Next Page: 10000

          

Yaşayan Tüm İnsanların Kökeni Botswana’ya Dayanıyor

 Cache   
Yaşayan Tüm İnsanların Kökeni Botswana’ya Dayanıyor
          

Alice Mogwe, de Botswana, es la nueva presidenta de la FIDH: “La universalidad de los derechos humanos se ve amenazada: tenemos que contraatacar”

 Cache   

(Taipéi) – En su 40° Congreso en Taiwán, las organizaciones miembros de la FIDH - Federación Internacional de los Derechos Humanos, eligieron hoy a su nueva presidenta, la activista de Botswana, Alice Mogwe, incondicional promotora de los derechos humanos y reconocida líder de la sociedad civil que dirigirá la organización durante los próximos tres años, en el período restante al centenario de la FIDH, que se celebrará en el 2022.
En diciembre de 2018, fue la primera líder de la sociedad civil en (...)

- Taiwán /
          

iLUCKI Casino Exclusive Free Spins

 Cache   

iLUCKI Casino - Exclusive Free Spins

New players only - NO US!

20 Free Spins on 'Fire Lightning' by Bgaming

How to claim the bonus: New players need to sign up from our LINK and the free spins will be added automatically. Make sure to clear cache and cookies before registering.

WR: 45x

Max Cashout: 50 EUR

Restricted games: Scarab Treasure, An escape from Alcatraz, Anotherland, Highway Stars, Jewels, Love Magic, Lucky Drink, Lucky Drink in Egypt, Marswood Party, Maya Mystery, Neptune's Kingdom, Persian Nights, Piggy Bank, Princess Of Swamp, Sevens, Super Sevens, The Elusive Gonzales, The Ghost Walks, Africa Gold, The Spanish Armada, WhoSpunIt Plus, Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde, Split Way Royal, Super 7 Blackjack, Tens or Better, Three Card Rummy, Triple Edge Poker, Vip European Roulette, Zoom Roulette, Ninja, London Hunter, Ocean's Call, Wicked Witch, Super Fast Hot Hot Respin, Tree of Fortune, Mega Boy, Devil's Delight, Robin Hood: Shifting Riches, The Wish Master, Secrets of Atlantis, Secrets of Atlantis Touch, Single Deck Blackjack Professional Series, TXS Hold'em Professional Series, The French Roulette, Reel Steal, The Reel Steal Touch, Dead or Alive, Lucky Angler Touch, Lucky Angler, Medusa 2 H5 HQ, Medusa, 300 Shields, Medusa II, Jackpot Jester 200000, Tower Quest, Eye of the Kraken, Pearls of India, Rage to Riches, Golden Legend, Happy Halloween, Holiday Season, Hugo 2, MULTIFRUIT 81, Moon Princess, Pimped, Reactoonz, Riches of RA, Royal Masquerade, Book of Dead, Dragon Ship, Sea Hunter, Queen of Gold, Beautiful Bones, Castle Builder, Cool Buck, Gems Odyssey, Gems Odyssey 92, High Society, Immortal Romance, Hot Ink, Wheel of Wealth Special Edition, Wheel of Wealth, Untamed Wolf Pack, Untamed Giant Panda, Untamed Crowned Eagle, Untamed Bengal Tiger, Tomb Raider - Secret of the Sword, Tomb Raider, Scrooge, Peek a Boo - 5 Reel, Thunderstruck, Thunderstruck II, Terminator 2, Avalon, Avalon II - Quest for The Grail, Bikini Party, Vampire: The Masquerade - Las Vegas, Reel Gems, Dragon Dance, Wild Orient, Texas Hold`em, Trey Poker, Wild Texas, Divine Forest, Vikings Go Berzerk, Ozwin's Jackpots, Vikings go to Hell, Spina Colada, Double Dragons, Holmes, Alchymedes, Tut's Twister, Wolf Hunters, Nitro Circus, Retro Reels, Retro Reels Extreme Heat, Retro Reels Diamond Glitz, Max Quest: Wrath of Ra, Jokerizer, Art of the Heist, Pumkin Patch.

Once credited when does the bonus expire: In 3 days

Promo offer expires: 31st December 2019

Allowed max bet per spin: 5 EUR

Need to register credit card to claim no deposit: Yes

Min deposit needed in order to cashout winnings: 10 EUR

Is the bonus cashable? Yes

Bonus can be claimed in conjunction with sister casinos no deposit? - Yes

Is the ND available on download &/or instant play version? Yes, on both

Is No deposit available on mobile? Yes

Restricted countries from the bonus: Afghanistan, Algeria, American Samoa, Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Chad, Cuba, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Guam, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Holy See (Vatican City State), Iran, Islamic Republic of, Korea, Democratic People's Republic of, Lithuania, Madagascar, Malawi, Nepal, Netherlands, Macao, Palestine, State of, Puerto Rico, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Sudan, Spain, United States, Sudan, United States Minor Outlying Islands, Virgin Islands, U.S., Vanuatu, Sweden.

Restricted countries at the casino: France, Israel, Netherlands, Spain, United Kingdom, United States.

New Customer Offer. T&C’s Apply. 18+.


          

World: More than 52 million people across Africa going hungry as weather extremes hit the continent [EN/AR]

 Cache   
Source: Oxfam
Country: World, Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Millions displaced; women, girls hit hardest; crises compounded by conflicts, poverty and inequality; $700m average climate-related losses; urgent action needed now

More than 52 million people in 18 countries across southern, eastern and central Africa are facing up to crisis levels of hunger as a result of weather extremes, compounded by poverty and conflict.

Some areas are facing a second extreme drought in four years and worse than that sparked by El Nino in 1981.

In the South, parts of Zimbabwe have had their lowest rainfall since 1981 which has helped push more than 5.5m people into extreme food insecurity. Zambia’s rich maize-growing area has been decimated and exports are now banned; 2.3m people there are food insecure. The situation is worsening including in Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar, Namibia and Zimbabwe. There are reports of farmer suicides in South Africa.

Drought has also hit the East and Horn of Africa particularly Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. At the same time, record-breaking temperatures in the Indian Ocean have dumped ultra-heavy rainfalls into Kenya and South Sudan, causing flash-flooding especially along major river arteries. South Sudan has declared a state of emergency with more than 900,000 people hit by floods.

In Africa extreme weather events have hit many countries already suffering from ongoing conflict. Across the continent, 7.6 million people were displaced by conflict in the first six months of 2019, and another 2.6 million by extreme weather. In the Horn, Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan and Sudan have simultaneously faced over 750 000 people displaced by conflict and 350 000 displaced by extreme weather.

Scientists have demonstrated how climate change is increasing the frequency or severity of many extreme weather events. Over the last decade, these 18 African countries have collectively suffered average annual losses of $700m from climate-related disasters– and this is without counting the cost of these latest crises, says Oxfam. However, there has been minimal progress globally in raising funds specifically to address loss and damage from climate change. Africa contributes less than 5% of total global emissions but is suffering some of the most severe impacts of the climate crisis.

Officials will meet at the African Ministerial Conference on the Environment (AMCEN) in Durban Nov 11-15 to discuss the future of Africa’s “environmental sustainability and prosperity”. Oxfam urges ministers to demand that industrial nations honor their promises to avoid escalating human and financial costs and to pay for damages.

“We are witnessing millions of already poor people facing extreme food insecurity and exhausting their reserves because of compounding climate shocks that hit already vulnerable communities hardest. They need help urgently. The scale of the drought devastation across southern Africa is staggering,” said Oxfam’s Southern Africa Regional Director Nellie Nyang'wa.

“In western Kenya, the crop harvest is 25% down and in parts of Somalia up to 60%. Livestock in many rural areas are emaciated and milk production is down. Cereal prices in some areas have rocketed up to five-year highs, pricing out poorer people. Nearly 7m people in the region are living just below the catastrophic hunger line,” said Oxfam’s Horn, East and Central Africa regional director Lydia Zigomo. “It is a vicious cycle where poor and marginalized communities, mostly women and girls, are more exposed to the climate crisis and less able to cope and recover from its harm.”.

Mithika Mwenda, chief executive of Oxfam’s partner PACJA, said “communities at the frontline of this climate crisis are overstretched and may be facing potential annihilation. But local people are doing everything that can to overcome the challenge. There are unprecedented levels of organization happening where governments have let local people down.”

“We’re seeing people trying to cope with shifting seasons and erratic rainfall by finding new ways to make a living off-farm. Women are coming together to pool their resources through small internal lending communities, buying food together, growing sweet potatoes instead of maize – all without outside support. Local people have the solutions but what they lack is resources, especially funding.

“Our leaders should look to support these community solutions to build up people’s resilience to climate change. For 35 years AMCEN has been a very important platform with impactful policies that have helped to create awareness of environmental sustainability. It needs to move away now from policy making to policy implementation.”

Oxfam is currently reaching more than 7 million people in ten of the hardest hit countries with food and water support, and long-term development projects to help people cope better with climate-related shocks. Oxfam plans to reach 10% of those most in need in these ten countries and is trying to raise $65m to do so.

Oxfam is calling on African ministers at the AMCEN meeting to:
• Insist rich industrialised countries decrease their CO2 emissions in line with the Paris Agreement's goal of limiting global heating to below 1.5C, and honour their commitment to mobilise $100bn a year by 2020 to fund climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts in developing countries;
• Demand governments agree to develop a new funding mechanism for “loss and damage” from climate change at the upcoming UN climate conference (COP25);
• Invest more into universal, high-quality and gender-responsive public services and strengthen tax systems in African countries to close the gap between rich and poor;
• Improve their disaster warning and management systems, and commit to re-greening and agricultural policies that target women and men small-scale farmers;
• Invest in “social accountability” projects that ensures climate finance can reach the communities that need it most, and empowering them in their own decision-making
• Engage women and girls in the planning, design and implementation of early warning systems and climate mitigation and adaptation programs
• Protect people who are forced to move so that they are able to do so in safety, dignity and on their own terms.

CONTACTS
• Spokespersons available. To arrange for interviews contact:
• At the AMCEN event in Durban: Asanda Ngoasheng; Oxfam South Africa Media Lead: Asanda.Ngoasheng@oxfam.org.za +27826109374
• Nesrine Aly; Global Media Lead: nesrine.aly@oxfam.org +447503989838; +201222486964

Note to editors
The 18 African countries analysed are Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Oxfam’s estimate of economic damages from climate-related disasters is based on figures from EM-DAT: The Emergency Events Database: www.emdat.be. Oxfam's estimate of displacement from extreme weather events and from conflict if based on figure from IDMC : Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre: http://www.internal-displacement.org/

In 2013, CoP agreed to establish the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage which outlines the responsibility of rich developed nations to help communities overcome the loss and damage from climate disasters. Since then, zero progress has been made in ensuring financial support for loss and damage to these communities.

Oxfam is responding to the humanitarian needs in Ethiopia, DRC, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, South Sudan, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. For more details please check Oxfam.org


          

World: Knowledge for Children in Africa: 2019 Publications Catalogue

 Cache   
Source: UN Children's Fund
Country: Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, South Africa, South Sudan, Sudan, Togo, Tunisia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, World, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Foreword

Every year, UNICEF and partners generate a wealth of evidence on the situation of children in Africa. Knowledge and evidence are essential to informing the development, implementation, and monitoring of relevant policies and programmes for the realization of children’s rights. To this end, UNICEF Regional Directors in Africa are pleased to present the 2019 edition of the Knowledge for Children in Africa Publications Catalogue.

The 2019 edition of the catalogue features 107 reports and studies on the situation of children, young people, and women in Africa. These publications represent the collective knowledge generated by UNICEF Country and Regional Offices during the year, and capture the work of UNICEF and partners to support the rights and well-being of children across the continent.
The publications cover a wide range of topics. Publications are listed under the following categories:

  • Child Poverty
  • Child Protection
  • Child-Sensitive Social Protection
  • Education and Early Childhood Development
  • Financing for Development: Public Finance for Children
  • HIV and AIDS
  • Humanitarian Action, Resilience and Peacebuilding
  • Maternal, Newborn and Child Health
  • Nutrition
  • Situation Analysis and Socioeconomic Development
  • Water, Sanitation and Hygiene

Many of the publications are, or will be, available online. The entry for each study or report includes a short description, as well as information on the authors and contributors, planned publication date, and contact details for obtaining additional information.
Evidence plays a critical role in shaping successful initiatives in support of children and women.
We sincerely hope that you will find the publications listed in this catalogue to be a helpful resource for evidence-based decision making and programming.

