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WWE International Names James Rosenstock As Executive Vice President

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Deadline reports that WWE has named former Viceland International chief James Rosenstock as the executive vice president of international. He will be responsible for managing all international operations and will oversee the eight regional General Managers. Rosenstock will report to WWE Co-President Michelle Wilson. He will also be set to help grow WWE’s brand and […]
          

Following the Iceland debacle... Roy Hodgson has rebuilt his career at Crystal Palace

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DANIEL MATTHEWS: When he took over in September 2017, the club were bottom of the table and Hodgson was the oldest man to appointed as a permanent Premier League manager.
          

How Iceland's Tourism Bubble Deflated

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The tourism explosion in Iceland helped the tiny island recover from the 2008 financial crisis, but did the tourism industry grow too big, too fast?
          

The Rise And Fall Of Iceland's WOW Air

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A budget airline, WOW Air, helped fly the tiny island nation of Iceland out of a financial crisis — but then it all came crashing down.
          

Bayern boss Rummenigge angered by France call-up for injured Hernandez

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Bayern Munich defender Lucas Hernandez has been called up for medical examination by the French national team.

Bayern Munich chief Karl-Heinz Rummenigge has spoken out against the world champions France after they called up the injured defender Lucas Hernandez for their Euro 2020 qualifiers with Iceland and Turkey. Rummenigge had told the French football federation last week that Hernandez was unavailable because of the knee injury but the French have asked the defender to report for a medical examination. "I want to point out that Lucas Hernandez did not play for us in the Champions League against Tottenham nor in the  Bundesliga on Saturday," Rumminegge said in a press release. The former striker, now the chief power broker at Bayern, is said to be irritated by comments from the French national coach Didier Deschamps, suggesting the defender would be happy to play on one leg for the national cause. "Didier Deschamps' suggestion ... has stunned us," he said.  The World Cup holders face Iceland in Reykjavik on Friday, October 11 before entertaining Turkey at the Stade de France on Monday, October 14. Les Bleus are level with Turkey at the top of Group H on 15 points from six games, with Iceland three points back.  The top two qualify automatically for the final tournament.
          

Lloris out for the rest of the year, says Deschamps

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Spurs' goalkeeper Hugo Lloris had to be stretched off during the game against Brighton.

Tottenham Hotspur goalkeeper Hugo Lloris will "almost certainly" be out of action for the rest of the year after his horror injury at the weekend, France coach Didier Deschamps said on Monday. "It is difficult to say exactly how long he will not be available," said Deschamps as France players gathered for their next Euro 2020 qualifying matches against Iceland on Friday and Turkey three days later. "What matters to us right now is that he will not be with us for this round of games or for the next." France face Albania and Moldova in November.  Lloris suffered a dislocated elbow in conceding the opening goal of Spurs' 3-0 defeat by Brighton on Saturday, dropping a cross before falling backwards and landing badly. The Spurs goalkeeper was given oxygen and morphine as he was carried from the field before being taken to hospital. "Almost certainly, he won't be back on the pitch in 2019," said Deschamps. Steve Mandanda will take over in goal for France against Iceland while Paulo Gazzaniga, who replaced Lloris on Saturday, is likely to continue in the role for struggling Spurs.
          

Comment on Iceland’s Coolest Attractions by miadundo

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Download African music mp3 to your phone from Mdundo, the biggest catalogue of music from Naija, Gospel, Bongo Flavour, DJ mixes, Hiplife, Taarab, Zilizopendwa, ghana music, nigeria music, Tanzania music and Kenya music. Easy and free download. https://www.mdundo.com/#utm_source=googlier.com/page/2019_10_08/25638&utm_campaign=link&utm_term=googlier&utm_content=googlier.com
          

have -> hafa, live -> lifa, give -> gefa, weave -> vefa, silver -> silfur, oven -> ofn

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[0] Question by NickTheodorov on 08/18/19 2:33 AM Replies: 0 Views: 173
Tags: English, Etymology, Icelandic
Last Post by NickTheodorov on 08/18/19 2:33 AM
          

THE LAST WEEK AT THE CFZ-USA BLOG

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CFZ-USA

  • WEREWOLVES
  • SEA SERPENTS OF THE 19th CENTURY
  • MASS HYSTERIA
  • BÈS BULONG
  • THE VERY WEIRD DNA OF THE OCTOPUS
  • 187 YEAR OLD TORTOISE
  • WHAT WERE THE CHILEAN FIREBALLS?
  • BIGFOOT SCREAMED
  • WOMAN AND BIGFOOT
  • WAS THIS A PARANORMAL HUMANOID?
  • BLUE LAKE MONSTER
  • SCOTTISH DRAGON LEGEND
  • DOGMAN IN MICHIGAN
  • TECHNICAL DIFFICULTIES
  • FAIRY ENCOUNTERS
  • TALL, DARK AND TERRIFYING
  • BUNYIP OF THATGOMINDAH
  • ATTACKS BY YOWIES
  • LIVE FOOTAGE OF MEGALODON?
  • EVIDENCE OF ELEPHANT'S MEMORY
  • REVIEW OF "THE LOCH NESS SEA LION"
  • CRYPTID CONFERENCE IN TENNESSEE
  • MEN IN BLACK
  • CAN MOTHMAN CHANGE ITS FORM?
  • GRYLA - CREATURE OF ICELAND
  • FAIRIES AND PIXIES - WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE
  • DOGMAN IN ARKANSAS
  • BIGFOOT CHASES FORMER SOLDIER
  • ANIMAL OF ZAMBIAN MYTHOLOGY
  • THREATS TO THE CHEETAH
  • FAYETTEVILLE MOTHMAN
  • GOLDEN TIGER
  • NEW YORKER ENCOUNTERS LITTLE PEOPLE
  • SHORT HUMANOIDS IN ROBES
  • 11 MYSTERIOUS MONSTERS
  • BEAST OF BOLAM LAKE
  • MOON-EYED PEOPLE
  • BIGFOOT FESTIVAL IN SOUTH CAROLINA
  • PHOTO OF BIGFOOT?
  • BARMANU, A YETI-LIKE CREATURE
  • WENDIGO, SKINWALKER OR WHAT?
  • BROWN MEN OF THE MOORS

