). Our policy advocacy efforts include media campaigns, coalition building, strategic litigation, capacity building, research, report-writing and hosting the annual, bilingual, Digital Rights and Inclusion Forum where more than 200 digital rights stakeholders from over 35 countries (mostly African countries) meet to discuss, network and advance work in digital rights.

Paradigm Initiative has worked in communities across Nigeria since 2007, and across Africa from 2017, building experience, community trust and an organizational culture that positions us as a leading social enterprise in ICT for Development and Digital Rights on the continent. We have a robust partnership network made up of non-profit organizations, youth groups, local businesses, international organizations and government agencies who provide opportunities to the communities we work with. The organization has organized the Digital Rights and Inclusion Forums in Nigeria since 2013, with an average of 200 participants participating each year and over 30 African countries represented.  Paradigm Initiative also championed the drafting, advocacy for and eventual passage of the Digital Rights and Freedom Bill Nigeria by the House of Representatives and the Senate in Nigeria. The organization has strong competencies in advocacy, media and communications, capacity building, research and coalition building. It has organized Internet Policy Trainings/Digital Rights Workshops in Cameroon, Gambia, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, Uganda and Zambia.

 

Program Background

There are both enormous challenges and opportunities for realizing the ambitious task of creating an inclusive, healthy, safe and open Internet in the coming decade for all Africans, including marginalized and vulnerable populations such as women and girls, people with lower income levels or living in rural communities, sexual minorities, the elderly and persons with disabilities. Connecting the next billion who mostly live on the African continent requires not only technological and commercial innovations, but also new models of collaboration among all stakeholders.

Paradigm Initiative will host a Digital Rights and Inclusion Learning Lab (DRILL) from February 2020, at its headquarters in Lagos, Nigeria. DRILL has a mission to host innovative learning around digital rights and inclusion in Africa, and serve as a space for both practice and reflection, aimed to involve and connect different stakeholders and create dialogue amongst researchers, social innovators, policymakers and actors, the private sector, as well as civil society.

As a lighthouse for digital rights and inclusion advocacy in Africa, learning activities will take place at the lab in order to evolve new thinking on digital rights and inclusion strategy for Africa. There are a variety of activities that will take place, including but not limited to, focused future-facing research; presentations; ecosystem meetings and discussions focused on digital rights and/or inclusion hosted within the ecosystem; and general communication about the lab’s activities.

DRILL will offer a space for big thinking, evaluation of digital rights and digital inclusion programs, and future-proofing ecosystem activities. DRILL will host innovators, researchers and/or entrepreneurs-in-residence at the PIN HQ so they can host biweekly ecosystem/sector meetings (to share insight/ideas), biweekly presentations (to share outcomes of their research and/work) and work with the Executive Director to record a monthly DRILL podcast on topical issues.

Call for DRILL Fellows

Paradigm Initiative is opening calls for a pioneer fellow of the Digital Rights and Inclusion Learning Lab to work at the Paradigm Initiative headquarters in Lagos, Nigeria, from February 2020 for a 3- or 6-months period. The fellowship is for a period of three months at a time, but can be renewed for another three months on completion, depending on planned activities and joint review between the Fellow and PIN. As a mid-career fellowship, potential candidates will be expected to have had a minimum of 5 years’ experience as technology or social innovators, researchers, policy experts, and/or entrepreneurs.

Fellows’ Responsibilities

Applicants will be required to briefly discuss their intended focus for the fellowship period during the application process. Paradigm Initiative will expect to receive a two-page project plan from shortlisted candidates. For the successful candidate, this would be discussed and agreed on with the PIN leadership team, no later than two weeks after the fellowship start date. The successful fellow will commit a minimum of 16 hours per week to the fellowship, working from the PIN HQ in Lagos.

  • The fellow will be expected to host biweekly ecosystem/sector meetings at the PIN HQ (to share insight/ideas), biweekly presentations (to share outcomes of their research and/work) and a monthly DRILL podcast to be recorded with the Executive Director of Paradigm Initiative
  • The Fellow will host a side session on a topical and relevant digital rights and/or inclusion theme, in the specific area of their interest, at the annual Digital Rights and Inclusion Forum
  • The last month of the fellowship will feature a final meeting, a final presentation and the final podcast from the selected fellow. There will be an exit interview and opportunity to reflect on what has been achieved in the 3- to 6-month period with PIN’s leadership team

The fellowship is open to potential fellows living outside Lagos, where Paradigm Initiative’s headquarters, the home of the Digital Rights and Inclusion Learning Lab, in located. However, there are no relocation allowances or travel support costs provided for the inaugural fellowship.

PIN Responsibilities

For the inaugural fellowship, Paradigm Initiative will not provide remuneration to the selected fellow. However, Paradigm Initiative will support selected individuals with recommendation letters or such as may be required towards possible fundraising, as long as income is declared and a public report will be published at the end of their project. PIN will cover costs associated with learning activities at the Digital Rights and Inclusion Lab and provide office space, an opportunity to be embedded within our team, access to the ecosystem and feedback on projects throughout the duration of the fellowship.

Application and Timeline

This call for applications is open until December 20, 2019. The selection process will commence in January 2020 with the first fellow of the Digital Rights and Inclusion Lab expected to resume in February 2020. Selection will be supported by an External Advisory Group made up of ecosystem leaders, including Alberto J. Cerda Silva (Ford Foundation), Anriette Esterhuysen (Association for Progressive Communications), John Dada (Fantsuam Foundation), Nnenna Nwakanma (World Wide Web Foundation), and Oreoluwa Somolu Lesi (Women’s Technology Empowerment Centre), who will help shape the program and work with the PIN team to review Fellowship applications.

Please use the application form at https://bit.ly/drillfellow by midnight (GMT+1) on December 20, 2019. You will need the following in order to submit your application:

  • Your resume (not more than 3 pages)
  • Your cover letter detailing your interest in the DRILL fellowship (not more than 500 words)
  • A brief indication of tentative focus of your fellowship (not more than 500 words)

CLICK HERE TO APPLY

 

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The post Digital Rights and Inclusion Learning Lab (DRILL) Fellowship at Paradigm Initiative, Deadline : 20 December 2019 appeared first on mucuruzi.com.