Ted Chaiban Regional Director UNICEF Middle East and North Africa

Mohamed Malick Fall Regional Director UNICEF Eastern and Southern Africa

Marie-Pierre Poirier Regional Director UNICEF West and Central Africa


          

Nov 13, 2019: Global Engagement Forum at University Center

 Cache   

Stop by to hear presentations from USI students who conducted research while studying abroad and enjoy some refreshments. Presenters include:

Mara Monterrosa at 2:35pm (Japan)Sydney Stocksdale at 3:00pm (Costa Rica)Laura Metaj at 3:25pm (Sweden)Cassidy Quinn at 3:50pm (United Kingdom)Rebeka Mercker at 4:15pm (Botswana)Danielle Lubbe at 4:40pm (Spain)

View on site | Email this event


          

Modern humans came from Botswana

 Cache   
November 01, 2019. A new study claims that the origin of modern humans is in Botswana.
          

Botswana is humanity’s ancestral home

 Cache   

• Scientists claim to have traced the ancestral home region of all living humans to a vast wetland that sprawled

The post Botswana is humanity’s ancestral home appeared first on Aspirant World.


          

Porn. Panic. Ban.

 Cache   

Authored by: 

Organization: 

Point of View
AttachmentSize
PDF icon Thematic Datta953.02 KB

#PornBan. It’s like a rash, this impulse to ban porn all over the world – despite protests that are going viral. The Twitter hashtag #pornban sprung up in July 2015 as the Indian government blocked 857 porn sites, 1 and then backtracked a bit, 2 asking internet service providers (ISPs) to unblock those that don’t contain child pornography. Which makes service providers the arbiters of our constitutionally guaranteed right to freedom of expression, deciding what we may or may not see. Seriously?

The United Kingdom recently banned a number of sex acts online, 3 including female ejaculation, even while there were almost 250,000 hits on porn sites from IP addresses in the buildings housing parliament. 4 The UK government is now asking porn sites to collect proof 5 that their visitors are adults. Will this data be stored privately and not used for other purposes? A valid question in an age of mass surveillance, hacks on “cheating” sites 6 and hacker releases of private information, including sexual preferences. 7

Iceland 8 has been threatening to ban “violent” online porn since 2013. Indonesia 9 and Turkey 10 have blocked lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer (LGBTIQ) content in the name of banning porn. The Philippines 11 has outlawed cybersex and cam girls, while a religious lobby in Australia 12 is pushing for anti-piracy laws to be extended to porn. Porn possession is illegal in Botswana, 13 Egypt 14 and Uganda. 15 And even as the Israel-Palestine conflict escalated in 2012, Hamas managed to ban “full” internet porn in the Gaza Strip. 16 Whatever that means.

Porn. Panic. Ban. That’s pretty much the policy response in many parts of the world.

But what is it about porn that terrifies so many governments, derails feminist sensibilities, offends the religious right, and attracts so many users? How can we change the way we “see” porn?

***
Lesbian. Threesome. Squirt. Change the words and you change the lens. From the user’s perspective, porn leads to pleasure, not panic. That’s what porn has always been about, from ancient times, when it found its first mention in the word porneia. 17 This Greek word was varyingly defined as fornication, whoredom, promiscuity and adultery, all of which have two things in common: sex and pleasure. For most users, that’s what porn is really about: sexual pleasure. (Dirty, dirty.) Arousal. (Dirty, dirty.) Orgasm. (Dirty, dirty.) Problem is that in the parental gaze called policy, sex is kinda dirty. (Dirty, dirty.)

Problem is that in this global policy gaze, the sexual pleasure-seeker aka Porn User is always a man. Even though globally a quarter of porn viewers are women. 18 Make that 35% in Brazil and the Philippines, 24% in France, 23% in India and Argentina, and come on, Japanese women, you 17% laggards. 19 A 2015 survey of Pornhub and Redtube, 20 which gets 40 million viewers each month, shows that women like watching women. (And Kim Kardashian, James Deen, pussy-licking and rough sex.) “What immediately jumps out is that ladies prefer to take their time, with their average visits to the site lasting a lavish 10 minutes and 10 seconds, compared to men who go for just 9:22,” notes the cocky analysis. “Treat yourselves, ladies!”

So one gender gap is slowly closing as porn moves indoors from the publicness of peepshows and DVD parlours to the relative privacy of one’s own home. (We should be celebrating, not lamenting this “normalisation” of porn, no?) And don’t forget how notions of privacy shape behaviour here. No Peeping Toms. No looking over one’s shoulder. No idea of what we get off on so long as porn sites don’t start matching individual viewers to their viewing habits. Which means that even though “lesbian”, “threesome” and “squirt” are the top three terms that women searched for on Pornhub and RedTube in 2015, the data is anonymised and secure. (Hopefully.) No one’s going to land up at their doorsteps to blackmail them. (Hopefully.) They’re not going to be branded with the scarlet letter P, the digital equivalent of Nathaniel Hawthorne’s analog adulteress, 21 forced to wear the letter A in the 17th century.

Yes. Porn is becoming a bit of a Scarlet Letter – a private act portrayed as a public menace. Privacy is the right to be let alone, wrote Justices Warren and Brandeis of the United States (US) Supreme Court in their iconic 1890 essay. 22 That too was in a context when new media technologies – “instantaneous photographs”, “newspaper enterprises”, “mechanical devices” – were producing panic. Technological change has, of course, always given rise to panic: even the sewing machine was once thought to create deviant desires in women, as they rhythmically moved their legs up and down to its gentle whirr. And women, of course, have always been subjected to moral panics and moralistic privacy 23 when it comes to sexuality, notes law professor Anita L. Allen. One that is associated with “heightened modesty”, self-concealment, and chastity. (Don’t show yourself. Don’t watch other women. In short, no pornification.) Porn’s genteel cousin, erotica, has also faced similar panics. Remember the ban on D. H. Lawrence’s Lady Chatterley’s Lover 24 in the 1960s?

Problem is, in the policy gaze, women are still stuck in the passenger seat when it comes to sex. It imagines the hubby coming home, all pumped up, and asking the missus to go beyond the missionary position. Just like he saw on his iPad mini. (Dirty, dirty.) You see? Man, driver. Woman, passenger. From the first utterance of porneia, men have been seen as the drivers of sex, women its passengers. Never mind that this is rooted in another P – Patriarchy – which insists that women must have no sexual desire, let alone know pleasure-enhancing postures. (Dirty, dirty). Never mind that many women still can’t refuse men sex, or get them to wear condoms. Never mind every inequality between men and women that pops up everywhere, including in the bedroom. If there was greater equality between the genders, fewer women would feign headaches when they don't want to have sex.

That’s gender inequality. That’s what we need to fix. But it’s so much easier to blame porn for patriarchy, no?

***
Multi-million. Dollar. Industry. This is how anti-porn crusaders often refer to porn. It’s a magic bullet, this phrase, guaranteed to derail logic. Guaranteed to make folks see red. As if we’re not doing all sorts of things like buying biscuits and Maggi noodles and data connections from multi-million dollar enterprises.

Of course we’re all proponents of the small, the stand-alone, the artisanal. But. Can porn be damned just because it’s big business? Let’s stop eating Glucose biscuits first. And must we start loving all independent 25 or homemade porn, right from consenting cam girls to non-consensual hidden cam porn in cyber cafés? Nah. Like in other industries, porn production is “ethical”, when there are no unfair or exploitative contractual or labour practices. When performers are not being pushed to perform sex acts beyond the contract or without condoms. But that’s not enough. Porn is legit, first and foremost, if it’s based on consent. And consent cuts all the way down the line: from those who are paid to perform porn to those who freely turn their images into porn for private pleasure. That some of these images end up as non-consensual porn – often called revenge porn – is a problem that policy makers in some countries have finally begun to tackle, notably in the US where revenge porn is a crime in several states. 26

But try asking anti-porn campaigners to use consent as a yardstick. No. In the anti-porn worldview, ALL porn causes harm to ALL women: those who consume it and those who don’t. All porn objectifies and dehumanises women, never mind women who have starred as “personified” subjects! In this camp, there’s only one kind of porn – in which men treat women as instruments to satisfy their sexual desires. In which porn is the villain with a capital P, mutating “healthy” sexual desires and relationships into “unhealthy” ones. 27 It’s never about mutual pleasure or that there are as many kinds of porn as there are sexual desires. Including queer crip porn. 28 It’s rarely about porn performers who don’t see themselves as victims. Or the issues porn performers themselves raise. “My stage name is less about withholding parts of myself or maintaining privacy than it is a symbol of the idea that I am more than just my job or any other isolated slice of my identity,” says US porn performer, Stoya. 29 “Yes, there’s a paradox here in that I willingly engage in work that reduces me to a few sexual facets of myself but expect to be seen as a multifaceted person outside of that work. I participate in an illusion of easy physical access…”

If objectification is the charge that some feminists typically hurl at porn, addiction is its moralist cousin. In the digital porn discourse, access is often vilified as “addiction” with untold consequences. Portrayed as a drug. A petitioner to India's parliament argues that online porn must be banned before we turn into the equivalent of “Motherless or Fatherless America”. 30 This trend is “related to those ‘orphaned’ children, whose father or mother, though alive, are addicted to cyberpornography and don’t take any care of their children or the family,” the petitioner argues. Another #pornban petitioner in India's Supreme Court raises this bombast to untold heights. 31 “Nothing can more efficiently destroy a person, fizzle their mind, evaporate their future, eliminate their potential or destroy society like pornography,” he argues. “It is so terrible that many do not even recognize it until it is too late, and most refuse to admit it. It is worse than Hitler, worse than AIDS, cancer or any other epidemic. It is more catastrophic than nuclear holocaust, and it must be stopped.”

This #pornban petition goes on to hold online pornography accountable for increasing violence against women, an emotive charge (like “multi-million dollar industry”) that unites moralists and many feminists. Does porn cause rape? Or, as feminist Robin Morgan famously argued in the 1970s, is “porn the theory, rape the practice”? 32 No. Even those who campaign against porn warily agree there’s no evidence to back this charge. 33 In the 1990s, one research study looked at four countries where porn was freely available in the previous two decades, including “aggressive porn”. 34 In all four countries, the availability of pictorial porn – including violent porn – had gone from “extreme scarcity to relative abundance” in the study period. It noted that other studies have shown that “rapists' and nonrapists' immediate sexual reactions to presentations of pornography showed generally greater arousal to non-violent scenes.” It concluded that in none of the countries did “rape increase more than nonsexual violent crimes. This finding in itself would seem sufficient to discard the hypothesis that pornography causes rape.” 35

Disregarding such evidence, anti-porn feminists continue to insist that porn is an act of sexual violence, that porn is not “words” and “images”, that porn is not speech to be protected. 36 Not media. This positioning is, of course, part of the problem, since it exceptionalises porn, locating it in a category by itself, unlike other speech or media. But seriously, what is porn – composed of words, sounds and images, albeit of naked bodies – if not media? Innumerable studies indicate that there is no causal relationship between media representations and realities, that spectators hold diverse and different positions to what they view. 37 Do we hold on-screen rape depictions in feature films responsible for causing actual rapes? No. Do we hold on-screen depictions of murder responsible for causing actual murders? No. Then why hold on-screen porn responsible for real-life rape and sexual assault? Why blame the representation for the reality in this one case alone? What’s so unique about porn – another media representation – that it must be singled out thus? Are naked bodies inherently harmful? Or what?

***
In a 2009 TED talk that went viral, Cindy Gallop, a 50-something fan of hardcore porn, described how she sees online porn. 38 “I have sex with younger men…” in their 20s, she says, “and encounter directly the effect of a flood of hardcore porn.” One of these effects is the misbelief that women love men coming on their faces, a porn staple. “There’s an entire generation growing up that believes that what you see in hardcore pornography is the way that you have sex,” says Gallop. “Hardcore porn has become sex education.” But why has hardcore porn become sex education? One, because it’s easily available. Two, because there’s no other sex education. Three, because we’re so puritanical about sex, we won’t talk about it to our kids. Ergo, vacuum. Enter, online porn. As a “mature experienced self-confident older woman,” Gallop is adept at telling her 20-something lovers: “No, thank you very much. I’d rather you did not come on my face.”