  • WAWA GRANDE



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    HOME WILD HOME By Montanus

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    Francesco and Giorgio, aka Montanus, decided to dedicate a video-tribute to the land where
    they were born and still live, celebrating the magnificent mountains where their desire to
    explore the wilderness has grown.
    ‘Home Wild Home’ is the latest film by Montanus, but it doesn’t tell of an expedition in a remote land
    like those they made in Patagonia and Iceland. Montanus duo created a sort of tribute in honor of their
    own land, filming the backyard trails that link their hometown L’Aquila, in central Italy, with the
    massif of Gran Sasso d’Italia, where highest peaks of Apennine mountains are located. In this mountain
    enviromental they started appreciating wilderness and developing the outdoor skills that has allowed
    them to travel and explore remote and wild lands. ‘Home Wild Home’ is more than a bikepacking film,
    it’s a sign of gratitude to their own land and an encouragement to the recovery of L’Aquila, hit by a
    devastating earthquake 10 years ago.

    MUSIC
    The Nature Of The Game - Dan Fogelberg
    Tell Me Lies - The Black Keys
    They Wore Blue - Otis Taylor
    Secret of Life - Lord Huron

    FILMING EQUIPMENT
    Camera 1: Sony RX100 MKVI 24-200mm f/2.8-f/4.5
    Gimbal camera 1: Feiyu G6 Plus
    Lens filter camera1: Mag Filter CPL 42mm
    Camera 2: Canon EOS 100D
    Primary Lens: Canon EF-S 60 mm F2.8 USM Macro
    Spare Lens: Canon EF-S 24 mm F/2.8 STM
    GoPro: Hero 5 Black
    GoPro lens filter: Polar Pro CINEMA SERIES / Shutter collection / ND8 - ND16 - ND32
    GoPro Gimbal: Feiyu Tech WG2X
    Drone: DJI Mavic Air
    Drone camera lens filter: Polar Pro CINEMA SERIES / Limited collection / ND32 - ND64 - ND32/PL -
    ND64/PL
    Microphone 1: RØDE VideoMic Pro
    Microphone 2: RØDE Lavalier GO
    Camera slider: Grip Gear Movie Maker 2
    Tripod 1: SIRUI T-025SK Carbon Fiber
    Tripod 2: JOBY GorillaPod 1K

    Cast: MONTANUS


              

    Iceland to offer subsidy for international artists recording in its studios

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    Iceland’s music export office is launching a new scheme to encourage artists to utilise the country’s network of recording studios. Via a partnership with other Icelandic institutions like Promote Iceland, international acts who use a studio in the country will be able to apply for up to 25% of their costs – including travel and […]
              

    Comment on Climate change art by .

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    <a href="https://www.economist.com/books-and-arts/2019/09/19/climate-change-is-a-challenge-for-artists#utm_source=googlier.com/page/2019_10_08/43949&utm_campaign=link&utm_term=googlier&utm_content=googlier.com" title="the economist" rel="nofollow">The world’s best known climate-change artist is Olafur Eliasson.</a> He began his career at 15, selling gouaches of landscapes he had encountered on walks with his Icelandic father, a painter. Later he photographed shrinking glaciers and polluted rivers. But it was his experiments with geometry and architecture, beginning in his late 20s, that led Mr Eliasson to make big conceptual pieces that use light, water and varying temperatures to create sensory experiences for his audiences. The “Weather Project” (2003) employed a vast “sun” to flood the Turbine Hall at Tate Modern in London with yellow light, hinting at a future of ever higher temperatures. Audiences threw themselves into the performance. They lay on the floor, made star shapes with their bodies and took endless selfies—forms of engagement that have since become the norm at exhibitions around the world. The “Weather Project” was the first large-scale effort to deal with climate change in contemporary art. Fifteen years later, Mr Eliasson brought 24 massive chunks of ice from Greenland to the banks of the Thames in a work called “Ice Watch London”. As the ice melted outside Tate Modern, performance and protest fused. “I believe in challenging people’s perspectives and the numbness of the political sphere,” Mr Eliasson says. He notes that far more people saw the installation in London than would have done in Greenland—but some critics pointed out the cost in energy of transporting the ice across the Atlantic (there were installations in Copenhagen and Paris, too).
              