          

Full Masters Scholarships offered by Commonwealth (Deadline: 18 December 2019)

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Full Masters Scholarships offered by Commonwealth (Deadline: 18 December 2019)

Commonwealth Shared Scholarships are for candidates from least developed and lower middle income Commonwealth countries, for full-time Master’s study on selected courses, jointly supported by UK universities.

Funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID), Commonwealth Shared Scholarships enable talented and motivated individuals to gain the knowledge and skills required for sustainable development, and are aimed at those who could not otherwise afford to study in the UK.

These scholarships are offered under six themes:

  1. Science and technology for development
  2. Strengthening health systems and capacity
  3. Promoting global prosperity
  4. Strengthening global peace, security and governance
  5. Strengthening resilience and response to crises
  6. Access, inclusion and opportunity

For more information on other scholarships offered by the CSC, visit the CSC Apply page.

Eligibility
Terms and conditions
Selection Process
How to apply
Enquiries

Eligibility

To apply for these scholarships, you must:

  • Be a citizen of or have been granted refugee status by an eligible Commonwealth country, or be a British Protected Person
  • Be permanently resident in an eligible Commonwealth country
  • Be available to start your academic studies in the UK by the start of the UK academic year in September/October 2020
  • By September 2020, hold a first degree of at least upper second class (2:1) standard, or a second class degree and a relevant postgraduate qualification (usually a Master’s degree). The CSC typically does not fund a second UK Master’s degree. If you are applying for a second UK Master’s degree, you will need to provide justification as to why you wish to undertake this study.
  • Not have studied or worked for one (academic) year or more in a high income country
  • Be unable to afford to study in the UK without this scholarship

The CSC aims to identify talented individuals who have the potential to make change. We are committed to a policy of equal opportunity and non-discrimination, and encourage applications from a diverse range of candidates. For further information on the support available to candidates with a disability, see the CSC disability support statement.

The CSC is committed to administering and managing its scholarships and fellowships in a fair and transparent manner. For further information, see the CSC anti-fraud policy and the DFID guidance on reporting fraud.

Eligible Commonwealth countries

Bangladesh
Cameroon
Eswatini
The Gambia
Ghana
India
Kenya
Kiribati
Lesotho
Malawi
Mozambique
Nigeria
Pakistan
Papua New Guinea
Rwanda
Samoa
Sierra Leone
Solomon Islands
Sri Lanka
Tanzania
Tuvalu
Uganda
Vanuatu
Zambia

Terms and conditions

For full terms and conditions – including further details of the scholarship themes, value of the scholarship, and general conditions – see the Commonwealth Shared Scholarships terms and conditions 2020.

Selection process

Each participating UK University will conduct its own recruitment process to select a specified number of candidates to be awarded Commonwealth Shared Scholarships. Universities must put forward their selected candidates to the CSC in March 2020. The CSC will then confirm that these candidates meet the eligibility criteria for this scheme. Universities will inform candidates of their results by July 2020.

Applications will be considered according to the following selection criteria:

  • Academic merit of the candidate
  • Potential impact of the work on the development of the candidate’s home country

For further details, see the Commonwealth Shared Scholarships 2020 selection criteria.

How to apply

You can apply to study one of the taught Master’s courses offered in the Commonwealth Shared Scholarship scheme. These scholarships do not cover undergraduate courses, PhD study, or any pre-sessional English language teaching, and are usually tenable for one year only. View a full list of eligible courses.

You must also secure admission to your course in addition to applying for a Shared Scholarship. You must check with your chosen university for their specific advice on when to apply, admission requirements, and rules for applying. View a full list of university contact details.

You must make your application using the CSC’s online application system, in addition to any other application that you are required to complete by your chosen university. The CSC will not accept any applications that are not submitted via the online application system.

You can apply for more than one course and/or to more than one university, but you may only accept one offer of a Shared Scholarship.

The CSC particularly welcomes applicants from the following countries:

Eswatini
Kiribati
Lesotho
Malawi
Mozambique
Papua New Guinea
Rwanda
Samoa
Solomon Islands
Tanzania
The Gambia
Tuvalu
Vanuatu

All applications must be submitted by 16.00 (GMT) on 18 December 2019 at the latest.

You are advised to complete and submit your application as soon as possible, as the online application system will be very busy in the days leading up to the application deadline.

Your application must include the following supporting documentation by 16:00 (GMT) on 18 December 2019 in order for your application to be eligible for consideration:

  • Proof of citizenship or refugee status – uploaded to the online application system
  • Full transcripts detailing all your higher education qualifications including to-date transcripts for any qualifications you are currently studying (with certified translations if not in English) – uploaded to the online application system

The CSC’s online application system is now open.

Enquiries

If you have any queries about applying for a Commonwealth Shared Scholarship, you can Contact us. We will not use your email address for any purpose other than responding to your enquiry.

For more information on other scholarships offered by the CSC, visit the CSC Apply page.

 

CLICK HERE TO APPLY

The post Full Masters Scholarships offered by Commonwealth (Deadline: 18 December 2019) appeared first on mucuruzi.com.


          

STUDY IN UK : Full Funded Scholarships from Commonwealth for candidates from least developed and lower middle income, Deadline : 18 December 2019

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STUDY IN UK : Full Funded Scholarships from Commonwealth for candidates from least developed and lower middle income, Deadline : 18 December 2019

Shared Scholarships

Commonwealth Shared Scholarships are for candidates from least developed and lower middle income Commonwealth countries, for full-time Master’s study on selected courses, jointly supported by UK universities.

Funded by the UK Department for International Development (DFID), Commonwealth Shared Scholarships enable talented and motivated individuals to gain the knowledge and skills required for sustainable development, and are aimed at those who could not otherwise afford to study in the UK.