As a user, how would Gallop change porn? “Reorient, reeducate, rehabilitate” is her motto. In other words, resocialise minds, reshape headspaces, rewire neutrons away from the dungheap of patriarchy. Towards a more equitable gender-friendly porn. Sounds like sex-positive feminism to me. Her site 39 busts a bunch of porn myths including balloon boobs, while understanding that porn is play, a pleasure-enhancer, like sex toys. A form of sexual expression. In another TED talk that went viral, erotic filmmaker Erika Lust talks about how it’s time for porn to change. 40 Change. Not vanish. How it’s time to fight unethical porn with ethical porn, counter-porn, porn that makes women and transpersons 41 the subjects of their sexual journeys, pleasures and destinations.

That’s right. Change porn, not ban it. Think about it. Seriously. Think how we try to change other media representations – through critique, debate, dialogue and alternative representations. Not through bans, right? If policy makers understood porn as sexual expression, why would they want to ban it?

***
So what should we really think about when we think about porn? Consent. We need to respect the consent of those who enact porn – if it’s given, even to enacting “rape porn”, dare we cavil? And we need to start getting justice for those who never dreamed they’d end up as digital porn – without their consent. Any image that turns into porn without consent can cause actual harm, not the imaginary variety – harm that wrecks lives, jobs, careers, relationships, self-image and identities. Harm that causes real damage, both on and offline. Harm that is harmful enough to be called out and punished as a crime. When actual rapes turn into digital porn, spreading from phone to phone, as is the case in Pakistan and India, that’s harm. And that’s three counts of consent being violated: one, in forcing sex without consent; two, in filming forced sex without consent; three, in circulating this clip without consent. When physical rape turns into digital porn we know one thing for sure: it’s time to start talking consent. It’s time to start talking harm.

If we really want to “do something” about porn, it’s time we stopped talking about its imagined harms. It’s time we started talking about actual harms. It’s time we started talking along the fault lines of consent.

References

1 Government of India, Ministry of Communication & IT, Department of Telecommunications. (2015). DOT Order Blocking 857 Websites on Grounds of Decency and Morality. cis-india.org/internet-governance/resources/dot-morality-block-order-2015-07-31/view

2 Reuters. (2015, 5 August). India withdraws order to block pornography sites. Reuters. in.reuters.com/article/2015/08/05/india-porn-ban-idINKCN0QA0KK20150805

3 Saul, H. (2015, 13 September). UK porn legislation: What is now banned under new government laws. The Independent. www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/home-news/uk-porn-legislation-what-is-now-banned-under-new-government-laws-9898541.html

4 Withnall, A. (2015, 27 July). Porn in Parliament: Palace of Westminster computers made 250,000 attempts to 'access pornography last year. The Independent. www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/parliament-computers-made-250000-attempts-to-access-pornography-at-palace-of-westminster-10418449.html

5 Doctorow, C. (2015, 3 August). David Cameron will publish the financial details and viewing habits of all UK porn watchers. BoingBoing. boingboing.net/2015/08/03/david-cameron-will-publish-the.html

6 Elgot, J, Hern, A, & Weaver, M. (2015, 21 July). Ashley Madison adultery site hack: Will I be found out? The Guardian. www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/21/ashley-madison-adultery-site-hack-will-i-be-found-out-what-you-need-to-know

7 Fox-Brewster, T. (2015, 19 August). Location, Sexual Preference, Weight: Embarrassing Ashley Madison customer date published by hackers. Forbes. www.forbes.com/sites/thomasbrewster/2015/08/19/ashley-madison-breach-is-awful

8 The Economist. (2013, 23 April). Why does liberal Iceland want to ban pornography? The Economist. www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2013/04/economist-explains-why-iceland-ban-pornography

9 Institut Pelangi Perempuan. (2014). Queering Internet Governance in Indonesia. erotics.apc.org/research/queering-internet-governance-indonesia

10 Tremblay, P. (2015, 27 April). 'Unnatural' porn becomes ticket to jail in Turkey. US News & World Report. www.usnews.com/news/articles/2015/04/27/unnatural-porn-becomes-ticket-to-jail-in-turkey

11 BBC News. (2012, 20 September). BBC outlaws cybersex and 'cam girls'. BBC News. www.bbc.com/news/technology-19659801

12 Turner, A. (2015, 24 June). Porn will be next on Australia's website blocking agenda. Sydney Morning Herald. www.smh.com.au/digital-life/computers/gadgets-on-the-go/porn-will-be-next-on-australias-websiteblocking-agenda-20150624-ghw60w.html

13 APA. (2015, 13 March). Botswana: Three arrested for cyber porn material. Star Africa. en.starafrica.com/news/botswana-three-arrested-for-cyber-porn-material.html

14 RT. (2015, 20 May). Egypt's top court bans porn sites, demands enforcement. RT Question More Live. www.rt.com/news/260609-egypt-ban-porn-websites

15 Strategic Initiative for Women in the Horn of Africa. (2015). Anti-pornography Act: Human rights activists and civil society organisations challenge the legality of the act in Constitutional Court, Uganda www.sihanet.org/news/anti-pornography-act-human-rights-activists-and-civil-society-organisations-challenge-legality

16 Daily Mail. (2012, 3 September). Hamas bans internet porn in Gaza Strip as Islamic hardliners crack down on Palestinian freedoms. www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2197876/Hamas-bans-internet-porn-Gaza-Strip-Islamic-hardliners-crackdown-Palestinian-freedoms.html

17 Biblehub. biblehub.com/greek/4202.htm

18 IANS. (2015, 1 August). Boys ain't having all the fun: Indian women watch more porn now. Hindustan Times. www.hindustantimes.com/sexandrelationships/boys-ain-t-having-all-the-fun-indian-women-watch-more-porn-now/article1-1375150.aspx

19 Pornhub Insights. (2015, 25 July). More of what women want. www.pornhub.com/insights/women-gender-demographics-searches

20 Ibid.

21 McCrum, R. (2014, 6 January). The 100 Best Novels: No 16 – The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne. The Guardian. www.theguardian.com/books/2014/jan/06/scarlet-letter-nathaniel-hawthorne-100-best-novels

22 Warren, S. D., & Brandeis, L. D. (1890). The Right to Privacy. Harvard Law Review, 4(5), 193-220. www.jstor.org/stable/1321160

23 Allen, A. L. (2000). Gender and Privacy in Cyberspace. Faculty Scholarship, Paper 789. scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1788&context=faculty_scholarship

24 Robertson, G. (2010, 22 October). The trial of Lady Chatterley's Lover. The Guardian. www.theguardian.com/books/2010/oct/22/dh-lawrence-lady-chatterley-trial

25 Morris, C. (2014, 17 January). The economics of being an independent porn star. CNBC. www.cnbc.com/2014/01/17/the-economics-of-being-an-independent-porn-star.html

26 End Revenge Porn. www.endrevengeporn.org/revenge-porn-laws

27 Massey, A. (2015, 3 April). Porn is not coming for our sex lives. Pacific Standard. www.psmag.com/books-and-culture/its-all-ok-you-can-watch-some-porn-right-after-you-read-this-article

28 Loree Erickson, Porn Star Academic. femmegimp.org

29 Stoya. (2014, 8 March). Can we learn about privacy from porn stars? New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2014/03/09/opinion/sunday/can-we-learn-about-privacy-from-porn-stars.html?hpw&_r=0

30 Prabhudesai, A. (12 June 2013). Petition to ban pornography by amending IT Act filed in Parliament. Trak.in. trak.in/random/ban-pornography-petition-1203

31 Singh, M. (2015, 10 July). Kamlesh Vaswani v. Union of India & Ors. One Law Street. onelawstreet.com/2015/07/pornography-ban-kamlesh-vaswani

32 Morgan, R. (1977). Going Too Far: The Personal Chronicle of a Feminist. New York: Random House.

33 Jensen, R., with Okrina, D. (2004). Pornography and Sexual Violence. National Online Resource Center on Violence Against Women. www.vawnet.org/sexual-violence/print-document.php?doc_id=418&find_type=web_desc_AR

34 Kutchinsky, B. (1991.) Pornography and rape: theory and practice? Evidence from crime data in four countries where pornography is easily available. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 14(1-2), 47-64. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2032762

35 Ibid.

36 MacKinnon, C, & Dworkin, R. (1994, 3 March). Pornography: An Exchange. New York Review of Books. www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/1994/mar/03/pornography-an-exchange

37 Tait, S. (2008). Pornographies of Violence? Internet Spectatorship on Body Horror. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 25(1), 91-111. www.researchgate.net/publication/232838902_Pornographies_of_Violence_Internet_Spectatorship_on_Body_Horror

38 Gallop, C. (2009, 2 December). Make love, not porn. TEDTalk. www.youtube.com/watch?v=FV8n_E_6Tpc

39 Porn world vs Real world. makelovenotporn.com/myths/facial

40 Lust, E. (2014, 1 November). It's time for porn to change. TEDx Vienna. erikalust.com/ted-talk

41 Nadika, N. (2015, 1 April). Supporting ethical queer porn. The Orinam Blog. orinam.net/supporting-ethical-queer-porn

42 BBC News. (2015, 26 February). How a rape was filmed and shared in Pakistan. BBC News. www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-31313551

43 Nelson, D. (2015, 13 April). Indian campaigner inundated by gang rape videos. The Telegraph. www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/india/11533852/Indian-campaigner-inundated-by-gang-rape-videos.html

44 Datta, B. (2015, 29 May). Porn. Panic. Ban. GenderIT. www.genderit.org/feminist-talk/porn-panic-ban

Themes: 


          

Prince Harry's Sweet Welcome Message at Botswana #Charity Was Just Revealed

 Cache   

He’s known as Prince Harry or the Duke of Sussex — or even the affectionate “H” by his wife, Meghan Markle. But to some young people meeting him in Africa recently, Harry was addressed by another ...
          

Science and Technology - Latest SKA developments in astronomy

 Cache   
SAfm — The MeerKat telescope - a precursor to the Square Kilometre Array or SKA, continues to make new discoveries. Scientists say it's just a fraction of what is yet to come. The SKA and the African Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network or AVN, as well as other initiatives, aim to develop astronomy in the nine African SKA partner countries, which are Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia. Guest: Takalani Nemaungani - Director of Multi-wavelength Astronomy at the Department of Science and Technology.
          

The list of Africa nations in ascending order, by population VS new video of Michael Kiwanuka ‘You Ain’t The Problem’

 Cache   
Djibouti Eswatini Equatorial Guinea Mauritius Guinea- Bissau Gabon Gambia Lesotho Botswana Namibia Mauritania Liberia Central African Republic Republic of The Congo Libya Sierra Leone Eritrea Togo (that’s 18 of 46 — it ends with Nigeria) South Sudan Burundi Benin (10,008,749) … Continue reading
          

Various Artists / Brutal Africa - The Heavy Metal Cowboys Of Botswana

 Cache   

Review by Your Imaginary Friend

Metal bands from Botswana. Yes, you read that right. Very rarified genre for a country known for tribes and bushmen. Some of it is sophomoric by our jaded standards, but when you consider how non-conformist these musicians are its downright unbelievable. Read on for info from the label, Svart: “The songs on this compilation were gathered during the making of the documentary film Freedom in the Dark between 2014 and 2017. As of writing this in 2018 there is roughly ten active bands in Botswana and more or less same number of bands that have called it quits. Due to the fact that it has been and still is difficult to record music, especially rock, in Botswana, many bands haven’t been able to record their music at all. This compilation has been culled from what has been possible to produce on record.”

1) (2:58) techie guitar gives way to good pummeling, grind vocs. 2) (2:25) nice gallop to this pummeling 3) (5:13) basic head nodding rock. 4) (3:21) rather cheesy rock ballady, but then you gotta remember where this is from, pretty cool. 5) (2:19) slow with grind vocals. 6) (3:06)* fast slow with grind Cookie Monster vocals, killer 7) (4:06) yikes, this one is tough to stomach, with contrasting vocals and melodic ‘isms, but again, remember where this is from 8)* (4:31) machine gun bass drums, rather dark tone with grind vocs, nice 9) (4:11) same band as previous, cool rockin with grind vocals. 10) (3:10) deep guttural guitar and double kick blasts, 2/4 hardcore grind feel, indecipherable language 11)* (5:10) begins with african tribal hand claps and singing, great stuff a la Roots era Sepultura


          

Chobe-Nationalpark & Okavango Delta: unsere Botswana Safari Highlights

 Cache   
Elefanten Sonnenuntergang

Dieser Beitrag enthält Werbung für meinen Partner Swarovski Optik 3 Wochen Safari quer durch Namibia, Simbabwe und Botswana – unser diesjähriges Reisehighlight liegt nun auch schon wieder einige Monate zurück.

