Ethiopia is now managing nearly a million refugees from South Sudan, Somalia, Eritrea, Sudan, Yemen and even Syria, said Ethiopian Cardinal Berhaneyesus Souraphiel. Because so many Ethiopians are refugees, those who remain in the country work to make newcomers feel welcome.
After a dramatic October, some say Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed must earn his Nobel Peace Prize. Last month, Abiy Ahmed won the Nobel Peace Prize for his "efforts to achieve peace and reconciliation" as...
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The foreign ministers of Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan agreed on Wednesday to work toward resolving their dispute over the filling and operation of a massive dam project in Ethiopia by Jan. 15, 2020, the U.S. Treasury said.
The foreign ministers of Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan agreed on Wednesday to work toward resolving their dispute over the filling and operation of a massive dam project in Ethiopia by Jan. 15, 2020, the U.S. Treasury said.
WASHINGTON: US President Donald Trump on Wednesday (Nov 6) said he had hosted successful talks in the White House with representatives of Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan on a controversial dam being built on the Nile.
Trump was mediating in a dispute over Ethiopia's construction of the huge dam which ...
Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed recently announced that violent tensions in his country have risen with thousands displaced and over thirty churches burnt in the past two years, according to CBN. Over the weekend, nearly 90 citizens were also killed in a violent protest over religion and ethnicity.
Country: World, Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Millions displaced; women, girls hit hardest; crises compounded by conflicts, poverty and inequality; $700m average climate-related losses; urgent action needed now
More than 52 million people in 18 countries across southern, eastern and central Africa are facing up to crisis levels of hunger as a result of weather extremes, compounded by poverty and conflict.
Some areas are facing a second extreme drought in four years and worse than that sparked by El Nino in 1981.
In the South, parts of Zimbabwe have had their lowest rainfall since 1981 which has helped push more than 5.5m people into extreme food insecurity. Zambia’s rich maize-growing area has been decimated and exports are now banned; 2.3m people there are food insecure. The situation is worsening including in Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar, Namibia and Zimbabwe. There are reports of farmer suicides in South Africa.
Drought has also hit the East and Horn of Africa particularly Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. At the same time, record-breaking temperatures in the Indian Ocean have dumped ultra-heavy rainfalls into Kenya and South Sudan, causing flash-flooding especially along major river arteries. South Sudan has declared a state of emergency with more than 900,000 people hit by floods.
In Africa extreme weather events have hit many countries already suffering from ongoing conflict. Across the continent, 7.6 million people were displaced by conflict in the first six months of 2019, and another 2.6 million by extreme weather. In the Horn, Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan have simultaneously faced over 750 000 people displaced by conflict and 350 000 displaced by extreme weather.
Scientists have demonstrated how climate change is increasing the frequency or severity of many extreme weather events. Over the last decade, these 18 African countries have collectively suffered average annual losses of $700m from climate-related disasters– and this is without counting the cost of these latest crises, says Oxfam. However, there has been minimal progress globally in raising funds specifically to address loss and damage from climate change. Africa contributes less than 5% of total global emissions but is suffering some of the most severe impacts of the climate crisis.
Officials will meet at the African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN) in Durban Nov 11-15 to discuss the future of Africa’s “environmental sustainability and prosperity”. Oxfam urges ministers to demand that industrial nations honor their promises to avoid escalating human and financial costs and to pay for damages.
“We are witnessing millions of already poor people facing extreme food insecurity and exhausting their reserves because of compounding climate shocks that hit already vulnerable communities hardest. They need help urgently. The scale of the drought devastation across southern Africa is staggering,” said Oxfam’s Southern Africa Regional Director Nellie Nyang'wa.
“In western Kenya, the crop harvest is 25% down and in parts of Somalia up to 60%. Livestock in many rural areas are emaciated and milk production is down. Cereal prices in some areas have rocketed up to five-year highs, pricing out poorer people. Nearly 7m people in the region are living just below the catastrophic hunger line,” said Oxfam’s Horn, East and Central Africa regional director Lydia Zigomo. “It is a vicious cycle where poor and marginalized communities, mostly women and girls, are more exposed to the climate crisis and less able to cope and recover from its harm.”.
Mithika Mwenda, chief executive of Oxfam’s partner PACJA, said “communities at the frontline of this climate crisis are overstretched and may be facing potential annihilation. But local people are doing everything that can to overcome the challenge. There are unprecedented levels of organization happening where governments have let local people down.”
“We’re seeing people trying to cope with shifting seasons and erratic rainfall by finding new ways to make a living off-farm. Women are coming together to pool their resources through small internal lending communities, buying food together, growing sweet potatoes instead of maize – all without outside support. Local people have the solutions but what they lack is resources, especially funding.
“Our leaders should look to support these community solutions to build up people’s resilience to climate change. For 35 years AMCEN has been a very important platform with impactful policies that have helped to create awareness of environmental sustainability. It needs to move away now from policy making to policy implementation.”
Oxfam is currently reaching more than 7 million people in ten of the hardest hit countries with food and water support, and long-term development projects to help people cope better with climate-related shocks. Oxfam plans to reach 10% of those most in need in these ten countries and is trying to raise $65m to do so.
Oxfam is calling on African ministers at the AMCEN meeting to:
• Insist rich industrialised countries decrease their CO2 emissions in line with the Paris Agreement's goal of limiting global heating to below 1.5C, and honour their commitment to mobilise $100bn a year by 2020 to fund climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts in developing countries;
• Demand governments agree to develop a new funding mechanism for “loss and damage” from climate change at the upcoming UN climate conference (COP25);
• Invest more into universal, high-quality and gender-responsive public services and strengthen tax systems in African countries to close the gap between rich and poor;
• Improve their disaster warning and management systems, and commit to re-greening and agricultural policies that target women and men small-scale farmers;
• Invest in “social accountability” projects that ensures climate finance can reach the communities that need it most, and empowering them in their own decision-making
• Engage women and girls in the planning, design and implementation of early warning systems and climate mitigation and adaptation programs
• Protect people who are forced to move so that they are able to do so in safety, dignity and on their own terms.
• Spokespersons available. To arrange for interviews contact:
• At the AMCEN event in Durban: Asanda Ngoasheng; Oxfam South Africa Media Lead: Asanda.Ngoasheng@oxfam.org.za +27826109374
• Nesrine Aly; Global Media Lead: firstname.lastname@example.org +447503989838; +201222486964
Note to editors
The 18 African countries analysed are Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
Oxfam’s estimate of economic damages from climate-related disasters is based on figures from EM-DAT: The Emergency Events Database: www.emdat.be. Oxfam's estimate of displacement from extreme weather events and from conflict if based on figure from IDMC : Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre: http://www.internal-displacement.org/
In 2013, CoP agreed to establish the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage which outlines the responsibility of rich developed nations to help communities overcome the loss and damage from climate disasters. Since then, zero progress has been made in ensuring financial support for loss and damage to these communities.
Oxfam is responding to the humanitarian needs in Ethiopia, DRC, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. For more details please check Oxfam.org
Country: Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe
Every year, UNICEF and partners generate a wealth of evidence on the situation of children in Africa. Knowledge and evidence are essential to informing the development, implementation, and monitoring of relevant policies and programmes for the realization of children’s rights. To this end, UNICEF Regional Directors in Africa are pleased to present the 2019 edition of the Knowledge for Children in Africa Publications Catalogue.
The 2019 edition of the catalogue features 107 reports and studies on the situation of children, young people, and women in Africa. These publications represent the collective knowledge generated by UNICEF Country and Regional Offices during the year, and capture the work of UNICEF and partners to support the rights and well-being of children across the continent.
The publications cover a wide range of topics. Publications are listed under the following categories:
Child-Sensitive Social Protection
Education and Early Childhood Development
Financing for Development: Public Finance for Children
HIV and AIDS
Humanitarian Action, Resilience and Peacebuilding
Maternal, Newborn and Child Health
Situation Analysis and Socioeconomic Development
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
Many of the publications are, or will be, available online. The entry for each study or report includes a short description, as well as information on the authors and contributors, planned publication date, and contact details for obtaining additional information.
Evidence plays a critical role in shaping successful initiatives in support of children and women.
We sincerely hope that you will find the publications listed in this catalogue to be a helpful resource for evidence-based decision making and programming.
Ted Chaiban Regional Director UNICEF Middle East and North Africa
Mohamed Malick Fall Regional Director UNICEF Eastern and Southern Africa
Marie-Pierre Poirier Regional Director UNICEF West and Central Africa
Country: Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, South Sudan, Togo, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia
This Weekly Bulletin focuses on public health emergencies occurring in the WHO African Region. The WHO Health Emergencies Programme is currently monitoring 68 events in the region. This week’s main articles cover key new and ongoing events, including:
Measles in Lesotho
Hepatitis E in Namibia
Humanitarian crisis in Mali
Ebola virus disease in Democratic Republic of the Congo.
For each of these events, a brief description, followed by public health measures implemented and an interpretation of the situation is provided.
A table is provided at the end of the bulletin with information on all new and ongoing public health events currently being monitored in the region, as well as recent events that have largely been controlled and thus closed.
Major issues and challenges include:
The hepatitis E outbreak first identified in Namibia in December 2017 continues, despite response efforts made to date to halt ongoing transmission of the virus. The major drivers of the outbreak remain the same, limited access to safe drinking water, inadequate sanitation and poor personal and food safety practices. Novel initiatives are therefore needed to address the outbreak such as finalising the review of the relevance and feasibility of a vaccination intervention. There is also a need to sustain conventional control activities, particularly in the informal settlements, and strengthen surveillance and coordination mechanisms in all the affected areas.
The humanitarian situation in Mali remains complex and volatile. The number of IDPs has continued to rise as a result of the deteriorating security context and the impact of floods experienced earlier in the year. As well as supporting the immediate needs of the population, the resilience of the health system to epidemics and public health emergencies needs to be reinforced.
Furthermore, local and international authorities and partners must continue to advocate for peace in the region in order to relieve the suffering of this vulnerable population.
As a Pro-Black individual Christianity is by definition as a SLAVE RELIGION.
It is disgusting to accept the faith that was introduced by rape of our fore-fathers.
Both Christianity and Homosexuality are the ENEMY of the black man.
Especially since both were introduced in the same fashion "buck breaking"/"Toby-ism" to ADOS African Americans. This is evidence as even liberal D.L Hughley saying
it's the "gayest place".
While we are separate, we still somewhat resemble our West African Cousins. That is whom Christianity is NOT native. If you are going to explain to me the foolishness about Ethiopia/Rome or Christian, that's just an irrelevant talking point.
Christianity is just plain evil, daughters being sacrificed, innocents and first borns being slayed. It like the Talmud that allegedly "comes before" it is absolutely disgusting. (I have read it back and forth).
NOI, Islam, Moorish Science, Kemet Science and the Hebrew Isrealites are slightly "closer" to the truth. Christianity = Ancestor Raped = Buckdancing.
Just like Kanye West. Forget that chief, I want OFF the Christian Butter Biscuit Plantation!
The timeline it outlines shows the crew wrestling to control the plane as automatic anti-stall software, known as MCAS, overrode their instructions and pushed the nose down more than 20 times. It crashed into the Java Sea at around 450mph.
Here is what happened on board:
6.18 a.m.: JT 610 was given clearance to take off from Soekarno-Hatta International Airport. On board are 189 people: 181 passengers, 2 pilots, and 6 flight attendants.
It was bound for Pangkal Pinang on Indonesia's Bangka Island.
Before the plane took off, the crew noted that the weather conditions on the route were good.
6.20 a.m., 16 seconds: Unusual readings were recorded while still on the ground, less than 30 seconds before takeoff. Two displays in the cockpit recorded different wind speeds, while the plane's two angle of attack sensors, which measure its orientation in the air, disagreed by a substantial 21 degrees.
6.20 a.m., 32 seconds: The plane experienced a "control column stick shaker" warning, which physically shakes the plane's controls to alert the pilots of a potential stall. It continued for most of the flight.
This video shows the controls column stick shaker on flight simulator for the Boeing 737-800, a predecessor to the 737 Max.
6.20 a.m., 37 seconds: The plane sounded a "takeoff configuration warning" — a generic alert which flags potential problems. The report says the captain queried the alert, but gives no further detail.
6.20 a.m, 40 seconds: Takeoff. The captain is flying. Problems begin to come thick and fast.
6.20 a.m., 44 seconds: Sensors started recording two different airspeeds. The first officer asked the captain what the problem is, and if they should turn back. He did not respond.
The plane's black box, recovered after the crash, said one indicator recorded a speed of 164 knots while the other recorded 173 knots.
6.21 a.m., 12 seconds: The first officer told the captain that on-board sensors were giving two different altitude readings, more than 200ft apart. The captain spoke with an air traffic controller in the terminal, who said to climb higher.
The altimeter on the captain's primary flight display indicated 340 feet, while the first officer's indicated 570 feet.
6.21 a.m., 28 seconds: The first officer asked the controller to confirm the altitude of the plane. The controller said it was 900ft. On the plane, one display said 790ft, the other said 1,040ft.
6.21 a.m., 37 seconds: The captain asked the first officer to run through a memorized checklist for what to do when the plane is giving unreliable airspeed readings. The first officer did not respond. The first officer suggested flying downwind, which the captain rejected.
6.21 a.m., 52 seconds: The first officer asked permission to move into a holding pattern, citing a "flight control problem." The controller did not respond to the holding pattern request, and later did not remember it being made.
6.22 a.m., 4 seconds: After a suggestion from the first officer, the captain adjusted the plane's flaps from the "Flaps 5" setting, to the more flat "Flaps 1" setting. He then asked the first officer to take over the controls.
6.22 a.m., 15 seconds: The controller noted that the plane's altitude was decreasing, from 1,700ft to 1,600ft. The plane's controls still showed two different speeds.
6.22 a.m., 24 seconds: The captain and controller agreed that the plane should climb to 5,000 feet. The plane still showed two different speeds.
6.22 a.m., 32 seconds: An alarm warned that the plane was flying at a steep angle. The black box showed the plane briefly banked to 35 degrees, as if to turn.
6.22 a.m., 44 seconds: The plane, which appears not to have made it to the planned 5,000ft, instead rapidly descends 600ft. It has been in the air just two minutes.
6.22 a.m., 48 seconds: Sensors on the plane radically disagree about its angle of attack. One says the plane is flying with its nose pointing 18 degrees up, the other says it is flying with the nose 3 degrees down.
Angle of attack sensors compare the angle of the wings to the direction of the plane, to establish the orientation of the plane in the sky. Angle of attack data is what triggers the MCAS system on a 737 Max — the faulty system which led to the crash.
Boeing has been criticized for how the Max design relied on information from only one angle of attack sensor, meaning that a single faulty reading could trigger MCAS.
6.23 a.m, 0 seconds: The plane warns of low speed. There are still contradictory readings of how fast it is actually going.
The controller said the ground speed of the aircraft, shown on the radar display, was 322 knots.
But the black box showed the captain's flight display indicated the speed was 306 knots, and the first officer's indicated 318 knots.
6.23 a.m., 4 seconds: The control column stick shaker again warned of a possible stall. The plane warns of both too much speed and not enough speed.
6.23 a.m., 9 seconds: The captain asked the first officer for a memorized checklist of what to do, but gets no reply.
6.23 a.m., 15 seconds: An automatic system on board the plane begins to force its nose down, activating for 11 of the next 17 seconds.
According to the timeline, this is not yet in response to the MCAS system which will ultimately force the plane to crash.
6.23 a.m., 39 seconds: The cockpit voice recorder picks up a sound of pages turning, suggesting the pilots looked at a manual. The captain turned the aircraft nose up.
6.23 a.m., 48 seconds: The first officer gave the warning "flight control low pressure" — which appears to refer to pressure in the hydraulic systems that control the plane. Separately, an altitude warning sounds.
6.24 a.m., 5 seconds: The captain again asked for a checklist of what to do when the plane's airspeed recorders can't be relied on, but the first officer said he could not find it. The cockpit voice recorder again picked up the sound of pages turning.
6.24 a.m., 52 seconds: The plane's flaps changed position, though the cockpit voice recorder did not any note any discussion about changing them. The controller gave instructions to change the plane's direction and altitude. The captain turned the plane's nose up.
6.25 a.m., 11 seconds: The plane's flaps changed position, again without discussion between the pilots.
6.25 a.m., 27 seconds: The plane's MCAS system begins to activate. In six and a half minutes time it will have crashed the plane. First. it pushes the nose down for two seconds. The captain interrupted it, pushing the nose up for six seconds.
MCAS and its failings are now well-known in the aviation world. But many 737 Max pilots say they had no idea it even existed until after the crashes. It probably took the two Lion Air pilots totally by surprise.
MCAS was meant to stop the 737 Max from stalling, counteracting a tendency for the nose to drift upwards by forcing it back down.
Boeing did not mention the MCAS system — what it is or how to manage any malfunctions — in the flight manual for pilots.
6.25 a.m., 40 seconds: MCAS activated six times in the next two minutes, pushing the plane's nose down until the captain interrupted it.
6.27 a.m., 3 seconds: The controller told the plane to change direction to avoid traffic in the air. The first officer, still reading the checklist for how to deal with bad airspeed readings, did not respond until the third time.
6.27 a.m., 15 seconds: MCAS activated four more times in the next minute and was overridden by the captain again. The first officer said he would run a check based on the list he had been reading.
6.28 a.m., 18 seconds: The first officer called a flight attendant into the cockpit, and the captain then asked him to call for an airline engineer who was on board to come in. MCAS activated twice more, and the captain said: "Look what happened."
6.28 a.m., 43 seconds: The controller gave more instructions for the direction and altitude of the plane, while a conversation between flight attendants "discussed that there was a technical issue in the cockpit.". MCAS activated three more times in less than a minute.
6.29 a.m., 37 seconds: The controller told the crew that his radar screen showed the plane descending, and the first officer responded to say that they were having a flight control problem and were flying the plane manually. MCAS activated twice more.
6.30 a.m., 2 seconds: The first officer contacted a different air traffic controller, the one in charge of arrivals at Soekarno-Hatta airport. He said the plane was having a flight control problem. The controller told the plane to come back to the runway it took off from.
6.30 a.m., 6 seconds: MCAS activated three more times in less than a minute, with the captain overriding it.
6.30 a.m., 48 seconds: The captain asked the first officer to take control. The first officer pushed the plane's nose up, and said 5 seconds later: "I have control."
6.30 a.m., 57 seconds: The captain asked the arrival controller for permission to land the plane at a different location, away from the airport, because of the weather. The request was approved.
6.31 a.m., 8 seconds: The captain told the controller that he could not work out his altitude because the sensors were giving so many different readings. Seemingly flustered, he referred to the flight as number 650 instead of 610.
6.31 a.m., 15 seconds: The first officer repeatedly pointed the plane's nose up. MCAS activated twice in the next twelve seconds.
6.31 a.m., 19 seconds: The captain asked the controller to clear all planes from 3,000 feet above and below the plane to avoid any collisions.
6.33 a.m, 31 seconds: The first officer twice told the captain that the plane was flying downwards. The second time, the captain said "it's OK." The plane was descending relatively gently, at around 1,920 feet per minute. MCAS activated again.
6.31 a.m, 46 seconds: Only a few seconds later, the plane's rate of descent increases rapidly. Black box readings show it descending at more than 10,000ft per minute, giving them only seconds to avoid hitting the sea.
6.31 a.m., 51: Five seconds later, the plane warns of its rapid descent and the approaching sea. There is almost no time left.
6.31 a.m, 53 seconds: MCAS activated for a final time. One second later, the flight record and cockpit voice recorder stop working. Air traffic control tries six times to contact the pilots, to no response. Other planes in the area are asked to try to see what happened.
7.05 a.m.: Around half an hour later, a tugboat found debris that was later found to be part of the plane. The crash is confirmed. There are no survivors.
INTERNATIONAL, 4 November 2019, Peace and Security - The road ahead “will not be easy” for the Horn of Africa, UN Deputy Secretary-General Amina Mohammed said on Monday, briefing the Security Council on her Joint Solidarity Mission with the African Union (AU) at the end of October.
“The foundations have been laid for a transition from peace to sustainable development”, she said, but building on these “will require unity and cooperation across the region and common ground internationally”.
This is particularly the case surround the issue of tens of thousands of refugees and internally displaced persons, many vulnerable to trafficking, along with finding regional solutions to protection challenges, including sexual violence, in areas where conflict is still ongoing.
After visiting Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia from 21 to 26 October, she observed, “it was clear from our travels that this region is cut from the same fabric”.
“Each country is its own shade, but they are interwoven”, the deputy UN chief asserted. “What happens in one country will impact the others, and so a regional approach and genuine collaboration is paramount”.
She was encouraged by signs of the revitalization of the regional body of Member States, known as the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD), saying the platform “will be essential to providing the necessary pathways we can all support”.
She underscored the importance of doing a joint mission with the AU, saying “we can achieve so much more” when working together.
“What is needed now is to maintain and deepen that dialogue and partnership, and to use this to encourage regional solutions and unity”, Ms. Mohammed flagged.
In paying tribute to UN peacekeepers, Ms. Mohammed noted that in each country visited, the “critical importance” of women serving in security forces, the police, military, and peacekeeping “was starkly clear”.
“These women, against all odds, strengthen our protection efforts, increase the credibility of our efforts, engage in local level mediation, and make communities feel more at ease”, she spelled out.
And yet less than four per cent of UN peacekeepers are women: “Much more can and should be done”, including addressing their practical challenges, such as providing the opportunities they need to be deployed, stressed the deputy UN chief.
Women on frontline of transformation
Having accompanied the Deputy Secretary-General, the AU’s Ambassador to the UN, Fatima K. Mohammed, informed the Council that women are on the frontline addressing climate insecurity, radicalization and violent extremism.