    The Killer-Barney Effect

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    In some of the Icelandic sagas in which he appears, Bjarni Brodd-Helgason is a generally peaceful man, even though he got the nickname Víga-Bjarni (Killer-Barney) when he had to kill some of his relatives at Bodvarsdalr. In Vápnfirðinga Saga he is reluctant to take revenge; he is eager to reconcile in Voðu-Brands þáttr; and he’s clever and honorable in Þorsteins þattr stangarhoggs. So the nickname is somewhat at odds with the character, especially in these sagas that come from the East, where Bjarni was from. The disjunction between name and personality seems to be the point, especially in Thorstein the Staff-struck. 

     Víga-Bjarni’s name, however, appears to have overpowered his character in later sagas from the West, where people either had not known Bjarni Brodd-Helgason, or the transmitted knowledge of his personality was forgotten. In this material, Killer-Barney is now a blood-loving, death-dealing maniac.

    I hate you, 
    you hate me, 
    I had to slaughter members of my family....



     We can call this phenomenon, in which a traditional referent, like Víga-Bjarni's name, loses the link with its original extra-textual and contextual meaning and instead develops as part of a new, intra-textual tradition,  The Killer-Barney Effect.

              

    How to Think: The Liberal Arts and Their Enduring Value

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    I have a new lecture course out from Recorded Books' Modern Scholar series:
    How to Think: The Liberal Arts and Their Enduring Value

    It's an 8-lecture course:

    1. The Liberal Arts: Where did they come from?
    2. Separating Science
    3. Tools to Rule
    4. Can the Liberal Arts Make you a Better Person?
    5. The Best Reasons: Solving Complex Problems, Preserving and Transmitting Culture
    6. Beowulf: A Case Study of the Richness of the Liberal Arts Tradition
    7. What's Wrong with the Liberal Arts? (And How to Fix it).
    8. A Defense and Celebration of the Liberal Arts.

    The CD set is available from Amazon here at this link.
    The direct link to all of my courses on Recorded Books is here.

    John Alexander, the founder of The Modern Scholar and my producer for all 12 courses, has formed Scholarly Sojourns: beautiful, flawless educational tours throughout the world. In Summer 2014 I am leading tours to Anglo-Saxon Britain, Iceland and Tolkien's England. We could meet up!
              

    Call for papers: The Role of Universities in Addressing Societal Challenges and Fostering Democracy: Inclusion, Migration, and Education for Citizenship

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    The international Conference "The Role of Universities in Addressing Societal Challenges and Fostering Democracy: Inclusion, Migration, and Education for Citizenship" will take place on April 2‐3, 2020 at the University of Akureyri, Iceland. The call for papers is open until December 15, 2019.


              

    Registration: International Symposium on Plastics in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic Region

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    The Government of Iceland, in collaboration with the Nordic Council of Ministers, hosts the International Symposium on Plastics in the Arctic and Sub-Arctic Region in April 21-23, 2020 in Reykjavik in connection with the Icelandic chairmanship of the Arctic Council. Registration and call for abstracts are now open for the event.


              

    SANASOL - Seveneleven (reissue) (Thule Iceland) 140 gram vinyl 12"

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    Title: Seveneleven (reissue)
    Artist: SANASOL
    Label: Thule Iceland
    Format: 140 gram vinyl 12"

    Track listing:
    MP3 Sample Seveneleven
    MP3 Sample Seveneleven (Closedonsundays mix)
    MP3 Sample Seveneleven (Sanaramalonger mix)
    MP3 Sample Seveneleven (Ozzy mix)

              

    Socceroos on ABC, SBS VICELAND.

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    ABC has FTA rights for home games, while SBS has overseas matches.
              

    Challenger bank Bunq expands to all EU countries

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    Fintech startup Bunq is launching in 22 additional markets today. It is now going to be available in all European Union markets as well as Norway and Iceland. Overall, users can sign up in 30 countries. In addition to today’s geographic expansion, the company is enabling Apple Pay and Google Pay support for Travel Card […]
              

    10/8/2019: TV VANDAAG: Viceland

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    It’s Suppertime! Beerland States of Undress Motherboard Motherboard Motherboard Motherboard The Hunt For The Trump Tapes With Tom Arnold The Hunt For The Trump Tapes With Tom Arnold Cyberwar Cyberwar The Joy of Painting with Bob Ross The Joy of...
              

    Latvia (W) - Iceland (W)

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    Football. Women. European Championship / Qualification.
              

    Fjolnir - Fram

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    Handball. Iceland. 1 Deild Karla
              

    Iceland - France

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    Football. EURO 2020 Qualifying
              

    Sweden U21 - Iceland U21

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    Football. European U-21 Championship qualification
              