Dieser Artikel Chobe-Nationalpark & Okavango Delta: unsere Botswana Safari Highlights erschien zuerst auf Travelita - Reiseblog.


          

Cultural innovation leads to small populations being successful; small populations just lead to extinction

 Cache   
In a pretty informative piece in Gizmodo, Scientists Say New Research Tracing the Origin of Modern Humans to Botswana Is Deeply Flawed, there is an interesting quote that I would like to follow-up on: That said, Curtis Marean, a professor of archaeology at Arizona State University who wasn’t involved with the new research, is not […]
          

La sécheresse menace des milliers d'animaux dans le sud de l'Afrique

 Cache   
La sécheresse au Botswana et dans les pays avoisinants menace actuellement de manière critique la faune, le bétail et les humains, qui dépendent désormais des mêmes ressources.
          

ZIFA, Bulawayo City Council Clash Over AFCON Qualifier Change Of Venue

 Cache   
Farai Dziva|ZIFA is surprised by Bulawayo City Council’s statement concerning its decision on the change of venue for the upcoming AFCON qualifier between Zimbabwe and Botswana, the association’s spokesperson has said. The Warriors and the Zebras were initially scheduled to clash at Babourfields Stadium on November 15 but ZIFA changed the venue to the National […]
          

WHO’S FOOLING WHO?

 Cache   
Eddie Chikamhi Senior Sports Reporter THERE was another twist to the build-up to the Warriors’ opening 2021 AFCON qualifier with the Bulawayo City Council claiming Barbourfields was never booked for the match against Botswana. ZIFA had said the match would be played in the City of Kings but then announced they had shifted it to […]
          

JUST IN: BCC blasts ZIFA over Barbourfields lighting

 Cache   
The Bulawayo City Council has refuted allegations by ZIFA that the upcoming AFCON match between Zimbabwe and Botswana was taken away from Barbourfields because of malfunctioning floodlights.
          

Costs keep piling up for Zifa

 Cache   
Eddie Chikamhi Senior Sports Reporter CAF’S decision to turn down a request by ZIFA for the Warriors’ 2021 AFCON qualifier against Botswana to be played in the afternoon is likely to lump more costs on the cash-strapped association. The match, which was initially scheduled for Barbourfields in Bulawayo, has now been moved to Harare’s National […]
          

*%*+27715451704 (*GOOD NEWS FOR YOU*) HOW TO JOIN ILLUMINATI SECRET SOCIETY 666, FOR MONEY, POWER, W

 Cache   

%+27715451704 (GOOD NEWS FOR YOU) HOW TO JOIN ILLUMINATI SECRET SOCIETY 666, FOR MONEY, POWER, WEALTH AND FAME 100%, USA,sudan,Sebokeng Soshanguve Springbok Stellenbosch Tembisa Thohoyandou Umlazi Upington
Welcome Witbank Katlehong Soweto Pretoria Centurion Mamelodi Vanderbijlpark, Vereeniging, Germiston, Boksburg, Durbun, United Kingdom Welcome Bellville Cape Town
Durban George Ibhayi Kempton Park
Khayelitsha Kimberley Klerksdorp Mitchell's Plain Mthatha Nelspruit Newcastle Pietermaritzburg Pinetown
Polokwane Port Elizabeth Potchefstroom Randburg Roodepoort Rustenburg
Eastern Cape Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga
North West Northern Cape Western Cape Gauteng KwaZulu- Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga
North West Northern Cape Western Cape I want to join Illuminati Uganda, Kampala, how to join Illuminati in Australia, Equatorial Guinea, Tunisia, Join Illuminati in Luxembourg, Macau, Singapore, join Illuminati in Gabon + 27715451704, Join Illuminati in Brunei,Norway , Libya, Join Illuminati in Kuwait, San Marino, Trinidad and Tobago + 27715451704, join Illuminati in Seychelles, Vincent and the Grenadines, Netherlands, Illuminati in Iceland, Durban, Illuminati in Dubai, Illuminati in Mauritius, join Illuminati Lesotho, Illuminati Members in Lesotho, Illuminati in UAE, Dubai, Antigua and Barbuda +27715451704 Join Illuminati in South Sudan, Gabon, Chad, Join Illuminati in Liberia, Guinea, Illuminati in Libya,Andorra , Join Illuminati in Sprain, France, Paris, Join Illuminati in Kosovo, Illuminati in Italy,Germany +27715451704 Illuminati in Oman +27715451704 Illuminati in Malaysia, Illuminati in Botswana, Illuminati in Sandton, Illuminati in Tembisa, Germiston, Join Illuminati in Sweden, Finland, Join Illuminati in Norway, Poland, Illuminati in Centurion, Illuminati in Denmark +27715451704 in Sydney, Join Illuminati in Comoros, Moroni, Join Illuminati in Netherlands, Amsterdam, Join Illuminati in Switzerland, Cape Verde, Join Illuminati in Germany, Berlin, Join Illuminati in Niger, Mali, Join Illuminati in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Join Illuminati in Ukraine , Belarus, Join Illuminati in Syria, Join Illuminati in Kuwait, Baku, Osaka, Tokyo, Illuminati members in Johannesburg, Illuminati churches in Johannesburg, how to join Illuminati for money in south Africa, Illuminati celebrities in south Africa, join Illuminati in Johannesburg, Join Illuminati in Mongolia, Nepal,Illuminati churches in Johannesburg, Illuminati symbolism in south Africa, benefits of joining Illuminati in south Africa, requirements to join the Illuminati, Illuminati in sa music industry, Illuminati in sandton, Illuminati office in Johannesburg + 27715451704, Illuminati in sa music industry, Illuminati temple in Sandton, Illuminati in Tembisa, requirements to join the Illuminati, Illuminati church in Musgrave Durban, Illuminati jobs in Durban, Illuminati WhatsApp number, how to join Illuminati for money in south Africa, Illuminati temple in sandton +27715451704, how to join Illuminati in Soweto, Illuminati in Midland, Illuminati office in Johannesburg + 27715451704, Illuminati clubs, Illuminati churches in Johannesburg, list of secret societies in south Africa + 27715451704, join Illuminati in Midland, African secret society Hugh masekela,Illuminati temple in cape town, Illuminati in Centurion, Illuminati in Vanderbilt park, Illuminati church in cape town, i want to join illuminati in cape town, illuminati in south africa churches, join illuminati society in cape town, illuminati signs in cape town, south African Illuminati rappers, Illuminati in Belleville, Illuminati in Singapore, Illuminati in Saudi Arabia, Illuminati in Qatar, Doha how to join the Illuminati + 27715451704, how to join Illuminati online, how to join the Illuminati for money, how to join the Illuminati and become rich, benefits of joining the Illuminati, I want to join Illuminati what can I do, how to join the Illuminati for fame, what is bad about Illuminati +27715451704, I want to join Illuminati and become rich, I want to join the Illuminati where do i sign up + 27715451704, Illuminati sign up form,how to join the Illuminati for money + 27715451704, I want to join Illuminati right now + 27715451704, I want to join Illuminati and be rich forever, I want to join Illuminati what can I do, Illuminati sign up form, I want to join Illuminati and become rich, illuminating to join, how much does it cost to join Illuminati, how to join the Illuminati for money, what happens when you join the Illuminati, I want to join Illuminati right now + 27715451704, I want to join Illuminati what can i do, join illuminati real, how to join the illuminati music industry, how to join illuminati for wealth, how can i join illuminati society, how can i join illuminati society +27715451704, join illuminati secret societies, how to join illuminati for wealth and fame +27715451704, join the Illuminati new world order, Illuminati how to join, who can join the Illuminati,who can join Illuminati, join Illuminati, Illuminati join us, why join the Illuminati, why join Illuminati, how to join the Illuminati, how do you join the Illuminati.+27715451704

BENEFITS GIVEN TO NEW MEMBERS WHO JOIN THE ILLUMINATI. 1. A CASH REWARD OF USD $ 500,000 USD 2. A NEW SLEEK DREAM CAR VALUE AT $ 300,000 USD 3. A DREAM HOUSE BUILT IN THE COUNTRY OF YOUR OWN CHOICE 4. ONE MONTH HOLIDAY (FULLY PAID) TO YOUR DREAM TOURIST DESTINATION. 5. ONE YEAR GOLF MEMBERSHIP PACKAGE AV.P 6. TREATMENT IN ALL AIRPORTS IN THE WORLD 7. A TOTAL LIFESTYLE CHANGE ACCESS TO BOHEMIAN GROVE 8. MONTHLY PAYMENT OF $ 1,000,000 INTO YOUR BANK ACCOUNT EVERY MONTH. 9. ONE MONTH BOOKED APPOINTMENT WITH TOP 5 WORLD LEADERS AND TOP 5 CELEBRITIES IN THE WORLD.

call or watsupp Agent elives on +27715451704

Email: illuminatielives@gmail.com


          

**%% +27715451704 (pink and white 100% hot) Best Hager Werken Embalming Compound powder for sale'''

 Cache   

**%% +27715451704 (pink and white 100% hot) Best Hager Werken Embalming Compound powder for sale''' Botswana,Swaziland, vaal south africa lesotho Namibia johannesburg pretoria Bellville Benoni Bloemfontein Boksburg Cape Town Centurion Durban East London Empangeni George Germiston Ibhayi Katlehong Kempton Park Khayelitsha Kimberley Klerksdorp Mamelodi Mitchells Plain Mthatha Nelspruit Newcastle Pietermaritzburg Pinetown Polokwane Port Elizabeth Potchefstroom Randburg Roodepoort Rustenburg Sebokeng Soshanguve Soweto Springbok Stellenbosch Tembisa Thohoyandou Umlazi Upington Vanderbijlpark Vereeniging Welkom Witbank Eastern Cape Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga North West Northern Cape Western Cape Powder are General items from Germany. Embalming is the art and science of preserving human remains by treating them in its modern form with chemicals to forestall decomposition. The intention is to keep them suitable for public display at a funeral, for religious reasons, or for medical and scientific purposes such as their use as anatomical specimens. Embalming compound in powder form both PINK and WHITE Radio active and (HOT and not HOT) its all available. At preferably adorable prices Starting from one kilogram upwards ,We are looking for a good buyer. Typically embalming compound (fluid) contains a mixture of formaldehyde, methanol, and other solvents. The formaldehyde content generally ranges from 50 to 97 percent and the methanol content may range from 9 to 89 percent.The types of embalming powder depends on the purity and colour. Purity:98% ,100% Hot Compound Origin Germany Brand:Hager Werken PURITY ON COLOUR. pink 98% white 100% Distributor Dentist / Dental Technician Hager & Werken products are sold through the dental trade worldwide. We are leading suppliers of Germany made embalming compound to clients in South Africa and other African states.