“We witnessed first-hand that peace, security and development had little chance to stand without the full and effective participation of women and youth”, she argued.
And yet, despite women and girls continuing to suffer from exclusion, communal conflicts, internal displacements and unregulated migrations, the delegation observed their resilience, commitment and determination to effect real change.
“In all the countries we visited, the delegation witnessed the creativity and innovation of women in the political and socio-economic spheres of their societies”, Ms. Mohammed said. “The laudable and courageous initiatives of these women need to be bolstered by all of us”.
Noting a “new era of peace in the Horn of Africa” she advocated for enhanced regional cooperation and solidarity and called on the UN and AU “to be at the vanguard of this solidarity and respond to the aspirations of the people…for a peaceful, stable and integrated region”.
Last October 31, around 60 peasant, women, trade-union and other activists were unjustly arrested in Negros province and Manila, Philippines, following a search of their offices on dubious pretexts. Immediately, this garnered calls for solidarity from representatives of international civil society organisations (CSOs) gathered at the Global Perspectives 2019, an annual conference of CSO leaders, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. This was followed by other cases in November 5, with 3 other activists arrested in Manila and one killed in Laguna.
IBON International joins people’s movements and CSOs in condemning such shameless disregard for civil-political rights. We enjoin other rights defenders, movements and CSOs around the world to also express their solidarity with Philippine rights defenders and movements under attack from state forces. We also urge progressive parliamentarians, governments and the international community at large, to foster external conditions for greater scrutiny and accountability for Philippine state actors.
In the eyes of the current administration, dissent has increasingly been deemed a crime. Search warrants leading to the arrests in Negros and Manila were issued by a single judge in another city, indicating this as another textbook case of political repression. The unjust arrests were made through the recycled tactic of planting “evidence,” such as firearms, to be “found in possession” of civilian activists or in their offices, with subsequent filing of spurious charges.
With security forces’ claim they will “prove” ties of the arrested civilians to the underground communist movement, the peddled narrative is that the arrested were armed Maoist fighters—with the victims judged “guilty until proven innocent." Concerns against security forces’ tactics are not unprecedented, with widespread accusations of police planting of firearms and illegal substances in the crime scenes of “drug war” victims.
IBON International is highly concerned that the cases would be precedents for more unjust arrests and repression on a larger scale. It is the latest in government actions that shroud the country under de facto martial law, adding to the declared martial law in southern Philippines.
We are alarmed at the new level of impunity, and the deterioration of the rights situation and democratic spaces. The Negros region, where more than 50 of the individuals were arrested, has seen a spike in rights violations in the past year. Fourteen individuals, mostly farmer-activists, were killed in joint police-military operations in late March 2019, with another 9 killed in October 2018—as farmers continue to assert the right to till lands vis-a-vis land monopolies.
Amid repression of critics, the false “drug war” continues against the poor, while high police officials remain scot-free from any accountability, despite being more disgraced from unresolved corruption allegations. Neoliberal policy prevails and economic priorities for infrastructure, such as the New Clark City and the New Manila International Airport, mean development aggression for communities.
The Philippines has been called the worst country for land rights defenders, and among the worst countries for workers, for 2018. The worsening rights situation from the misleadingly named “war on drugs” and repressive attacks already garnered UN attention, with the UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC) approving a resolution last July for greater scrutiny and accountability. The currently dark trajectory must be reversed, away from silencing of people’s voices towards people’s substantive participation in political and economic processes, including in relation to development.
IBON International reiterates movements’ calls to hold Philippine state actors accountable and bring justice for the victims of the “anti-drug” campaigns and the militarist “security” operations. Following the UNHRC resolution, we call on the international community, governments and progressive parliamentarians to create conditions viable for further action on the current rights situation, ranging from ending United States’ military aid supportive of police and military rights violations in the Philippines, to continuing an impartial UNHRC-led probe. The defense of civil-political rights—especially of land rights defenders, unionists and women’s organisations—is a requisite for the people's exercise of sovereignty in determining and leading their economic and development paths. #
Генеральный директор Boeing Деннис Мюленбург принял решение отказаться от получения бонусов по итогам 2019 года, пока полеты самолетов модели 737 MAX не будут возобновлены, рассказал председатель совета директоров Boeing Дэвид Кэлхун телеканалу CNBC. По его словам, предложение господина Мюленбурга касается как выплаты краткосрочных и долгосрочных бонусов, так и вознаграждения в виде акций. При этом компания не планирует лишать гендиректора компенсации, полученной за 2018 год ($23,4 млн). Напомним, 29 октября 2018 года Boeing 737 MAX авиакомпании Lion Air потерпел крушение под Джакартой, погибли все находившиеся на борту 189 человек. 10 марта 2019 года разбился Boeing 737 MAX авиакомпании Ethiopian Airlines, летевший из Эфиопии в Кению. Жертвами также стали все пассажиры и экипаж (157 человек). После этого полеты Boeing 737 MAX временно приостановили по всему миру.О последствиях этих катастроф для компании — в материале “Ъ” «Boeing присел на миллиард».
Wilt u een bijzondere ervaring beleven en de cultuur meemaken aan de andere kant van de wereld? Dan is een rondreis Ethiopië wel iets wat u zoekt. De meeste rondreizen zijn niet heel persoonlijk en u volgt niet echt de tradities en culturen die daar van groot belang zijn. De mensen daar hechten veel waarde […]
from AHMED ZAYED in Tripoli, Libya TRIPOLI, (CAJ News) – MORE than 100 African nationals stranded in war-torn Libya have been relocated to Italy over the past year. Some 54 vulnerable refuges from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan were relocated to the European country on Tuesday this week. Among them are 23 children, 13 of […]
Job loss, greatest challenge to planned airport privatisation —Nnaji
THE chairman, House of Representatives Committee on Aviation, Honourable Nnoli Nnaji has declared that immediate job loss resulting from downsizing will be the biggest challenge that may confront Nigeria in its determination to embark on privatization of some airports.
Speaking at the 2019 NigerianTravelsmart (NTM) colloquium held in Lagos, Nnaji cited how the airports presently absorb a lot of Nigerians seeking for jobs, but added that unfortunately the size of the airports has not significantly changed.
Besides, Nnaji cited what he called “the peculiarity of Nigerian airports, development model and the critical role the airport plays where it is seen as catalyst for business activities, does not necessarily make profit as long as it meets the social economic needs.”
According to him, he referred to the ongoing national security issues, through which he cautioned that the nation’s gateway may be open to abuse.
Speaking on passenger traffic, Nnaji described Nigeria as a great nation, but lamented that its air transportation usability was far below its population ratio, making some airport locations redundant while some are overly active, which he said was as a result of low middle class capacity.
He also made mention of the Act that set up the Federal Airports Authority of Nigeria (FAAN) which he said gave it the power to dominate in an area that can be open for private sector entry thus calling for a review of the Act.
Why 3 p.m. is best time for couples to make love — Hormone experts
“I have had the opportunity of reading through the report of Nigeria’s Annual Airport Business Summit for 2017, 2018 and 2019, organized by FCI International limited each of these reports show consistently that the biggest challenge to airport concession in Nigeria is first and foremost the fear of ‘Job Loss’.
“The 2019 report of the Summit suggested steps that can be taken before a successful airport privatization is achieved, following the peculiarities of Nigeria’s airport development structure as itemized earlier. The Summit further suggested the unbundling of Federal Airport Authority of Nigeria, which will help to address the basic problem of job loss and unemployment.
“However, the unbundling of FAAN may lead to a more efficient and progressive airport development and an enabling environment that will attract private sector investments and tourism development in Nigeria.”
The three organizations that are being proposed to emerge from the process include: Nigeria Airport Development Agency which shall have the authority and capacity to process, supervise, monitor and forecast the development of airports in Nigeria.
The proposed agency will advise, check the capability, practicability of interests and applications in line with developmental needs, security approvals and compliance to NCAA regulations. This will help address both aeronautical and non-aeronautical business matters for both private and public airport developmental interests.
Airport Management Company PLC, another organization being proposed shall
be a limited liability company or public quoted company with less than 20% shares held by the Federal Government of Nigeria while the remaining shares shall be sold.
According to Nnaji; “This shall be a first class global company with the sole function of engaging in airport operations and management worldwide. The company shall compete and bid for the management, operation of FAAN airports and other airports worldwide. It shall be allowed to develop its structure and business model without government interference.
The third organization being proposed is the Federal Airports Property Company Ltd which shall be the owner and custodian of all Federal Airports Lands and Properties where Government can invest in airport development but not in its operations.
“The argument may be endless, but the important thing here is that we need functional airport services that will balance the observed variance of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and the quest of Airport Council International (ACI) to liberalize the airports. The ultimate beneficiary should be the airport users so that commuters can commute safely and in a secured manner,reliably, efficiently and affordably.
“Therefore to which ever direction we choose to go, the regulatory frame work that will ensure proper guidance on the operations of privatized airports in the country or government running of airports like in Egypt and Ethiopia, will need to be instituted and this still requires further debate that will enable a well-structured economic regulation that ultimately ensures air transport safety.”
Job loss, greatest challenge to planned airport privatisation —Nnaji
"It is true, [Barack] Obama did not do much before winning" a Nobel Peace Prize, says author Geir Lundestad, who was on the committee who awarded it to him.SIPA USA/SIPA
President Barack Obama’s first act as a Nobel Peace Prize winner in 2009 — nine months after he took the oath of office — was to try to wriggle out of accepting it.
“The morning the prize was announced, his staff investigated whether anyone had failed to travel to Oslo to receive their prize,” writes Nobel insider Geir Lundestad in “The World’s Most Prestigious Prize” (Oxford), out this month.
Apparently, the president was among the 61 percent of Americans who believed he didn’t deserve it.
“It is true, Obama did not do much before winning,” Lundestad, 74, a member of Norway’s Nobel Committee until 2014, told The Post. “But he represented the ideals of the committee. And when we have an American president who supports that message, we like to strengthen him.”
Obama’s advisers soon decided the honor could not be refused. But as ridicule rained down on the committee for handing a peacemaker’s award to a man who was ordering drone strikes on civilians overseas, the White House grew increasingly hesitant, dithering for weeks over how much of the traditional three-day awards gala he would attend.
In the end, Obama stayed just long enough to deliver an acceptance speech that tried to justify the wars he was waging in Iraq and Afghanistan — rationalizations that visibly irked First Lady Michelle Obama.“Did you have to go there?” she asked when he concluded, according to Lundestad’s book.
The committee’s risky choice backfired, Lundestad admits, as the new president took flak from all sides for accepting it before he had accomplished any of his lofty foreign policy goals. Even supporters like Washington Post columnist Ruth Marcus called the prize “ridiculous — embarrassing, even.” David Axelrod, a top Obama advisor, said it was “more of a surreal challenge than a cause for celebration.”
“It would be difficult, even impossible, for Obama to live up to the enormous expectations,” Lundestad writes. “I personally greatly doubted their decision.”
But the committee members took the chance out of sheer exultation that a Republican no longer resided in the White House, Lundestad suggests in his book, an expanded English-language version of a memoir he published in Norwegian in 2015.
Of the 100 Nobel Peace Prizes bestowed since 1901, 22 of them have gone to Americans — far more than any other nation in the world. The entire continent of Africa has produced only 11 Peace Prize winners, including this year’s laureate, Abiy Ahmed of Ethiopia.
It’s a matter of geopolitics, Lundestad explained. “It is always Norwegian policy to maintain a good relationship with the United States,” he said. “Russia is our neighbor, and we need a big friend.”
The Nobel Committee, under the terms of Alfred Nobel’s 1895 will, is made up of prominent Norwegians who share a particular worldview.
The resulting philosophy of “liberal internationalism” prioritizes globalist organizations over national governments and boosts ideas like arms control and environmentalism.
“To Norwegians it is almost as if the USA is split in two,” Lundestad writes. “A liberal and democratic country with which we feel solidarity and a conservative country for which we have little respect.”
Three of the four prize-winning American presidents have been Democrats: Obama, Woodrow Wilson and Jimmy Carter. The sole Republican is Theodore Roosevelt, who won it in 1906 as a progressive whose outlook bears little resemblance to that of today’s GOP.
Almost all of the other US honorees — such as Al Gore, Martin Luther King Jr. and anti-nuclear activist Linus Pauling — have been on the left end of our political spectrum. “The warmth of our relationship with the US is of course much higher with a left-of-center president,” Lundestad said.
Ronald Reagan was pointedly snubbed in 1990 when the Soviet Union’s Mikhail Gorbachev won a solo Peace Prize for ending the Cold War.
“Gorbachev was not a true democrat, obviously,” Lundestad said — making him one of the committee’s most controversial picks. But Reagan’s peace-through-strength policies were so unpopular in Norway that a Nobel for him was unthinkable.
President Trump has been nominated for the prize by two Norwegian legislators — valid nominators, under committee rules — for his peace overtures to North Korea. But his “America First” ideology and aversion to globalism make him an equally unlikely candidate. “I probably will never get it,” Trump said in February. “I think I’ll get a Nobel Prize for a lot of things — if they gave it out fairly, which they don’t,” Trump complained again during September’s UN General Assembly.
It’s the one thing on which Lundestad and the president agree.
“I would be extremely surprised if Donald Trump ever received the Nobel Peace Prize,” Lundestad said. “He may say he wants to bring peace to the Middle East or the Korean Peninsula, but he has not accomplished anything,” he added. “And his policies do not fall into line with the ideas of liberal internationalism” — no matter how those efforts may turn out.
The Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, being built on the Blue Nile tributary in northern Ethiopia, will create Africa's largest hydroelectric power station. But Egypt fears the project will allow Ethiopia to control the river's flow.
The Ethiopian government says the talks in Washington are not negotiations.
And Nigerian parents are sending their children with autism to religious rehabilitation centres known for torture, a special needs specialist has told the BBC.
Gedab News learned of a recurring issue between Ethiopian and Eritrean civil aviation departments over the payments of balances. According to our source, “Eritrea’s bills are now past due since it has not paid for Ticket sales it owes to the Ethiopian Airlines.” On July 18, 2018, Ethiopian airlines restarted its flights to Eritrea after …
The foreign ministers of Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan met Wednesday in Washington with President Donald Trump and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin to discuss the Grand Ethiopia Renaissance Dam (GERD) on Ethiopia's Blue Nile.
Clues about a hacking group that carried out attacks against targets in countries including Syria, Iran and Russia were included in files leaked by a mysterious group known as the Shadow Brokers, according to new findings. Researchers from the security vendor Kaspersky published a report Tuesday detailing an advanced persistent threat (APT) group the company has dubbed DarkUniverse. Documents published in 2017 by the Shadow Brokers — an elusive group that publicly disseminated NSA hacking tools — included a script that checked for other hacking groups lurking in a compromised system. DarkUniverse was among the groups the script could check for. The DarkUniverse group hit victims in Afghanistan, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Belarus and the United Arab Emirates, along with more common targets like Russia, Iran and Syria. All told, the APT group breached “around” 20 victims ranging from military agencies to private sector organizations like telecommunication firms, and medical institutions. “We believe […]
After the Angelus on Sunday 3 November, Pope Francis expressed his spiritual closeness to the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, asking the faithful gathered in Saint Peter’s Square to pray for the victims of recent violence in Ethiopia. “Dear brothers and sisters, I am grieved by the violence of which the Christians of the Ethiopian Tewahedo Church are victims. I express my closeness to this Church and its Patriarch, dear brother Abuna Matthias, and I ask you to pray for all the victims...
[Deutsche Welle] The three African nations have said they will continue trying to resolve a conflict over plans for a massive Ethiopian-run dam along the Nile river. The project has raised concerns about shortages of drinking water.
[U.S. Treasury] Washington, DC -The foreign ministers of Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan and their delegations met with the Secretary of the Treasury and the President of the World Bank in Washington, D.C. on November 6, 2019. The ministers reaffirmed their joint commitment to reach a comprehensive, cooperative, adaptive, sustainable, and mutually beneficial agreement on the filling and operation of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam and to establish a clear process for fulfilling that commitment in accordance with the 2015 Declaration
[VOA] White House -The foreign ministers of Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan met Wednesday in Washington with President Donald Trump and Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin to discuss the Grand Ethiopia Renaissance Dam (GERD) on Ethiopia's Blue Nile.
[Addis Fortune] Ephrem Tekle Lemango (PhD), left, commissioner of the Job Creation Commission, shakes hands with founding president and CEO of the Mastercard Foundation, Reeta Roy, middle, and Alemayehu Konde, right, country head of the Foundation in Ethiopia launching the programme aimed at creating 10 million jobs by 2030.
[SNA] Khartoum -The especial ministerial meeting on Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam(GERD) is due to start Wednesday in Washington, capital of Uinted States and will be attended by foreign and irrigation ministers of Sudan, Egypt and Ethiopia at US invitation.
[East African] Does the 1995 ethnic federal constitution hinder Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed by entrenching ethnicity as an identity right from the preamble and demarcating states on ethnicity rather than geography? Last week, I argued it was partly responsible for the mushrooming of ethnic-based political parties, militias and even banks.
[VOA] Addis Ababa/Washington -As many as 78 people have been killed in ethnically motivated clashes in the Oromia region, Harari region and the city of Dire Dawa in the past week, the Ethiopian government confirmed Thursday.
[This is Africa] Ethiopia's 40-acre Imperial Palace compound that has housed the country's leaders and the troops for over a century has remained shrouded from the public since its establishment in 1887 by Emperor Menelik II. Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed has however finally opened a portion of the compound to the public as a symbol of coming together and boost tourism.
[Addis Standard] The Federal Ministry of Agriculture (MOA), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Desert Locust Control Organization for Eastern Africa (DLCO-EA) have called for immediate action to control a new Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria) infestation in the country. Sani Redi, Agriculture Sector State Minister, Ministry of Agriculture called on development partners to support the government's efforts to control the invasion.
[SNA] Khartoum -The Minister of Industry and Trade and acting Minister of Finance and Economic Planning Madani Abbas Madani has affimed his ministry's keenness on the development of the economic anf commercial relations with Ethipia for the mutual benefits of their both economies. The minister pointed out to the existence of various commercial and economic cooperation opportunities between the two countries.
[SNA] Khartoum -The Prime Minister, Dr. Abdalla Hamdok, received in his office Wednesday the Ethiopian Minister of Finance, Ahmed Shaidi, and discussed ways to strengthen the cooperation between the two countries in all domains, especially in the economic and development fields.
Transformation Approaches to Mainstream Climate Change, Nutrition, Gender and Youth
CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security
Transformation requires understanding complexity, pushing boundaries, applying a systems lens and daring for visionary possibilities. Transformational approaches are being actively pursued by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) alongside the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS) to mainstream climate change, nutrition, gender and youth participation for rural transformation.
From September 16-20, 2019, stakeholders from across Eastern and Southern Africa, including CGIAR, international universities, government,development partners and the Southern African Confederation of Agricultural Unions (SACAU), were brought together by IFAD and hosted by CCAFS East Africa to embark on this transformative journey across Ethiopia.
Minyshu Tafesse, Executive Director at Abyssinia Hair and Beauty Clinic, is Ethiopian – American and a business woman since 2000. She runs her beauty salons, both in Renton – Washington and Nairobi-Kenya!’ Connect with Miny on LinkedIn and follow Abyssinia on Twitter and Instagram.
The post Franchise Marketing Radio: Minyshu Tafesse with Abyssinia Hair and Beauty Clinic appeared first on Business RadioX ®.
Nueva York, 6 nov (EFE).- El consejero delegado de Boeing, Dennis Muilenburg, reconoció este miércoles públicamente que si hubiese tenido toda la información que tiene ahora, su compañía hubiese retirado de circulación los modelos 737 MAX después del primer accidente, con lo que se hubiese evitado el segundo.
En octubre de 2018, un avión Boeing modelo 737 MAX 8 de la aerolínea indonesia Lion Air se estrelló y 189 personas murieron, incluidos todos los pasajeros y el personal del vuelo.
Cinco meses después, un avión del mismo modelo de Boeing de la compañía Ethiopian Airlines se estrelló en circunstancias similares, acabando con la vida de otras 157 personas.
Desde entonces, todos los aparatos 737 MAX 8 de Boeing han sido apartados de la circulación aérea y Boeing sufre una grave crisis de confianza, tratando de mejorar el software del avión para poder recibir las autorizaciones pertinentes para seguir volando.
El CEO de la aeronáutica expresó este miércoles en Nueva York, en una conferencia organizada por The New York Times, su propio malestar por no haber hecho aterrizar su avión 737 MAX después del primer accidente mortal hace un año y dijo que la compañía tomará en el futuro mejores decisiones más fácilmente en futuros accidentes.
'Si hubiésemos sabido todo en ese entonces, habríamos aterrizado los aviones después del primer accidente', dijo Dennis Muilenburg, .
Cuando se le preguntó si la compañía cambiaría su enfoque si ocurriera algo similar en sus aviones, Muilenburg redundó: 'Creo que nos verá inclinarnos aún más en esa dirección.
'Siempre seremos una compañía que analizará los datos detrás de lo que ocurre y tomará decisiones buenas y sólidas', agregó el CEO de Boeing.
La junta de Boeing retiró recientemente a Dennis Muilenburg las atribuciones de presidente ejecutivo para que pueda concentrarse en administrar la compañía después de la crisis del 737 MAX. EFE
A B-2 Spirit Stealth Bomber, assigned to the 509th Bomb Wing, Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri, sits on the flight line, Oct 24, 2019. Consistent training and exercising validates the B-2Õs ability to respond to challenges all over the globe. (Sr. Airman Thomas Barley/Air Force)
* A new poll found that 56 percent of registered voters believe President Trump will win again in 2020 * That includes 85 percent of Republicans, 51 percent of independents and 35 percent of Democrats, according to the Politico/Morning Consult survey * Pollsters found that voters believed that Trump's voters were twice as likely than Hillary Clinton's to be 'very motivated' to go vote * Another poll found that the percentage of voters who believe Trump should win re-election hasn't significantly changed since the impeachment inquiry opened
A majority of registered voters believe President Trump will win again in 2020.