    Iceland versus Latvia today

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    The Icelandic women’s national football team will today play Latvia in their battle to qualify for Euro 2021. The match starts at 17.00 in Liepaja, Latvia, where pitch conditions could have an impact on the outcome. The Icelanders were supposed to train at the Daugava stadium in Liepaja yesterday, as is traditional the day before a match. But very heavy rain in recent days meant the pitch was not suitable for use. Despite this caution, the pitch has seen better days and the goal boxes at both ends are muddy and the grass is generally uneven, as can be seen on fotbolti.net#utm_source=googlier.com/page/2019_10_08/77637&utm_campaign=link&utm_term=googlier&utm_content=googlier.com, here.  Iceland coach Jón Þór Hauksson says his players will not allow the conditions to trouble them, however.   “They [local groundskeepers] have of course landed in some difficulties with the pitch, as I understand it, so we are training here in the training area when we should have been training in the stadium. But we are lucky to have an experienced team and it will not put the group on the back foot, or the rest of us. In fact, we are very satisfied with life here in Latvia,” Jón Þór told RÚV yesterday.  Latvia are without a point after their first two games—both of which were played at Daugava stadium. The Latvians lost 4-1 against the world cup bronze medallists, Sweden on 3rd September, despite unexpectedly going 1-0 up early in the game. They then lost 2-1 against Slovakia last Friday.  Iceland, meanwhile, won both of their first two group games. Firstly with a 4-1 victory over Hungary in Reykjavík on 29th August, and then a 1-0 win against Slovakia, also at home, four days later.  Iceland currently sit top of the group, tied with Sweden on six points. The Swedes meet Slovakia in Gothenburg at the same time as Iceland and Latvia play this afternoon. The top finishing team in each group will qualify for Euro 2021 in England, while the three best-performing second-place teams among the nine groups will also qualify.  Iceland’s game against Latvia in Liepaja at 17.00 today will be shown live on RÚV. The programme starts at 16.30. Click to follow RÚV English on Facebook.
              

    Landslide and flood risk in east

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    Southeast Iceland and the East Fjords continue to be very wet today and travellers are warned to be wary of swollen rivers and possible landslides. The rain will slow or stop this afternoon. A yellow weather warning remains in effect for the southeast and the East Fjords until lunchtime today. The East Fjords are experiencing very heavy rain and blustery winds of 10-15 metres per second. Increased flow in rivers with increased risk of flooding and landslides will continue even after it stops raining.  In southeast Iceland, the wind is between 10 and 18 metres per second and heavy or torrential rain; especially in the easternmost parts. The region also has a heightened risk posed by swollen rivers and landslides.  According to the weather forecast until midnight tomorrow, there will be little precipitation in the south and west, though a low-pressure area will start to affect the whole country tomorrow afternoon and evening, bringing showers—though it will remain mostly dry in the southwest. Temperatures across the country of 5 to 13°C.   Weather in the capital city will be dry with north-easterly changeable breezes at 3 to 8 metres per second. 5 to 10 m/s north-easterlies tomorrow. Temperature 8 to 13°C. Click to follow RÚV English on Facebook.
              

    Study reveals safest countries to survive an extreme global pandemic

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    New Zealand, Australia, and Iceland could act as islands of refuge for humankind in the event of a catastrophe, according to a new paper from researchers published in the international journal Risk Analysis.
              

    The Proto-Indo-European Homeland Puzzle

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    The Indo-European Language Family

    Indo-European was the first language family to be identified. This discovery, and the beginning of modern linguistics, can be dated to February 2, 1786 at a gathering of scientists and other interested men. Sir William Jones, speaking at the Asiatic Society in Calcutta, made this astounding statement:

    The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure: more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either; yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which, perhaps, no longer exists.

    Jones later added Persian and Celtic as likely members of this family of languages.

    Jones was uniquely qualified to make this discovery. His parental language was Welsh; he was taught English at school; he learned classical Greek and Latin in university where he studied law; he wrote the first English grammar of the Persian language (which earned him a reputation as one of the most respected linguists in Europe); and when appointed a judge in India at age 37 set out to learn the Sanskrit language to better understand local laws. Thus by age 40 Jones was familiar with a language in 6 (out of a total of 12) different Indo-European language branches.

    Indo-European languages are spoken today by over 3 billion people - about half of the world's population - as either a first or second language. These languages are divided into 10 or 12 language branches or subfamilies. See the attached graph (Figure 1.1 of The Horse, The Wheel and Language p.12) which is arranged more or less geographically. English is a member of the Germanic subfamily along with German, Dutch, Frisian, the Scandinavian languages (which includes Icelandic), Yiddish, and Afrikaans. Other languages to note include:
                Tocharian – two extinct languages found in western China, the farthest East branch
                Hittite – a member of the extinct Anatolian branch – the earliest branch to separate
                Romany – the language of the Gypsies of Europe, is a member of the Indic branch showing that they originated in northwest India (not to be confused with Rumanian which is a member of the Latin or Romance language branch)



    Source: Figure 1.1 of The Horse, The Wheel and Language p.12

    About 6,000 to 5,000 years ago the parent language, called Proto-Indo-European, was spoken by a semi-nomadic tribe of people in the southern Ukraine and Russia. How their language spread and evolved into all of all these languages could be the subject for a future lecture. Today I want to show how historical linguistics and archaeology were combined to solve the puzzle of who the speakers of Proto-Indo-European were, and where and when they lived.
    Source: Figure 1.2 of The Horse, The Wheel and Language p.14

    The Proto-Indo-European Homeland Puzzle

    Since the discovery of the IE language family, the location of the homeland of the original speakers has been claimed by different people to be many different places: India, Pakistan, Syria/Lebanon, the Caucasus Mountains, Turkey, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, the Balkans and Germany. By the late 20th century linguists only seriously considered two of these – Anatolia (modern Turkey) and the steppes of southern Ukraine and Russia. And as recently as 2000, Calvert Watkins in his essay “Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans” which introduces his book The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots stated “Archaeologists have not in fact succeeded in locating the Indo-Europeans.”

    Colin Renfrew was a strong supporter of the other serious contender, Anatolia. Renfew's elegant proposal, published in the 1990's, had Proto-Indo-European migrant farmers carry their language along with agriculture from the Middle East to the westernmost part of Europe. But like many elegant theories, this one turned out to be not true. (I was greatly disappointed when linguistics and DNA analysis disproved Thor Heyerdahl's theories of Polynesian origins). There are, as we will see, serious problems with Renfrew's theory.

