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Moderni poliittinen provokaatio Eurooppa-liigassa – pelaajat raivostuivat, peli keskeytettiin

Eurooppa-liigan ottelu luxemburgilaisen Dudelangen ja azerbaidzhanilaisen FK Karabakhin välillä on jouduttu toistaiseksi keskeyttämään. Ottelun keskeytykseen johti poliittinen provokaatio, joka sai vierasjoukkueen pelaajat raivon partaalle. Ottelun 35. minuutilla pelikentän keskiympyrän ylle lennätettiin drone, josta roikkui Artsakhin tasavallan lippu. Kiistelty Artsakhin maakunta on lähinnä armenialaisten asuttama, mutta se kuuluu virallisesti Azerbaidzhaniin. Alue tunnettiin aiemmin nimellä Vuoristo-Karabah. Armenian […]

Vigilante - T-Employ - Armenia, Quindío

Experiencia en vigilancia y/o seguridad privada, en conjuntos residenciales, discotecas o empresas grandes.
De TeRecomiendo - Tue, 10 Sep 2019 01:29:07 GMT - Ver todos: empleos en Armenia, Quindío

Vigilante - Servagro - Armenia, Quindío

Prevenir y reducir los riesgos en cuanto a seguridad que puedan presentarse en las instalaciones donde estén prestando el servicio.
De Servagro - Tue, 09 Oct 2018 06:33:59 GMT - Ver todos: empleos en Armenia, Quindío

Armenia U19 W vs Bosnia and Herzegovina U19 W, Oct 08, 2019 – Preview, Where to Watch, Score

UEFA Euro U19 Women, Armenia U19 – Bosnia U19, Tuesday, 9:00 am ET Score, Highlights Short Preview Recently, the teams did not play each other. !!!!! Information about video stream is absent for now There is no available odds for this game now. Please check them on ours partner site: Bwin, Unibet, 1xBet, William Hill…

anngol: Несколько причин делать маску из свежего огурца: экспресс-уход


Это цитата сообщения justvitek Оригинальное сообщениеНесколько причин делать маску из свежего огурца: экспресс-уход

4208855_wVQ1_2e9kzo (700x466, 113Kb)

На его основе делают даже в промышленных масштабах тоники и кремы. Он также помогает успокоить кожу после пребывания на солнце и отбелить ее.  А в сочетании с куркумой он творит настоящие чудеса.

Куркума является мощным ингредиентом для поддержания тонуса кожи и ее омоложения. Это прекрасный антиоксидант для кожи, а также противовоспалительное средство. От такого дуэта кожа будет увлажненной, сияющей и упругой. Чтобы приготовить маску, смешай кашицу половины среднего огурца и 1/2 ложки молотой куркумы.

Хорошенько всё перемешай. Очисти кожу и нанеси маску на 15–20 минут. Смой маску чистой прохладной водой. Если твоя кожа очень сухая, можешь нанести увлажняющий крем дополнительно. Учти, что куркума обладает красящими свойствами, поэтому лучше надеть что-то не очень ценное или накинуть на плечи полотенце. По той же причине маску лучше использовать вечером перед сном, чтобы смыть желтоватый оттенок утром (может проявляться на белоснежках).

Но если ты загорелая, то такая маска даст тебе возможность поддерживать ровный цвет лица и тела, ведь зачастую кожа лица вымывается намного быстрее и становится бледной. Применяй эту маску 3 раза в неделю, и уже через месяц твоя кожа будет более упругой, чистой и свежей. Но эффект виден уже после первого применения: кожа будто заряженная энергией, мягкая, подтянутая, и ее хочется трогать (что не очень полезно).


GNC-Alfa adds new TV channel

(Telecompaper) Armenian fixed operator GNC-Alfa, working under the Rostelecom brand, has added a new TV channel to its pay-TV line-up. The Armenian news TV channel Armnews is now available for all subscribers...