A new Politico/Morning Consult poll found that 56 percent of all voters said Trump will be re-elected next year. The president obviously has an edge with Republicans, with 85 percent saying a Trump 2.0 is happening.
But a majority of independents - 51 percent - agreed. Even a third of Democrats, 35 percent, said they believed there would be four more years of President Trump.
WNU Editor: He will be difficult to defeat. President Trump has the advantage of the incumbency and the bully-pulpit. The economy is also doing well, and his base overwhelmingly supports him. The Democrat candidates for President are also not inspiring, and I have trouble seeing them being able to attract independent voters. But the election is still far away. A lot can happen in 12 months.
As Trump allies denounce the whistleblower, pressure is building on CIA Director Gina Haspel to take a stand, say current and ex intelligence officials.
WASHINGTON — As President Donald Trump and his allies continue to denounce the CIA whistleblower whose complaint led to an impeachment investigation, pressure is building on the spy agency's director, Gina Haspel, to take a stand on the matter, current and former intelligence officials tell NBC News.
"It will be incumbent on her to protect the whistleblower — and by extension, the organization — moving forward," Marc Polymeropoulos, a recently retired CIA officer who oversaw operations in Europe and Russia, said in an interview. "This is a seminal moment for her leadership, and I'm confident she will do the right thing."
So far, Haspel has been publicly silent as Trump has railed about the whistleblower, a CIA analyst, on Twitter. So has the director of national intelligence, Joseph Maguire.
WNU Editor: There is a problem with this "CIA analyst". He was removed from the White House for lying and leaking. He is implicated in filing a complaint against President Trump and Ukraine that has led to this impeachment inquiry, even though his complaint is at odds with the transcript that was released. He is a well known Democrat activist who is closely affiliated with former Obama intelligence officials whose opposition to President Trump is well known. Bottom line. This is a person who has used his CIA position to pursue a political agenda against the President and his policies. In this context, this is someone that I am sure CIA Director Gina Haspel does not want to step in and defend.
House Democrats have released the latest in the series of heavily-redacted transcripts of the secret hearings they had undertaken in recent weeks - that of Bill Taylor - the top US diplomat in Ukraine - ahead of his public testimony next week.
As The Hill notes, Taylor is viewed as a key witness who previously testified in meticulous detail about what he considered an effort by Trump and his allies to pressure Ukraine into opening investigations that would benefit Trump politically.
In leaked copies of his 15-page opening statement, Taylor voiced concerns that the Trump administration had withheld nearly $400 million in aid as leverage to get Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky to open investigations into interference in the 2016 election and former Vice President Joe Biden, one of his leading 2020 political rivals.
* The Department of Justice on Wednesday charged two former Twitter employees for spying on users on behalf of Saudi Arabia. * The charges allege that Ali Alzabarah and Ahmad Abouammo used their employee credentials to access information about specific Twitter users, including their email addresses, birth dates, phone numbers and internet protocol addresses.
The Department of Justice on Wednesday charged two former Twitter employees for spying on users on behalf of Saudi Arabia.
The charges allege that Ali Alzabarah and Ahmad Abouammo used their employee credentials to access information about specific Twitter users, including their email addresses, birth dates, phone numbers and internet protocol addresses. A third individual, Ahmed Almutairi, was also charged for acting as an intermediary between the Twitter employees and the Saudi government, the Justice Department said.
Jesse Barajas searches for the remains of his brother José, who was was dragged from his ranch on 8 April 2019 and has not been seen since, last month near the town of Tecate. Photograph: Emilio Espejel/The Guardian
José Barajas, who was snatched from his home, joins the ever-swelling ranks of thousands of desaparecidos, victims of the drug conflict that shows no sign of easing
As he set off into the wilderness under a punishing midday sun, Jesse Barajas clutched an orange-handled machete and the dream of finding his little brother, José.
"He's not alive, no. They don't leave people alive," the 62-year-old said as he slalomed through the parched scrubland of tumbleweed and cacti where they had played as kids. "Once they take someone they don't let you live."
DUBAI (Reuters) - Iran resumed uranium enrichment at its underground Fordow nuclear facility, the country's Atomic Energy Organisation (AEOI) said on Thursday, further stepping away from its 2015 nuclear deal with major powers.
The agreement bans enrichment and nuclear material from Fordow. But with feedstock gas entering its centrifuges, the facility, built inside a mountain, will move from the permitted status of research plant to being an active nuclear site.
"After all successful preparations ... injection of uranium gas to centrifuges started on Thursday at Fordow ... all the process has been supervised by the inspectors of the U.N. nuclear watchdog," the AEOI said in a statement, Iranian media reported
Israel is bracing itself for war with Iranian proxies, as Tehran escalates its provocations. But what will the United States do if conflict comes?
The senior ministers of the Israeli government met twice last week to discuss the possibility of open war with Iran. They were mindful of the Iranian plan for a drone attack from Syria in August, aborted at the last minute by an Israeli air strike, as well as Iran's need to deflect attention from the mass protests against Hezbollah's rule in Lebanon. The ministers also reviewed the recent attack by Iranian drones and cruise missiles on two Saudi oil installations, reportedly concluding that a similar assault could be mounted against Israel from Iraq.
The Israel Defense Forces, meanwhile, announced the adoption of an emergency plan, code-named Momentum, to significantly expand Israel's missile defense capacity, its ability to gather intelligence on embedded enemy targets, and its soldiers' preparation for urban warfare. Israeli troops, especially in the north, have been placed on war footing. Israel is girding for the worst and acting on the assumption that fighting could break out at any time.
Washington (AFP) - President Donald Trump's son published on Wednesday the name of the alleged anonymous whistleblower whose complaint fired the impeachment inquiry against Trump, breaking strict conventions for protecting officials who reveal wrongdoing in government.
Amid calls by the president himself to expose the whistleblower, Donald Trump Jr. tweeted the name of a CIA analyst which has circulated online for weeks, and linked to a Breitbart news article implying the person was pro-Democrat and anti-Trump.
AFP could not independently verify the whistleblower's identity and is not publishing the name.
* A search is underway for a staff sergeant in training who disappeared into the Gulf of Mexico Tuesday afternoon during a training exercise * The unidentified Air Force airman was from the 24th Special Operations Wing at Hurlburt Field in Okaloosa County, Florida * He exited a C-130 four engine aircraft around 1.45pm from a height of 1,500 feet * He deployed his parachute and was last seen treading water in the Gulf, approximately four miles south of Hurlburt Field * As the aircraft turned to retrieve the man, crewmen lost sight of him * Several vessels, three Air Force aircraft were deployed in the search * The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and Coast Guard are also on the scene
A desperate search is underway for a missing airman who disappeared into the Gulf of Mexico after suffering a parachute-jump mishap while exiting a Special Operations military plane.
The unidentified Air Force airman from the 24th Special Operations Wing at Hurlburt Field was exiting a C-130 four-engine aircraft over the Gulf of Mexico during a training exercise around 1.45pm Tuesday when he suddenly vanished into the water below.
'The fall happened during a parachute-jump training exercise out of Hurlburt Field,' a report from the Air Force Times said.
The Coast Guard said the airman was a staff sergeant in training and fell out of the aircraft at 1,500 feet, according to WEAR.
Twenty masked gunmen launched a failed attack on a Tajik outpost on the border with Uzbekistan. The rare attack was quashed when border forces launched a counter operation and killed most of the raiders.
At least 17 people were killed in an overnight raid by armed men on an outpost on the border between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, Tajik authorities said on Wednesday.
"An armed group of 20 unknown masked individuals attacked a border outpost … using firearms," said Tajikistan's national security committee, according to Russian state-run news agency TASS.
Tajikistan's border forces said the assailants were members of the "Islamic State" (IS) militant group in Afghanistan.
At least five of the gunmen were detained and later provided critical intelligence during interrogations, authorities said.
World leaders have called on Iran to fulfil the terms of its 2015 nuclear deal, after it begins injecting uranium gas into centrifuges at its underground Fordow nuclear facility.
Iran has begun to further distance itself from a 2015 nuclear deal between Tehran and world powers that curbed its atomic work, local media reported on Wednesday (local time).
The deal bans nuclear material from Fordow and, with the injection of uranium gas into its centrifuges, the facility will move from its permitted status of research plant to become an active nuclear site.
Strategic Opportunities International or SOI is looking for Instructors/Facilitators to assist in an upcoming proposal. SOI's focus is on Sub Sahara Africa. Please submit resumes/CV to below listed email and/or website. Interested personnel will be required to sign a non-binding letter of Intent. Resumes/CVs need to list security clearance held (if any), foreign languages spoken and degree of fluency as well as educational level.
A series of one to two-week long mobile events from the following course offerings, tailored to individual country requirements and developing needs over time to include: Civil-Military Relations, Civil-Military Relations for Junior Military Leaders, Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration, Security Forces and the Electoral Process, Local Focus Program on Civil-Military Relations, National Security Planning Global Commons Security, Intelligence and Policymakers, Intelligence Fusion Centers, Women Integration in the Armed Forces, Cyber Security Policy and Practice, International Defense Transformation, Threat Assessment, Integrated Education And Outreach Programs, Managing Ethnic Conflict and Religious-Based Violence, and other courses. These tailored course series offerings are conducted to all levels of partner nation military officers and civilian leaders and are held abroad as necessary. These events occur in a wide variety of countries including, but not limited to: Cameroon, Chad, Chile, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Jordan, Mozambique, South Africa, Tunisia, Uganda. Please specify country/countries as well as topics of interest
Pope Francis Sunday asked for prayer for persecuted Orthodox Christians in Ethiopia, who have been targeted in ongoing ethnic clashes that have left 78 people dead. “I am saddened by the violence of which Christians of the Tewahedo Orthodox Church of Ethiopia are victims,” Pope Francis said in his Angelus address Nov. 3. “I express my closeness to this beloved church and her patriarch...
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Mexico, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World
By Filippo Grandi, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
07 October 2019
Ladies and Gentlemen,
The modern concept of refugee protection was born in the middle of the last century, as the world emerged from two devastating global conflicts and was preparing to enter the Cold War. Millions had been uprooted from their homes, as wars cast people adrift, empires disintegrated, borders were redrawn, and minorities and political opponents were persecuted and expelled. Ensuring the safety of those displaced, and resolving displacement, were among the earliest priorities of the United Nations.
Seven decades on, forced human displacement remains a global concern. The context is different, but the complexity remains immense. Today’s refugee crises are part of a growing flow of human mobility, driven by many overlapping elements.
Resource-based conflicts that transcend borders, shaped by a mosaic of local, regional and international interests; fueled by extremism, criminal networks and urban gangs.
Loss of hope, as global advances in prosperity, education and the fight against hunger and disease fail to reach those most in need.
Conflicts premised on ethnic and religious differences, stoked by others for political and financial gain.
Collapsing eco-systems and weather-related disasters that destroy homes and livelihoods, forcing millions further into poverty.
Damaging forms of nationalism, and hate speech that – often through cyberspace – have found a new legitimacy in public discourse.
Refugees emerge from these widening fault-lines – a warning of things going wrong. This is why tackling forced displacement calls again for a bigger, broader ambition than we have managed to muster in the recent past.
This was the vision that drove the development of the Global Compact on Refugees. Addressing refugee crises cannot be done in isolation from larger global challenges, and from effective migration policies. The two compacts – on refugees, and on safe, orderly and regular migration – were designed to complement each other, and for good reason.
Look at the Sahel – a situation of enormous complexity, where insecurity, poverty and loss of traditional livelihoods are fracturing and uprooting entire communities, across the region and beyond. Protecting refugees and the internally displaced is vital. But this must be accompanied by a deeper and wider scope of action that cuts across the political, security, migration and development spheres.
Two aspects of the Global Compact on Refugees stand out.
One is its comprehensive approach. It accelerates a long-awaited shift in responses – from a traditional humanitarian angle, as the Deputy Secretary-General said, to one that preserves the humanitarian imperative, but matches it with a broader set of tools more adapted to the dynamics of today’s refugee flows.
This means peacemaking and peacebuilding, development action and private sector investment. It means sustained, strategic support to address the root causes of refugee movements and mixed population flows. The Deputy Secretary-General has just highlighted how this dovetails with the work to bring about a UN system that can best catalyze progress collectively towards the Sustainable Development Goals. Synergies between the compact and UN reforms are therefore relevant and strong.
Also, the compact makes tangible the commitment to international solidarity that underpins the refugee protection regime, but has never been fully realised. You will hear more about this from our new Assistant High Commissioner for Protection, Gillian Triggs, whom I am happy to introduce to you today.
Securing the refugee compact – a practical, concrete tool – proved that beyond the damaging, unilateral approaches that sometimes surface, a commitment to addressing refugee flows through international solidarity still prevails. At UNHCR, we are fully committed to this effort, and we count on all of you – our closest partners – to do the same. It is possible! The Global Refugee Forum, to be convened in December in this building, will be the opportunity to showcase what has been achieved, and make fresh commitments to further progress.
The last year has underscored why the compact is needed, and how it is starting to re-shape our collective response. Let me share my thoughts on seven related challenges.
First, while much of the discussion on forced displacement has focused on arrivals in the global North, the most profound consequences by far are in host countries in the global South. Preserving asylum there, and helping host communities, requires more substantial and sustained international support. More than four million Venezuelans, for example, have left the country, the majority taking refuge in 14 nations in Latin America and the Caribbean. Most of these states have shown commendable solidarity, despite immense pressures. Colombia’s recent decision to grant citizenship at birth to the children of Venezuelans in the country is an example, and the Quito Process is helping shape a regional approach.
Sustaining this solidarity is vital, including through support to the services, infrastructure and economy of impacted countries. I welcome the engagement of the Inter-American Development Bank, and the World Bank’s decision to extend support to Colombia – and potentially also Ecuador – through its Global Concessional Financing Facility. I urge them to accelerate their contributions. The forthcoming Solidarity Conference convened by the European Union, together with UNHCR and the International Organisation for Migration, will be an opportunity to take stock and commit more.
Second, responses to 'mixed flows' of refugees and migrants continue to generate very divisive debates. Widespread political rhetoric exploits the anxieties prevailing among those excluded from the benefits of globalization, and directs those fears towards refugees and migrants – themselves among the most disenfranchised people on the planet. Pitting exclusion against exclusion is not only cynical and immoral – it rarely offers practical solutions to either. And measures taken or invoked to reduce flows – pushbacks, externalization of asylum processing, policies of deterrence – all erode refugee protection without really addressing the root causes of mixed flows, or the challenges of integration.
These situations are enormously complex – we must recognise that. I saw this last week in Mexico, where impressive examples of refugee integration are coupled with increasing migratory pressures from the region but also from Africa. A range of actions is undoubtedly needed to address these “mixed” flows. Several are included in that region under the MIRPS, a regional framework for protection and solutions which we have promoted; and we will contribute to UN efforts to support initiatives such as a regional development plan for Mexico and northern Central America, currently being discussed. In this context, saving lives and safeguarding the dignity and rights of all those on the move must remain central, together with access to international protection for those with valid claims. There and elsewhere, legal migration pathways would help prevent the abuse of asylum systems as substitutes of migration channels.
We observe these challenges not only in northern Central America and at the southern border of the United States, but also in southern Africa, and south-east Asia. In Europe, public confidence in asylum and migration management has been diminished, and must be restored through fast and fair procedures, good migration management that avoids overloading asylum systems, and investments in integration for those with a right to stay. Cooperation between governments is needed – including on the return of those who do not qualify for international protection or other stay arrangements.
I welcome the recent decisions of four EU States to establish a temporary cooperation mechanism for disembarking those rescued in the Mediterranean, and hope that this will galvanise broader EU engagement and revitalize rescue at sea arrangements. But this must also be matched by a broader ambition – investments in addressing the root causes of refugee flows, and supporting the efforts of refugee-hosting and transit countries. UNHCR continues to evacuate the most vulnerable from Libya – efforts for which Niger and now Rwanda are providing life-saving channels. Hopefully, others will join. We work closely with the International Organisation for Migration in these efforts, as elsewhere. But these operations pose enormous dilemmas, and can only be sustained as part of a comprehensive, responsibility-sharing approach that has the preservation of life, and access to international protection as central imperatives. There, as in several other operations, UNHCR colleagues and our partners are working – let us not forget that – under extremely dangerous conditions.
Third, long-standing and recurring displacement crises continue to persist, in the absence of political solutions. And other major crises are now becoming protracted too. In this context, the compact’s emphasis on inclusion, resilience and development action – pending solutions – is critical. This year marked the fortieth anniversary of the start of the Afghan refugee crisis. Regrettably, peace efforts seem once again to have stalled. I welcome Afghanistan’s decision to apply the comprehensive refugee response model in support of its initiatives to solve displacement, but solutions remain compromised by drought, insecurity and governance failures. Just 15,000 refugees returned home last year. The hospitality displayed by Pakistan and Iran, and their work on refugee inclusion and self-reliance, as well as on legal migration and stay options, are ground-breaking, but must receive more international support while the Afghan crisis continues.
In Somalia, too, while the commitment of the government to reduce forced displacement is evident and commendable, conflict and drought are still inhibiting solutions and driving new displacement. In this context, the regional application of the comprehensive response model by IGAD helps strengthen asylum, access to rights, and refugee inclusion in health, education and national economies.
Governments in the East and Horn of Africa have been in the forefront of the application of the comprehensive refugee response model. Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya and Uganda, among others, have made enormous strides with the support of the World Bank’s expertise and financing, bilateral development support and private sector investments. These are already transforming the lives of many refugees, as well as refugee-hosting communities across the region, and proving the validity of the model enshrined in the compact. They are giving concrete meaning to the African Union’s decision to declare 2019 the year of refugees, displaced people and returnees in Africa.
Fourth, the issue of repatriation continues to be the subject of much attention. A question we are increasingly asked is – how to advance solutions, when security in countries of origin remains fragile, and there is no end of hostilities? Can people return to their home countries in the absence of political settlements?
The answer is that returns must be driven by people, not by politics. Across UNHCR’s operations, we have an ongoing dialogue with refugees on return, and on the complex factors that influence their decisions. We work with governments to help create the conditions paving the way for returns. These must be voluntary and sustainable.
Take the example of Syria. Some 200,000 Syrian refugees have returned since 2016, and over three quarters of the almost six million refugees in neighbouring countries say they hope to return one day. We must continue to be guided by their views and decisions, and provide support to those who choose to return to avoid exposing them to further hardship.
Our policy is not to stand back and wait. We work with the Government of Syria to help address barriers to return and support confidence-building measures; hoping of course that recent political advances are consolidated; and that further humanitarian crises – especially in Idlib – can be avoided through concerted action by all parties.
In the meantime, international support to asylum countries must be sustained. Their outstanding generosity, and continuous donor support have helped Syrian refugees contend with long years in exile, even in places like Lebanon where the ratio of refugees to nationals continues to be the highest in the world. The achievements are significant: last year, 1.3 million Syrian refugee children were attending school, and 110,000 work permits were issued in Jordan and Turkey. However, acute poverty and vulnerability are weighing on people’s lives, and on host communities, and inevitably influencing their decisions.
In Myanmar, too, the Government has recognised the right of refugees in Bangladesh to return, and has started an important dialogue with the refugees, to build confidence and enable informed decisions. UNHCR and UNDP are working on social cohesion projects in northern Rakhine State to help pave the way for eventual returns. These are important steps, but need to be accompanied by more visible changes on key issues of refugee concern – freedom of movement, solutions for the internally displaced, clear information on a pathway to citizenship.
A second bilateral initiative to commence repatriation in August did not result in any refugees coming forward. But it sent important messages: the door is open, and voluntariness was respected. My hope is that this can now pave the way for a more strategic approach, in which refugee voices and choices are central. UNHCR stands ready to advise and support. There, and in other places, for example with Burundian refugees in Tanzania, and Nigerian refugees in the Lake Chad region, we are available to facilitate dialogue and solutions through tripartite approaches which include UNHCR.
Fifth, and closely linked to my previous point, we need to seize opportunities to accelerate solutions. Conflicts moving towards peace are rare, but when there is a chance, we have to pursue it. In this respect, we are closely following events in Sudan and South Sudan. The political transition in Sudan and the new Government’s commitment to a peace process have important implications for hundreds of thousands of Sudanese refugees, and for the internally displaced. The renewed momentum in the South Sudan peace process is also encouraging. Spontaneous refugee returns to South Sudan have already surpassed 200,000, and IDP returns are also under way.
Over the last two years, UNHCR and IGAD have been promoting the inclusion of refugees and internally displaced people in the South Sudan peace process. I hope that these recent developments will pave the way to a definitive end of the cycle of violence and displacement that has blighted the lives of generations of Sudanese and South Sudanese people.
Resettlement is another solution – albeit for very few. While some countries are stepping up their programmes, the overall number of places has plummeted. I am very disappointed by this. Resettlement saves lives and offers stability to refugees who are most vulnerable and at risk. I propose that we use more deliberately our new three-year strategy to intensify resettlement efforts, and expand private sector and community involvement.
The sixth major challenge relates to our engagement with the internally displaced. At the end of 2018, over 41 million people were living in displacement in their own countries. Major IDP operations, in Iraq, Syria, Yemen, the Lake Chad Basin, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Ukraine, remain among our most politically and operationally complex – but all are among our priorities. I wish to flag in particular that together with our partners, we are responding with more resources to the Ethiopian government’s call for support to address recent large-scale internal displacement in the country.
In sum, we are trying to better align our efforts to advance solutions for refugees and IDPs, and to design our operations more effectively, in the context of inter-agency efforts. Our new policy on internal displacement reflects our firm and revitalized commitment. This places particular emphasis on protection leadership, and aligning our interventions with those of our partners.