    Before going further, I need to emphasize one point. Proto-Indo-European is a language. It is not a culture, nor is it a genetically-definable population. Language does not necessarily follow cultural boundaries, which can be determined by archaeology. Every first year archaeology student is taught “pots are not people”. But we know that someone must have spoken this language, and they must have lived in a particular place during a particular time. So while looking for the speakers of Proto-Indo-European we need to be careful of this constraint.
      
    Clues from the Language

    Since Proto-Indo-European is a language, let's look first at clues to the homeland from the language itself. The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots published in 2000 contains 1350 reconstructed root words and several thousand more words based on these roots. These words have been painstakingly reconstructed by comparing similar words (called cognates) from the daughter languages over the more than 200 years since Jones' discovery. What can we learn about the people who spoke this language from their vocabulary?

    they knew four seasons with snow in winter
    they were not familiar with tropical plants or animals
    animals include: wolf, lynx, elk beaver, otter, mouse, fish
    birds include: crane, goose, duck, eagle, woodpecker
    insects: wasp, hornet, fly, louse, bee, honey (mead)
    domestic animals include: dog, cattle, sheep and horse
    horses play an important role in the culture
    they practiced spinning and weaving of wool
    they knew metallurgy - copper
    they knew of the wheel and used wagons or carts (weak link in Anatolian)
    they knew of boats and oars - words like nav (navigate, navy) and rowing.
    gift exchange is an important part of their culture
    the guest-host relation was important –  *ghosti is the root of both host and guest (ghost originally meant visitor or guest)
    they borrowed words from Proto-Uralic, another Eurasian language family, suggesting that the Proto-Indo-European speakers must have lived close to, and likely traded with, people who spoke Proto-Uralic who then, as now, live in northern Europe and Siberia (Hungarian is a member of this family found in Europe because of recent migration (~900CE).

    The seasons and animals indicate a northern location either in or adjacent to a forest. The words for bee and honey place the homeland west of the Ural Mountains as honeybees do not occur east of there.

    Clues to Dating Proto-Indo-European

    Language can also help place the Proto-Indo-European speakers in time as well as location.

    Agriculture was introduced to Europe between 6700 and 6500 BC while the wheel was not known until 3400 BC and woolen textiles sometime after 4000 BC. For the daughter language families to have similar words for the wheel and wool, they must have separated from Proto-Indo-European after their arrival. This effectively eliminates the Anatolian farmer immigrant theory. Besides, the two or three Anatolian languages were very similar to each other and spoken by only a small number of people in this area, which strongly suggests they are spoken by Indo-European speaking migrants to Anatolia, not by the ancestors of the language.

    The domestication of the horse provides additional clues. Horses were hunted for meat by the people of the steppe for millennia before they were domesticated. They were first domesticated sometime after 4800 BC, a thousand years after cattle were introduced to the area. But they were raised for their meat only. During a cool dry period (4200-3800 BC) horses would have an advantage over cattle because they can forage for themselves during the winter. [Pioneer farmers in Saskatchewan like my grandfather often turned their horses loose for the winter to manage for themselves, rounding them up in the spring]. Riding of horses began on the steppes sometime before 3700 BC and had spread to Northern Kazakhstan, the Caucasus Mountains, and into Europe, by 3000 BC.

    An important tool used in the dating of horse riding is bit wear on horse molars. The identification of tooth wear caused by bits of metal, bone, rope and rawhide, was pioneered by the author of The Horse, The Wheel and Language – David W. Anthony, and his wife, fellow archaeologist Dorcas Brown. There is an interesting Saskatchewan connection here. One of the experts they contacted was Hilary Clayton who began studying the mechanics of bits in horses’ mouths while working in Philadelphia, and then took a job at the Western Veterinarian College in Saskatoon. Anthony and Brown followed her to Saskatchewan in 1985 and viewed the X-ray videos she had made of horses chewing their bits.

    Riding horses provided a significant benefit to herders in the steppes. A man on horseback could manage a herd of cattle or sheep much larger than a man on foot. With the much later advent of wheeled carts, about 3300 BC, the herders could carry with them tents, food and water allowing them to take advantage of the vast areas between the river valleys. This opened up the steppe much as the horse did to the plains of North America 5,000 years later.

    Dating the Daughters

    Language provides clues to timing in another way. Linguists can date, with more or less certainty, when each of the daughter language branches separated from the mother language. Here is a list of the branches, in the order of separation, with the approximate date (all BC) of separation (from Figure 3.2 The Horse, The Wheel and Language p. 57).

                Anatolian        4200
                Tocharian       3700 - 3300
                Germanic        3300
                Celtic / Italic   3000
                Greek / Armenian 2500
                Balto-Slavic    2500
                Indo-Iranian    2500-2200

    Clues from Archaeology – The Kurgan Cultures

    With the time line narrowed to the period 4000 to 2000 BC, it's time to look at the archaeological record and see who was living in the likely homelands and how well they fit with the linguistic clues. The archaeology of the Pontic-Caspian steppes was mostly carried out by Soviet scientists and published in Russian. These were not translated into English until the 1990s. Anthony was one of the first western archaeologists to study this work and relate it to the Proto-Indo-European homeland question.