Call or watsup +2771­54517­04

Email: johngava88@gmail.com


          

((**CALL DR GAVA +27670236199**) BRING BACK LOST LOVE SPELL CASTER/ EX ''AND مشاكل مالية WITH BRAC

 Cache   

((CALL DR GAVA +27670236199) BRING BACK LOST LOVE SPELL CASTER/ EX ''AND مشاكل مالية WITH BRACK MAGIC SAME DAY GUARANTEE,Qatar,New York, Limpopo, London, Venezuela, Chile , Sweden, Denmark, Rwanda, Oman, , Dubai, Poland New Castle, Namibia, Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Limpo¬po, JORDAN, Turkey, Belgium, Saudi Arabia, Australia, Malaysia, to Johannesbu Zambia, Swaziland, Madagascar, Zimbabwe, Le sotho, Uganda, rg, Lebanon, Berhrain USA, California, Dallas, England, German, Spain, Jamaica, Brazil, Germany, Austria, Vancouver , Denmark, Hong Kong, China ,, Pretoria, Durban, Australia, Wales, France, Cairo GHANA, Namibia, Botswana, China, Norway, Sweden, Capet own, Tanzania, Northern Cape, Canada,
.Ancestral And Astrological Specialist For all problems troubling the African lineage I have got specialty in Healing CAPTURING AND DESTROYING EVIL OR NEGATIVE POWERS. BRING BACK YOUR LOST LOVE OR SOULMATE SAME DAY WINNING AND DESTROYING ALL COURT CASES QUICK EMPLOYMENT (JOB) BUSINESS BOOSTING AND CUSTOMER ATRACTIONS QUICK MARRIAGE OR RELATIONSHIP * DIVORCE STOPPING OR AVOIDING RESOLVE FAMILY FIGHTS OR MISSUNDERSTANDINGSAfricans with the stated problemsPeople who have lost friendsPeople who need luckPeople who need business boostPeople who need korobela People who need success in their lifePeople who need ancestral and astral guidancePeople with trouble in familyPeople leaving unhealthy lives People with bad dreams People who need physical wellnessPeople who need spiritual guidance * NB. * Uses * 100% * traditional and spiritual guidance (AFRICAN)BRINGING AFRICA BACK TO THE ROOTS YOU CAN CONTACT DR ON OR YOU CAN SO CONNECT WITH DR JOHN GAVA ON+27670236199 I AM A TRUSTED AND RELIABLE DEDICATED AFRICAN TRADITIONAL HEALER AND TRUE SPELL CASTER. GIFTED AND QUALIFIED HERBAL * * EXPERT. * Ancestral And Astrological SpecialistFor all problems troubling the African lineage* I’ve got specialty in Healing * * CAPTURING AND DESTROYING EVIL OR * NEGATIVE POWERS * * * BRING BACK YOUR * * LOST LOVE OR * ** SOULMATE SAME DAY * * * WINNING AND * ** DESTROYING ALL COURT CASES * * QUICK EMPLOYMENT * (* JOB ) * BUSINESS BOOSTING AND CUSTOMER * ** ATRACTIONS * * QUICK MARRIAGE OR RELATIONSHIP * * * DIVORCE STOPPING OR AVOIDING ** * * RESOLVE FAMILY FIGHTS OR MISSUNDERSTANDINGS ** * Africans with the stated problemsPeople who have lost friendsPeople who need luckPeople who need business boostPeople who need korobela People who need success in their lifePeople who need ancestral and astral guidance* NB. * Uses * 100% * traditional and spiritual guidance (AFRICAN)BRINGING AFRICA BACK TO THE ROOTS
Call or watsupp dr john gava +27670236199
Email: johngava88@gmail.com


          

الأفضل pure Gold nuggets and Gold Bars for sale''+27715451704 '' in Sweden, Swaziland, Canada, Mad

 Cache   

الأفضل pure Gold nuggets and Gold Bars for sale''+27715451704 '' in Sweden, Swaziland, Canada, Madagascar, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Limpopo, JORDAN, Kuwait, Turkey, Belgium, Saudi Arabia Australia, Qatar, Botswana, Canada, Namibia, South Africa, Mozambique, Zambia, Malaysia, Lebanon, Berhrain USA, California, Dallas, England, German, Spain, Jamaica, Brazil, Germany, Austria, Vancouver, Denmark, Hong Kong, Uganda China ,, Pretoria Durban, Wales, France, Cairo GHANA, Namibia, China, Norway, Cameroon, Capet own, Tanzania, Northern Cape, New York, Limpopo, London, Venezuela, Chile, Sweden, Rwanda, Oman, Dubai, Poland, Johannesburg Pretoria Bellville Benoni Bloemfontein Boksburg Cape Town
Vaal Centurion Durban East London Empangeni George Germiston Ibhayi Katlehong Kempton Park
Khayelitsha Kimberley New Castle Klerksdorp Mamelodi Mitchells Plain Mthatha Nelspruit Newcastle Pietermaritzburg Pinetown
Polokwane Port Elizabeth Potchefstroom Randburg Roodepoort Rustenburg
Sebokeng Soshanguve Soweto Springbok Stellenbosch Tembisa Thohoyandou Umlazi Upington Vanderbijlpark
Vereeniging Welkom Witbank Eastern Cape Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga
North West Northern Cape Western Cape, natural rough diamond as well as polished diamond.

We sell and deliver all over the World. We have in stock four (4) Standard categories of Gold "24 Carat - 95% Gold" 18 Carat - 75% Gold "18 Carat - 58.3% Gold" 12 Carat - 50% Gold Firstly, it's worthwhile to note that gold (Au ) in itself is a commodity that's been highly coveted ever since the World knew of beauty and economics - as far back as biblical times. Uganda is an impoverished country with a long history of civil conflicts. The country itself is highly endowed with natural resources. It's claimed that more than 90% of the Uranium used to build the nuclear warheads that were deployed by the United States on the two cities of Japan came from Kampala (Now Uganda) and yet this country is still quite poor. Buy from us and you see your business grow 1) Gold in Africa.

We are dealing with Buyers but not Dealers.

Kindly contact us if you are interested,
For more info Call or watsupp us on +27715451704
Email: goldsales88@gmail.com


          

*%% +27715451704 (UK,USA,KUWAIT) BEST AUTOMATIC SSD CHEMICAL SOLUTIONS AND ACTIVATION POWDER

 Cache   

*%% +27715451704 (UK,USA,KUWAIT) BEST AUTOMATIC SSD CHEMICAL SOLUTIONS AND ACTIVATION POWDER FOR CLEANING BLACK NOTES MONEY FOR ALL CURRENCIES in Soshanguve, Pietermaritzburg Pinetown
Polokwane Pretoria Randburg Roodepoort Rustenburg
Sebokeng Soweto Springbok Stellenbosch Thohoyandou Umlazi Upington Vanderbijlpark
Vereeniging Welkom Tembisa Kempton Park Port Elizabeth Bellville Boksburg Benoni Bloemfontein Cape Town
Centurion Durban East London George Empangeni Katlehong Germiston Johannesburg Ibhayi
Khayelitsha Kimberley Klerksdorp Mamelodi Mitchells Plain Mthatha Nelspruit Newcastle Witbank Eastern cape,
Free State Gauteng KwaZulu-Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga Namibia, Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia, Swaziland, Madagascar, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Uganda, Limpopo, JORDAN, Kuwait, Turkey, Belgium, Saudi Arabia, Australia, to Johannesburg ,, Germany, Austria, Vancouver, Denmark, Hong Kong, China ,, Pretoria, Durban, Australia, Wales, France, Cairo GHANA, Namibia, Botswana, China, Norway, Sweden, Capet own, Tanzania, Northern Cape, New York, Limpopo, London, Venezuela, Chile, Sweden, Denmark, Rwanda, Oman, Qatar, Dubai, Poland, Canada PotchefstroomNorth West Northern Cape Western Cape Call +27715451704 to purchase Best SSD Solution Clean Black Notes Dollars
WE ALSO? SALE CHEMICALS LIKE SSD AUTOMATIC SOLUTION FORM
CLEANING BLACK CURRENT DOLLARS.
I hereby use this media to inform you, that our company can clean out black
deface currency, (stained money) bank notes, We have all kinds of chemicals
used for cleaning of black money or stained money in currencies such as US
Dollar, Euro, Pound, and all local currencies, even if your defaced note is
25 years old,
WE SALE CHEMICALS LIKE TOURMALINE, SSD Chemical / Solution, CASTRO X
OXIDE, A4. AND MANY Like ACTIVATION POWDER & SSD SOLUTION FOR CLEANING
BLACK MONEY Chemical and Allied product incorporated is a major
manufacturer of industrial and pharmaceutical products with key
specialization in the production of SSD Automatic solution used in the
cleaning of black money, defaced money and stained bank notes with anti
breeze quality.OTHERS FOR DAMAGED NOTES, BILLS LIKE USD, EURO, POUNDS,
TRANSFERRING COLORS FROM USE NOTE TO NEW WHITE BILLS, AND BLACK NOTES, WE
WORK ON COMMISSION WE ALSO OFFER MACHINES TO DO THE BIG CLEANINGS, AND WE
DO DELIVERY OF PRODUCTS TO BUYERS DESTINATIONS AFTER A CONSULTATION FEE.
DEPENDING ON DIFFERENT CASES. FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE DO CONTACT US IN
OUR DIFFERENT OFFICES.SPAIN, INDIA,

Call us or watsupp +27715451704.
Email: gavachemicals88@gmail.com


          

Botswana Lifts Prophet Bushiri's Visa Restrictions

 Cache   
[News24Wire] Botswana has lifted its visa restrictions on the leader of the Enlightened Christian Gathering (ECG) Church, Prophet Shepherd Bushiri, the church revealed in a statement on Thursday.
          

Qatar Airways and IndiGo sign codeshare agreement

 Cache   

Qatar Airways is pleased to announce it has signed a codeshare agreement with IndiGo, India’s largest passenger airline. Sales will start from today with the first codeshare flights to operate from 18 December 2019.

This agreement will enable the airline to place its code on IndiGo flights between Doha and Delhi, Mumbai and Hyderabad and is the first step in strengthening cooperation between the ‘World’s Best Airline’ and the ‘Best Low-Cost Airline in India’. Qatar Airways Group Chief Executive, His Excellency Mr. Akbar Al Baker, said: “We are extremely proud to secure this strategic partnership with IndiGo, the largest airline in one of the world’s fastest growing aviation markets. We believe this agreement will be just the first step in strengthening our relationship and we very much look forward to working together to harness our complementary strengths and resources to enhance the travel experience for our passengers around the world.”

IndiGo Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Ronojoy Dutta, said: “This is a momentous occasion for us, as we sign this codeshare agreement with one of the finest airlines in the world. This strategic alliance will not only strengthen our international operations, but also boost economic growth in India, by bringing in more traffic and heralding opportunities for trade and tourism through seamless mobility. We are confident of a successful partnership as we extend our signature on-time, courteous and hassle-free service experience to the passengers of Qatar Airways. These are exciting times for the aviation industry and it is our commitment to remain focused in building one of the best air transportation systems in the world.”

Qatar Airways and IndiGo sign 2 [qatarisbooming.com].jpg

Qatar Airways currently operates 102 weekly flights between Doha and 13 destinations in India, including Ahmedabad, Amritsar, Bengaluru, Chennai, Delhi, Goa, Hyderabad, Kochi, Kolkata, Kozhikode, Mumbai, Nagpur and Thiruvananthapuram. The airline’s cargo division, Qatar Airways Cargo, currently operates a total of 28 weekly freighters to seven destinations in India. The top three cargo destinations in India are Mumbai, Chennai and Ahmedabad. A multiple award-winning airline, Qatar Airways was named ‘World’s Best Airline’ by the 2019 World Airline Awards, managed by the international air transport rating organisation Skytrax. It was also named ‘Best Airline in the Middle East’, ‘World’s Best Business Class’, and ‘Best Business Class Seat’, in recognition of its ground-breaking Business Class experience, Qsuite.

Qatar Airways currently operates a modern fleet of more than 250 aircraft via its hub, Hamad International Airport (HIA), to more than 160 destinations worldwide. The world’s fastest-growing airline has added a number of exciting new destinations to its growing network this year, including Rabat, Morocco; Izmir, Turkey; Malta; Davao, Philippines; Lisbon, Portugal; Mogadishu, Somalia; and Langkawi, Malaysia. The airline will add Gaborone, Botswana, in 2019 to its extensive route network along with Luanda, Angola; and Osaka, Japan, in 2020.

IndiGo is India’s largest passenger airline with a domestic market share of 47% as of August 2019 and is amongst the fastest growing carriers in the world. IndiGo has a simple philosophy: offer low fares and an on-time, courteous, hassle-free service. With its fleet of over 240 aircraft, the airline offers almost 1,500 daily flights and connects 60 domestic destinations and 23 international destinations. 

Categories: 


          

Cardiovascular risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

 Cache   
{loadposition interno}

 

Cardiovascular risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

 

Manuel Monti1, Maria Pia Ruggieri2, Giovanni Maria Vincentelli3, Fernando Capuano4, Francesco Rocco Pugliese5

 

1 Emergency Department - AUSL UMBRIA1 Assisi (Perugia) Via V. Muller 1, Assisi (Perugia), Italy
2 Emergency Department - San Giovanni Hospital Rome
3 Emergency Department - Fatebenefratelli Hospital - Isola Tiberina Via Fatebenefratelli 1 Roma
4 Antel National President Rome
5 Head of Emergency Department - Pertini Hospital Rome

 

 

Abstract

Background: Ischemic heart disease is increasing dramatically in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), owing toincreasing prevalence of risk factors, and to some characteristics of the African people that make the African population subject to the effects of major cardiovascular risk factors. The pace and direction of economic development, rates of urbanization, the changes in life expectancy, associated with different pathophysiological factors are causing an increased rate of atherosclerotic disease in these countries.