A few days ago, at the start of the 74th session of the General Assembly in New York, we heard calls to accelerate our responses to the climate emergency, before it is too late. Greta Thunberg, speaking for the next generations, and António Guterres, speaking as the world’s conscience, were adamant in asking all of us to take action – now.
These calls concern us, too, as we gather here to discuss issues of forced displacement. I have just presented six key displacement-related challenges. The seventh intersects and underpins them all.
Climate-related causes are a growing driver of new internal displacement, surpassing those related to conflict and violence by more than 50%. Climate is often also a pervasive factor in cross-border displacement.
The term “climate refugee” is not based in international law, and does not reflect the more complicated ways in which climate interacts with human mobility. But the image it conveys – of people driven from their homes as an outcome of the climate emergency – has rightly captured public attention.
I am often asked how the UN refugee organization can help respond to this challenge. I wish to take this opportunity to share a few thoughts for your consideration.
For some years, UNHCR has worked to highlight relevant legal frameworks and the protection gaps resulting from cross-border displacement in the context of climate change. We will continue to help steer international discussions and the legal and normative debate in this area, including through engagement with the Platform on Disaster Displacement, and other multilateral fora.
Forced displacement across borders can stem from the interaction between climate change and disasters with conflict and violence – or it can arise from natural or man-made disasters alone. Either situation can trigger international protection needs.
In the first case, these would normally be met through recognition as a refugee under the 1951 Convention or regional refugee frameworks. In the second, temporary protection or stay arrangements, on which UNHCR has expertise, can provide flexible and speedy responses.
Even more specifically, where disaster-related displacement occurs, a strong operational response, guided by protection considerations, is often needed. Here too, UNHCR will continue to work in inter-agency contexts to support governments – building on our strong expertise in emergency responses. The Global Compact on Refugees by the way calls for preparedness measures and evidence-based forecasting, and the inclusion of refugees in disaster risk reduction strategies.
There are other considerations. Climate factors drive people out of their homes – but large-scale refugee movements – whether or not climate-induced – have themselves in turn an environmental impact, and refugees are frequently located in climate hotspots. I am determined to make these considerations more relevant to the way we prepare for and respond to refugee crises.
At UNHCR, we have worked for years to reduce the environmental impact of refugee crises through renewable energy options, reforestation activities, and access to clean fuels and technology for cooking. We have now launched a revitalized energy strategy and are improving our tools to address these challenges. Private sector partners such as the IKEA Foundation have been invaluable in helping us develop new approaches.
And finally like other organizations, we recognise that our own operational footprint has an environmental impact, and are taking action accordingly. We are working, for example, to increase energy efficiency and renewable energy use.
Work to respond to these challenges is made possible by the strong confidence that UNHCR continues to receive from donor partners. We expect funds available this year to reach an estimated 4.82 billion US dollars. The United States’ contribution has continued to be the most substantial, and has been decisive in many challenging situations, and for this I am very grateful. I wish to thank the European Commission and Germany for their particularly strong support; and Sweden, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Norway and the Netherlands for providing critical, substantive unearmarked funding; and of course all other donors as well.
The gap between requirements and available resources nonetheless continues to grow in absolute terms and will reach around 3.82 billion US dollars this year. Private sector income is projected to increase by 11% over last year’s figure, to 470 million US dollars. We continue to work to diversify our funding base, in the spirit of responsibility-sharing and to ensure a stable platform for our work. Most importantly, our partnership with development organizations is becoming much stronger, and is helping us find ways to target our resources in ways that leverage those bigger programmes.
I am aware that donor generosity must be matched by constant improvements in how we manage the organization. In late 2016, I initiated a reform process to ensure an agile and effective UNHCR, with country operations equipped to pursue context-driven strategies, innovate, and respond to local and regional dynamics, as part of UN Country Teams. This was the rationale for our regionalisation and decentralization process, which is giving greater authority and flexibility to country offices, helping us get closer to refugees, and front-loading support through Regional Bureaux located in their regions.
We are entering the last phase of structural changes, which will involve adjustments to Headquarters Divisions and other entities in line with the new rebalanced authorities.
Of course, transformation is not only about structures and accountabilities, and is not a one-time exercise – it is also about transforming our organisational culture, investing in the quality of work, improving and streamlining systems and processes, and creating space for innovation.
We are working on evidence-based planning, on how we describe impact, and on increasing efficiency, in line with our Grand Bargain commitments and as an active participant, as the Deputy Secretary-General noted, in broader UN reforms. I recently endorsed a Data Transformation Strategy, and the new UNHCR/World Bank Joint Data Centre will be inaugurated this week in Copenhagen by the Secretary-General – a milestone of humanitarian/development cooperation.
We also continue to embed a strong risk management culture across the organisation, and to strengthen systems and tools for preventing and responding to misconduct. This includes sexual exploitation and abuse, and sexual harassment, for which we have implemented a broad range of measures and to which I am personally committed, also as Champion for this issue in the Inter-Agency Standing Committee. There is no place in the organization for perpetrators, and we will keep survivors and victims at the center of our response.
In 2011, my predecessor, the Secretary-General, convened a ministerial meeting on the 60th anniversary of the 1951 Refugee Convention, and the 50th of the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness. It is fair to say that until then, the statelessness mandate had been a rather peripheral aspect of UNHCR’s work. Clearly, you didn’t see it that way. More than 60 states and regional entities came forward with pledges aimed at reducing statelessness, and that groundswell of political will and commitment became the catalyst for the #IBelong campaign, launched in 2014. Spurred on by the energy that had emerged, we decided to fix a time limit – ten years – to bring statelessness to an end.
Now, as we mark the halfway point, it’s time to take stock and renew the commitment that set us on the path towards that bold ambition. This is the aim of the High-Level Segment that will follow in a few moments, as part of this Executive Committee meeting.
When we talk about statelessness, we often find ourselves speaking of laws, documents and other technicalities. These are critical, and are where the hard work has to happen, but when we frame statelessness purely in legal terms, we lose sight of the all-encompassing blight it casts on people’s lives, pushing them to the margins of society, denying them basic rights and a sense of identity. This is an area in which – for relatively little investment – wide-reaching impact is within our reach.
Some of you, last year, were present at an EXCOM side event at which a young woman who had grown up stateless became the citizen of a country for the first time. It was a deeply emotional experience for everyone present – and that moment, more than any speech or list of pledges, captured what it means to finally belong, after years spent living on the margins. She and a number of formerly stateless people are present here today, and I encourage you to talk to them and understand what citizenship has meant to them. Their stories are what will inspire us as we move ahead.
There have been important achievements in the first half of the campaign – tackling gender discrimination in nationality laws, introducing laws to avoid childhood statelessness, and developing procedures to find solutions for people who would otherwise be stateless. Certain protracted situations were finally resolved. Fifteen states acceded to one or both of the Statelessness Conventions. Kyrgyzstan became the first State to formally announce that all known cases of statelessness on its territory had been resolved – an achievement that should inspire others. I look forward to honouring a Kyrgyz champion of this campaign, Azizbek Ashurov, at the Nansen Award ceremony this evening.
I also wish to acknowledge the work of UNICEF, UNFPA, the World Bank, and civil society and academic networks – and especially the Geneva-based ‘Friends’ of the campaign, who have been persistent in their advocacy and support. The regional preparatory meetings have been characterized by energy and commitment. I am pleased to share that we have received 171 pledges ahead of today’s event, which has also galvanised other initiatives that may become concrete pledges later.
At a time when we are asking a lot of you, this is particularly commendable. At UNHCR, we will also step up our efforts even more to achieve the ambitious collective goal of ending statelessness once and for all.
The first Global Refugee Forum will be convened in this building in just over two months. It comes at the end of a turbulent decade, in which people and communities have been uprooted across all regions. Nobody foresaw, ten years ago, the convergence of trends and events that would lead to a doubling in the number of people forcibly displaced, and the prominence that refugee and migrant flows would assume in domestic and international politics. Addressing and resolving forced displacement has rightly emerged as an urgent priority intertwined with other 21st-century global challenges, including climate change.
The big question now is – what are we going to make of the next decade? Will it be one that sees us in retreat – turning our backs on the hard-learned lessons of the twentieth century – or one in which we will have the courage of joining forces in spite of our different perspectives and interests, embracing the challenges and opportunities of international cooperation to address the plight of exile? These are the fundamental questions that the Forum will have to tackle. I hope – of course – that it will respond by clearly showing the second way. I encourage all of you to ensure high-level representation from States, share positive experiences, and make significant and impactful commitments that will greatly improve the future of refugees and host communities.
I believe that in the Global Compact for Refugees, we have grounds for optimism. The momentum is there. We have a powerful tool that was born of a narrative of possibility. The Forum will be the occasion, I hope, to show that we do not shy away from the enormous responsibility placed on all of us – one that stems not only from the refugees and host communities looking to us for action, but also from the opportunity that we have to inspire new generations, and demonstrate, in so many practical, concrete ways, why international cooperation matters, and how it can be made to work.
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Haiti, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Kenya, Lao People's Democratic Republic (the), Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Zambia
WASHINGTON DC, September 20, 2019 - This week, Education Above All Foundation (EAA) and the World Bank announced a ground-breaking partnership to enrol two million out of school children from more than 40 countries by 2025. During a meeting with World Bank President David Malpass, Her Highness Sheikha Moza bint Nasser, Founder and Chairperson of Education Above All Foundation, stressed the importance of this framework agreement.
The agreement commits up to $250 million in funding for developing countries striving to enable access to quality primary education for all of their still out-of-school children. Unlike traditional philanthropic efforts of organizations like EAA who usually fund local non-profits directly, this innovative funding model aims to take lessons learned in the field to scale, through direct support to participating countries with implementation, evaluation, and reporting - enabling accountability and systemic change at the national level.
Out of school children (OOSC) are among the hardest to reach in each country due to the many and often compounding barriers to education including extreme poverty, distance to school, and conflict. This new agreement calls on governments to utilise funds to prioritise out of school children by ensuring their access to quality primary education through results-based financing. The agreement highlights the importance of multi-stakeholder partnerships in supporting developing nations, in providing education for all, and meeting the UN Sustainable Development Goals, particularly SDG 4 (ensuring inclusive and quality education for all and promoting lifelong learning).
"The World Bank is committed to addressing the global learning crisis. The partnership with Education Above All is critically important in this effort. There are still too many out of school children around the globe. Together we will bring these children into school and help them learn and fulfil their potential. Learning for all is a foundation for building strong human capital for every country," said Jaime Saavedra, Global Director for Education at the World Bank.
"Our partnership with Qatar and Education Above All will play an especially important role in the Middle East and North Africa," said Ferid Belhaj, World Bank Vice President for the Middle East and North Africa. "As access to quality education is critical for the region to unlock the huge potential of its large youth population, whose energy and creativity could become a new source of dynamic and inclusive growth."
Through this new funding structure, EAA and The World Bank will support financing opportunities for resource mobilization, education advocacy, and poverty reduction in developing countries across three continents. Proposed targeted countries include Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Haiti, India, Iran, Iraq, Kenya, Laos, Lebanon, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Syria, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, and Zambia.
About Education Above All (EAA) Foundation
The Education Above All (EAA) Foundation is a global education foundation established in 2012 by Her Highness Sheikha Moza bint Nasser. The Foundation envisions bringing hope and real opportunity to the lives of impoverished and marginalized children, youth and women, especially in the developing world and in difficult circumstances such as conflict situations and natural disasters. It believes that education is the single most effective means of reducing poverty, generating economic growth and creating peaceful and just societies, as well as a fundamental right for all children and an essential condition to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). For more information, visit educationaboveall.orghttp://educationaboveall.org/.
About World Bank Group Work on Education
The World Bank Group is the largest financier of education in the developing world. We work on education programs in more than 80 countries and are committed to helping countries reach Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 4, which calls for access to quality education and lifelong learning opportunities for all by 2030. In 2018, we provided about $4.5 billion for education programs, technical assistance, and other projects designed to improve learning and provide everyone with the opportunity to get the education they need to succeed. Our current portfolio of education projects totals $17 billion, highlighting the importance of education for the achievement of our twin goals, ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity.
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Aruba (The Netherlands), Bangladesh, Brazil, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Curaçao (The Netherlands), Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mexico, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen
Global trends and challenges
More than 1 per cent of people across the planet right now are caught up in major humanitarian crises. The international humanitarian system is more effective than ever at meeting their needs – but global trends including poverty, population growth and climate change are leaving more people than ever vulnerable to the devastating impacts of conflicts and disasters.
Humanitarian needs are increasing despite global economic and development gains. In the past decade, the world has made profound development progress. Between 2008 and 2015, the number of people living in extreme poverty fell from 1.2 billion to 736 million. The world is also richer than ever before: global GDP rose from $63.4 trillion in 2008 to $80.7 trillion in 2017.
But in recent years, more than 120 million people each year have needed urgent humanitarian assistance and protection. There are more crises, affecting more people, and lasting longer today than a decade ago. Most humanitarian crises are not the product of any single factor or event, but of the interaction between natural hazards, armed conflict and human vulnerability.
People’s vulnerability to crises is not just about where they live, but also about how they live.
Poverty, inequality, population growth, urbanization and climate change can erode people’s resilience and make them more susceptible to shocks. Although development gains are being made, progress has been uneven. The rate of extreme poverty remains high in low-income countries and in countries affected by conflict. Crises have disproportionate consequences for the poor: people exposed to natural hazards in the poorest nations are at least seven times more likely to die from them than those in the richest nations.
Fragile and conflict-affected areas are growing faster and urbanizing more rapidly than the rest of the world
In the past five years, the world’s population has grown by 400 million people, from 7.2 billion in 2014 to 7.6 billion in 2017. Although global population growth has slowed compared with previous decades, the rate has been uneven. Today, an estimated 2 billion people live in fragile and conflict affected areas of the word, where they are extremely vulnerable to the impact of conflicts and disasters. This number is projected to increase, as the population in these areas is growing twice as fast as the rest of the world, with an annual growth rate of 2.4 per cent, compared with 1.2 per cent globally. And the urban population in fragile areas grows by 3.4 per cent each year, compared with the world average of 2 per cent. These trends can compound resource scarcity and increase vulnerability to disasters. Urban population density can also amplify the impact of disasters and conflicts. In 2017, when explosive weapons were used in populated areas, 92 per cent of casualties were civilians, compared with 20 per cent in other areas. The populations of countries affected by fragility, conflict and violence are also younger than the global average. Whereas the proportion of the world’s population under 14 years of age has been steadily declining to about 25 per cent today, the average for countries in fragile situations is 40 per cent. As a result, one in every four children in the world is living in a country affected by conflict or disaster, facing threats of violence, hunger and disease. In 2017, more than 75 million children experienced disruptions to their education because of humanitarian crises, threatening not only their present well-being, but their future prospects as well.
More people are being displaced by conflicts
By the end of 2017, war, violence and persecution had uprooted 68.5 million men, women and children around the world – the highest number on record, and nearly 10 million more people than in 2014. Just over 40 million people were internally displaced by violence within their own countries, and 25.4 million refugees and 3.1 million asylum seekers were forced to flee their countries to escape conflict and persecution. The levels of new displacements far outstrip returns or other solutions. In 2017, 5 million people returned to their areas or countries of origin, but 16.2 million people were newly displaced – an average of one person displaced every two seconds, and the highest level of new displacement on record.
The rise in forced displacement is not the result of an increase in conflicts. In fact, after peaking in 2014, the number of political conflicts worldwide decreased by about 10 per cent, from 424 in 2014 to 385 in 2017, although there are still more conflicts compared with a decade ago (328 in 2007). However, during the same period, the proportion of violent and highly violent conflicts, which are more likely to cause human suffering, destruction and displacement, increased from 53 per cent to 58 per cent of all conflicts worldwide.5 The total economic impact of conflict and violence has also increased, from $14.3 trillion in 2014 to $14.8 trillion in 2017.6 The major share of both the human and economic cost of conflicts is borne by developing countries, which host 85 per cent of refugees.
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Haiti, Indonesia, Iraq, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen
United Nations-coordinated Appeals
FUNDING REQUIRED $25.20B
FUNDING RECEIVED $11.97B
UNMET REQUIREMENTS $13.23B
PEOPLE IN NEED 135.3 M
PEOPLE TO RECEIVE AID 97.9 M
COUNTRIES AFFECTED 41
Global Humanitarian Funding
FUNDING RECEIVED $17.98B
UN-COORDINATED APPEALS $11.97B
OTHER FUNDING $6.01B
Global Appeal Status
At the end of October 2018, 21 Humanitarian Response Plans (HRP) and the Syria Regional Response Plan (3RP) require US$25.20 billion to assist 97.9 million people in urgent need of humanitarian support. The plans are funded at $11.97 billion; this amounts to 47.5 per cent of financial requirements for 2018. Requirements are lower than in September 2018 due to revision of the Ethiopia Humanitarian and Disaster Resilience Plan (HDRP). For the remainder of 2018, humanitarian organizations require another $13.23 billion to meet the needs outlined in these plans.
Global requirements are $1.10 billion higher than at this time last year. Overall coverage and the dollar amount were only marginally higher in late October than at the same time in 2017.
On 8 October the Government of Ethiopia and humanitarian partners issued a Mid-Year Review of the HDRP. The revised plan reflects changes in the humanitarian context, and requires $1.49 billion for 2018, as opposed to the March 2018 requirement of $1.6 billion to reach some 7.88 million people in need of food or cash relief assistance and 8.49 million people with non-food assistance in the course of the year. Despite the general good performance of this year’s belg (spring) rains, the number of people targeted for relief food and cash support remains largely unchanged due to the significant spike in internal displacement since April 2018.
Security Council Briefings and High Level Missions
At a briefing to the Security Council on 23 October, Under-Secretary-General/Emergency Relief Coordinator (USG/ERC) Mark Lowcock called on all stakeholders to do everything possible to avert catastrophe in Yemen. In a follow up note on the humanitarian situation in Yemen of 30 October, the USG/ERC thanked the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, United States, Kuwait, the United Kingdom and all donors for the record amount raised for the humanitarian appeal in 2018 which had meant nearly 8 million people had received assistance across the country; more than 7 million people had received food and more than 420,000 children been treated for malnutrition; clean water, sanitation and basic hygiene support is now available to 7.4 million people and about 8 million men, women, girls and boys had benefited from health services.
At a Security Council briefing on the humanitarian situation in Syria on 29 October, the USG/ERC urged the Security Council and key Member States to ensure that the ceasefire holds in Syria's northwestern province of Idlib to prevent a military onslaught and overwhelming humanitarian suffering. He thanked donors for the $1.7 billion contributed so far towards the HRP for Syria, but pointed out that this HRP is currently funded at less than 50 per cent.
In her statement to the Security Council on 30 October, Assistant Under-Secretary-General/Deputy Emergency Relief Coordinator (ASG/DERC)
Ursulla Mueller spoke of the steady decline in humanitarian funding for the Ukraine over the years and mentioned that the HRP for 2018 is funded at only 32 per cent. This is simply not enough to cover food, health care, water, sanitation and other life-saving assistance. ASG/DERC Mueller appealed to donors to increase their support for consolidating gains in anticipation of the fast-approaching winter.
During a joint mission to Chad and Nigeria (5-7 October) with UNDP Administrator Achim Steiner, as part of a series of country visits the two will make to advance humanitarian-development collaboration, the USG/ERC called on donors to fulfil pledges and announcements of over $2 million made in Berlin last month at the High Level Conference on the Lake Chad Region (3-4 September). He noted the importance of maintaining humanitarian response in the region as needs were still very high.
Following her visit to the Republic of the Philippines from 9 to 11 October, ASG/DERC Mueller announced that OCHA would continue advocating for sustained funding to address humanitarian needs of people displaced by the Marawi conflict while ensuring that support for the transition to longerterm and sustainable recovery is forthcoming.
The Global Humanitarian Overview 2019 and World Humanitarian Data and Trends will be launched in the course of joint event to take place in the Palais des Nations, Geneva, from 10:00 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. on 4 December 2018.
Between January and the end of October 2018, country-based pooled funds (CBPFs) have received a total of $708 million in contributions from 32 donors (including contributions through the UN Foundation). During the same period, a total of $616 million from the 18 operational funds was allocated towards 1,071 projects with 575 implementing partners. Nearly 40 per cent ($246 million) of the funds were allocated to international NGOs and some 26 per cent (approximately $160 million) to national NGOs. UN agencies received 32 per cent ($202 million) of the allocated funds and Red Cross/Red Crescent organizations received over 1 per cent (some $8 million) of all allocated funds. The largest allocations per sector went to health; food security; water, sanitation and hygiene; nutrition; emergency shelter and NFIs.
Between 1 January and 31 October 2018, the Emergency Relief Coordinator approved $477 million in grants from the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) to support life-saving activities in 45 countries. This includes $297.7 million from the Rapid Response Window and $179.7 million from the Underfunded Emergencies (UFE) Window. A total of $31.6 million in Rapid Response grants was approved in October in response to cholera outbreaks in Zimbabwe, Niger and Nigeria; flooding in Laos; and the population influx from Venezuela to Brazil, Ecuador and Peru; as well as to support Government relief efforts following the earthquake and tsunami in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. The UFE 2018 second round was completed this month, with $30.6 million approved in September and the remaining $49.4 million of the round’s $80 million released in October to assist people caught up in nine chronic emergencies in Angola, Bangladesh, Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Libya,
Republic of Congo, Rwanda and Sudan.
Funding for humanitarian activities in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt) is at an all-time low. Nearly all agencies requesting financial support through the HRP have received less funding in 2018 than in previous years. This leaves humanitarian partners ill-placed to meet emerging needs or respond to the deterioration of the humanitarian situation in Gaza, where the rise in casualties during the recent demonstrations has stretched Gaza’s overburdened health system.