    Anthony found a close fit with the western steppe peoples who built huge burial mounds called kurgans. Their culture varied somewhat over the Proto-Indo-European time line and also geographically from place to place within this large area, but their overall cultures were similar, especially compared to the foragers to the north and east and to the sophisticated farming cultures to the west and south. They were semi-nomadic, raising cattle and sheep. Horses were important both for meat and for riding to manage their growing herds. They used wheeled carts. They mined their own ore and made their own tools and weapons of copper, tin and bronze.

    Even more compelling is the evidence, from archaeology, of known migrations out of the steppes in the right directions and at the right times to account for the birth of the daughter language families.

    1) to the west 4200-3900 (Anatolian)
    2) to the east 3700-3300 (Tocharian)
    3) to the west - several waves (Germanic, Celtic, Italic)
    4) to north (Baltic, Slavic)
    5) to the east and south (Iranian, Indic)

    I should explain that by migration I do not mean large scale movement of people displacing existing populations along with their culture and language. This may have been the case with the Pre-Tocharians who made a remarkably long migration in one jump to the Altai Mountains 2000 km to the east (equivalent to the journey made by my grandparents from southern Ontario to Saskatchewan, but without the advantage of trains). Most if not all the other migrations were by small groups who, through some combination of trade or intimidation, became rulers of existing populations. They brought with them enough of their culture to be recognized archaeologically; and they brought their language which, for a variety of reasons, was adopted by the others and continued to spread long after they were gone.
      
    Puzzle Solved

    While there may be a few objections to his theory not yet satisfactorily answered, Anthony is convinced that the Proto-Indo-European Homeland puzzle has been solved.

    Source: Figure 5.1 of The Horse, The Wheel and Language p.84

    I want to finish with a quote from The Horse, The Wheel and Language  p. 464

    Understanding the people who lived before us is difficult, particularly the people who lived in the prehistoric tribal past. Archaeology throws a bright light on some aspects of their lives but leaves much in the dark. Historical linguistics can illuminate a few of those dark corners.

              

    Grimm’s Law

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    In linguistic circles Jacob Grimm (1785-1863) is better known for his discovery of phonetic changes in the development of Proto-Germanic than for his German folk tales.

    Jacob was trained as a lawyer but was more interested in history and language – early German literature in particular. He authored many scholarly books including Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache (History of the German Language), Deutsche Grammatik (German Grammar), and the monumental Deutsches Wörterbuch (German Dictionary). In 1812 and 1814 he and his younger brother Wilhelm published their collection of old German folk tales as Grimms Märchen (Grimms’ Fairy Tales) Volumes 1 and 2.


    Grimm’s Law was first published in the second edition of his German Grammar in 1822. It is considered significant in linguistic science for introducing “…a rigorous methodology to historic linguistic research.” [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/#utm_source=googlier.com/page/2019_10_08/98182&utm_campaign=link&utm_term=googlier&utm_content=googlier.comJacob_Grimm].

    Sometime during the progression from Proto-Indo-European (about 2000 BC) to Proto-Germanic (about 500 BC), certain sound shifts in consonants occurred which were nearly universal (occurring to all words). These changes did not occur in any other PIE daughter languages such as the Proto-Romance language, so are observable with comparisons between English words taken directly from Latin, French or other Romance languages and those from its Germanic roots.

    Greatly simplified, the changes are (with examples):

    Labials (sounds made with the lips)
    p changes to f: ped / foot; pater / father
    f changes to b: fund / bottom
    b changes to p: labial / lip

    Velars (sounds made mid-palate)
    k changes to h: canine / hound
    h changes to g: host / guest
    g changes to k: genuflect / knee

    Dentals (sounds made with the tongue and teeth)
    t changes to th: triple / three
    th changes to d: thyroid / door
    d changes to t: duo / two

    Note that in all three groups, the changes go full circle, sort of like musical chairs.

    Verner’s Law, developed by Danish linguist Karl Verner, explains further changes that occurred later to certain consonants in certain conditions (depending on the accent of the preceding syllable).

    These sound changes are evident in all of the modern Germanic languages: German, Frisian, Dutch (and Africaans), Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese, Luxembourgish, and of course English.

    Sound changes like this are common in language history and take several generations, often a few centuries, to complete. A more recent example in English is known as the Great Vowel Shift which occurred between 1400 and 1600 (between Chaucer and Shakespeare). That’s a subject for a future post.

              

    Borrowed Words

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    All languages borrow words from languages with which they come in contact; English is unique in the extent to which it has done so. Henry Hitchings in his book The Secret Life of Words estimates that English has borrowed words from 350 different languages. This book deals extensively with this phenomenon [1] of the English language. Wikipedia estimates that only 26% of the current 700,000 to 1 million English words come from its Germanic roots, the rest are borrowed from other languages. Words of French origin actually exceeds German, making up 29% of English vocabulary and Latin (including technical words) ties with French at 29%, with the remaining 16% coming from all the other languages [wikipedia.org/wiki/#utm_source=googlier.com/page/2019_10_08/98186&utm_campaign=link&utm_term=googlier&utm_content=googlier.comList_of_English_words_of_French_origin].