These scholarships are offered under six themes:

  1. Science and technology for development
  2. Strengthening health systems and capacity
  3. Promoting global prosperity
  4. Strengthening global peace, security and governance
  5. Strengthening resilience and response to crises
  6. Access, inclusion and opportunity

For more information on other scholarships offered by the CSC, visit the CSC Apply page.

Eligibility
Terms and conditions
Selection Process
How to apply
Enquiries

Eligibility

To apply for these scholarships, you must:

  • Be a citizen of or have been granted refugee status by an eligible Commonwealth country, or be a British Protected Person
  • Be permanently resident in an eligible Commonwealth country
  • Be available to start your academic studies in the UK by the start of the UK academic year in September/October 2020
  • By September 2020, hold a first degree of at least upper second class (2:1) standard, or a second class degree and a relevant postgraduate qualification (usually a Master’s degree). The CSC typically does not fund a second UK Master’s degree. If you are applying for a second UK Master’s degree, you will need to provide justification as to why you wish to undertake this study.
  • Not have studied or worked for one (academic) year or more in a high income country
  • Be unable to afford to study in the UK without this scholarship

The CSC aims to identify talented individuals who have the potential to make change. We are committed to a policy of equal opportunity and non-discrimination, and encourage applications from a diverse range of candidates. For further information on the support available to candidates with a disability, see the CSC disability support statement.

The CSC is committed to administering and managing its scholarships and fellowships in a fair and transparent manner. For further information, see the CSC anti-fraud policy and the DFID guidance on reporting fraud.

Eligible Commonwealth countries

Bangladesh
Cameroon
Eswatini
The Gambia
Ghana
India
Kenya
Kiribati
Lesotho
Malawi
Mozambique
Nigeria
Pakistan
Papua New Guinea
Rwanda
Samoa
Sierra Leone
Solomon Islands
Sri Lanka
Tanzania
Tuvalu
Uganda
Vanuatu
Zambia

Terms and conditions

For full terms and conditions – including further details of the scholarship themes, value of the scholarship, and general conditions – see the Commonwealth Shared Scholarships terms and conditions 2020.

 

 

Selection process

Each participating UK University will conduct its own recruitment process to select a specified number of candidates to be awarded Commonwealth Shared Scholarships. Universities must put forward their selected candidates to the CSC in March 2020. The CSC will then confirm that these candidates meet the eligibility criteria for this scheme. Universities will inform candidates of their results by July 2020.

Applications will be considered according to the following selection criteria:

  • Academic merit of the candidate
  • Potential impact of the work on the development of the candidate’s home country

For further details, see the Commonwealth Shared Scholarships 2020 selection criteria.

How to apply

You can apply to study one of the taught Master’s courses offered in the Commonwealth Shared Scholarship scheme. These scholarships do not cover undergraduate courses, PhD study, or any pre-sessional English language teaching, and are usually tenable for one year only. View a full list of eligible courses.

You must also secure admission to your course in addition to applying for a Shared Scholarship. You must check with your chosen university for their specific advice on when to apply, admission requirements, and rules for applying. View a full list of university contact details.

You must make your application using the CSC’s online application system, in addition to any other application that you are required to complete by your chosen university. The CSC will not accept any applications that are not submitted via the online application system.

You can apply for more than one course and/or to more than one university, but you may only accept one offer of a Shared Scholarship.

The CSC particularly welcomes applicants from the following countries:

Eswatini
Kiribati
Lesotho
Malawi
Mozambique
Papua New Guinea
Rwanda
Samoa
Solomon Islands
Tanzania
The Gambia
Tuvalu
Vanuatu

All applications must be submitted by 16.00 (GMT) on 18 December 2019 at the latest.

You are advised to complete and submit your application as soon as possible, as the online application system will be very busy in the days leading up to the application deadline.

Your application must include the following supporting documentation by 16:00 (GMT) on 18 December 2019 in order for your application to be eligible for consideration:

  • Proof of citizenship or refugee status – uploaded to the online application system
  • Full transcripts detailing all your higher education qualifications including to-date transcripts for any qualifications you are currently studying (with certified translations if not in English) – uploaded to the online application system

The CSC’s online application system is now open.

Enquiries

If you have any queries about applying for a Commonwealth Shared Scholarship, you can Contact us. We will not use your email address for any purpose other than responding to your enquiry.

CLICK HERE TO APPLY

The post STUDY IN UK : Full Funded Scholarships from Commonwealth for candidates from least developed and lower middle income, Deadline : 18 December 2019 appeared first on mucuruzi.com.


          

Papa celebra registro de braceros indocumentados en parroquias de Italia

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El papa Francisco celebró hoy el acuerdo al que han llegado la diócesis de San Severo en Apulia (sur de Italia) y su Ayuntamiento para registrar como residentes en algunas parroquias rurales a los braceros africanos indocumentados que trabajan durante el verano en el campo.

Papa celebra registro de braceros indocumentados en parroquias de Italia

Tras el rezo del Ángelus, el papa agradeció a la diócesis y al Ayuntamiento la firma el pasado 28 de octubre de este memorando de entendimiento, que "permitirá a los trabajadores de los llamados 'guetos de la Capitanata', en la zona de Foggia, obtener una domiciliación en las parroquias y la inscripción en el registro municipal".

Francisco alabó que este acuerdo, que no tiene precedentes en Italia, otorgará documentos de identidad y una residencia a estas personas y "les ofrecerá una nueva dignidad", además de permitirles "salir de una condición de irregularidad y explotación".

Cada verano, miles de inmigrantes procedentes de países como Nigeria, Ghana, Senegal y Gambia, pero también del este de Europa, trabajan en la recogida de cosecha en la zona de La Capitanata, en la provincia de Foggia, pero lo hacen en negro, porque son irregulares.

No pueden inscribirse como residentes en Italia ni pagar sus impuestos, ya que carecen de un domicilio fijo durante un periodo determinado de tiempo, tal y como exige la ley.