Results: In the next twenty years, the prevalence of ischemic heart disease in SSA will increase, due to increasedrisk factors,especially hypertension, diabetes, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, tobacco use and the dyslipidemia, mainly due to an increase in urbanization. Moreover, thanks to new knowledge, it has been pointed out the difference of individual risk factors in the African population and other populations due to genetic differences. It is estimated that age-standardized approach for ischemic heart disease mortality rates will rise by 27% in African men and 25% in women by 2015 and by 70 and 74%, respectively by 2030.

Conclusion: More research is neededin Africa to provide evidence for cardiovascular prevention and treatment to mitigate the oncoming epidemic. Healthinterventions are needed for prevent or reduce the morbidity / mortality need to be addressed in both children and adults, including modifiedscore of the risk stratification, starting early therapy and aggressive, if necessary.

 

 

 

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a disabling growing epidemic that causes premature death and decreased quality of life. Globally, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), which include coronary heart disease (CHD), strokes, rheumatic heart disease (RHD), cardiomyopathy, and other heart diseases, represent the leading cause of death (1).Recent population studies demonstrate an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) (2). Despite evidence to suggest that CVD-related mortality rates are increasing in the region,  it is only now being recognized  as an important public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa, with coronary artery disease shown to rise in incidence in sub-Saharan Africa(3-4) . Cardiovascular diseases are the main non-communicable conditions in SSA and now 9.2% of total deaths in the African region are caused by CVD (5) , being the leading cause of death in the population over 45 years of age (6) .Cardiovascular diseases account for 7-10% of all adult medical admissions to hospitals in Africa, with heart failure contributing to 3-7% (7) .When studies on urban and rural populations were analyzed, the prevalence of CVD  was found to be higher in the urban than the rural population (8-9).

Behavioural risk factors

 The important contributors to this transition are the so-called “globalization” of dietary  habits and urbanization. Urbanization is the prime driver for nutrition transition and emergence of obesity, themetabolic syndrome and other NCDs in developing countries, especially SSA. The current average annual growth of the urban population in sub-Saharan Africa is 4.5%. Over the period 1980-2050, the urban population of Africa, as a whole, is expected to increase from 134 million to 1.264.000 million (10). The rural-to-urban migration in many of the developing countries exposes migrants to urbanized diets and lifestyle. Dietary changes associated with urbanization are related to the fact that rural dwellers tend to be more self-reliant in obtaining food and also tend to eat traditional diets that are high in grains, fruit and vegetables, and low in fat. Once they arrive in urban areas, these same people tend to rely more on external forces for sustenance, resulting in a shift from production of their own food to the purchase of processed foods (11).Major dietary changes include a large increase in the consumption of fats, particularly animal fat and added sugar and decrease in cereal and roughageintake (12).  This involves major changes of the main cardiovascular risk factors between the two areas(13) (tab.1). There was evidence of a significant increase in edible oil, indicating a major change in diet; dietary changes include a large increase in the consumption of fats, particularly animal fat and added sugar, associated to the decrease in cereal and fiber intake(14) (Fig.1). In fact, recent global figures from the World Health Organization (WHO) indicate that the prevalence of obesity is not just affecting the developed countries, but is also increasing in the developing countries, where over 115 million people suffer from obesity-related problems (15) .

Psychosocial factors

Psychosocial factors increase the number of risk factors. Some studies have shown that the number of countries registering , in recent years, a rise in the number of households owning televisions and computers is directlyproportionate to the reduction in physical activities, contributing arise in obesity in children (16-17). Alcohol and tobacco smoking are risk factors towards heart failure, ischemic stroke, heart disease, and acute myocardial infarction (18). Many studies show how alcohol and tobacco use are related to poverty and low socio-economic positions. Rural areas inhabitants are highly affected by such habits, especially compared to the other risk factors, which are  more common in urban areas(19-20) Smoking tendency is increasing among men and women in SSA, mainly in the age group between 30 and 49, with particular reference in women, increasing together with ageing (21). Furthermore, in many developing countries, psychosocial attitude toward obesity is not seen a negative factor (22-23). Mvo et al. and Puoane et al. reported that even if a large percentage of African women were overweight and obese, only a few perceived themselves so (24-25). Gambian populations were reported to be more obesity tolerant (acceptance of obese body size as normal) than African-Americans, and much more tolerant than white Americans (26) .Moreover, the double burden of under and over-nutrition presents a potentially grave situation, which should deserve more attention from both health and economic agencies engaged in development. While they continue to deal with the problems of infectious disease and under-nutrition, they are experiencing a rapid upsurge in disease risk factors, such as obesity and overweight, especially in urban settings. It is not uncommon to find under-nutrition and obesity existing side-by-side within the same country, the same community and the same household. Children in low and middle-income countries are more vulnerable to inadequate pre-natal, infant and young child nutrition. Simultaneously, they are exposed to high-fat, high-sugar, high-salt, energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods, which is usually lower in cost but also lower in nutrient quality. These dietary patterns, in conjunction with lower levels of physical activity, result in sharp increases in childhood obesity, while undernutrition issues remain unsolved(27). Recently, the rise of obesity and cardiovascular risk factors were also seen in rural areas of some countries of the developing world. It has to be pointed out that many so-called rural areas are no longer genuinely rural: people are becoming more urbanized even in areas far from cities. This phenomenon, to some extent, is linked to the so-called "Remittance economy”. Migrant workers remittance led to a relative wealth, even in rural areas influencing some lifestyles (28).Such epidemiological transition is due, in part, to an improved longevity starting from the 1950s, so that more people are exposed to these risk factors, for long enough periods, to cause CAD. Globally considering risk factors, it has to be highlighted how the risk-factor burden experienced by blacks differs from that of whites. A recent study conducted in Ghana shows low median levels of cardiovascular risk factors and the prevalences of obesity, hypertension, dysglycaemia or diabetes, and dyslipidaemia were low too. The preponderance of moderately elevated levels of CRP was also low.However, the evidence has shown that younger patients (<55 years) were prone to a higher risk of atherosclerotic disease, which decreased ageing (29). Such difference, could be partially explained by the difficult collection of data about the actual incidence of risk factors among African population, which may lie in the complexity of conducting proper surveys in many countries, in order to perform an accurate risk stratification. In addition, women do not smoke or drink publicly, but it can assume that the women exhibit these behaviours privately in smaller proportions (30). Moreover there are some pathophysiological peculiarities in the African population, boosting an increased susceptibility to traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

Arterial hypertension

The prevalence of hypertension among urban dwellers in SSA appears to be particularly high, ranging from 8–25 per cent. At the dawn of the twentieth century, high blood pressure was virtually nonexistent among indigenous Kenyans and Ugandans. Starting from 1975, high blood pressure became established in Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda (31-32). In December 2006, among the adults living in Addis Abeba, the prevalence of hypertension was 50.9% between males and 47.1% among females (33). In  Cameroon the prevalence of hypertension among people aged 15-99 years in 2004 was 20.8%, a common issue especially among men (34). In Sub-Saharan Africa, age-adjusted hypertension prevalence and age-specific rates of death from stroke are higher among urban blacks than equivalent white populations (35). Yameogo et al showed resistant hypertension is common in black Africans, most affected subjects are people over 60 years old, with limited economic income and living in rural areas (36). Numerous studies have found that such population has an excess prevalence of salt sensitivity, hypervolemia, and low plasma renin activity (37-38).

Diabetes mellitus

In 2010, an estimated 12.1 million people with diabetes mellitus (4.2% of the global estimate of 285 million) were living in sub-Saharan Africa (39). The following year, diabetes prevalence rose to 14.7 million (4.02% of the global 366 million). By year 2030, a 90% projected increase in diabetes prevalence throughout SSA, skyrocketing the number of Africans with diabetes to 28 million. (39) The incidence of diabetes mellitus in IHD remains uncertain because many studies show that, among African population, the main complication of diabetes is the micro-angiopathies compared to Western countries, where the macrovascular complication is the most important (40-41). One common pathogenic mechanism for microvascular disease, is rooted in the chemical by-products of reactions between sugars and proteins occurring over the course of days to weeks, producing irreversible protein cross-linked derivatives AGE (42). The increase in AGE produces growth inhibition and apoptosis of retinal pericytes, also inducing an overproduction of endothelial growth factors and neovascularization, and chronic inflammation too (43-44). Such actions lead to an increased microthrombosis, capillary blockage, retinal ischemia and the activation of endothelial cells, responsible of important shortcomings involving mesangial cells and stimulating glomerular fibrosis (45-46). It has been suggested that, among black population, microvascular damage is due to a different genetic predisposition that stimulates the accumulation of AGEs with all the after-effects (45-46). The strong association between diabetes mellitus and hypertension among the African population, compared to the white population, worsens dramatically microvascular damage (47-48).

Visceral Fat

The phenotype of obesity, found among several ethnic groups in developing countries, appears to be different than among the Caucasian population. Several studies reported a correlation between  visceral fat (VF) and insulin-resistance, rise of triglycerides, blood pressure and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, VF  is correlated to all the conventional cardiovascular disease risk factors and with sedentary life-styles. VF might exhibit a proinflammatory adipokine profile, playing a pivotal role in coronary atherogenesis. The expansion of adipocytes with triglyceride is thought to be trigger the increased expression and production of inflammatory cytokines - such as TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-1β, −6, and −8, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)  and decreased expression and production of leptin and vasoprotective adiponectin. Furthermore, VF might exhibit a proinflammatory adipokine profile (49-50) (Fig.2). During the International Day for evaluation of abdominal obesity, a study, related to the waist circumference data, involving 63 countries, showed highest prevalence of visceral fat in SSA and South Asians, compared with North Europeans and other Asian ethnic groups (51). In fact, it was shown that a parity of average value of waist circumference and BMI in SSA, especially Nigeria and Cameroon, visceral adiposity is significantly higher than other populations (52). High percentage of body fat with low BMI value could be partly explained by body build (trunk to leg length ratio and slender body frame), muscularity, adaptation to chronic calorie deprivation, and ethnicity (53). Some studies also shown how the populations of SSA have an accumulation of visceral fat in other tissues where usually are not deposited (ectopic fat): this feature has the potential to affect insulin sensitivity (54) . A number of studies highlighted how African populations have a lower amount of epicardial fat than the white population: such matter is of considerable interest, as the epicardial fat is now considered an important emerging independent cardio - vascular risk factor (55) (Fig.3).

The markers of body fat distribution, including waist-hip ratio, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat diner a heritable component, support the thesis of unique genetic variants associated with ectopic fat depots(56-57-58). Fox et al identified a single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP) near the TRIB2 locus, which is associated with pericardial fat but not with body mass index or visceral abdominal fat (59). This is the reason why we must carry out studies in order to highlight, among the African population, the genetic variants responsible for the increase in visceral fat but not in epicardial ectopic. This would allow the identification of subgroups among the population, with BMI and amount of visceral fat compiling the standard, who are at greater risk of atherosclerotic disease (60). Other factors, such as genotype, could make the African population very susceptible to visceral fat. Among others genetics, a pivotal role is fulfilled by LOX-1, a type-II membrane protein belonging to the C-type lectin family. The LOX-1 has a crucial part in amplifying local inflammatory responses during atherosclerotic development (61) (Tab.2). The study performed by Predazzi showed a higher frequencies of two polymorphisms associated with the risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), among the South-Saharan rural populations (61)   Furthermore, it must be considered the identification of other  deleterious alleles lying on CVD associated genes (GJA4, SERPINE1 and MMP3), which have a higher frequencies in African population in respect to Europeans. (62)

Communicable Diseases

Several studies reported associations between the exposure to various infectious agents and the prevalent coronary disease(63-64-65). In 1891, Huchard was the first to suggest the involvement of infectious agents in the process of atherosclerosis. Subsequently, several reports shown a relationship between the development of atherosclerosis and the presence of infectious diseases (66-67).  Several types of microbes are now also being implicated as possible causative agents in acquired CVD, and a few bacterial agents have been a research topic for several years. Organisms such as the spirochetes Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) or the Treponema pallidum (syphilis), and flagellated bacteria such as the streptococci, have well-recognized atherosclerotic potential. Interest in the role of infection in atherosclerosis was renewed with the observation that patients with coronary artery disease were more likely than matched controls to have an elevated antibody titer to Chlamydia pneumonia (68-69). Multiple complex processes are involved in the development of CVD. The increased incidence of infectious diseases has highlighted the expression of proinflammatory immune system to survive up to older ages. Although the increase of the protein Cwas not related to an increase of atherosclerotic disease, other acute-phase reactants, including fibrinogen and serum amyloid A, appear to be associated with vascular risk.This selection of a proinflammatory status is confirmed by the higher levels of the proinflammatory cytokine, including the interleukin-6 (IL6) (70). The macrophage is a critical component in the pathway to atherosclerotic inflammation. During an infectious process causes the activation of macrophages, including the  secretion of numerous factors (AGF; TGF; 1,2,4 FGF;VEGF). These substances stimulate the appearance of endothelial cells and are responsible for the creation of a systemic hypercoagulable state (71-72). In addition, mitogenic factors are released through an NF-Kβrelated mechanism, leading to smooth muscle cell proliferation and however there is an increase of monocytes through transendothelial migration at the level of the coronary (73-74). This  means that the activated macrophages stimulate bothlocal lipid accumulation and the instability that presages plaque rupture (75-76-77).