Humanitarian agencies appealed in August for $43.8 million to respond to the Gaza crisis, particularly trauma management and emergency health care, in 2018. On 22 September, the Humanitarian Coordinator for the oPt launched an $8.3 million allocation from the oPt Humanitarian Fund to implement critical HRP projects, mainly in Gaza. Stocks of medical supplies are in extremely short supply and depleted to almost half of requirements. Since late October, the Gaza power plant has been providing up to eleven hours of electricity a day. However, around 250 health,
WASH and essential solid waste facilities continue to rely on UN-procured emergency fuel for running back-up generators. This year’s intensive operations have depleted funds and stocks and the $1 million allocated by the oPt Humanitarian Fund for fuel supplies will only last until the end of November. Further and urgent financial support is therefore required.
Conditions in Yemen continued to deteriorate in October, pushing the country to the brink of famine. On 23 October, the USG/ERC warned the Security Council that without urgent action, up to 14 million people – half the population – could face pre-famine conditions in the coming months.
Assessments are currently under way, with initial results expected in mid-November. The economic crisis is raising the risk of famine. The Yemeni rial has depreciated by nearly 50 per cent over the last year. Commodity prices have soared, as Yemen imports 90 per cent of staple food and nearly all fuel and medicine.
Urgent steps are required to avert immediate catastrophe. First, a cessation of hostilities is needed; this is especially critical in populated areas.
Second, imports of food, fuel and other essentials must be able to enter Yemen without impediment. Roads must remain open so these goods can reach communities across the country. Third, the Yemeni economy must be supported, including by injecting foreign exchange, expediting credit for imports and paying salaries and pensions. Fourth, international funding must increase now to allow humanitarians to meet growing needs for assistance. Finally, all parties must engage with the UN Special Envoy to end the conflict. Yemen remains the largest humanitarian operation in the world, with more than 200 partners working through the Yemen HRP.
Source: UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Ukraine, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen
FUNDING REQUIRED $25.32B
FUNDING RECEIVED $10.63B
UNMET REQUIREMENTS COVERAGE $14.69B
PEOPLE IN NEED 133.8M
PEOPLE TO RECEIVE AID 97.4M
COUNTRIES AFFECTED 41
Spotlight on the recent disaster in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia
On Friday 28 September, a 7.4 magnitude earthquake and tsunami struck Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. On 5 October, the Government and country team/regional office issued the Central Sulawesi Earthquake Response Plan to support the six priority areas identified by the Government. Some existing programmes in Sulawesi will be augmented and others entailing WASH, health, camp management and logistics activities will be developed.
The response plan will focus on immediate response over a three-month period. On 2 October and Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs, and Emergency Relief Coordinator Mark Lowcock (USG/ERC) announced an allocation of US$15 million from the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) to bolster relief assistance for people affected by this emergency
Global appeal status
At the end of September 2018, 21 Humanitarian Response Plans (HRP) and the Syria Regional Response Plan (3RP) require $25.32 billion to assist 97.4 million people in urgent need of humanitarian support. The plans are funded at $10.63 billion; this amounts to 42 per cent of financial requirements for 2018. For the remainder of 2018, humanitarian organizations require another $14.69 billion to meet the needs outlined in these plans.
Global requirements are $1.13 billion higher than at this time last year. Overall coverage and the dollar amount were only marginally higher in late September 2018 than at the same time in 2017.
High-level events The USG/ERC made a strong appeal for HRP funding for South Sudan and Yemen at two high-level events at UN headquarters last month. At an event on 25 September on the crisis in South Sudan during the General Assembly, the USG/ERC asked that donors sustain their generous and large response to the crisis to enable life-saving activities and to encourage a multi-year approach to crisis response with stronger focus on stabilization, resilience and recovery from the conflict. In his statement to the Security Council on Yemen on 21 September, he announced that we may now be approaching a tipping point beyond which it will be impossible to prevent massive loss of life as a result of widespread famine across the country.
Three days later, the Humanitarian Coordinator for Yemen reiterated the call for more funding and more humanitarian partners on the ground to respond to the unprecedented emergency in Yemen.
The UNHCR Commissioner and USG/ERC ended a mission to Afghanistan last month with a call for donors to urgently increase and sustain support for humanitarian response in the country, and to take measures to find durable solutions for millions of people caught up in Afghanistan’s displacement crisis.
On 3-4 September, in a follow-up event to the 2017 Oslo Humanitarian Conference on Nigeria and the Lake Chad Region, Germany, Nigeria, Norway and the UN co-hosted the High-Level Conference on the Lake Chad Region in Berlin. On this occasion, UN Member States, international organizations and civil society actors discussed humanitarian assistance, stabilization and development cooperation in the region. Humanitarian and development announcements made at the conference totalled $2.17 billion and it is estimated that $1.02 billion was for humanitarian assistance in 2018 for Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. Of that amount, approximately $875 million (86%), has been made available to recipient organizations.
International financial institutions pledged an additional $467 million in concessional loans.
Concerning pledging conferences this year, according to data reported to FTS by donors and recipient organizations as of 18 September, 95 per cent of pledges have been fulfilled for Yemen, 91 per cent of pledges have been fulfilled for Somalia, and 82 per cent of pledges have been fulfilled for DRC. In each of these countries, many donors have contributed above and beyond their original announcements.
For Syria and the Region, the EU recently published a tracking report on announcements made in Brussels in April which can be accessed here:
Between 1 January and 30 September 2018, the Emergency Relief Coordinator approved $395 million in grants from the Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF), including $265 million from the Rapid Response Window and $130 million from the Underfunded Emergencies Window, for life-saving activities in 38 countries. A total of $40 million was released in September to assist people affected by underfunded emergencies in Angola, Bangladesh, Burundi, Central African Republic and Rwanda; as well as people affected by flooding in India and Myanmar, and Venezuelan refugees and migrants arriving in Ecuador and Peru.
Country-based pooled funds (CBPFs) have received a total of US$667 million from 31 donors between January and September 2018. During this period, the 18 operational funds have allocated $478 million to 921 projects, implemented by 525 partners. Over 60 per cent of all CBPF allocations were disbursed to NGOs, including 21 per cent ($100.6 million) directly to national NGOs. Another 36 per cent was allocated to UN agencies and a smaller portion to Red Cross/Red Crescent organizations, which have received 1.2 per cent of funding ($5.8 million) for direct project implementation. The first allocation for 2018 of the Yemen Humanitarian Fund (YHF) for $90 million is ongoing and focuses on covering gaps in first-line responses in cluster strategies and providing life-saving support to people in newly accessible and hard-to-reach areas. In Ethiopia, the Humanitarian Coordinator launched a $30 million reserve allocation targeting immediate and life-saving activities in the nutrition, health, WASH, agriculture/livestock, emergency shelter/NFI, education and protection sectors. Finally, reserve allocations were also ongoing in Afghanistan and Myanmar during September.
In Myanmar, an integrated CBPF and CERF allocation strategy ($1 million CBPF reserve and $2.95 million CERF) prioritized projects aligned with the Myanmar Humanitarian Fund (MHF) operating principles and the CERF Life Saving Criteria, aiming at achieving the main objective of addressing critical unmet needs of flood‐affected people across the country, particularly the most vulnerable people.
The humanitarian situation in Afghanistan has deteriorated considerably over the past year, primarily due to the drought, but also as a result of worsening violence. Overall, the number of people in need of humanitarian assistance and protection services in Afghanistan has increased dramatically since the beginning of 2018, from 3.3 million people to 5.5 million people. Over half of the needs are generated by conflict and population movement. In the meantime, chronic vulnerabilities such as poverty, food insecurity, and unemployment are also increasing. Afghanistan is experiencing its most severe drought since 2011, with some 20 provinces affected by significantly reduced rainfall from winter snow. Some 2.2 million chronically food insecure people are on the verge of acute food insecurity, with four provinces – Badakhshan, Badghis, Faryab and Herat – likely to pitch into a state of emergency unless they receive comprehensive and sustained humanitarian assistance. Drought-related displacement is growing in volume and geographical scope – now constituting 40 percent (119,000) of the overall number of people displaced in Afghanistan in 2018. It is likely that the Afghan population – some 15 million of whom are dependent on the agriculture sector across these 20 provinces for livelihoods – will take years to recover. Overall, more than 12 million Afghans have been displaced internally or abroad during the last four decades of conflict, natural hazards, disasters and the resulting socio-economic upheaval.
Since 25 August 2017, extreme violence in Rakhine State, Myanmar, has driven over 727,000 Rohingya refugees across the border into Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh. Statelessness imposed over generations has rendered this population seriously vulnerable, even before the severe traumas of this most recent crisis. The vast majority of these refugees now live in congested sites that are ill-equipped to handle the monsoon rains and cyclone seasons – with alarmingly limited options for evacuation. Low levels of funding are seriously hampering the capacity of humanitarian to respond effectively to the scale and scope of the humanitarian needs in the refugee camps, particularly to ensure safe shelter, appropriate educational options, nutritional support, and most critically, the quality of health services available for an extremely vulnerable population. For example, with the health sector only 23 per cent funded, programming for non-communicable diseases, malaria, TB, and HIV/AIDS remains insufficient, and partners are struggling to scale up service provision which is critical for emergencies including obstetric emergencies.
The alarming financial shortfall for humanitarian programmes in the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea has had detrimental consequences on the lives of the most vulnerable. More than 40 per cent (10.3 million) of the population remains undernourished. One in five children under-five is stunted with likely irreversible physical and cognitive repercussions. More than 9 million people lack access to essential health services. Pregnant women, young children and people living with diseases, in particular, struggle to access the care they need. Those living in rural areas are most at risk. Recent floods in North and South Hwanghae provinces have affected 280,000 people, killed 76 and displaced over 10,500 people, and chronic underfunding is making it difficult for UN agencies and their partners to respond to needs caused by the natural disasters that frequently hit the country. The 2018 Needs and Priorities plan seeks $111 million to assist 6 million out of 10.3 million people in need of humanitarian assistance.
The prospect of protracted displacement in Iraq is real, warranting a whole-of-system approach to respond to needs and work toward durable solutions. Some 1.9 million Iraqis remain displaced, with insecurity, lack of livelihood opportunities, destroyed housing, and explosive remnants of war contamination among the key barriers to returning. Considerable protection concerns exist, especially for women and children with perceived ties to ISIL. Critical funding gaps are hampering the response, particularly in food security, health, shelter and non-food item sectors, and the WASH sector. Urgent funding priorities include water supply interventions in the south, especially in Basra, which is experiencing water shortages and a gastrointestinal disease outbreak. Child health and nutrition services for up to 180,000 pregnant and lactating mothers, 300,000 children under the age of five and 5,000 newborn babies lack adequate funding.
The level of humanitarian need in Myanmar remains high and is driven by multiple factors including armed conflict, protracted displacement, inter-communal violence, statelessness, segregation, discrimination, food insecurity and vulnerability to natural disasters. More than 720,000 people – mostly stateless Rohingya Muslims – were forced to flee the country in August last year and there remains little tangible progress on addressing the root causes of violence and discrimination against this population. More than 128,000 Muslims confined in camps, some since violence erupted in 2012, have little to no access to essential services. In Kachin and Shan, persistent cycles of displacement due to conflict continue to raise serious protection concerns, with annual flooding exacerbating existing vulnerabilities. In both areas of the country, access remains a critical challenge.
Recent violence in Tripoli has highlighted the fragile situation in Libya. Thousands of people have been displaced, including families staying in schools converted into makeshift IDP shelters. The violence led to a breakdown in basic services, with frequent electricity cuts and compromised access to water. The situation is compounded by liquidity challenges which deepen needs among the most vulnerable. Humanitarian partners are responding to pre-existing and new needs, but the response is undermined by underfunding. With only 24 per cent of financial requirements covered, the ability of partners to provide assistance in life-saving sectors such as water, sanitation and hygiene and protection, as well as education, is limited. Additional funds are required to support a nation-wide measles vaccination campaign, targeting 3 million children against the backdrop of an ongoing outbreak.
South Sudan continues to experience extensive humanitarian needs, including dire levels of food insecurity and malnutrition. In September, 6.1 million people (59% of the population) faced crisis, emergency, or catastrophe levels (IPC Phase 3-5) of food insecurity. This includes 47,000 people in catastrophic conditions (IPC Phase 5). Urgent funding is needed in the coming months to procure and preposition food and other life-saving supplies during the approaching dry season, when these activities are most cost-effective. Food insecurity is expected to decline slightly following the October-December harvest, and rise again in January-March, when 5.2 million people are expected to be in IPC Phases 3-5, including 36,000 in IPC Phase 5. Resources are also needed to scale up preparedness and capacity to respond to Ebola Virus Disease. Though no cases have been reported in South Sudan, there is a risk of cross-border spread.
An agreement on 17 September to establish a demilitarized zone in Idlib, Syria, provided a reprieve for close to three million people placed at risk by a major military escalation in the area, of whom more than two million were already in need of humanitarian assistance. Civilian deaths and injuries due to airstrikes and shelling, as well as displacement and attacks impacting health facilities, were reported in the Idlib area in the weeks prior to the announcement of the agreement. Response and readiness efforts continued in Idlib and other parts of the north-west, drawing to a large extent on cross-border assistance channels from Turkey. Despite significant access challenges, humanitarian assistance continued to be provided across the country, including in areas that had recently come under Government control such as eastern Ghouta, northern rural Homs and much of the south-west. Cross-border assistance to the south-west under the framework of Security Council resolution 2393 remained suspended, but assistance was delivered from Damascus, primarily through the Syrian Arab Red Crescent (SARC). Deployment of an inter-agency convoy from Damascus to Rukban on the Syria-Jordan border became increasingly urgent, with reports of a deterioration of the humanitarian situation in a camp estimated to be hosting up to 45,000 people. The situation in eastern Deir-Ez-Zor, in the east of the country, also deteriorated, with clashes linked to counter-ISIL operations displacing thousands in rural areas with limited humanitarian access and reports of restrictions on the onward movement of displaced people.
Steep economic decline accelerated in Yemen in September, with the Yemeni riyal losing about 30 per cent of its value against the US dollar during the month. Because Yemen imports the vast majority of its food and other basic commodities, this has translated into sharp rises in prices of food, fuel and other essentials – placing these goods increasingly out of reach for millions of Yemenis at a time when famine remains a real threat. In parallel, conflict in Hudaydah has intensified, with about 550,000 people displaced by the violence since 1 June. Aid operations have dramatically expanded, reaching 8 million people with direct assistance across the country every month. Partners have provided rapid response kits to nearly all families recently displaced from Hudaydah, as well as additional assistance based on assessed needs. Generous funding has been key: the 2018 HRP has received US$1.96 billion, or 67 per cent of requirements. Despite these achievements, recent developments threaten to overwhelm the operation’s capacity to respond. Urgent steps are needed to stabilize the economy, keep all ports and main roads open, uphold international humanitarian law, and move towards a political solution. Partners are also seeking full funding for the $3 billion HRP in order to deliver all activities in the plan.
Country: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Brazil, Colombia, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iraq, Mexico, Myanmar, Nigeria, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Uganda, United States of America, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen
For Immediate Release
Monday, August 20, 2018
Office of Press Relations
Telephone: +1.202.712.4320 | Email: email@example.com
Center for Strategic and International Studies
August 20, 2018
ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Good morning, everyone. Thank you, Dan, for that kind introduction and thanks to all of you for being here to help mark this very important occasion.
As we begin, as we call it in Congress, I'd like to start with a point of personal privilege. I'd like to take this opportunity this morning to express our sadness over the death of Kofi Annan. He was a giant who has spent his entire life advocating for peace, and the for the protection of humanitarian workers, something that we'll be talking about today. As he so often said, "People, not states, should be at the center of what we do." His passing makes this World Humanitarian Day even more poignant.
This morning, on behalf of USAID, I hope to convey two important messages to all of you. The first is, as Dan was alluding to, relates to the rapidly-evolving nature of humanitarian relief and assistance.
The second, as we mark this day, is simply our deep, deep admiration and gratitude for the many heroes of our humanitarian work. They, and many of you, are truly extraordinary and heroic.
I have to say that before I joined USAID, I didn't really appreciate the scope and range of what it is that we do in our humanitarian work. You can see it in some of the numbers. In 2017, USAID responded to 53 crises in 51 countries. For only the second time in our agency's history, we had six DART teams, Disaster Assistance Response Teams, deployed simultaneously around the world. The first time that happened was the preceding year.
At this very moment, we have pre-positioned resources and experts in just about every part of the world. We have seven emergency stockpiles in places like Djibouti, South Africa, and Malaysia. We have full-time response staff in 30 countries. We have six regional offices and 11 adviser offices, located with partners like the military's combatant commands.
One of my most vivid memories from my first year as Administrator was, essentially, a crash course in how some of this works. One day, during last year's UN General Assembly meetings, we received word of a terrible earthquake, the second one that had struck Mexico City. One evening that week, I was walking down the street between back-to-back dinners with two different mobile phones: one with the White House, one with the DART team leader.
I was dodging pedestrians, I'm sure looking ridiculous, while the disaster professionals were helping me navigate something much more serious: how to rapidly mobilize an emergency response team to Mexico City to help our neighbors to the South respond to its second earthquake in just a few weeks' time.
The government said to us that they'd welcome the assistance of a highly-specialized type of international search and rescue team, something really hard to find, especially in a hurry. But, thanks to the White House, our talented team here in D.C., our network of first responders, and the DOD, we were able to transport and stand up just such a team in Mexico City before breakfast the next morning. I'm honored to be part of a network, which includes many of you, that can make something like that happen.
But, as we gather to mark World Humanitarian Day this year, we have to acknowledge that natural disaster responses no longer epitomizes today's humanitarian work. We still do that, to be sure, and I think we do it well. But, these days, we face vast other challenges all around the world.
Our humanitarian resources are increasingly being deployed, not for storms and quakes and the like, but for man-made disasters, from conflict-driven displacement to tyranny-driven economic collapse.
Our DARTs are more likely to be deployed for those types of crises, and by far, most of our humanitarian assistance dollars are being allocated for those kinds of needs. There's the ongoing tragedy in Syria, a horrific conflict in its seventh year and one of the most complex crises of our time. Over 13 million people, more than 80 percent of the current population, need humanitarian assistance. There's the ongoing struggle in Afghanistan, where 3.3 million people need humanitarian assistance. A recent upturn in violence has claimed 1,700 civilian lives this year alone.
A dozen or so years ago, I travelled to Afghanistan as a congressman. And, in those days, our presence was measured by the tens of thousands of military boots on the ground. These days, we still have some troops there, but our boots on the ground are increasingly humanitarian and development workers, some of whom have been back to work in Afghanistan two, three, and even four times.
Nine hundred aid workers have been killed in Afghanistan in the last decade.
There's South Sudan, the most dangerous place of all for humanitarian workers. Seven million people in South Sudan, including 1 million living on the brink of famine, depend on international assistance just to survive.
Then there are the man-made crises far closer to home. One of the most underreported catastrophes in the world today is what's happening in and around Venezuela. More than 2.3 million Venezuelans have already fled. It's the largest single mass exodus in the history of the Western Hemisphere. And it's ongoing. I saw this first hand when I visited Cucuta, in Colombia, and the Bolivar Bridge last month. Five thousand new migrants enter Colombia each and every day. They're desperately seeking food and emergency medical care. They're seeking survival.
This isn't merely Colombia's challenge. Venezuelans are fleeing to places like Brazil and Ecuador, as we read over the weekend, and northward to the Caribbean. The list of man-made, conflict-caused, and regime-driven humanitarian crises goes on and on. After all, there are roughly 70,000,000 displaced people in the world today.
Since humanitarian needs and crises are changing, we're doing our best our to change and to respond to them, with the best tools and ideas that we can find. We're applying lessons learned over and over again. And we're fostering innovation.
This past February, USAID and our British cousins, DFID, joined in launching the first-ever Humanitarian Grand Challenge. The Grand Challenge mechanism is a way for the world's best thinkers, from organizations large and small, for-profit and non-profit, business, academia, to offer new ideas in helping (inaudible) relief to the most vulnerable, hardest to reach communities in the world.
It's a chance for us to identify and invest in the best and the brightest. We've already received 615 applications from 86 different countries, including a third from women and nearly half from lower and middle income countries. We're excited to see and mobilize the results, and they're due out this fall.
Given how much of our humanitarian response is in conflict zones and fragile states, we're paying more attention than ever to the obstacles and challenges that factions, gangs, militias, and corrupt officials are throwing at relief teams. Case in point. In April of this year, a leading humanitarian agency reported that it had encountered no fewer than 70 checkpoints on the 300-mile trip from Aden to Sanaa, in Yemen. I'm sure those were just helpful citizens offering directions along the way.
But it's the kind of situation that caused us to launch the Strengthening Field Level Capacity on Humanitarian Access and Negotiations program last August.
It's aimed at helping relief team members better understand practical negotiation techniques and safe, effective field-level decision making.
Because there is nothing more important to us, nothing more important to me, than the safety and security of our humanitarian network, that's the area that we're especially focusing on. We must stay ahead of threats and potential threats. So we're supporting organizations dedicated to improving security standards and training for NGO staff. We're modifying our policy so that security, costs for equipment, staff, training and site enhancements can be more easily built into your contracts and grant budgets.
We're investing in new tools to help us map and minimize risk to operations at the most basic level, the level of, for example, moving food from a plane to a truck, to a warehouse and distribution center. But, let's face it: we can take every possible step to minimize risk. We can't make it go away.
And many of you here know that all too well. One of the most inspiring and humbling parts of my job is getting to meet the heroes who know the risks but carry on just because they care.