Para ellos, ser inscritos en los registros municipales como residentes en estas parroquias les permitirá poner en regla su situación, disfrutar de servicios sociales y tener la posibilidad de firmar un contrato de trabajo.

Uno de los principales impulsores del acuerdo ha sido el limosnero del papa, el cardenal Konrad Krajewski, que visitó a los inmigrantes indocumentados en esta zona el pasado septiembre, informa el portal de información vaticana Vatican News.

"Los braceros quieren pagar sus impuestos, ser reconocidos, trabajar dignamente, pero sin documentos no pueden", declaró Krajewski a los medios italianos durante su visita. EFE

IR

Categoria: 

          

Cardiovascular risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

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Cardiovascular risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

 

Manuel Monti1, Maria Pia Ruggieri2, Giovanni Maria Vincentelli3, Fernando Capuano4, Francesco Rocco Pugliese5

 

1 Emergency Department - AUSL UMBRIA1 Assisi (Perugia) Via V. Muller 1, Assisi (Perugia), Italy
2 Emergency Department - San Giovanni Hospital Rome
3 Emergency Department - Fatebenefratelli Hospital - Isola Tiberina Via Fatebenefratelli 1 Roma
4 Antel National President Rome
5 Head of Emergency Department - Pertini Hospital Rome

 

 

Abstract

Background: Ischemic heart disease is increasing dramatically in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), owing toincreasing prevalence of risk factors, and to some characteristics of the African people that make the African population subject to the effects of major cardiovascular risk factors. The pace and direction of economic development, rates of urbanization, the changes in life expectancy, associated with different pathophysiological factors are causing an increased rate of atherosclerotic disease in these countries.

Results: In the next twenty years, the prevalence of ischemic heart disease in SSA will increase, due to increasedrisk factors,especially hypertension, diabetes, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, tobacco use and the dyslipidemia, mainly due to an increase in urbanization. Moreover, thanks to new knowledge, it has been pointed out the difference of individual risk factors in the African population and other populations due to genetic differences. It is estimated that age-standardized approach for ischemic heart disease mortality rates will rise by 27% in African men and 25% in women by 2015 and by 70 and 74%, respectively by 2030.

Conclusion: More research is neededin Africa to provide evidence for cardiovascular prevention and treatment to mitigate the oncoming epidemic. Healthinterventions are needed for prevent or reduce the morbidity / mortality need to be addressed in both children and adults, including modifiedscore of the risk stratification, starting early therapy and aggressive, if necessary.

 

 

 

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a disabling growing epidemic that causes premature death and decreased quality of life. Globally, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which include coronary heart disease (CHD), strokes, rheumatic heart disease (RHD), cardiomyopathy, and other heart diseases, represent the leading cause of death (1).Recent population studies demonstrate an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) (2). Despite evidence to suggest that CVD-related mortality rates are increasing in the region,  it is only now being recognized  as an important public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa, with coronary artery disease shown to rise in incidence in sub-Saharan Africa(3-4) . Cardiovascular diseases are the main non-communicable conditions in SSA and now 9.2% of total deaths in the African region are caused by CVD (5) , being the leading cause of death in the population over 45 years of age (6) .Cardiovascular diseases account for 7-10% of all adult medical admissions to hospitals in Africa, with heart failure contributing to 3-7% (7) .When studies on urban and rural populations were analyzed, the prevalence of CVD  was found to be higher in the urban than the rural population (8-9).

Behavioural risk factors

 The important contributors to this transition are the so-called “globalization” of dietary  habits and urbanization. Urbanization is the prime driver for nutrition transition and emergence of obesity, themetabolic syndrome and other NCDs in developing countries, especially SSA. The current average annual growth of the urban population in sub-Saharan Africa is 4.5%. Over the period 1980-2050, the urban population of Africa, as a whole, is expected to increase from 134 million to 1.264.000 million (10). The rural-to-urban migration in many of the developing countries exposes migrants to urbanized diets and lifestyle. Dietary changes associated with urbanization are related to the fact that rural dwellers tend to be more self-reliant in obtaining food and also tend to eat traditional diets that are high in grains, fruit and vegetables, and low in fat. Once they arrive in urban areas, these same people tend to rely more on external forces for sustenance, resulting in a shift from production of their own food to the purchase of processed foods (11).Major dietary changes include a large increase in the consumption of fats, particularly animal fat and added sugar and decrease in cereal and roughageintake (12).  This involves major changes of the main cardiovascular risk factors between the two areas(13) (tab.1). There was evidence of a significant increase in edible oil, indicating a major change in diet; dietary changes include a large increase in the consumption of fats, particularly animal fat and added sugar, associated to the decrease in cereal and fiber intake(14) (Fig.1). In fact, recent global figures from the World Health Organization (WHO) indicate that the prevalence of obesity is not just affecting the developed countries, but is also increasing in the developing countries, where over 115 million people suffer from obesity-related problems (15) .