    There are different levels to which borrowed words become assimilated into English. Some words like ensemble or bratwurst are obvious borrowings and partially retain their foreign spelling and/or pronunciation. At the other extreme are words like marmalade [2] or mayor that have become Anglicized to the extent that we can't tell from the words themselves (pronunciation or spelling) where they are borrowed from, or even that they have been borrowed. The level of assimilation depends on time and usage - the longer since it was borrowed and the more it is used, the greater its degree of "Englishness" and the more familiar it appears to us. For example, words from Greek like area and problem are  more familiar than euphoria and persona; and from French marriage has been Anglicized while montage retains its French pronunciation.

    Many borrowed words result from the age of exploration in which new things were discovered from around the world and named from words taken from the local language. Chimpanzee is from the West African language Tshiluba, geyser from Icelandic, sauna from Finnish, and futon from Japanese. Closer to home, Saskatoon berries and pemmican are from Cree words, as is the name of my province Saskatchewan [3].

    Similarly words may be borrowed because there is no English equivalent, even though the object or notion is well known. My favorite example of this is the German word Ohrwurm (literally "ear-worm") for that tune you just can't get out of your head. Other loanwords may already have an English word for it, but the new word is more descriptive (entrepreneur) or adds a particular shade of meaning (scarlet and vermillion from French).

    The terms "borrowing" and "loanword" seem rather odd in reference to words, as the loaning languages don't have to give up their words and there is no expectations of having to pay them back (sort of like your teenager "borrowing" $20 to go to the movies). English however has returned the favor many times and loaned words to languages from which it has previously borrowed. French now has le weekend and cool, Japanese intanetto and wado purosessa [4], and German has die bluejeans and der blogger.

    __________________
    [1] from Greek
    [2] from Portuguese
    [3] A story goes that some American hunters pull into a gas station and ask the attendant where they are. The attendant replies "Saskatoon, Saskatchewan". One hunter then turns to the driver and says "I told you we went too far north - the natives don't even speak English".
    [4] Try saying them out loud without the final "o".
              

    Next Generation: after five years, how has our first full class of picks fared?

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    From Rashford to Tielemans, we check in on how our initial Next Generation players have got on before the 2019 ones are announced this week

    In 2014 we decided that it would be interesting to pick the best young players from each Premier League club – as well as 40 from around the world – and follow them for five years to see how they progressed.

    The idea was to try to get an idea of how difficult it is to become a professional footballer despite being one of the best in that country at the age of 16 or 17.

    Continue reading...
              

    24 famous airlines that have gone out of business

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    Pan Am Boeing 747

    British airline and tour operator Thomas Cook ceased operations in late September.

    The 178-year-old travel company shut down after failing to secure a £200 million rescue loan.

    It joins a number of other low-cost and leisure-oriented airlines to collapse this year, including Wow Air and X, amid stiff competition along with political and economic instability. 

    Over the past two decades, a number of well-known airline brands have disappeared from the aviation landscape. A large number of these brands have gone away due to mergers as airlines joined together in order to survive the brutally competitive market place.

    Read more: Roughly 600,000 travelers are stranded around the world after the British travel provider Thomas Cook declares bankruptcy

    Northwest and Delta merged to form the new Delta Air Lines. United and Continental merged to create the new United Airlines with planes painted in Continental livery. TWA was acquired by American Airlines. America West and US Air merged to become US Airways. American Airlines and US Airways then merged to form a new American Airlines under US Airways management. Virgin America was acquired by Alaska Airlines while AirTran Airways and Morris Air were acquired by Southwest Airlines. 

    In Canada, Canadian Airlines was merged into Air Canada. While in Brazil, Varig was acquired by Gol. The UK's British Caledonian and British Midland were both acquired by British Airways, itself created by the 1974 merger of British Overseas Airways Corporation, British European Airways, and two smaller regional carriers. 

    But with the sudden collapse of Thomas Cook in mind, we at Business Insider decided to compile a list of airlines that went out of business the old fashioned way, running out of money. 

    Here's a closer look. 

    This article was originally published by Benjamin Zhang in March 2019. It was updated by David Slotnick in October 2019.

    SEE ALSO: The complete history of the 737 Max, Boeing’s promising yet problematic workhorse jet

    FOLLOW US: On Facebook for more car and transportation content!

    Lakers Airways Skytrain: defunct 1982.

    Founded by Sir Freddie Laker in 1966, the airline and its fleet of McDonnell Douglas DC-10 "Skytrains" promised low-cost travel across Atlantic for half the price of its competitors. Unfortunately, the airline could not sustain the business and collapsed under the weight of £270 million of debt in February 1982. 



    Braniff international Airways: defunct 1982.

    The Texas-based airline was one of the most interesting and colorful companies in the business from its unique multi-color livery to its Emilio Pucci designer flight attendant uniforms. Sadly, the airline went belly up in May 1982 after racking up $733 million in debt. Subsequent attempts to revive the brand have proven to be unsuccessful. 



    Eastern Air Lines: defunct 1991.

    Miami-based Eastern Air Lines was one of the biggest names in the US airline business. Unfortunately, Eastern was plagued by labor strife and an inability to compete effectively post-deregulation. Eastern filed for bankruptcy in 1989 before ending flight operations in January 1991. 



    Midway Airlines: Defunct 1991.

    Midway Airlines began flying in 1979 following the deregulation of the US airline industry. The Chicago-based airline was able to survive the surge in fuel prices and the drop in passenger traffic resulting from the Gulf War. The airline shut down in November 1991. 



    Interflug: defunct 1991.