I saw firsthand, when I visited IDP camps just outside of Raqqa. I heard stories of challenges that humanitarian heroes face each day, as they strive to bring water and food and medical care to those who've been victimized by the years of conflict. With Assad's regime still holding sway in parts of the country, there's no real, legitimate government partner with whom to work. And their path is riddled with unexploded ordinance, which is going off at the rate of, roughly, three dozen per day.
The shelters they sleep in at night shake with the dropping of bombs each and every day. And yet, somehow, because of their commitment to others, they wake up the next morning and they do it all over again. These are the heroes that we hold high this World Humanitarian Day.
People like Iraq's Salam Muhammad. When Anbar and Kirkuk were liberated from ISIS at the end of last year, humanitarians were the first ones on the ground, providing food, water, and medical care. Iraq staff with the U.S.-funded NGO spend their days clearing mines and educating their neighbors about the dangers the ordinance poses.
Salam decided to joint this particular NGO after witnessing several tragedies that left some of his relatives and friends injured, or killed. He was one of the NGO's first recruits in Iraq. Every day is challenging for the de-miners; any accident can be fatal. But Salam and his staff love their jobs and show up for work every day filled with passion because they know what they're doing matters.
There's Jay Nash, a regional adviser who has lived and worked for USAID in the Democratic Republic of the Congo for the past 20 years. The DRC is, as you know, no stranger to aid worker attacks, with 210 people being killed, wounded, or kidnapped since 2000.
In 1999, while visiting a university in the DRC, Jay was ambushed by a mob of students who thought he was a spy for neighboring Rwanda. The mob torched the U.S. embassy vehicle he had been driving, but Jay escaped after a group of brave students made a ring around him, guarding him until they were able to duck him into the girls' dormitory.
Sitting in that dorm, trapped for hours with a mob threatening to break down the doors, Jay said he had one thought: he thought of the children with disabilities that he was helping in his free time. DRC has a higher than average rate of disability. And he thought to himself, if he died in that girls' dorm, who would take care of those kids?
After eight hours, he made a run for it, and he didn't look back. Not only did he stay in DRC working for USAID, in 2001, he started his own NGO called StandProud. It provides treatment and equipment to young people with disabilities, helping them gain dignity, mobility, and independence.
There's Fareed Noori, one of the victims of last month's attack on a government building in Jalalabad, Afghanistan. The blast killed 15 people. Fareed had been working in Afghanistan since 2010 for a USAID partner the International Rescue Committee, as a water, sanitation, and hygiene engineer. As his colleagues noted, whenever there was an emergency, Fareed was the first in the field to help with whatever was needed.
Fareed was in an emergency meeting at the time of the attack. He was killed doing the work of helping others, to which he had committed his life. Fareed leaves behind four children, two girls, two boys, all under the age of 9.
Another victim of that attack was Bakhtawara; it's a pseudonym, a bright and impressive 22-year-old woman. She was working for the International Organization for Migration, another USAID partner. She had married very early and had a child by the age of 16. But, despite being a young mother in a conservative community, she fought for her education and learned English. After school, she knew she wanted to help people. She convinced her family to let her, not just get job, but get a career as a humanitarian.
When her husband was killed in a bombing three years ago, she continued working as a 19-year-old single mother. Her job took her to the very government offices that were often targeted by insurgents. On the day she was killed, she was attending one of the meetings that she had hoped would help her find better ways to deliver aid to people in need. The building was bombed and then overrun with gunfire. She died doing what she focused her life on, helping people build a brighter future.
Extremist insurgents in Afghanistan like to target these workers. There's a special place in hell...
There's the story of the seven aid workers killed in South Sudan in March of this year. They were killed when their car was ambushed along the 185-mile route of the badly rutted roads in South Sudan's remote east. Their vehicle had been labeled as belonging to an NGO right down to the license plates. It didn't matter. Six of the seven worked for a small Sudanese NGO called the Grass Roots Empowerment and Development Organization, GREDO, which is supported by USAID and worked to promote sustainable development at the grassroots level.
Three of the victims were helping to build a youth center. Two taught English. One was also a driver and the father of a newborn. Three were new recruits. Humanitarian heroes, one and all. And there were thousands of others. And I stand in awe of what they do.
Final thoughts. Why do they do it? What causes them to go out and take these risks? I learned the answer, and (inaudible), when I visited Bangladesh and Burma with Secretary Pompeo earlier this year. In Bangladesh, I went to a Cox's Bazaar, and I saw the hundreds of thousands of Rohingya who are barely surviving in that camp.
They are vulnerable to monsoons and cyclones and without the humanitarian workers, life would be very different. It's bad enough already.
And then I went to Burma, and I travelled to an IDP camp near Sittwe. And what I saw there was the most disturbing thing I have ever seen in development. I saw young families trapped. I saw young families unable to go to school and completely dependent upon the emergency food assistance that we provide.
So, those workers take the risks because they are all that is standing between an even worse catastrophe and death in these young people, these victims. Today we celebrate them. Thank you.
MODERATOR: Thank you. (inaudible) I'm also the director of the Humanitarian Agenda, as Dan mentioned, which is what this event is a part of, it's a new partnership as as we have this conversation. Firstly, I want to ask you -- well, one, congratulations; it's been about a year now since you've been appointed, and you've been back one year? So, happy anniversary.
ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Pretty close. Thank you -- ask my staff.
MODERATOR: (inaudible) We're all very happy that you were chosen to be in this position because, as Dan alluded to, your deep background in international developments. One of the things that you said a lot in this position is talking about, "The purpose of foreign aid is to end the need for its existence." It's one of your key messages that we hear time and time again. So, I want you to elaborate on sort of how that squares with humanitarian assistance. Right? There's a big difference of international developments for, you know, economic growth and being self-reliant. But humanitarian assistance is so often, as you mentioned, driven by tyranny and regimes, and it's about saving lives. So, how do you marry those two?
ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Well, first off you're right. What I've said since the day that I was first announced is that the purpose of our foreign assistance must be ending its need to exist. And what I mean by that is, we should look every day at ways of helping people take on their own challenges. Not because we want to do less or walk away, but because we believe in human dignity, and we believe in the innate desire of everyone -- every individual, every family, every community, every country -- to want to craft their own bright future.
In the area of humanitarian assistance, what I always say is, look, we will always stand with people when crisis strikes because that is who we are, that is in the American DNA. But at the same time we'll also look for ways to foster resilience so that we can help countries and communities withstand future shocks. And we've seen promising results in places like Ethiopia. You mentioned on the food security front, Ethiopia's a country that's had six consecutive years of drought and yet not falling into full famine. And that obviously is about much more than the work we're doing, but I think we're making a difference in helping Ethiopians build their ability to withstand consecutive years of drought.
So, I see the two as fitting very well together, and the other piece to it is, on the humanitarian front, again, we have natural disasters and man-made disasters. The man-made disasters are coming at us fast and furious. It's also about preventing the next generation of crisis and conflict. I'm often asked what it is that keeps me up at night, and what keeps me up at night are our children being born in camps, and growing up in camps, and getting educated in camps. And when, God willing, the walls come down and the gate opens up, the question is, are those young people going to be prepared to take on the challenges of the world? Are they connected to the communities around them?
And so with the humanitarian work that we do in many of these places, it's really aimed towards the future. And so I think it fits in well; it's a longer term of view, but I see them -- really is all going in the same direction.
MODERATOR: I'm actually headed out to Nigeria in a few weeks and doing some research looking at Feed the Future portfolio there, but really looking at the nexus between that humanitarian and development assistance, you know, how that would work in an unstable environment. So, I'm anxious to see what I learn from that as well. You know, the Trump administration has called for reduction, of course, of U.S. foreign assistance, but, regardless of that, the U.S. continues to be -- and dominate as the largest donor worldwide.
When you're talking to your colleagues in this administration, what is it that you talk about in terms of why it's so important for us to sustain this leadership? I mean, I could throw out numbers and I'll do a little bit.
In 2018, the U.S. pledged 29 billion foreign assistance. Five billion of that was dedicated to humanitarian assistance. I was looking this morning at how that compares to others, and, I mean, the UK -we're event twice what they do. So, you know, we're such a leader in this space. Why is that so important? Why should we dedicate American tax dollars or more importantly to cleaning up other people's wars?
ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Well, first off, you're correct; we're far and away the world's humanitarian leader, and, quite frankly, two or three or four of them together don't really add up to what we're doing. We need other countries to do more because, with those challenges that I laid out, those man-made challenges, I don't see an end in sight, quite frankly, in any of them. So, these are open-ended challenges, and while we are proud to be the world's leader, we need others to step up to the plate. I will tell you, what I worry about is, because these man-made disasters, man-made, often regime-driven disasters, because they are open-ended, there's a real risk that it will begin to take up so much of our budget that it threatens our ability to do some of the development investments that we all want to do, including quite frankly, some of the resilience work that we want to do.
So, we do need others to step up to the plate. But in terms of, you know, what I say to the rest of the administration, it's not a hard cell, you know, pushing them to open a door. The administration is very supportive of our humanitarian work; we continue to be the world's leader; that's not going to change. And I think it's really -- the arguments for it fall on a number of different fronts. Number one, this is an expression of American values. This is who we are and always have been. It is a projection of the American spirit, in my view. So, I think that is very much alive and well in the American psyche, in the American DNA.
But secondly, it's in our interest. Just take for a moment the assistance that we're providing to Colombians, supporting Venezuelans who have fled the border, doing the same thing in some other countries. There is great American self-interest in supporting the ability of these communities to withstand this migration, to help afford some of those costs, because the instability that results from not being able to provide support, I think, is an issue, is a diplomatic issue, is a national security issue. And, as you heard me mention, I think particularly what is happening in the Western Hemisphere is completely underreported.
When I was at the Summit of the Americas, I heard from a number of countries, including Caribbean states, that they were starting to feel the presence of Venezuelans fleeing. And while they're all supportive of their neighbors, clearly it's not without a cost. But the same thing is true in many other parts of the world. So, the investments that we make on the humanitarian front are oftentimes in our self-interest. I look at the work that we're doing on the humanitarian front with an eye towards providing a lifeline so that those who've been displaced in parts of the Middle East can return. That's in our interest. That's a stated foreign policy priority. So, you know, yes, there is certainly -- I think the morality that we -- the expression of values that we've always supported. But I also believe it's in our interest and our national security interest.
MODERATOR: And thank you for reminding us in your speech about humanitarian heroes and what World Humanitarian Day is about. You talked about the unfortunate situation that in today's crises a lot of the time aid workers are targeted specifically. So, I want to ask you whether you feel like there's an erosion of international humanitarian law over, you know, that you talked about the evolution of humanitarian assistance. And so as the world gets more and more disorderly, we see more and more protracted conflicts. Do you feel that both governments and non-state actors alike are violating this law, and is there anything that we can or should be doing more I guess, particularly from the donor or U.S. government perspective, to hold them more accountable?
ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Well, first off, we in the U.S. demand adherence to international law, international humanitarian law. So, we demand that unfettered access is provided, for example, in Rakhine, in Northern Rakhine in Burma. So, that's always been important for us. But if you're asking whether some non-state actors like ISIS are breaking international law, yeah. Having been to both Raqqa and Northern Iraq, what has been done there by ISIS is truly evil. There is simply no other word to describe what they've done: the desecration of graves, the desecration of churches, the disappearances of Yazidis. It's staggering and truly evil. Of course they are breaking every standard that we all know.
Yes, it is a challenge to international law; one of the best ways that we can respond is to say that, and to say it often, and to keep coming back to it. Because I do think the American opinion matters. And to say all across the political spectrum here in this country that we stand united and demand adherence to those standards and that what is happening is unacceptable.
MODERATOR: You brought up demanding unfettered access. I want to let our audience know that the Humanitarian Agenda will be going to the capitol this fall, and we're focusing specifically on the issue of humanitarian access. You brought up, of course, in Yemen, that's 70 choke hold points that David Miliband also talked about when he was here in Yemen -- in April on Yemen. I also want to say we're publishing a policy piece on Yemen here at CSIS that will come out this week.
I have many more questions, but I think we'll turn to the audience, so that we can engage them as well. So, if you have a question, please raise your hand. We will take it in rounds of threes, so announce yourself and where you're from. Please keep it concise, and at the end of it, there should be a question mark. So, who has a question? Yes, sir, right over here. Thanks, gentlemen.
QUESTION: I'll ask a real fast question, my name is Rob, I work for USAID, thank you, sir. My question is about the environment, I'm just back from the Congo, where Ebola is happening and I was just in Madagascar where there was a plague outbreak. A lot of the disasters you talked about have an environmental component, and we're doing some in the United States, but some people think we really need to do more, and that's a little bit against maybe some people in the administration, so I would love for you to talk about your thoughts about that.
MODERATOR: Great question. More? Let's do Julie Howard right there.
QUESTION: Thank you. Mr. Administrator, thank you for your comments. Could you comment on the recent story in the Washington Post about the potential pullback of $3 billion in foreign assistance funds and how that may affect our ability to respond to humanitarian as well as the resilience opportunities you described?
MODERATOR: And, Julie, will you introduce yourself for those that don't know you?
MODERATOR: Would you introduce yourself?
QUESTION: Oh, yes, okay. So, I'm a non-resident senior adviser here at CSIS, thank you.
MODERATOR: Julie and I are also going to be travel partners when I go to Nigeria. It's actually Julie that is leading that study. Let's take one more question right back here. Yes, thank you.
QUESTION: Hi, my name's (inaudible) a reporter from Voice of America. There are a number of humanitarian assistance and also food aid to North Korea spended by the United States Government. What are the key principles that all the United States Government providing assistance to North Korea and under which scenario can assistance to North Korea be resumed?
MODERATOR: Thank you.
ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Sure.
MODERATOR: Easy questions, right?
ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: On North Korea, simply put, there have been no discussions that I'm aware of regarding assistance into North Korea. I certainly haven't been part of any such discussions.
Secondly, on the pullback, while we haven't received official notification of anything, I've heard of nothing that would change our status as the world's leader in humanitarian assistance. I haven't seen anything. Third, on -- first off, it's interesting that you visited Ebola country and you talked about conservation, because their linked, obviously.
I think that's one of the reasons we've seen the outbreak of Ebola in other formerly, entirely rare diseases in some of the areas where we've seen deforestation and such. What we're trying to do at USAID, many of you are aware, we're developing metrics that are aimed at helping us to better understand a country's capacity and commitment in a number of sectors, and conservation's one of them.
So, we're looking at things like biodiversity and how resources are managed, because we think it's important, and it's something that we hope to be able to incentivize in the future and have conversations around. I have a personal interest in the conservation front and as you know, we recently made some announcements regarding assistance to Colombia and helping them in their natural resource management. So, I think it's an important area that shouldn't be divorced from the rest of development.
We think it is one of those key areas that needs to be assessed and looked at as we help countries, in what we call, as you know, probably ad nauseam as I talk about the journey to self-reliance. One of those areas is, in fact, conservation, biodiversity, and the capacity to manage resources.
MODERATOR: Let's take another round of questions. Raise your hand high. Joel?
QUESTION: Joel (inaudible) from Norwegian Refugee Council, thank you Administrator Green for your excellent remarks. I'm afraid I have to follow up on the rescission question. We're not going to let you off so easily.
What's been reported is that there's going to be a cut of a billion to UN peacekeeping operations, and that has the potential to not only disrupt work in South Sudan and Somalia and the Congo, but it also has the potential to disrupt, through further chaos in refugee flows, neighboring countries that we care about that are our allies, such as Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, and so on.
I guess -- the argument is that, even if USAID itself doesn't lose funding or doesn't lose out through the rescission, the work will lose out, I feel, if this really goes ahead. So, if you could just offer more thought on -- I mean, you said you're pushing on an open door when it comes to international work, and, honestly, it's not always obvious to see that from the outside. Thank you.
MODERATOR: Thanks, Joel. Let's do these two right here in the front, Haley, yep.
QUESTION: Thank you. Hi, good morning. Nicole (inaudible), I'm a senior associate here at CSIS. Thank you, Administrator Green, for your great comments. You mentioned briefly -- you touched on young people and so, given the disproportionate (inaudible) of people in these countries and how often humanitarian crises can disproportionately affect children and young people, can you talk a little bit more about some of the focus that you're keeping in these initiatives and on the work that you're doing to remedy the situation for youth? Thanks.
MODERATOR: Great, and I think there was a question right behind you if there still is, yeah.
QUESTION: Hello, my name is Jessica (inaudible), and I'm a Jeane Kirkpatrick Fellow at the American Enterprise Institute. You mention in your remarks about the man-made nature of a lot of the ongoing conflicts, and I was wondering if you could speak to USAID's role not only in providing humanitarian response in that context, but also the active role that the agency is taking in countering and preventing ongoing violent extremism.
MODERATOR: Great question.
ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: That's a great question. Joel, on the budget front, I really don't have much more that I can provide. Part of it is I'm not attempting to duck, I just literally don't have more, I'd refer you to OMB quite frankly. But again, you know, they is simply looking at the numbers of the last year and what we're doing on the humanitarian front. There is simply no argument that we have backed away from our role as the world's leading humanitarian assistant. Just objectively, we are far and away the largest humanitarian donor.
We're the largest humanitarian donor in Syria; we're the largest humanitarian donor in conflict after conflict. I do think it is fair for all of us to talk about how it is that these resource needs can be met in the future. I don't mean just the immediate future, but the open-ended nature of these conflicts and this instability and this displacement is staggering.
It is what worries me, because these conflicts that we're seeing -- South Sudan; Yemen -- you and I have talked about Yemen a great deal in recent months. It's open-ended, and I do worry about that. I do worry about our ability to meet resource needs and, you know, the world meeting these resource needs. They're significant.
On the question of young people, particularly in displaced settings, we are looking at a number of ways of accelerating crisis situation education, conflict community education. We've received generous support from Congress, along with generous directives from Congress, in the area of education. What we've been trying to do, and Congresswoman Lowey has long been a great leader on this front, is to try to make sure that we are able to prioritize these crisis needs, and I do think that it's a crisis. It does worry me a great deal.
So, we're looking at some of the use of innovative technologies to see if that can help us in these settings, but it is a very focus and as we develop our basic education strategy going forward, I think you'll see a particular focus on those areas, because it is, as you suggest, very important for the future.
In terms of preventing violent extremism, we have, as you know, an important role under the National Security Strategy. We are investing in trying to identify the drivers of violent extremism.
One of my strong beliefs that comes, actually, from my time at International Republican Institute is that we shouldn't jump to conclusions and try to draw global assumptions and lessons. Instead, we need to look at local drivers. Experience shows us that it's often local drivers, community drivers that become flashpoints for extremism. And so, we're certainly investing research there, and some of the preventative tools that are there; from my days as an Ambassador in Tanzania, I often point out that after the terrible bombing, embassy bombing, the work that we did with our Tanzanian partners in the wake of that, to take on some of the drivers of poverty and despair, I believe was an important down payment for preventing violent extremism. So, I'm a big believer in tackling those drivers and tackling that which can lead to despair. So, that will always be a key part of our work.
MODERATOR: Mr. Green, at Davos this year, you talked about the importance of tapping into the creativity of the private sector, and how innovative financing mechanisms and other innovative technologies can really create better development outcomes. In your speech today, you talked about the Humanitarian Grand Challenges. Are there any specific companies or partnerships or technologies that you're most excited about right now. The things that you see that are happening in the field, you've been in in this career -- I mean, you've had a career for decades that are all related to development --
ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Don't say decades.
MODERATOR: Okay, sorry -- you're very young. The last year that you've been an administrator, what are the -- what are the cool, new technologies that we should know about, that are out there, that the mainstream audience has no idea how we're delivering (inaudible) humanitarian assistance?
ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Yeah, I mean, to be honest, there are countless. During global innovation we -- which we had last fall, whenever it was, and I had a chance to walk through the marketplace at the Ronald Reagan Building, and take a look at some of the innovations. Everything from lunchbox-size solar batteries allowing us to power work in refugee and displaced persons camps to some of the weather forecasting stations that are created with 3D printers. You go through there and it's extraordinary. And it fills you with great hope for our ability to reach out and touch more people in more settings than ever before. In the area of financing -- we announced in India last fall, the world's first Development Impact Bond for maternal and child health, and the largest development impact bond of its kind. So, what we did through that is to set outcomes that we needed to see in order to repay the investment, but in terms of the means, we turn the private sector loose.
And in the follow-up conversations that we had, you can see that our partners, some of whom are based here in D.C., were terribly excited. Because for the first time they didn't have us micro-managing each step along the way, but saying, "Look, these are the outcomes that we need, you go get them." And really tapping into the private sector, nonprofit and for-profit. Also, in the area of displaced communities on World Humanitarian Day, the use of biometrics to establish identification of refugees and IDPs as well as some of the digital technologies for delivering resources -- assistance so that recipients have modest purchasing power in surrounding communities, thereby not only providing assistance, not only holding onto human dignity and allowing them to make some decisions, but also providing a tangible benefit to those host communities which are often placing a disproportionate burden by those who are there. So, it -- it's really using business principles, human nature, and I'd like to say there are new technologies, but my kids will tell me very quickly they're old technologies, just new to someone like me. Tapping into these, I think, creates enormous, enormous hope for reaching into places we haven't before.
MODERATOR: I want to continue on that "hope" trend for a minute. So, you know, when you think about the crises, many of which are located in Syria, Yemen, in South Sudan --
ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Is that the whole part?
MODERATOR: Now, I know. Well, this is where I'm kind of heading with this. Is there a crisis that you have your eyes on that you do see any reversal in terms of reversal trends, or any progress? Is there a place that you do think we're going to be able to see some positive outcomes in the next -- I should say decade there, because I know it takes time. But is there one that you see not going the wrong direction?
ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Oh, sure. There are lots of promising stories. I think Ethiopia and Eritrea provide tremendous hope. One of the challenges, again, as an old democracy guy, one of the challenges that I saw was the enabling environment, for civil society and NGOs in a place like Ethiopia, and with the transition to a new government, we're having conversations that we didn't have before, in ways that I think will be very helpful. Also, I think that their willingness to partner with us more and more will help us make some investments in those areas -- in those resilience areas that will not only help Ethiopia and Eritrea, but also, quite frankly, I think will save us money in the long run. So, there are lots of stories like that, I think all around the continent of Africa and elsewhere. But there are -- every hopeful story is replaced by a new challenge. None of these challenges are inevitable, as problems. But they do require us to be innovative. They do require us to be engaged, they do require us to invest up front, and to be innovative in those procuring methods and how we partner. All of those things need to be done if we're going to turn -- either prevent the challenges from becoming crises, or turn problems into solutions.
MODERATOR: Thank you. I lived in Ethiopia for three years, and I have to say it's quite exciting to see the change that's happening there. I'd like to just turn it onto -- are there any more burning questions? No hands are shooting up; let's do one more right here in the front.
QUESTION: Hi, this is Chris (inaudible) with the State Department. Thank you so much for your leadership of USAID and development. I have a question regarding the nexus between humanitarian assistance, you've been mentioning the nexus with conflict development stabilization -- how does humanitarian assistance fit in, or is it just a one piece element that is disassociated from political issues?
MODERATOR: Great, and as you answer that and any other final remarks you'd like to make as well.
ADMINISTRATOR GREEN: Sure. Thank you and again, thanks to all of you. So I think from the National Security Strategy, you see -- also the Stabilization Assistance Review, you see, I think, a clear multi-agency, multi-department approach to many of these challenges. Our relationship with the State Department is as close as it's ever been. I've received nothing but support and affirmation from Secretary Pompeo. We are working, as you know, closely because all of these challenges touch each of us in different ways and we each have different capacities.
You know, I think it's probably never been more clear than in a place like the Burma-Bangladesh crisis. So, you know, when Rohingya in one place their IDPs and when they're in another place, they're refugees, and then of course we all look at that and say, "forget the labels, they're people who we need to help out," and invest in, and so we do. Also, I would say that both State and AID have as close of a working relationship with DoD as we've had in a very long time. As many of you know, we have a couple dozen detailees over at the Pentagon and the Combatant Commands. DoD has made it clear that they don't want to do what we do or State does, and we certainly don't want to do what they do. So, I would think those seamless teams and close communications are helping us. And going back to the budget question, they have to; there's not enough money for duplication. There's not enough money for bureaucracy. We just have to stay in constant communication.
As to (inaudible) final remarks, I really would like to leave off with where my remarks, my opening remarks left off -- or left off. On this World Humanitarian Day, I would ask that we all think of those men and women who are in places in far places in world, in conflict zones, in fragile settings, day after day, delivering emergency medical assistance, food assistance, water and hygiene under the most trying of circumstances, difficult security situations. They do it because they care. They're my heroes. I'm sure they're your heroes. They are patriots. And what a wonderful expression of values and our priorities that with what they're doing each and every day. Thank you.
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Zambia
↗ International prices of wheat and maize rose in March for the third consecutive month and averaged more than 10 percent above their levels in December 2017. Prices were mainly supported by concerns over the impact of prolonged dryness in key-growing areas of the United States of America and Argentina, coupled with strong demand. International rice prices remained relatively stable.
↗ In South America, severe dry weather and strong demand underpinned the domestic prices of grains in key exporting country, Argentina, while the price of yellow maize spiked also in Brazil in March.
↗ In East Africa, in the Sudan, the strong upward surge in prices of coarse grains faltered in March but they remained at record or near-record highs, reflecting the removal of the wheat subsidies and the strong depreciation of the local currency.
↗ In Southern Africa, in Madagascar, prices of locally-produced and imported rice declined in February from the record highs reached in January with the harvesting of the minor season paddy crop and following an appreciation of the Malagasy Ariary.
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe
↗ International prices of wheat and maize increased further in February, mainly supported by weather-related concerns and currency movements. Export price quotations of rice also continued to strengthen, although the increases were capped by subsiding global demand for Indica supplies.
↗ In East Africa, in the Sudan, prices of the main staples: sorghum, millet and wheat, continued to increase in February and reached record highs, underpinned by the removal of the wheat subsidies and the strong depreciation of the Sudanese Pound.
↗ In Southern Africa, in Madagascar, prices of rice hit record highs at the start of the year, as a result of tight supplies following a sharp drop in the 2017 output to a substantially below-average level and a weaker currency.
↗ In West Africa, prices of coarse grains continued to generally increase in February and reached levels above those a year earlier despite the good harvests gathered in late 2017, due to a strong demand for stock replenishment, coupled with localized production shortfalls and insecurity in some areas.
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe
International prices of wheat and maize were generally firmer in January, supported by weather-related concerns and a weaker US dollar. Export price quotations of rice also strengthened mainly buoyed by renewed Asian demand.
In East Africa, in the Sudan, prices of the main staples: sorghum, millet and wheat, rose sharply for the third consecutive month in January and reached record highs, underpinned by the removal of wheat subsidies and the strong depreciation of the Sudanese Pound.
In West Africa, prices of coarse grains were at relatively high levels in January, despite the good harvests gathered in late 2017, due to strong demand for stock replenishment and insecurity in some areas.
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe
↗ International prices of wheat and maize remained relatively stable in November, reflecting good supply conditions, while export quotations of rice strengthened amid increased buying interest and currency movements.
↗ In East Africa, prices of cereals in November continued to decline in most countries with the ongoing 2017 harvests and were at levels around or below those a year earlier with a few exceptions. By contrast, in the Sudan, prices surged and reached record highs in some markets, mainly underpinned by the sharp depreciation of the Sudanese Pound in the parallel market.
↗ In Central America, after the sharp increases recorded in the previous month, prices of white maize eased in November as market flows returned to normal, after disruption caused by severe rains in the previous month. Good domestic availabilities kept prices at levels below those a year earlier.
Source: European Commission's Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations
Country: Afghanistan, Algeria, Armenia, Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, India, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mexico, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, occupied Palestinian territory, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of), World, Yemen
Education is lifesaving. Education is crucial for both the protection and healthy development of girls and boys affected by crises. It can rebuild their lives; restore their sense of normality and safety, and provide them with important life skills. It helps children to be self-sufficient, to be heard, and to have more influence on issues that affect them. It is also one of the best tools to invest in their long-term future, and in the peace, stability and economic growth of their countries.
Education in emergencies actions can help prevent, reduce, mitigate and respond to emergency-related academic, financial, social, institutional, physical and infrastructural barriers to children's education, while ensuring the provision of safe, inclusive and quality education.
In 2017, the EU dedicates 6% of its annual humanitarian aid budget to education in emergencies, one of the most underfunded sectors of humanitarian aid. In 2018, this amount will increase to 8%.
4.7 million girls and boys in 52 countries have benefited from EUfunded education in emergencies actions between 2012 and 2017.
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe
The benchmark US wheat price declined in October mostly because of higher supply prospects while maize quotations firmed due to rain-induced harvest delays. International rice prices strengthened in October, mainly reflecting seasonally tight Japonica and fragrant supplies.
In East and West Africa, cereal prices declined in October with the 2017 ongoing or recently-started harvests. However, concerns over crop outputs and civil insecurity kept prices at high levels in some countries, particularly in Ethiopia, Nigeria and South Sudan.
In Central America, heavy rains in October led to unseasonal increases in maize and bean prices. They remained, however, at levels well below those a year earlier as a result of adequate domestic supplies, following the overall good outputs in 2016 and the 2017 first season harvests.
Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Country: Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bolivia (Plurinational State of), Brazil, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Eswatini, Tajikistan, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, United Republic of Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe
International prices of wheat increased in September mostly because of weather-related concerns, while maize quotations fell further on crop harvest pressure. International rice prices remained generally firm, supported by seasonally tight availabilities of fragrant rice and strong demand for higher quality Indica supplies.
In East Africa, prices of cereals remained at levels above those of a year earlier in most countries, particularly in Ethiopia reflecting seasonal tightness amid concerns over the impact of the Fall Armyworm infestation on the main harvest and in South Sudan mainly due to the ongoing conflict.
In Asia, prices of rice in Bangladesh increased again in September and reached record highs, with seasonal patterns exacerbated by the reduced 2017 main season output and concerns over the impact of the July-August floods on the second season crop, to be harvested from November.
Jerlena Griffin-Desta, the new chief of staff at Sonoma State, says her husband’s last name, Desta, means happiness in Amharic, the language of his native Ethiopia. After nearly 30 years as an education leader, mostly with the U-C system, she feels she’s now in a position to make an even greater difference in the lives […]
Introduction. Most people with epilepsy suffer from a dual burden. In one hand, they struggle with the symptoms and disabilities on the other hand from misconceptions and stigma associated with it. But there are no recent studies which assess the community’s perception and attitude. Objective. To assess the perception and attitude of the community towards people with epilepsy and identify associated factors. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in South Ethiopia from a total of 701 participants. Data were collected with face to face interview using a structured questionnaire developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). Data were presented with frequencies, tables, and figures. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression was done to identify significantly important variables. The presence of association was presented by odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Ethical clearance was obtained from Wolaita Sodo University. Results. The most frequently mentioned perceived causes for epilepsy were stress (91%), substance use (61.8%), and bad spirit (49.8%) while loss of consciousness and falling (80.7%) and sleep problems (78%) were considered symptoms of epilepsy. Only 13.1% of the participants think that they may be susceptible for epilepsy. Six hundred sixty (94.2%) participants will not employ a person with epilepsy while only 47 (6.7%) of the participants will allow a family member to marry a person with epilepsy. In multivariable analysis, understanding the illness as a medical problem was associated with perceived susceptibility and perceived benefit of modern treatment was significantly associated with having a current medical problem. Conclusions. The knowledge about the cause, possible susceptibility, better treatment options, and attitude of the participants were similar to other low-income settings. The negative attitude was high and multidimensional. All stakeholders must work to increase awareness about the cause, symptoms, and treatment options for epilepsy and to decrease the negative attitude of the community.
Background. Developing countries are suffering from the previously existing infectious diseases and alarmingly growing burden of noncommunicable diseases like diabetes mellitus. There is increased speculation that diabetes mellitus might attribute to high infectious diseases burden, such as tuberculosis. The global importance of diabetes mellitus as a tuberculosis-risk factor is still not a well-established fact. Thus, we conducted this study to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its associated factors among adult tuberculosis patients attending tuberculosis clinics. Methodology. We conducted a cross-sectional survey, from March 10 to April 15, 2017, among 421 tuberculosis patients receiving tuberculosis treatment in health facilities of Dire Dawa City Administration Council, Eastern Ethiopia. Study participants were selected using systematic random technique, and data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Fasting blood sugar and anthropometric measurements were carried out for all participants. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with diabetes mellitus. Result. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in this study was 13.5%. Age 26–40 (AOR = 6, 95% CI: (1.28, 27.5)), age ≥41(AOR = 9, 95% CI: (1.9, 44.4)), and family history of diabetes (AOR = 3.14, 95% CI: (1.23, 8.02)) were found to have a significant association with diabetes mellitus. Conclusion. This study found that the magnitude of diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients was higher than the national estimated prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Ethiopia. This study suggests the need for screening each tuberculosis patient for diabetes.
Background. Violence at the workplace has become an alarming phenomenon worldwide. The real size of the problem is largely unknown and recent information shows that the current knowledge is only the tip of the iceberg. The enormous cost of violence at the workplace for person and community at large is becoming more apparent. It could be physical, sexual, and verbal in nature and could be actual or threatened. Objectives. To access prevalence and associated factors of violence against hospital staff at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was employed in 2017. The data were collected using Workplace Violence in the Health Sector Country Case Study Questionnaire from 496 participants. Participants had been selected using simple random sampling technique and data were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire. The collected data were entered into Epi-data version 3.1, and SPSS version 21 was used for Analysis. Binary logistic regression was fitted to identify factors associated with the outcome variable. Result. From 496 staff intended to have participated in this study, complete data were obtained from 435, making a response rate of 87.7%. This research showed high prevalence of violence and we have got that staff had been exposed to physical violence 36.8%, verbal violence 62.1%, and sexual violence 21.8 % over the past year, respectively. Age, sex, and contact with the patient were statistically significant variables ().Conclusion and Recommendation. According to this study, majority of AMSH staff were violated by the patient they care.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency relocated 54 vulnerable refugees from the Emergency Transit Mechanism (ETM) and urban areas in Niger to Italy. The group, who landed in Rome at around 17:00 local time, is made up of refugees from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan, including 23 children, 13 of whom have been separated from their parents and wider family. Most had previously been held in detention in Libya for prolonged periods, where they faced terrible conditions, appalling human rights ab...
“This not biblical; it’s not Christian,” Cardinal Berhaneyesus Souraphiel said of lack of openness to refugees in Europe. Since 1999, the prelate has led the Eastern-rite Ethiopian Catholic Church (CNEWA profile).
The US Department of Treasury said in a statement on Wednesday that ministers from Egypt, Ethiopia, and Sudan reached "a comprehensive, cooperative, adaptive, sustainable, and mutually beneficial agreement on the filling and operation" of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD).
Since 2008, World Learning has provided this opportunity to over 2,200 Global UGRAD students. Participants leave the U.S. with the tools to become leaders in their professions and communities. Global UGRAD alumni go on to receive Fulbright grants, obtain prestigious international internships, and work in business and government in their home countries and regions.
Countries: Albania, Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Cambodia, China, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kosovo, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Macedonia, Malaysia, Mauritania, Mauritius, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Nicaragua, Niger, Oman, Panama, Paraguay, Philippines, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Bank and Gaza, Zimbabwe
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WISE has selected 25 outstanding learners from 19 countries as the 2019-2020 cohort of the WISE Learners’ Voice program.
Selected from a diverse pool of applicants, who demonstrated their commitment to the field of education through their academic, professional and/or personal work, the cohort will convene for an in-person residential session in Doha from November 17-19, 2019, to participate in an action-based leadership and educational development module. In addition to completing the residential training, fellows will participate in the WISE Summit 2019 to share their views and creative energies in addressing pressing global education issues and challenges.
Selected Canadian fellow, Moiz Lakhani, a current student at McMaster University in Canada, said: “I’m ecstatic to be part of the WISE Learners’ Voice program as it will provide me with a platform to engage with policy makers and educators in the field of education. “I will also have the opportunity to voice my ideas and perspectives on the field of education at an international level. I hope to work closely with the WISE community to rethink and design the future of education, and to one day take on a leading role in this field.”
Participants will engage in a series of collaborative and interactive modules on topics ranging from communication skills to social innovation, delivered by WISE and partner organizations, to increase the impact of their work and collaborate on pressing challenges. Jasmin Higo, another selected fellow, who has been involved in educational and mentorship projects in Germany, Malaysia, the United States, and Ethiopia, said: “By offering the WISE Learners' Voice program, young leaders from all over the world are able to find solutions to the toughest educational challenges facing communities around the world. I hope to benefit from the knowledge and experience of this program and adapt them to my own community.”
Through the program, WISE aims to support and elevate the work of promising young leaders in education by developing young talent within their communities. The Learners’ Voice program aims to bring the perspectives of young people to the challenge of rethinking education and equips them to take on leading roles in their fields and in the world of education. The program is based on the idea that when learners are co-creators of their learning environments, they become active participants invested as stakeholders in the progress of their communities. The program focuses on building knowledge of education, social entrepreneurship, leadership, and communication skills.
Cardiovascular risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa: a review
Manuel Monti1, Maria Pia Ruggieri2, Giovanni Maria Vincentelli3, Fernando Capuano4, Francesco Rocco Pugliese5
1 Emergency Department - AUSL UMBRIA1 Assisi (Perugia) Via V. Muller 1, Assisi (Perugia), Italy 2 Emergency Department - San Giovanni Hospital Rome 3 Emergency Department - Fatebenefratelli Hospital - Isola Tiberina Via Fatebenefratelli 1 Roma 4 Antel National President Rome 5 Head of Emergency Department - Pertini Hospital Rome
Background: Ischemic heart disease is increasing dramatically in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), owing toincreasing prevalence of risk factors, and to some characteristics of the African people that make the African population subject to the effects of major cardiovascular risk factors. The pace and direction of economic development, rates of urbanization, the changes in life expectancy, associated with different pathophysiological factors are causing an increased rate of atherosclerotic disease in these countries.
Results: In the next twenty years, the prevalence of ischemic heart disease in SSA will increase, due to increasedrisk factors,especially hypertension, diabetes, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, tobacco use and the dyslipidemia, mainly due to an increase in urbanization. Moreover, thanks to new knowledge, it has been pointed out the difference of individual risk factors in the African population and other populations due to genetic differences. It is estimated that age-standardized approach for ischemic heart disease mortality rates will rise by 27% in African men and 25% in women by 2015 and by 70 and 74%, respectively by 2030.
Conclusion: More research is neededin Africa to provide evidence for cardiovascular prevention and treatment to mitigate the oncoming epidemic. Healthinterventions are needed for prevent or reduce the morbidity / mortality need to be addressed in both children and adults, including modifiedscore of the risk stratification, starting early therapy and aggressive, if necessary.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a disabling growing epidemic that causes premature death and decreased quality of life. Globally, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which include coronary heart disease (CHD), strokes, rheumatic heart disease (RHD), cardiomyopathy, and other heart diseases, represent the leading cause of death (1).Recent population studies demonstrate an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) (2). Despite evidence to suggest that CVD-related mortality rates are increasing in the region, it is only now being recognized as an important public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa, with coronary artery disease shown to rise in incidence in sub-Saharan Africa(3-4) . Cardiovascular diseases are the main non-communicable conditions in SSA and now 9.2% of total deaths in the African region are caused by CVD (5) , being the leading cause of death in the population over 45 years of age (6) .Cardiovascular diseases account for 7-10% of all adult medical admissions to hospitals in Africa, with heart failure contributing to 3-7% (7) .When studies on urban and rural populations were analyzed, the prevalence of CVD was found to be higher in the urban than the rural population (8-9).
Behavioural risk factors
The important contributors to this transition are the so-called “globalization” of dietary habits and urbanization. Urbanization is the prime driver for nutrition transition and emergence of obesity, themetabolic syndrome and other NCDs in developing countries, especially SSA. The current average annual growth of the urban population in sub-Saharan Africa is 4.5%. Over the period 1980-2050, the urban population of Africa, as a whole, is expected to increase from 134 million to 1.264.000 million (10). The rural-to-urban migration in many of the developing countries exposes migrants to urbanized diets and lifestyle. Dietary changes associated with urbanization are related to the fact that rural dwellers tend to be more self-reliant in obtaining food and also tend to eat traditional diets that are high in grains, fruit and vegetables, and low in fat. Once they arrive in urban areas, these same people tend to rely more on external forces for sustenance, resulting in a shift from production of their own food to the purchase of processed foods (11).Major dietary changes include a large increase in the consumption of fats, particularly animal fat and added sugar and decrease in cereal and roughageintake (12). This involves major changes of the main cardiovascular risk factors between the two areas(13) (tab.1). There was evidence of a significant increase in edible oil, indicating a major change in diet; dietary changes include a large increase in the consumption of fats, particularly animal fat and added sugar, associated to the decrease in cereal and fiber intake(14) (Fig.1). In fact, recent global figures from the World Health Organization (WHO) indicate that the prevalence of obesity is not just affecting the developed countries, but is also increasing in the developing countries, where over 115 million people suffer from obesity-related problems (15) .
Psychosocial factors increase the number of risk factors. Some studies have shown that the number of countries registering , in recent years, a rise in the number of households owning televisions and computers is directlyproportionate to the reduction in physical activities, contributing arise in obesity in children (16-17). Alcohol and tobacco smoking are risk factors towards heart failure, ischemic stroke, heart disease, and acute myocardial infarction (18). Many studies show how alcohol and tobacco use are related to poverty and low socio-economic positions. Rural areas inhabitants are highly affected by such habits, especially compared to the other risk factors, which are more common in urban areas(19-20) Smoking tendency is increasing among men and women in SSA, mainly in the age group between 30 and 49, with particular reference in women, increasing together with ageing (21). Furthermore, in many developing countries, psychosocial attitude toward obesity is not seen a negative factor (22-23). Mvo et al. and Puoane et al. reported that even if a large percentage of African women were overweight and obese, only a few perceived themselves so (24-25). Gambian populations were reported to be more obesity tolerant (acceptance of obese body size as normal) than African-Americans, and much more tolerant than white Americans (26) .Moreover, the double burden of under and over-nutrition presents a potentially grave situation, which should deserve more attention from both health and economic agencies engaged in development. While they continue to deal with the problems of infectious disease and under-nutrition, they are experiencing a rapid upsurge in disease risk factors, such as obesity and overweight, especially in urban settings. It is not uncommon to find under-nutrition and obesity existing side-by-side within the same country, the same community and the same household. Children in low and middle-income countries are more vulnerable to inadequate pre-natal, infant and young child nutrition. Simultaneously, they are exposed to high-fat, high-sugar, high-salt, energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods, which is usually lower in cost but also lower in nutrient quality. These dietary patterns, in conjunction with lower levels of physical activity, result in sharp increases in childhood obesity, while undernutrition issues remain unsolved(27). Recently, the rise of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors were also seen in rural areas of some countries of the developing world. It has to be pointed out that many so-called rural areas are no longer genuinely rural: people are becoming more urbanized even in areas far from cities. This phenomenon, to some extent, is linked to the so-called "Remittance economy”. Migrant workers remittance led to a relative wealth, even in rural areas influencing some lifestyles (28).Such epidemiological transition is due, in part, to an improved longevity starting from the 1950s, so that more people are exposed to these risk factors, for long enough periods, to cause CAD. Globally considering risk factors, it has to be highlighted how the risk-factor burden experienced by blacks differs from that of whites. A recent study conducted in Ghana shows low median levels of cardiovascular risk factors and the prevalences of obesity, hypertension, dysglycaemia or diabetes, and dyslipidaemia were low too. The preponderance of moderately elevated levels of CRP was also low.However, the evidence has shown that younger patients (<55 years) were prone to a higher risk of atherosclerotic disease, which decreased ageing (29). Such difference, could be partially explained by the difficult collection of data about the actual incidence of risk factors among African population, which may lie in the complexity of conducting proper surveys in many countries, in order to perform an accurate risk stratification. In addition, women do not smoke or drink publicly, but it can assume that the women exhibit these behaviours privately in smaller proportions (30). Moreover there are some pathophysiological peculiarities in the African population, boosting an increased susceptibility to traditional cardiovascular risk factors.