Psychosocial factors

Psychosocial factors increase the number of risk factors. Some studies have shown that the number of countries registering , in recent years, a rise in the number of households owning televisions and computers is directlyproportionate to the reduction in physical activities, contributing arise in obesity in children (16-17). Alcohol and tobacco smoking are risk factors towards heart failure, ischemic stroke, heart disease, and acute myocardial infarction (18). Many studies show how alcohol and tobacco use are related to poverty and low socio-economic positions. Rural areas inhabitants are highly affected by such habits, especially compared to the other risk factors, which are  more common in urban areas(19-20) Smoking tendency is increasing among men and women in SSA, mainly in the age group between 30 and 49, with particular reference in women, increasing together with ageing (21). Furthermore, in many developing countries, psychosocial attitude toward obesity is not seen a negative factor (22-23). Mvo et al. and Puoane et al. reported that even if a large percentage of African women were overweight and obese, only a few perceived themselves so (24-25). Gambian populations were reported to be more obesity tolerant (acceptance of obese body size as normal) than African-Americans, and much more tolerant than white Americans (26) .Moreover, the double burden of under and over-nutrition presents a potentially grave situation, which should deserve more attention from both health and economic agencies engaged in development. While they continue to deal with the problems of infectious disease and under-nutrition, they are experiencing a rapid upsurge in disease risk factors, such as obesity and overweight, especially in urban settings. It is not uncommon to find under-nutrition and obesity existing side-by-side within the same country, the same community and the same household. Children in low and middle-income countries are more vulnerable to inadequate pre-natal, infant and young child nutrition. Simultaneously, they are exposed to high-fat, high-sugar, high-salt, energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods, which is usually lower in cost but also lower in nutrient quality. These dietary patterns, in conjunction with lower levels of physical activity, result in sharp increases in childhood obesity, while undernutrition issues remain unsolved(27). Recently, the rise of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors were also seen in rural areas of some countries of the developing world. It has to be pointed out that many so-called rural areas are no longer genuinely rural: people are becoming more urbanized even in areas far from cities. This phenomenon, to some extent, is linked to the so-called "Remittance economy”. Migrant workers remittance led to a relative wealth, even in rural areas influencing some lifestyles (28).Such epidemiological transition is due, in part, to an improved longevity starting from the 1950s, so that more people are exposed to these risk factors, for long enough periods, to cause CAD. Globally considering risk factors, it has to be highlighted how the risk-factor burden experienced by blacks differs from that of whites. A recent study conducted in Ghana shows low median levels of cardiovascular risk factors and the prevalences of obesity, hypertension, dysglycaemia or diabetes, and dyslipidaemia were low too. The preponderance of moderately elevated levels of CRP was also low.However, the evidence has shown that younger patients (<55 years) were prone to a higher risk of atherosclerotic disease, which decreased ageing (29). Such difference, could be partially explained by the difficult collection of data about the actual incidence of risk factors among African population, which may lie in the complexity of conducting proper surveys in many countries, in order to perform an accurate risk stratification. In addition, women do not smoke or drink publicly, but it can assume that the women exhibit these behaviours privately in smaller proportions (30). Moreover there are some pathophysiological peculiarities in the African population, boosting an increased susceptibility to traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

Arterial hypertension

The prevalence of hypertension among urban dwellers in SSA appears to be particularly high, ranging from 8–25 per cent. At the dawn of the twentieth century, high blood pressure was virtually nonexistent among indigenous Kenyans and Ugandans. Starting from 1975, high blood pressure became established in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda (31-32). In December 2006, among the adults living in Addis Abeba, the prevalence of hypertension was 50.9% between males and 47.1% among females (33). In  Cameroon the prevalence of hypertension among people aged 15-99 years in 2004 was 20.8%, a common issue especially among men (34). In Sub-Saharan Africa, age-adjusted hypertension prevalence and age-specific rates of death from stroke are higher among urban blacks than equivalent white populations (35). Yameogo et al showed resistant hypertension is common in black Africans, most affected subjects are people over 60 years old, with limited economic income and living in rural areas (36). Numerous studies have found that such population has an excess prevalence of salt sensitivity, hypervolemia, and low plasma renin activity (37-38).

Diabetes mellitus

In 2010, an estimated 12.1 million people with diabetes mellitus (4.2% of the global estimate of 285 million) were living in sub-Saharan Africa (39). The following year, diabetes prevalence rose to 14.7 million (4.02% of the global 366 million). By year 2030, a 90% projected increase in diabetes prevalence throughout SSA, skyrocketing the number of Africans with diabetes to 28 million. (39) The incidence of diabetes mellitus in IHD remains uncertain because many studies show that, among African population, the main complication of diabetes is the micro-angiopathies compared to Western countries, where the macrovascular complication is the most important (40-41). One common pathogenic mechanism for microvascular disease, is rooted in the chemical by-products of reactions between sugars and proteins occurring over the course of days to weeks, producing irreversible protein cross-linked derivatives AGE (42). The increase in AGE produces growth inhibition and apoptosis of retinal pericytes, also inducing an overproduction of endothelial growth factors and neovascularization, and chronic inflammation too (43-44). Such actions lead to an increased microthrombosis, capillary blockage, retinal ischemia and the activation of endothelial cells, responsible of important shortcomings involving mesangial cells and stimulating glomerular fibrosis (45-46). It has been suggested that, among black population, microvascular damage is due to a different genetic predisposition that stimulates the accumulation of AGEs with all the after-effects (45-46). The strong association between diabetes mellitus and hypertension among the African population, compared to the white population, worsens dramatically microvascular damage (47-48).

Visceral Fat

The phenotype of obesity, found among several ethnic groups in developing countries, appears to be different than among the Caucasian population. Several studies reported a correlation between  visceral fat (VF) and insulin-resistance, rise of triglycerides, blood pressure and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, VF  is correlated to all the conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors and with sedentary life-styles. VF might exhibit a proinflammatory adipokine profile, playing a pivotal role in coronary atherogenesis. The expansion of adipocytes with triglyceride is thought to be trigger the increased expression and production of inflammatory cytokines - such as TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-1β, −6, and −8, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)  and decreased expression and production of leptin and vasoprotective adiponectin. Furthermore, VF might exhibit a proinflammatory adipokine profile (49-50) (Fig.2). During the International Day for evaluation of abdominal obesity, a study, related to the waist circumference data, involving 63 countries, showed highest prevalence of visceral fat in SSA and South Asians, compared with North Europeans and other Asian ethnic groups (51). In fact, it was shown that a parity of average value of waist circumference and BMI in SSA, especially Nigeria and Cameroon, visceral adiposity is significantly higher than other populations (52). High percentage of body fat with low BMI value could be partly explained by body build (trunk to leg length ratio and slender body frame), muscularity, adaptation to chronic calorie deprivation, and ethnicity (53). Some studies also shown how the populations of SSA have an accumulation of visceral fat in other tissues where usually are not deposited (ectopic fat): this feature has the potential to affect insulin sensitivity (54) . A number of studies highlighted how African populations have a lower amount of epicardial fat than the white population: such matter is of considerable interest, as the epicardial fat is now considered an important emerging independent cardio - vascular risk factor (55) (Fig.3).