    Founded in 1958, Interflug succeeded Deutsche Lufthansa (different from West Germany's Lufthansa) as the national airline of East Germany. The airline failed to find a buyer after the reunification of Germany. Interflug shut down in February 1991. 



    Pan American World Airways: defunct 1991.

    Founded in 1927, Pam Am is arguably the most iconic name in the airline industry.  Unfortunately, the airline ran into financial trouble during the 1970s and 80s before going out of business in 1991. 



    Tower Air: defunct 2000.

    Founded in 1983, New York-based Tower Air operated scheduled passengers flights as well as military and leisure charters using its fleet of Boeing 747 jumbo jet. The airline ran into financial and operational troubles in the mid-1990s before shutting down in May 2000. 



    Ansett Australia: defunct 2001.

    Founded in 1936, Ansett Australia was the second largest airline in Australia when it shut down in September 2001. The airline's owner, Air New Zealand had to be bailed out by the New Zealand government to avoid bankruptcy following Ansett's collapse. 



    Sabena: defunct 2001.

    Founded in 1923, Sabena was Belgium's national airline until its collapse in November 2001. 



    Swissair: defunct 2002.

    Founded in 1931, Swissair was at one time one of the most respected airlines in the world. Unfortunately, the Swissair's "Hunter Strategy" that saw it take equity stakes in a handful of other airlines during the 1980s and 90s stretched the company's finances too far. Swissair ceased operations in March 2002. Its assets were transferred to regional subsidiary Crossair which was then reorganized into the Swiss International Air Lines. 



    Aloha Airlines: defunct 2008.

    Founded in 1946, the Honolulu, Hawaii-based airline ceased passenger flight operations in March 2008. 



    ATA Airlines: defunct 2008.

    Founded in 1973, Indiana-based ATA Airlines filed for bankruptcy and ceased flight operations in April 2008. The airline cited the loss of its military charter business as a contributing factor to its demise. 



    Mexicana: defunct 2010.

    Founded in 1921, Mexicana was Mexico's largest airline when it ran into financial trouble and shut down in August 2010. 



    Spanair: defunct 2012.

    Founded in 1986, Spanair was for much of its existence a subsidiary of SAS Group, the owners of Scandinavian Airlines. In 2008, SAS Group sold off its controlling share in the Barcelona-based airline. The loss-making airline shut down in January 2012 after the local Catalan government failed to find new investors for Spanair. 



    Malev: defunct 2012.

    Founded in 1946, Malev was Hungary's national airline until it ceased operations in February 2012 after the Hungarian government declined to continue funding the loss marking carrier. 



    Kingfisher: defunct 2012.

    Kingfisher was founded in 2005 by flamboyant Indian billionaire Vijay Mallya as part of his UB Group business empire. The airline was known for its colorfully painted aircraft and top-notch service. Kingfisher ceased flights October 2012 after the Indian government pulled the heavily indebted airline's operating license. 



    Transaero: defunct 2015.

    Founded in 1990, Transaero was one of Russia's largest privately-owned airlines. Unfortunately, Transaero collapsed in October 2015 due to $4 billion in debt. Fun fact, two Boeing 747-8 airliners that were due to be delivered to Transaero before its shut down will be converted into the next generation US presidential planes, aka. Air Force One. 



    Monarch Airlines: defunct 2017.

    Founded in 1967, Monarch Airlines a major player in the British leisure charter business. The airline ceased operations in October 2017. According to the Economist, it was the largest airline to ever fail in the UK.



    Air Berlin: defunct 2017.

    Founded in 1978, Air Berlin was once Germany's second largest airline. The carrier ceased operations in October 2017 after major shareholder Etihad Airways declined to continue financial support of the money-losing airline. 



    Primera Air: defunct 2018.

    Primera Air was a subsidiary of Icelandic tourism company Primera Travel Group. The low-cost carrier ceased operations in October 2018. 



    Germania: defunct 2019.

    Founded in 1978, Berlin-based Germania offered by charter and scheduled passenger service. The airline ceased operations in early February 2019 citing financial insolvency. 



    Flybmi/British Midland Regional: defunct 2019.

    Founded in 1987, Flybmi was once the regional arms of British Midland International. The airline was sold off in 2012 following BMI's acquisition by British Airways. Flybmi shut down in February 2019. 



    Wow Air: defunct 2019.

    Founded in 2012, the Icelandic ultra-low-cost carriers collapsed in March 2019 after failing to secure new investment from Icelandair and private equity firm Indigo Partners. 



    Thomas Cook: defunct 2019.

    After 178 years and various forms, the British airline and travel company collapsed in September 2019 after failing to secure emergency funding demanded by its creditors.




              

    10/10/19: Win Tix: Solomon Georgio (Comedy Central/Viceland) | Cobb’s - WIN

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    Solomon had his television debut in February 2015 as the featured comedian on Conan, and followed it up with appearances on Drunk History, The Meltdown with Jonah & Kumail, This is Not Happening, Viceland’s Flophouse, Last Call with Carson Daily, 2 Dope Queens and a ...

    The post Win Tix: Solomon Georgio (Comedy Central/Viceland) | Cobb’s appeared first on Funcheap.


              

    CyberSpins Casino Exclusive Free Spins

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    Gambola Casino Exclusive Sign Up Bonus

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    Multichannel Survey 2019: SBS VICELAND, SBS Food, World Movies, NITV.

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    Now with two HD multichannels, SBS channels try to understand the world around you.


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