The prevalence of hypertension among urban dwellers in SSA appears to be particularly high, ranging from 8–25 per cent. At the dawn of the twentieth century, high blood pressure was virtually nonexistent among indigenous Kenyans and Ugandans. Starting from 1975, high blood pressure became established in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda (31-32). In December 2006, among the adults living in Addis Abeba, the prevalence of hypertension was 50.9% between males and 47.1% among females (33). In Cameroon the prevalence of hypertension among people aged 15-99 years in 2004 was 20.8%, a common issue especially among men (34). In Sub-Saharan Africa, age-adjusted hypertension prevalence and age-specific rates of death from stroke are higher among urban blacks than equivalent white populations (35). Yameogo et al showed resistant hypertension is common in black Africans, most affected subjects are people over 60 years old, with limited economic income and living in rural areas (36). Numerous studies have found that such population has an excess prevalence of salt sensitivity, hypervolemia, and low plasma renin activity (37-38).
In 2010, an estimated 12.1 million people with diabetes mellitus (4.2% of the global estimate of 285 million) were living in sub-Saharan Africa (39). The following year, diabetes prevalence rose to 14.7 million (4.02% of the global 366 million). By year 2030, a 90% projected increase in diabetes prevalence throughout SSA, skyrocketing the number of Africans with diabetes to 28 million. (39) The incidence of diabetes mellitus in IHD remains uncertain because many studies show that, among African population, the main complication of diabetes is the micro-angiopathies compared to Western countries, where the macrovascular complication is the most important (40-41). One common pathogenic mechanism for microvascular disease, is rooted in the chemical by-products of reactions between sugars and proteins occurring over the course of days to weeks, producing irreversible protein cross-linked derivatives AGE (42). The increase in AGE produces growth inhibition and apoptosis of retinal pericytes, also inducing an overproduction of endothelial growth factors and neovascularization, and chronic inflammation too (43-44). Such actions lead to an increased microthrombosis, capillary blockage, retinal ischemia and the activation of endothelial cells, responsible of important shortcomings involving mesangial cells and stimulating glomerular fibrosis (45-46). It has been suggested that, among black population, microvascular damage is due to a different genetic predisposition that stimulates the accumulation of AGEs with all the after-effects (45-46). The strong association between diabetes mellitus and hypertension among the African population, compared to the white population, worsens dramatically microvascular damage (47-48).
The phenotype of obesity, found among several ethnic groups in developing countries, appears to be different than among the Caucasian population. Several studies reported a correlation between visceral fat (VF) and insulin-resistance, rise of triglycerides, blood pressure and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, VF is correlated to all the conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors and with sedentary life-styles. VF might exhibit a proinflammatory adipokine profile, playing a pivotal role in coronary atherogenesis. The expansion of adipocytes with triglyceride is thought to be trigger the increased expression and production of inflammatory cytokines - such as TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-1β, −6, and −8, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and decreased expression and production of leptin and vasoprotective adiponectin. Furthermore, VF might exhibit a proinflammatory adipokine profile (49-50) (Fig.2). During the International Day for evaluation of abdominal obesity, a study, related to the waist circumference data, involving 63 countries, showed highest prevalence of visceral fat in SSA and South Asians, compared with North Europeans and other Asian ethnic groups (51). In fact, it was shown that a parity of average value of waist circumference and BMI in SSA, especially Nigeria and Cameroon, visceral adiposity is significantly higher than other populations (52). High percentage of body fat with low BMI value could be partly explained by body build (trunk to leg length ratio and slender body frame), muscularity, adaptation to chronic calorie deprivation, and ethnicity (53). Some studies also shown how the populations of SSA have an accumulation of visceral fat in other tissues where usually are not deposited (ectopic fat): this feature has the potential to affect insulin sensitivity (54) . A number of studies highlighted how African populations have a lower amount of epicardial fat than the white population: such matter is of considerable interest, as the epicardial fat is now considered an important emerging independent cardio - vascular risk factor (55) (Fig.3).
The markers of body fat distribution, including waist-hip ratio, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat diner a heritable component, support the thesis of unique genetic variants associated with ectopic fat depots(56-57-58). Fox et al identified a single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP) near the TRIB2 locus, which is associated with pericardial fat but not with body mass index or visceral abdominal fat (59). This is the reason why we must carry out studies in order to highlight, among the African population, the genetic variants responsible for the increase in visceral fat but not in epicardial ectopic. This would allow the identification of subgroups among the population, with BMI and amount of visceral fat compiling the standard, who are at greater risk of atherosclerotic disease (60). Other factors, such as genotype, could make the African population very susceptible to visceral fat. Among others genetics, a pivotal role is fulfilled by LOX-1, a type-II membrane protein belonging to the C-type lectin family. The LOX-1 has a crucial part in amplifying local inflammatory responses during atherosclerotic development (61) (Tab.2). The study performed by Predazzi showed a higher frequencies of two polymorphisms associated with the risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), among the South-Saharan rural populations (61) Furthermore, it must be considered the identification of other deleterious alleles lying on CVD associated genes (GJA4, SERPINE1 and MMP3), which have a higher frequencies in African population in respect to Europeans. (62)
Several studies reported associations between the exposure to various infectious agents and the prevalent coronary disease(63-64-65). In 1891, Huchard was the first to suggest the involvement of infectious agents in the process of atherosclerosis. Subsequently, several reports shown a relationship between the development of atherosclerosis and the presence of infectious diseases (66-67). Several types of microbes are now also being implicated as possible causative agents in acquired CVD, and a few bacterial agents have been a research topic for several years. Organisms such as the spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) or the Treponema pallidum (syphilis), and flagellated bacteria such as the streptococci, have well-recognized atherosclerotic potential. Interest in the role of infection in atherosclerosis was renewed with the observation that patients with coronary artery disease were more likely than matched controls to have an elevated antibody titer to Chlamydia pneumonia (68-69). Multiple complex processes are involved in the development of CVD. The increased incidence of infectious diseases has highlighted the expression of proinflammatory immune system to survive up to older ages. Although the increase of the protein Cwas not related to an increase of atherosclerotic disease, other acute-phase reactants, including fibrinogen and serum amyloid A, appear to be associated with vascular risk.This selection of a proinflammatory status is confirmed by the higher levels of the proinflammatory cytokine, including the interleukin-6 (IL6) (70). The macrophage is a critical component in the pathway to atherosclerotic inflammation. During an infectious process causes the activation of macrophages, including the secretion of numerous factors (AGF; TGF; 1,2,4 FGF;VEGF). These substances stimulate the appearance of endothelial cells and are responsible for the creation of a systemic hypercoagulable state (71-72). In addition, mitogenic factors are released through an NF-Kβrelated mechanism, leading to smooth muscle cell proliferation and however there is an increase of monocytes through transendothelial migration at the level of the coronary (73-74). This means that the activated macrophages stimulate bothlocal lipid accumulation and the instability that presages plaque rupture (75-76-77).
Coronary Heart Disease
IHD remains relatively uncommon in SSA despite an increasing prevalence of risk factors but its incidence is rising. A study of the 1954 have evidenced by 3,500 postmortem studies in Ghana in which only three cases of CHD were found (78). In Uganda, the National Heart Institute at Mulago alone, currently receives at least 100 patients every day with 5-8 being new cases (a total of about 36,500 patients per year with 1,825-2,920 being new cases). In 2011,heart cases increased by 20% bringing the number to 12,000 with 256 new cases registered in January alone (79). The WHO estimated that in 2005, IHD caused approximately 261 000 deaths in the African region, and current projections suggest that this number will nearly 600.000 by 2030. It is estimated that age-standardized mortality rates for IHD will rise by 27% in African men and 25% in women by 2015, and by 70 and 74%, respectively by 2030 (80) (Fig.4). The increase in IHD in Sub-Saharan Africa since the 1980s is presumably because of the increasing prevalence among African populations of the classical risk factors for CAD, include hypertension, smoking, diabetes, abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. In addition, as a result of developments in combating communicable diseases and a decrease in childhood mortality, life expectancy in Sub-Saharan Africa has risen since the 1950 and the number of individuals aged over 60 years is predicted to increase from 39 to 80 million by 2025 in SSA. This meaning that more people are exposed to these risk factors for long enough periods to cause CAD (81-82).
This review attempts to assess the prevalence, levels of risk and major risk factors for developing cardiovascular disease in SSA.This article answered specific research questions and hypotheses on issues relating to sedentary lifestyles, nutritional behaviours, knowledge on CVDs risk factors, and especially some of the key knowledge on the genetic differences between the African population and other populations. Among the socio-economic and behavioral risk profile study variables, the review documented a high prevalence of active smoking, high consumption of edible oil and fat, an increase in physical inactivity and current active alcohol usage. The economic and social important consequences of the CVD Epidemics in the SSA will be devastating. Important gene - environment can play a crucial role in the increased risk of the IHD of the African population. The detection and management of hypertension and diabetes are still unsatisfactory in inner city areas and show variations by ethnic origin. A priority should be the development of scores for the population of Africa, also using the emerging risk factors such as Calcium Score and visceral fat and considering genetic differences. Increasing burden of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, T2DM, and CVD in SSA has created an urgent need to strategize mass health policies and intervention programs to tackle nutrition and continuing efforts to manage undernutrition. There are two major approaches to prevention: public health / community-based and clinic-based strategies with a targeted approach to high-risk patients and combinations of these. There are concerns that in comparison with communicable diseases, cardiovascular and relatively chronic diseases have a low priority in the global health agenda and that requires this additional emphasis. Finally, we must consider, in the light of the differences between races, strategies for the control of CHD and stroke cushion adopted in European countries directed mostly to white rural populations may be inappropriate for the African population. In conclusion, evaluations must be performed carefully for correct risk stratification, the timing of initiation of treatment and the goals of the therapeutic treatment to be achieved in the African population. In addition, further evaluations should be done to perform a correct public health / community-based strategies targeted at risk factors, including decrease in taxes and prices of fruits and vegetables, more playgrounds, parks, walking and bicycle tracks, provide information to parents about nutrition (particularlymothers), the change of food policy through country-specific guidelines for healthy nutrition for adults and children.
Tab. 1 The main risk factorsof urban and ruralarea
25.8 ± 6.9
19.3 ± 3.2 *
85.2 ± 9.9
67.8 ± 9.9 *
0.88 ± 0.09
0.81 ± 0.08 *
Triceps skinfold (mm)
17.3 ± 6.8
9.8 ± 5.4 *
(BMI > 25)
p <0,001, ageand gender adjusted
Tab.2 Cellular effects of ligand-LOX-1
Cellular effects of ligand-LOX-1 interaction on atherogenesis
Endothelial cells Alteration of vascular tone
Increased intracellular oxidative stress
Induction of apoptosis
Induction of proliferation and angiogenesis by increasing VEGF expression
Increased expression of adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 , ICAM-1 , Selectins)
Increased expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1
Induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1
Reduction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase
Release of matrix metalloproteinases
Smooth muscle cells Induction of apoptosis
Monocytes Induction of monocyte adhesion and activation
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2013 – Stamford, Texas - In 2013, at around 11:00 PM, a man was driving in his mid-size Toyota with his wife near Stamford, a very rural, forested area about 41 miles north of Abilene. As they drove, they claim they observed an object in the road. The wife initially thought it was tumbleweed. As they got closer, they realized that it was not tumbleweed but an animal of some kind. It began to give chase (on all fours). They described it as an enormous prehistoric looking almost horse-sized hyena. It reached from the back of the front door to the front of the car and was as tall as the car. It had rings around its body which culminated at the top of its head. It also had a ridge or a hump on its back. It ran alongside the car, and even bumped it (putting a dent in its side) before eventually veering off into the woods.
Source: Youtuber 'Paranormal Round Table' from a video titled: EP40 - Hyena Cryptids, Published on 4 Oct 2019
More Than A Dream
Kevin in West Virginia called to tell of a strange experience he had:
“This kinda goes back to some dreams I've had. Most of my dreams I forgot. This goes back to basically the beginning of the Gulf War, the second Gulf War in 2003. And I go to bed early. Okay, I'm laying in bed... Next thing that I remember, I'm standing in the desert. Off in the distance, I see a flash. The light gets bigger every time. So what do I do? I don't use a plane... I jump up in the air and I fly over a city and below me I see devastation, flames... I can feel the heat from all the buildings burning. This goes on for quite some time. And of course, there's nothing that I can do, so I circle back around and come back. So I'm standing in the sand. I wake up and go about my business. I'm like, 'Wow, that was a crazy crazy dream. It felt so real.' Well, later that day, when I was getting ready to go out and run some errands. I get ready, I go to put my shoes on and the shoes have sand. (Church asks if he lived near a beach) No, I'm in West Virginia. So I got to thinking, did I see or did I experience or was I somewhere in an alternate version of this world? I think that's what it was, that's the only thing that makes sense, to find sand in your shoes when you're not near a desert or a beach or anything. (Church asks if he kept the sand) I did for quite some time. I should have had that analyzed for what it was... It was so weird because, like I said, I don't go bare-footing much here in West Virginia and this happened in the late summer. It was so weird to find that, it just re-enforced that what I experienced was more than a dream. It was something real.”
Source: Fade to Black with Jimmy Church – October 29, 2019 & Beyond Creepy
Join me as I welcome humanoid & UFO researcher / author Albert S. Rosales to Arcane Radio. Albert was born in Cuba and migrated to the US in 1966. He witnessed several unusual incidents as a young man while living in Cuba, which continued throughout his life in the US. Albert became interested in unusual phenomena and UFOs at a young age, but soon directed his focus to the crux of the phenomena...the humanoids and otherworldly entities. He began collecting data on encounters from worldwide sources in the late 80's. His current database has over 20,000 entries, which is updated and corrected daily. Albert has published 16 titles, including 'UFOs Over Florida: Humanoid and other Strange Encounters in the Sunshine State.' This should be a very informative and entertaining show! Join us this Friday, November 8th at 9PM ET / 6PM PT on ParanormalKing.com or the direct link at Mixlr - Paranormal King - Meet us in the chat room...just click the banner or go to www.paranormal.olicentral.com. You are invited to join the Phantoms & Monsters chat & discussion portal at Phantoms & Monsters discussion & chat server, which will be active during the show
Hey folks...I would just like to ask you to consider a donation to Phantoms & Monsters. Yes, I do receive some funds through books and advertising...but it is not always enough to cover expenses - which include my Google advertising costs, Arcane Radio fees, research access to private databases, etc. If you are interested in helping out, you can use the PayPal donation buttons on the blog and newsletter or go direct to PayPal.com and use my email firstname.lastname@example.org as the recipient. Thanks for your continued support. Lon
Hey folks...some of the team members at Phantoms & Monsters Fortean Research are in the process of scheduling personal / speaking appearances in south central Pennsylvania and north central Maryland. These events will be attended by at least 2 of our investigative team. It can be promoted events, paranormal group meetings, etc. We will NOT charge any appearance fees, but do request that our books and other items be available for sale at the event. I'm interested in your thoughts on this proposal? If you have an event for us to consider, please contact me at 410-241-5974 or my email email@example.com
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A Catalogue of Some Manuscripts in Ankobarr Madijanecalam Church Museum
Ethiopia is a home of enormous ancient written cultures. It is also a residence of
southern Semitic written accounts. G~'~z scripts are the most dominant heritage
of the country. Usually they are preserved by Ethiopian Orthodox Churches
especially in each church yard commonly known as ['.;>qabet] . Even if they are
more of religious they contain many secular aspects which are useful for
The collection of Ankobarr Mad\)ane 'Aliim Church is the selected site for this
study because it was one of the five churches established by the Shoan Kings in
their capital during the Medieval Period. There are three kinds of scripts such as
codices, scrolls and epigraphic in the collection. From the group of codices sixty
nine vellum manuscripts are taken as the total population of this study and
fifteen of them are as a subject of it. The study employed on focused group
discussion and document analysis as primary data sources. It was for the
purpose of achieving historical references about the selected collections of this
study. It also engaged secondary tools such as cataloguing works of other
scholars in the same locality. After gathering data the work of catalogue has
conducted with the analysis of colophons. Based on this chapter one is an
introduction, chapter two the body and chapter three summaries, conclusion and
Based on the obtained major findings essential suggestions were forwarded to
ameliorate the observed drawback by the researcher.
Comp Arative Study of two Dialects of Bench: Benchnon and shenon
This study is designed to deal with some linguistic features of Benchnon and Shenon dialects in
a comparative way. The objective of the study is to show variations in some phonological,
morphological, lexical items and semantic differences in the two dialects. The methods
implemented in the study are through eliciting forms from the speech of native speakers of the
two dialects, and through using published literatures as a secondary source. Both descriptive
and comparative approaches are used to find out the dialectal variation in the two dialects.
The findings of the study indicate that there are variations in phonological, morphological
lexical items and semantic differences between the two dialects. Chapter one of the study deals
with the people and language. Chapter two of the study deals with the conceptual framework of
study. Chapter three of the study deals with phonological features of the two dialects. Under
phonology variation in the two dialects is attested in the syllabic nasal, tonal distribution,
meaning change and phonological differences in some words. Chapter four of the study deals
with morphological features, and under this, the two dialects show variations in some noun
inflections, pronouns, case, verb inflections, aspect and tense, negation and ordinal numbers.
Chapter five of the study deals with lexical variations and semantic differences. Under lexical
items variation is attested in some word classes, cardinal numbers and days of the week. Under
semantic, variation is attested in some words in Benchnon and Shenon.
The language has some unique natures, such as tone and uncommon sounds when it is
compared with other Omotic languages in Ethiopia. The language is unwritten language until
the resent year and it is now on the process to be written language. This process should
consider the nature of the language, the relation and difference between the two dialects to have
clear grammar and sociolinguistic profile
IN 2006 I had the pleasure of serving on a military mission in the African Union headquarters in Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia. The city council was rightly proud of the fact that all of that fine city’s water supply was potable at all times of the...
The present study was conducted to assess the socio–economic profile of sheep and goat rearers in Tahtay Adyabo District, Tigray, Ethiopia. For this study 138 sample households were selected randomly. Of the total sample respondents, 26.1% of them owned sheep, 35.5% of them owned goats and 38.4% of them owned both sheep and goats. Of the 138 interviewed sheep and goat producing households, 81.2% were male headed and the rest 18.8% were female headed households. The average ages of the sampled respondents were 44 year. The average family size of the total sample respondents was found to be 6 persons. The average years of experience related to sheep and goat production was 10.7 years. The survey result with respect to land holding of the respondents reveals that an average size of land holding per household was 2.3 hectare. Sheep and goats are kept for income generation from sell of live sheep and goat, manure, meat and milk, saving insurance and for the sale of sheep and goat product purposes in the study area. Of the total sampled households 77(55.8%) of the respondents housed their sheep and goat in both open ended during dry season and hdmo (constructed shelter from stone or wood walls with soil roof during rainy season) at night, 34(24.6%) respondents used only constructed shelter made from stone with wood walls with soil roof, 22(16%) used shelter made of mud or wood walls with leaf roof and 5(3.6%) used fenced area without roof. Therefore provision of input technologies and modern practices, increasing the dimension of access to formal financial systems, provision of timely and adequate veterinary services and provision of timely and accurate market information are important for benefits of producers and for production and productivities of sheep and goats.
Pulitzer Center Global Health Reporting Fellowship Info Session
Since 2011, twenty-eight Boston University students have participated in fully funded international reporting trips as part of the Program on Global Health Storytelling. PGHS is a collaboration among COM, SPH, the Center for Global Health and Development, the Pulitzer Center and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
COM and SPH students have traveled to Kenya, Cuba, Mali, Zanzibar, Malawi, Myanmar, Haiti,
Turkey, Ethiopia, Venezuela, El Salvador, Nepal, Bangladesh, India, Guyana, Uganda, Puerto Rico and the UK, reporting a wide range of public health and development issues including child brides, human trafficking, cholera, female genital cutting, migration, refugees, cash transfers, climate change, and the aftermath of earthquakes in Haiti.
If you would like to be the next Pulitzer Fellow, come and learn more about this opportunity and what you need to do to qualify and apply.
Pulitzer–funded reporter Maria Zamudio from WBEZ public radio in Chicago will speak about the Pulitzer Center and covering the Immigration beat.
Ohio coffee lovers: welcome to November. Your fingers and toes might be freezing, but your caffeine craving isn’t going anywhere. So bundle up, head over to your nearest Crimson Cup Coffee House and warm up with two of the country’s hottest coffees! Ethiopian Kossa Kebena and Wayfarer Blend craft coffees helped us bring home […] Read More
Ivory Coast coach Ibrahim Kamara has continued to keep a number of his stalwart players on the sidelines after selecting his squad for the 2021 Africa Cup of Nations qualifiers against Niger and Ethiopia this month.
Argentina chamando! Encontramos passagens para Buenos Aires a partir de R$ 799 saindo de São Paulo e mais cidades, com datas para viajar até outubro do próximo ano! Os voos são com a Ethiopian, que faz a rota com o moderno Boeing 787 Dreamliner, com refeições quentes e sistema de entretenimento completo. Confira como é…