The markers of body fat distribution, including waist-hip ratio, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat diner a heritable component, support the thesis of unique genetic variants associated with ectopic fat depots(56-57-58). Fox et al identified a single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP) near the TRIB2 locus, which is associated with pericardial fat but not with body mass index or visceral abdominal fat (59). This is the reason why we must carry out studies in order to highlight, among the African population, the genetic variants responsible for the increase in visceral fat but not in epicardial ectopic. This would allow the identification of subgroups among the population, with BMI and amount of visceral fat compiling the standard, who are at greater risk of atherosclerotic disease (60). Other factors, such as genotype, could make the African population very susceptible to visceral fat. Among others genetics, a pivotal role is fulfilled by LOX-1, a type-II membrane protein belonging to the C-type lectin family. The LOX-1 has a crucial part in amplifying local inflammatory responses during atherosclerotic development (61) (Tab.2). The study performed by Predazzi showed a higher frequencies of two polymorphisms associated with the risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), among the South-Saharan rural populations (61)   Furthermore, it must be considered the identification of other  deleterious alleles lying on CVD associated genes (GJA4, SERPINE1 and MMP3), which have a higher frequencies in African population in respect to Europeans. (62)

Communicable Diseases

Several studies reported associations between the exposure to various infectious agents and the prevalent coronary disease(63-64-65). In 1891, Huchard was the first to suggest the involvement of infectious agents in the process of atherosclerosis. Subsequently, several reports shown a relationship between the development of atherosclerosis and the presence of infectious diseases (66-67).  Several types of microbes are now also being implicated as possible causative agents in acquired CVD, and a few bacterial agents have been a research topic for several years. Organisms such as the spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) or the Treponema pallidum (syphilis), and flagellated bacteria such as the streptococci, have well-recognized atherosclerotic potential. Interest in the role of infection in atherosclerosis was renewed with the observation that patients with coronary artery disease were more likely than matched controls to have an elevated antibody titer to Chlamydia pneumonia (68-69). Multiple complex processes are involved in the development of CVD. The increased incidence of infectious diseases has highlighted the expression of proinflammatory immune system to survive up to older ages. Although the increase of the protein Cwas not related to an increase of atherosclerotic disease, other acute-phase reactants, including fibrinogen and serum amyloid A, appear to be associated with vascular risk.This selection of a proinflammatory status is confirmed by the higher levels of the proinflammatory cytokine, including the interleukin-6 (IL6) (70). The macrophage is a critical component in the pathway to atherosclerotic inflammation. During an infectious process causes the activation of macrophages, including the  secretion of numerous factors (AGF; TGF; 1,2,4 FGF;VEGF). These substances stimulate the appearance of endothelial cells and are responsible for the creation of a systemic hypercoagulable state (71-72). In addition, mitogenic factors are released through an NF-Kβrelated mechanism, leading to smooth muscle cell proliferation and however there is an increase of monocytes through transendothelial migration at the level of the coronary (73-74). This  means that the activated macrophages stimulate bothlocal lipid accumulation and the instability that presages plaque rupture (75-76-77).

Coronary Heart Disease

IHD remains relatively uncommon in SSA despite an increasing prevalence of risk factors but its incidence is rising. A study of the 1954 have evidenced by 3,500 postmortem studies in Ghana in which only three cases of CHD were found (78). In Uganda, the National Heart Institute at Mulago alone, currently receives at least 100 patients every day with 5-8 being new cases (a total of about 36,500 patients per year with 1,825-2,920 being new cases). In 2011,heart cases increased by 20% bringing the number to 12,000 with  256 new cases registered in January alone (79). The WHO estimated that in 2005, IHD caused approximately 261 000 deaths in the African region, and current projections suggest that this number will nearly 600.000 by 2030. It is estimated that age-standardized mortality rates for IHD will rise by 27% in African men and 25% in women by 2015, and by 70 and 74%, respectively by 2030 (80) (Fig.4). The increase in IHD in Sub-Saharan Africa since the 1980s is presumably because of the increasing prevalence among African populations of the classical risk factors for CAD, include hypertension, smoking, diabetes, abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. In addition, as a result of developments in combating communicable diseases and a decrease in childhood mortality, life expectancy in Sub-Saharan Africa has risen since the 1950 and  the number of individuals aged over 60 years is predicted to increase from 39 to 80 million by 2025 in SSA. This meaning that more people are exposed to these risk factors for long enough periods to cause CAD (81-82).

Conclusion

This review attempts to assess the prevalence, levels of risk and major risk factors for developing  cardiovascular disease in SSA.This article answered specific research questions and hypotheses on issues relating to sedentary lifestyles, nutritional behaviours, knowledge on CVDs risk factors, and especially some of the key knowledge on the genetic differences between the African population and other populations. Among the socio-economic and behavioral risk profile study variables, the review documented a high prevalence of active smoking, high consumption of edible oil and fat, an increase in physical inactivity and current active alcohol usage. The economic and social important consequences of the CVD Epidemics in the SSA will be devastating. Important gene - environment can play a crucial role in the increased risk of the IHD of the African population. The detection and management of hypertension and diabetes are still unsatisfactory in inner city areas and show variations by ethnic origin. A priority should be the development of scores for the population of Africa, also using the emerging risk factors such as Calcium Score and visceral fat and considering genetic differences. Increasing burden of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, T2DM, and CVD in SSA has created an urgent need to strategize mass health policies and intervention programs to tackle nutrition and continuing efforts to manage undernutrition. There are two major approaches to prevention: public health / community-based and clinic-based strategies with a targeted approach to high-risk patients and combinations of these. There are concerns that in comparison with communicable diseases, cardiovascular and relatively chronic diseases have a low priority in the global health agenda and that requires this additional emphasis. Finally, we must consider, in the light of the differences between races, strategies for the control of CHD and stroke cushion adopted in European countries directed mostly to white rural populations may be inappropriate for the African population. In conclusion, evaluations must be performed carefully for correct risk stratification, the timing of initiation of treatment and the goals of the therapeutic treatment to be achieved in the African population. In addition, further evaluations should be done to perform a correct public health / community-based strategies targeted at risk factors, including decrease in taxes and prices of fruits and vegetables, more playgrounds, parks, walking and bicycle tracks, provide information to parents about nutrition (particularlymothers), the change of food policy through country-specific guidelines for healthy nutrition for adults and children.