Coronary Heart Disease

IHD remains relatively uncommon in SSA despite an increasing prevalence of risk factors but its incidence is rising. A study of the 1954 have evidenced by 3,500 postmortem studies in Ghana in which only three cases of CHD were found (78). In Uganda, the National Heart Institute at Mulago alone, currently receives at least 100 patients every day with 5-8 being new cases (a total of about 36,500 patients per year with 1,825-2,920 being new cases). In 2011,heart cases increased by 20% bringing the number to 12,000 with  256 new cases registered in January alone (79). The WHO estimated that in 2005, IHD caused approximately 261 000 deaths in the African region, and current projections suggest that this number will nearly 600.000 by 2030. It is estimated that age-standardized mortality rates for IHD will rise by 27% in African men and 25% in women by 2015, and by 70 and 74%, respectively by 2030 (80) (Fig.4). The increase in IHD in Sub-Saharan Africa since the 1980s is presumably because of the increasing prevalence among African populations of the classical risk factors for CAD, include hypertension, smoking, diabetes, abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. In addition, as a result of developments in combating communicable diseases and a decrease in childhood mortality, life expectancy in Sub-Saharan Africa has risen since the 1950 and  the number of individuals aged over 60 years is predicted to increase from 39 to 80 million by 2025 in SSA. This meaning that more people are exposed to these risk factors for long enough periods to cause CAD (81-82).

Conclusion

This review attempts to assess the prevalence, levels of risk and major risk factors for developing  cardiovascular disease in SSA.This article answered specific research questions and hypotheses on issues relating to sedentary lifestyles, nutritional behaviours, knowledge on CVDs risk factors, and especially some of the key knowledge on the genetic differences between the African population and other populations. Among the socio-economic and behavioral risk profile study variables, the review documented a high prevalence of active smoking, high consumption of edible oil and fat, an increase in physical inactivity and current active alcohol usage. The economic and social important consequences of the CVD Epidemics in the SSA will be devastating. Important gene - environment can play a crucial role in the increased risk of the IHD of the African population. The detection and management of hypertension and diabetes are still unsatisfactory in inner city areas and show variations by ethnic origin. A priority should be the development of scores for the population of Africa, also using the emerging risk factors such as Calcium Score and visceral fat and considering genetic differences. Increasing burden of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, T2DM, and CVD in SSA has created an urgent need to strategize mass health policies and intervention programs to tackle nutrition and continuing efforts to manage undernutrition. There are two major approaches to prevention: public health / community-based and clinic-based strategies with a targeted approach to high-risk patients and combinations of these. There are concerns that in comparison with communicable diseases, cardiovascular and relatively chronic diseases have a low priority in the global health agenda and that requires this additional emphasis. Finally, we must consider, in the light of the differences between races, strategies for the control of CHD and stroke cushion adopted in European countries directed mostly to white rural populations may be inappropriate for the African population. In conclusion, evaluations must be performed carefully for correct risk stratification, the timing of initiation of treatment and the goals of the therapeutic treatment to be achieved in the African population. In addition, further evaluations should be done to perform a correct public health / community-based strategies targeted at risk factors, including decrease in taxes and prices of fruits and vegetables, more playgrounds, parks, walking and bicycle tracks, provide information to parents about nutrition (particularlymothers), the change of food policy through country-specific guidelines for healthy nutrition for adults and children.

 

 

Tables

 

Tab. 1 The main risk factorsof urban and ruralarea

 

Urban

Rural

BMI (kg/m2)

25.8 ± 6.9

19.3 ± 3.2 *

Waist (cm)

85.2 ± 9.9

67.8 ± 9.9 *

Waist-hip ratio

0.88 ± 0.09

0.81 ± 0.08 *

Triceps skinfold (mm)

17.3 ± 6.8

9.8 ± 5.4 *

% overweight

(BMI > 25)

53.4

5.8 *

p <0,001, ageand gender adjusted                                 

 

Tab.2 Cellular effects of ligand-LOX-1

Cellular effects of ligand-LOX-1 interaction on atherogenesis

Endothelial cells Alteration of vascular tone

Increased intracellular oxidative stress

 Induction of apoptosis

Induction of proliferation and angiogenesis by increasing VEGF expression

Increased expression of adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 , ICAM-1 , Selectins)

Increased expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

Induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

Reduction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

Release of matrix metalloproteinases

Smooth muscle cells Induction of apoptosis

Monocytes Induction of monocyte adhesion and activation

Increased oxLDL uptake and foam cell formation

VEGF Vascular endothelial growth factor; VCAM1 Vascular cell adhesion molecule1; ICAM1 Intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1.

 

 

Figures

Fig.1 Date of  consumption of fats (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)

 

Fig.2 Main mechanisms ofcardiovascular damage caused by visceral fat

 

Fig.3 Epicardial fat around the myocardial tissue

 

Fig.4 Projection of death from IHD in men and women in the WHO African regions for the year 2005,2015 and 2030 (WHO,2008)

 

 

{loadposition interno_link} {loadposition interno}

References

           1.      Roger VLGo ASLloyd-Jones DMet al. Heartdisease and stroke statistics--2011 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;123(4)

           2.      Hertz JTReardon JMRodrigues CGet al. Acute myocardial infarction in Sub-Saharan Africa: the need for data. PLoS One.2014;  9(5)

 3.     Opie LH. Heart disease in Africa. Lancet. 2006 ; 368(9534):449-50

4.     Ntsekhe M, Damasceno A. Recent advances in the epidemiology, outcome, and prevention of myocardial infarction and stroke in sub-Saharan Africa.Heart. 2013 ;99(17):1230-5.

5.     Sampson UK, Amuyunzu-Nyamongo M, Mensah GA.Health promotion and cardiovasculardisease prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2013;56(3):344-55

4.      Gaziano TA. Economic burden and the cost-effectiveness of treatment of cardiovascular diseases in Africa. Heart 2008;94:140-4.

5.     Mocumbi AO. Lack of focus on cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa.Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2012;2(1):74-7.

8.   Amoah AGB. Sociodemographic variations in obesity among Ghanaian adults. Public Health Nutr2003; 6: 751–7.

9.    Agyemang C, Owusu-Dabo E, de Jonge A et al. Overweight and obesity among Ghanaian residents in The Netherlands: how do they weigh against their urban and rural counterparts in Ghana? Public Health Nutr 2009; 12: 909–16.

10.United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division World Urbanization Prospects: The 2011 Revision Urban Population by Major Area, Region and Country, 1950-2050 (thousands)

11.Drewnowski APopkin BM..The nutrition transition: new trends in the global diet. Nutr Rev. 1997;55(2):31-43

12.  Misra A, Singhal N, Khurana. Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in developing countries: role of dietary fats and oils.L.J Am Coll Nutr. 2010;29(3 Suppl):289S-301S.

13.Teo KChow CKVaz M, et al. TheProspective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study: examining the impact of societal influences on chronic noncommunicable diseases in low-, middle-, and high-income countries..Am Heart J.2009;158(1):1-7.

14.Institute of Medicine. Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World: A Critical Challenge to Achieve Global Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2010.

15.Cappuccio FP, Kerry SM, Adeyemo A et al. Body size and blood pressure: an analysis of Africans and the African diaspora. Epidemiology2008; 19:38–46

16.Sturm R. Childhood obesity—what we can learn from existing data on societal trends, part 1. Prev Chronic Dis. 2005;2(1):A12

17.Milton KMacniven RBauman A. Review of the epidemiological evidence for physical activity and health from low- and middle-income countries. Glob Public Health. 2014;9(4):369-81.

18.  Ormel J, Von Korff M, Burger H et al. Mental disorders among persons with heart disease-results from World Mental Health surveys. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2007;29(4):325-34

19.  Schneider M, Bradshaw D, Steyn K et Al. Poverty and non-communicable diseases in South Africa. Scand J Public Health2009, 37(2):176-86

20.  Christensen DL, Friss H, Mwaniki DL, et al.  Prevalence of glucose intolerance and associated risk factors in rural and urbanpopulations of different ethnic groups in Kenya. Diabetes Res Clin Pract2009, 84(3):303-10

21.  Townsend L, Flisher AJ, Gilreath T, King G. A systematic literature review of tobacco use among adults 15 years and older in sub-Saharan Africa. Drug and Alcohol Dependence2006, 84(1):14-27

22.Litllewood R. Commentary: globalization, culture, body image, and eating disorders. Cult Med Psychiatry 2004; 28:597–602.

23.Flynn KJ, Fitzgibbon M. Body images and obesity risk among black females: a review of the literature. Ann Behav Med 1998; 20:13–24

24.Mvo Z, Dick J, Steyn K. Perceptions of overweight African women about acceptable body size of women and children. Curationis. 1999;22:27-31.

25.Puoane T, Fourie JM, Shapiro M, et al. “Big is beautiful” - an exploration of urban black women in South Africa. S Afr J Clin Nutr. 2005;18:6-15.

26.Siervo M, Grey P, Nyan OA, Prentice AM. A pilot study on body image, attractiveness and body size in Gambians living in an urban community. Eat Weight Disord 2006; 11:100–09

27.  Vorster HH, Kruger A, Margetts BM. The nutrition transition in Africa: can it be steered into a more positive direction?-Nutrients. 2011;3(4):429-41

28.  Prentice AMThe emerging epidemic of obesity in developing countries.Int J Epidemiol.2006 ;35(1):93-9.

29.   Koopman JJvan Bodegom DJukema JWWestendorp RG. Risk of cardiovascular disease in a traditional African population with a high infectious load: a population-based study.. PLoS One; 2012;7(10)

30.  Mensah G. Ischaemic heart disease in Africa. Heart 2008;94: 836–43

31.  Jamison DT, FeachemRG, Makgoba MW, et al. Disease and Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. 2nd edition. Washington (DC): World Bank; 2006.

32.  Wamala JF, Karyabakobo Z, Ndungutse D, Guwatudde D. Prevalence factors associated with hypertension in  Rukungiri district, Uganda- a community based study. Afr Health Sci.2009 ;9(3):153-60.

33.  Tesfaye F, Byass P, Wall S et al. Association of smoking and khat (Catha edulis Forsk) use with high blood pressure among adults in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2006.Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5(3):A89.

34.Wamala JF, Karyabakobo Z, Ndungutse D, Guwatudde D . Prevalence factors associated with hypertension in  Rukungiri district, Uganda- a community based study. Afr Health Sci.2009 ;9(3):153-60

35.Opie L, Steyn K. Rationale for the Hypertension Guidelines for Primary Care in South Africa. South African Medical Journal. 1995;85(12):1325–28.

36.Yaméogo NVSamadoulougou AKKagambèga LJet al.  Epidemiological characteristics and clinical features of black African subject's resistant hypertensionAnn Cardiol Angiol (Paris).2014;63(2):83-8

37.Jamerson KA. Rationale for angiotensin II receptor blockers in patients with low-renin hypertension. Am J Kidney Dis.2000;36:S24-30

38.Ferdinand KCArmani AM. The management of hypertension in African Americans. Crit Pathw Cardiol.2007;6(2):67-71

39.Diabetes Atlas. 4th edn. 2009. International Diabetes Federation.