 

 

Tables

 

Tab. 1 The main risk factorsof urban and ruralarea

 

Urban

Rural

BMI (kg/m2)

25.8 ± 6.9

19.3 ± 3.2 *

Waist (cm)

85.2 ± 9.9

67.8 ± 9.9 *

Waist-hip ratio

0.88 ± 0.09

0.81 ± 0.08 *

Triceps skinfold (mm)

17.3 ± 6.8

9.8 ± 5.4 *

% overweight

(BMI > 25)

53.4

5.8 *

p <0,001, ageand gender adjusted                                 

 

Tab.2 Cellular effects of ligand-LOX-1

Cellular effects of ligand-LOX-1 interaction on atherogenesis

Endothelial cells Alteration of vascular tone

Increased intracellular oxidative stress

 Induction of apoptosis

Induction of proliferation and angiogenesis by increasing VEGF expression

Increased expression of adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 , ICAM-1 , Selectins)

Increased expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

Induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

Reduction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

Release of matrix metalloproteinases

Smooth muscle cells Induction of apoptosis

Monocytes Induction of monocyte adhesion and activation

Increased oxLDL uptake and foam cell formation

VEGF Vascular endothelial growth factor; VCAM1 Vascular cell adhesion molecule1; ICAM1 Intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1.

 

 

Figures

Fig.1 Date of  consumption of fats (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)

 

Fig.2 Main mechanisms ofcardiovascular damage caused by visceral fat

 

Fig.3 Epicardial fat around the myocardial tissue

 

Fig.4 Projection of death from IHD in men and women in the WHO African regions for the year 2005,2015 and 2030 (WHO,2008)

 

 

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Corresponding author           

Manuel Monti

montimanuel@tiscali.it

00393391050122

USL UMBRIA1 U.O. PS/118

Via V. Muller 1

Assisi (Perugia)


          

Clitoraid: al via la seconda missione umanitaria in Kenya per la ricostruzione del clitoride

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San Francisco, California, 20 febbraio – Dal 4 al 14 marzo 2019, Clitoraid, organizzazione umanitaria con sede negli Stati Uniti, darà il via a Nairobi, in Kenya, alla sua seconda missione di ricostruzione chirurgica del clitoride. Lo scopo è quello di aiutare le vittime di mutilazioni genitali femminili (MGF) a recuperare la propria dignità e capacità di provare del piacere sessuale, grazie a un’innovativa tecnica sviluppata da un urologo francese.

"Secondo l'Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità (OMS), il 25% della popolazione femminile keniota ha subito l'orribile tradizione dell’escissione dei genitali, anche se oggi tale pratica è diventata illegale in Kenya", spiega Nadine Gary, direttrice delle operazioni di Clitoraid.

L'OMS stima che 125 milioni di donne in tutto il mondo siano state vittime di mutilazioni genitali non appena nate, quando erano solo delle bambine o poco più che adolescenti. Questa pratica vìola gravemente la Convenzione dell’UNICEF sui diritti dell’infanzia.

La dott.ssa Marci Bowers di San Francisco, negli USA, capo chirurgo volontario di Clitoraid, eseguirà l’intervento ricostruttivo del clitoride in collaborazione con il dott. Adan Abdullahi, affiliato alla ONG Garana.

"Saranno assistiti sia da medici locali che provenienti dagli Stati Uniti, dal Canada e dall’Australia", afferma la Gary.

Nel corso di questa missione umanitaria della durata di due settimana, circa 100 vittime di MGF, tra cui donne originarie della Tanzania, del Sudan e del Gambia, saranno sottoposte all’intervento chirurgico che si svolgerà a Nairobi presso la clinica del dott. Abdullahi", informa la Gary.

"A partire dal 2009, Clitoraid ha eseguito questa tecnica di chirurgia ricostruttiva del clitoride (CRC) su oltre 500 donne che hanno subito mutilazioni genitali. Questo è avvenuto per lo più negli Stati Uniti, dove oltre mezzo milione di vittime risiedono attualmente, secondo il Center for Disease Control", afferma la Gary. "Abbiamo anche operato in Kenya e in Burkina Faso, in Africa occidentale, dove il nostro ospedale realizzato specificatamente per le vittime delle MGF attende l’autorizzazione necessaria per l'apertura".

La creazione di Clitoraid è stata ispirata da Rael, leader spirituale di livello internazionale e instancabile difensore dei diritti umani e delle donne. Il diritto innato alla salute e alla propria realizzazione sessuale è un valore fondamentale che viene promosso dalla filosofia raeliana da quasi mezzo secolo ed è ora riconosciuto dall'Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità come un diritto umano fondamentale.

"La società deve liberarsi della vergogna e dei sensi di colpa instillati dalle religioni patriarcali arcaiche, siano esse tribali che tradizionali, che sono particolarmente offensive e degradanti verso le donne", afferma la Gary. "Reprimere la loro sessualità è stato un potente stratagemma per controllarle e soggiogarle per secoli".

La Gary conclude: "Oggi, con l'educazione, le donne si stanno rendendo conto che le tradizioni e le culture che vìolano la loro integrità e libertà sessuale rappresentano un oltraggio anche per la loro dignità di donne".

          

Clitoraid annuncia di aver eseguito in Kenya i primi interventi chirurgici di ricostruzione del clitoride a donne vittime di MGF

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LAS VEGAS, 25 aprile - Dal 2 al 13 maggio, Clitoraid – organizzazione internazionale senza scopo di lucro con sede negli Stati Uniti – darà il via alla sua prima missione umanitaria a Nairobi, in Kenya, per offrire alle donne vittime di mutilazioni genitali femminili (MGF) la possibilità di sottoporsi gratuitamente a un intervento chirurgico per la ricostruzione del clitoride.

Secondo Nadine Gary, portavoce di Clitoraid, questa nuova iniziativa fa parte di una serie di azioni previste per tutto il mese di maggio, dichiarato mese della consapevolezza del clitoride.

"La dott.ssa Marci Bowers, chirurgo ginecologico di Clitoraid, opererà quaranta donne in Kenya con la collaborazione dell’organizzazione non governativa Keniana Garana e del dott. Abdullahi Adan, un chirurgo plastico ricostruttivo.

"La dott.ssa Bowers restituirà a quaranta pazienti la possibilità di provare nuovamente del piacere sessuale", ha dichiarato la Gary. "Ma coloro che si opereranno la prossima settimana sono solo alcune delle molte vittime di MGF che ci hanno contattato e che cercano disperatamente di riacquistare la propria integrità fisica" (secondo un rapporto dell'UNICEF datato 2013, un quarto di tutte le donne keniane sono vittime della barbarie delle MGF, note anche come "escissione").

La Gary ha inoltre detto che la dott.ssa Bowers approfitterà del suo soggiorno in Kenya per formare alcuni chirurghi locali.

"Illustrerà la tecnica di ricostruzione del clitoride messa a punto dall'urologo francese Pierre Foldes", ha spiegato la Gary. "Inoltre, parteciperà anche la nostra sessuologa francese, Clemence Linard, per offrire consulenza alle pazienti e condividere le proprie competenze con il sessuologo keniano Tammary Esho, che presterà assistenza in qualità di volontario".

La missione umanitaria di Clitoraid è iniziata nel 2004.

"Il leader spirituale Maitreya Rael - www.rael.org - durante una sua visita in Africa occidentale nel 2003 è venuto a conoscenza della spaventosa pratica delle mutilazioni genitali", ha detto la Gary. "Ha quindi dato il via al progetto Clitoraid non solo per lanciare una campagna educativa contro le MGF, ma anche per offrire alle vittime la possibilità di sottoporsi a un intervento chirurgico che restituisse loro l’integrità fisica perduta".

La Gary ha detto che Clitoraid ha già operato oltre duecentocinquanta donne, soprattutto negli Stati Uniti, dove risiedono oggi cinquecentomila vittime di MGF.

"Tra le nostri pazienti c’è anche Jaha Dukureh, residente negli Stati Uniti ma nata in Gambia", ha detto la Gary. "L'anno scorso è stata nominata da Time Magazine tra le cento persone più influenti al mondo per il suo attivismo contro le MGF. Ha definito l’intervento chirurgico a cui si è sottoposta grazie a Clitoraid come "un'esperienza che ti cambia la vita".

Nel frattempo, il primo ospedale di Clitoraid riservato alle vittime di MGF e alle loro necessità mediche in Africa occidentale è ancora in attesa di licenza a Bobo Dioulasso, in Burkina Faso.

"Uomini politici corrotti e medici avidi hanno impedito l’apertura del nostro ospedale nel 2014, noncuranti della rabbia e della disperazione delle innumerevoli vittime di MGF locali", ha dichiarato la Gary.

www.clitoraid.org


          

Clitoraid annuncia l’inizio della collaborazione con l’associazione Safe Hands for Girls per fornire un intervento chirurgico di ricostruzione del clitoride in Gambia alle vittime di MGF

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LAS VEGAS, 6 febbraio - Clitoraid, un’organizzazione umanitaria internazionale con sede negli Stati Uniti il cui scopo è quello di fornire un intervento chirurgico di ricostruzione del clitoride alle vittime di mutilazioni genitali femminili (MGF), ha annunciato oggi l’inizio di una collaborazione in Gambia con la ONG Safe Hands for Girls.

"Mentre il mondo celebra la Giornata internazionale della Tolleranza Zero nei confronti delle MGF, siamo estremamente onorati che Jaha Dukureh, responsabile di Safe Hands for Girls, ci abbia chiesto di collaborare con la sua organizzazione", ha dichiarato Nadine Gary, direttrice delle comunicazioni per Clitoraid.

"Lavoreremo insieme per fornire assistenza medica alle vittime di MGF in Gambia, offrendo loro la possibilità di sottoporsi a un intervento per la ricostruzione chirurgica del clitoride".

La Dukureh è nata in Gambia, dove ha subito la mutilazione dei genitali quando era una bambina. Più tardi, divenne una celebre attivista contro le MGF e nel 2015 fu anche candidata a diventare "Woman of the Year" nel suo Paese.

"Due mesi fa, la sua lotta contro le MGF ha fatto sì che fosse approvato uno storico disegno di legge che vieta le MGF in Gambia", ha detto la Gary.

"Proprio durante le vacanze, mentre Jaha si stava riprendendo dall'intervento di ricostruzione del clitoride a cui si era sottoposta a San Francisco, ha ricevuto i documenti ufficiali da parte del governo del Gambia per la concessione di un terreno su cui costruire un centro medico per il trattamento delle MGF. Fu il presidente in persona a sceglierlo!".

La Gary ha spiegato che i volontari di Clitoraid - tra cui il capo chirurgo che ha operato Dukureh, la Dr.ssa Marci Bowers – sono entusiasti di questa nuova partnership.

"E’ una collaborazione umanitaria in grado di cambiare e salvare delle vite umane, essendo sostenuta dal governo del Gambia, e speriamo che ciò ispirerà il neo eletto presidente del Burkina Faso affinché il suo Ministro della Salute rilasci le autorizzazioni necessarie per l'apertura dell’ospedale di Clitoraid a Bobo Dioulasso", ha detto la Gary. "La nostra nuova struttura medica, all’avanguardia in questo campo, è rimasta chiusa per due anni, mentre migliaia di vittime di MGF aspettano disperatamente questo intervento che può cambiare e salvare la loro vita".



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