40.Onen CL. Diabetes and Macrovascular Complications in Adults in Botswana. Makerere University; Kampala: MD thesis 2010.

41.Mbanya JC, Sobngwi E. Diabetes microvascular and macrovascular disease in Africa. J Cardiovasc Risk. 2003;10:97–102

42.Brownlee M, Cerami A, Vlassara H. Advanced glycosylation end products in tissue and the biochemical basis of diabetic complications. N Engl J Med. 1988;318:1315–21

43.Yamagishi SHsu CCTaniguchi Met al. eceptor-mediated toxicity to pericytes of advanced glycosylation end products: a possible mechanism of pericyte loss in diabetic microangiopathy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;213:681–7

44.Stitt AW, Jenkins AJ, Cooper ME. Advanced glycation end products and diabetic complications. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2002;11:1205–23

45.Yamagishi SAmano SInagaki Yet al. Advanced glycation end products-induced apoptosis and overexpression of vascularendothelial growth factor in bovine retinal pericytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;290:973–8.

46.Matsumura T, Yamagishi S, Brownlee M. Advanced glycation end products and the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. In: LeRoith D, Taylor S, Olefsky JM, eds. Diabetes Mellitus: A Fundamental and Clinical Text. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000:983–91

47.Mbanya JCSobngwi E. Diabetes in Africa. Diabetes microvascular and macrovascular disease in Africa. J Cardiovasc Risk.2003;10(2):97-102

48.Mohan V, Seedat YKPradeepa R. The rising burden of diabetes and hypertension in southeast asian and african regions: need for effective strategies for prevention and control in primary health care settings. Int J Hypertens.2013;2013:409083

49.Sacks HS, Fain JN. Human epicardial adipose tissue: a review. Am Heart J 2007;153: 907–17

50.Mahabadi AAMassaro JMRosito GAet al. Associationof pericardial fat, intrathoracic fat, and visceral abdominal fat with cardiovascular disease burden: the Framingham Heart Study.Eur Heart J. 2009;30(7):850-6

51.Balkau B, Deanfield JE, Despres JP et al. International Day for the Evaluation of Abdominal Obesity (IDEA): a study of waist circumference, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus in 168,000 primary care patients in 63 countries. Circulation 116:1942–51

52.Okosun IS, Rotimi CN, Forrester TE et al. Predictive value of abdominal obesity cut-off points for hypertension in blacks from westAfrican and Caribbean island nations. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000;24:180–186

53.Misra A, Wasir JS, Vikram NK. Waist circumference criteria for the diagnosis of abdominal obesity are not applicable uniformly to all populations and ethnic groups. Nutrition 2005; 21:969–76

54.Garg A, MisraA. Hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue disorders. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87:3019–22

55.Willens HJGómez-Marín OChirinos JAet al. Comparison of epicardial and pericardial fat thickness assessed by echocardiography in African Americanand non-Hispanic White men: a pilot study.Ethn Dis.2008;18(3):311-6

56.Fox CSMassaro JMHoffmann Uet al. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments : association with metabolic risk factors in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2007; 116: 39-48 .

57.Sellers TADrinkard CRich SSet al - Familial aggregation and heritability of waist- to- hip ratio in adult women : the Iowa Women's Health Study . Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1994; 18: 607-13 .

58.Kilpeläinen TO , Zillikens MC , Stancakova A et al. Genetic variation near IRS1 associates with reduced adiposity and an impaired metabolic profile . Nat Genet 2011;43: 753-760 .

59.Fox CSWhite CCLohman Ket al.  Genome-Wide Association of Pericardial Fat Identifies a Unique Locus for Ectopic Fat. PLoS Genet.2012;8(5):e1002705

60.Willens HJGómez-Marín OChirinos JAet al. Comparison of epicardial and pericardial fat thickness assessed by echocardiography in African American and non-Hispanic White men: a pilot study.Ethn Dis.2008;18(3):311-6

61.Predazzi IMMartínez-Labarga CVecchione L et al. Population differences in allele frequencies at the OLR1 locus may suggest geographic disparities in cardiovascular risk events. Ann Hum Biol.2010;37(2):136-48.

62.  Lanfear DE, Marsh S, Cresci S et al. Genotypes associated with myocardial infarction risk are more common in African Americans than in European Americans.J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;7;44(1):165-7.

63.  Saikku P, Mattila K, Nieminen MS et Al. Serological evidence of an association of a novel Chlamydia, TWAR, with chronic coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarction. Lancet. 1988;2:983–6.

64.  Thom DH, Grayston JT, Siscovick D et Al. Association of prior infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and angiographically demonstrated coronary artery disease. JAMA. 1992;268:68–72.

65.  Mendall MA, Carrington D, Strachan DP et Al. Chlamydia pneumoniae: risk factors for seropositivity and association with coronary heart disease. J Infect. 1995;30:121–8.

66.  Benditt EP, Barrett T, McDougall JK. Viruses in the etiology of atherosclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983;80:6386–9.

67.  Grayston JT, Kuo CC, Campbell LA, Benditt EP. Chlamydia pneumoniae, strain TWAR and atherosclerosis. Eur Heart J. 1993;14:66–71.

68.  Dunne M. The evolving relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 2000;13(6):583–91

69.  Berger M, Schroder B, Daeschlin G et al . Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in non-coronary atherosclerotic plaques and circulating leukocytes. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. 2000;136:194–200

70.  Koopman JJvan Bodegom DJukema JWWestendorp RG. Risk of cardiovascular disease in a traditional African population with a high infectious load: a population-based study. PLoS One.2012;7(10):e46855.

71.  Harmey JHDimitriadis EKay Eet al. Regulation of macrophage production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by hypoxia and transforming growth factor beta-1.Ann Surg Oncol.1998;5(3):271-8

72.  De Cortie KRussell NSCoppes RPet al. Bonemarrow-derived macrophages incorporate into the endothelium and influence vascular and renal function after irradiation.Int J Radiat Biol.2014;1-9

73.  Miller SA, Selzman CH, Shames BD et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae activates nuclear factor kappaB and activator protein 1 in human vascular smooth muscle and induces cellular proliferation. Journal of Surgical Research. 2000;90:76–81.

74.  Molestina RE, Miller RD, Ramirez JA,Summersgill JT. Infection of human endothelial cells with Chlamydia pneumoniae stimulates transendothelial migration of neutrophils and monocytes. Infection & Immunity 1999;67:1323–30

75.  Kuningas MMay LTamm R et Al. Selection for genetic variation inducing pro-inflammatory responses under adverse environmental conditions in a Ghanaian population. PloS One 2009;4 (11): e7795

76.  May Lvan den Biggelaar AHvan Bodegom Det al. Adverse environmental conditions influence age-related innate immune responsiveness. Immun  Ageing .2009;30;6:

77.  Boef AGC, May L, Van Bodegom D et al. The influence of genetic variation on innate immune activation in an environment with high infectious pressure. Genes Immun 2012;13 (2): 103–8.

78.  Edington G. M. Cardiovascular Disease as a Cause of Death in Gold Coast Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1954;48:419

79.  Maher DWaswa LBaisley Ket Al. Distribution of hyperglycaemia and related cardiovascular disease risk factors in low-income countries: a cross-sectional population-based survey in rural Uganda Int J Epidemiol.2011;40(1):160-71

80.  Onen CL. Epidemiology of ischaemic heart disease in sub-Saharan Africa.Cardiovasc J Afr. 2013;24(2):34-42.

81.  Steyn K, Sliwa K, Hawken S et Al.Risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in Africa: the INTERHEART Africa study. Circulation. 2005; 6;112(23):3554-61

82.Vorster HH. The emergence of cardiovascular disease during urbanization of Africans. Public Health Nutr. 2002;5(1A):239-43

 

Corresponding author           

Manuel Monti

montimanuel@tiscali.it

00393391050122

USL UMBRIA1 U.O. PS/118

Via V. Muller 1

Assisi (Perugia)


          

Nigeria, others demand dental amalgam phase-out by 2021

 Cache   
The African region is seeking an amendment to Annex A to the Minamata Convention on Mercury by moving dental amalgam from Part ll to Part l of Annex A. The African amendment on amalgam proposed by Botswana, Chad, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Niger, and Sen
Guardian
          

Mücadeleci Kadınlar Konferansı

 Cache   
Mücadeleci Kadınlar Konferansı Almanya’nın Erfurt kentinde yapıldı. HABER MERKEZİ-Dünya Kadın Konferansı için yeni hazırlık komitesinin de seçildiği konferansda, Avrupa’nın çeşitli ülkelerinden gelen delegelerden çok, gözler Afrika, Asya, Şili, Rusya, Botswana, Güney Kore’den gelen delegelerdeydi. Venezuella, Türkiye Kürdistan’ı, Hindistan’dan bazı delegeler vize problemleri nedeniyle gelememişti. Üç gün süren konferansda ilk gün sabah iki yılda bir yapılan …
          

Chemonics: Human Resources Consultant

 Cache   
Chemonics International Inc
Opportunity closing date: 
Wednesday, 4 December, 2019
Opportunity type: 
Call for proposals

1. PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVE OF ASSIGNMENT

Chemonics International seeks a Human Resources Consultant for one of its key beneficiary partners, The Permanent Okavango River Basin Commission (OKACOM) to conduct a comprehensive review of the Human Resources Policies and Procedures (HRPP) Manual. OKACOM is a River Basin Organization (RBO) that was established by the Republics of Angola, Namibia and Botswana in 1994. The Commission serves as technical advisor to the Contracting Parties on matters relating to the conservation, development and utilization of water resources of the Cubango-Okavango River Basin. This involves promoting coordinated and sustainable water resources management of the basin, while addressing the legitimate social and economic needs of the Riparian States. In 2013, as part of the strengthening of the OKACOM Structures, several governance and institutional documents were developed to support the efficient functioning of the OKACOM institutional organs. One such document was the HRPP Manual. Its purpose is to set the human resources policies and procedures within OKACOM’s Secretariat (OKASEC).
 
In addition, for OKACOM to effectively implement its Strategic Action Plan (SAP), OKACOM must strengthen its capacity to deliver its strategic mandate. The review and amendment of critical institutional instruments of OKACOM forms the basis of enhancing its institutional governance capacity. One of the critical institutional governance instruments due for review and amendment is the HRPP Manual. The current HRPP has glaring gaps as well as inconsistencies that have made it difficult to implement and hence the need for a review to ensure that it is fit for purpose. 

2. PRINCIPAL DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

The HR Consultant will conduct the following activities:

  • Conduct a comprehensive review of the HRPP Manual to ensure its fit for purpose.  
  • Identify gaps and inconsistencies of the existing HRPP Manual. The consultant shall identify gaps and inconsistencies of the existing HRPP Manual through a consultative process as well as documents review.
  • Recommendations for key areas of the HRPP Manual for review and alignment.

3. SPECIFIC DELIVERABLES

The HR Consultant will deliver the following outputs:

  • HRPP Manual review report
  • Recommendations for key areas of the HRPP Manual for review and alignment.
  • Revised HRPP Manual benchmarked against international best practice

4. QUALIFICATIONS AND EXPERIENCE REQUIRED

  • A Master’s degree in either Human Resources Management (HRM), Management, Organizational psychology, Business administration or any other relevant social sciences.
  • A minimum of 10 years’ experience in Human Resource Management, International Development or Public Administration. 
  • Demonstrated experience in developing HRPP Manuals for International NGOs
  • Knowledge of strategic Human Resource Management and an understanding of organizational theory and practice regarding International NGOs
  • Understanding of employment legislation of Angola, Namibia and Botswana
  • Experience in international best practices on HR policies, procedures and practices.
  • Excellent skills in project management
  • Computer proficiency in standard office applications (Spread sheets, word processing, Internet Explorer);
  • Excellent communication and writing skills
  • Fluency in English

 5. Duration of Assignment

The assignment will be undertaken within 22 working days.

  • Terms of payment

The proposed delivery-based payment schedule is as follows:

  • 20% upon submission of detailed inception report
  • 40% upon submission of the draft consolidated HRPP Manual incorporating comments/inputs from OKASEC and or one of its relevant task teams.
  • 40% upon submission of the final consolidated HRPP Manual incorporating comments/inputs from OKASEC and or one of its relevant task teams.

6. APPLICATIONS

Send your curriculum vitae/profile and a list of similar traceable projects/assignments to procurement@resilientwaters.com




Next Page: 10000

© Googlier LLC, 2019