From Your Resident Sololaki Hipster - Cafe at the National Gallery

Having just been termed a "Sololaki hipster writer" by the incomparable Mark Mullen over at TBLpod (I'm not denying it - I embrace my hipsterness, which in turn means I'm earnestly embracing irony, which in turn means that the laws of space and time have imploded), I feel it's my solemn hipster duty to share a few more Hipster Cafes in Tbilisi.

Where to Write a Novel in Tbilisi - Part the Billionth
Sleek, minimalist, and utterly strange, the cafe at Tbilisi's National Gallery looks and feels nothing like any other cafe I've been to in Georgia. A bit like a child's playroom, a bit like Vienna's Cafe Phil (still the gold standard in Minimalist Retro Chic, and my "home base" for any trip to Vienna, the National Gallery Cafe is achingly trendy, agonizing hip, and refreshingly air-conditioned. The terrace - overlooking the park - is one of my favorite writing-spots in Tbilisi; the interior is attractive but not exactly comfortable (credit to the staff, though; they're very nice about plugging in laptops in the corner and letting me potter about on the keyboard for a few hours at a time). Still, when I'm sick of strangely-slick, faux "shabby chic" (Tartine, despite my love for its brunches/enormous coffee cups/etc, is an offender, as is Moulin Electrique) vibe, it's nice to go somewhere that embraces its status as Hipster Capital of Tbilisi more openly. (Although it's a tough competition between the gallery-cafe and nearby Fantastic Duqan, which is its closest rival)

The food, though expensive, is absolutely fantastic - think odd, organic combinations of various cheeses and vegetables, served on lavash (Armenian nouveau cuisine, maybe) wraps? I'm partial to the tomato sandwich myself!

The cafe is on the second floor of the National Gallery. While there's technically an entry fee to the gallery itself, I've never been stopped from going directly to the cafe without paying for the museum.

Go to write: an experimental piece of neo-modernist stream-of-consciousness fiction about the impossibility of human connection in an unnamed Central European city, told from the point of view of a coat hanger.


Georgian Food Abroad: Lobio Recipe

When (as it often happens), I grow "half-sick of shadows" and homesick for Georgia (when Oxford ceases to be interesting, for a time, and I start to long for the back streets of Sololaki or the moon over Mtatsminda), I try to channel my homesickness into Georgian cookery. Now, as a certified Non-Georgian (albeit one seeking Honorary Status), I have very little license to cook Proper Georgian Food here in Oxford, where I live in a bizarre neo-Gothic drafty Victorian Orthodox Christian boarding house with a kitchen full of fenugreek and olive oil. (I did make khinkali here one, but most of the dumplings opened up and my Georgian friends were mildly judgy...I stand by their taste, however)

However, given that my diet in Georgia consists of 9 parts lobio/lobiani to every 1 part "other food sources", I may well have, in two on-and-off years, eaten comparable amounts of lobio to the average 20-something Georgian, who may, like any normal person, eat bean-based dishes in rotation with other kinds of food. After several iterations of lobio, however, including attempts made with Caitlyn (also known as my "bellydancer/medieval-historian friend", with whom I went to Armenia) and in Paris at the home of the loveliest Couchsurfing hosts of all time, I have created the ultimate lobio recipe for those attempting to re-create the flavours of lobio abroad.

Hence, without further ado, Fleur Flaneur's Recipe for Lobio Abroad

-3 cans of red kidney beans in water
-1 enormous bunch fresh coriander
-1 package walnuts
-2 plums ("tkemali" isn't available here, but this serves as a substitute")
-1 head garlic
-1 onion
-2 leeks (other recipes give carrot and celery, but I prefer leeks)
-Spices: dried coriander, fenugreek seeds (lots!), fenugreek leaves (lots!), chilli pepper, parsley, salt, pepper to taste

1. Finely chop the onions and leeks, sautee until brown.
2. Add beans, just enough water to avoid burning. When it boils, lower flame to simmering. Add *loads* of dried spices (keep adding more every 20 minutes or so).
3.While beans are cooking, prepare the "paste." Finely chop a head of garlic, combine with diced walnuts (or, if you're me, simply place the walnuts in a plastic bag and stomp on them for a while), add LOADS of dried spices and chopped plums. Add most of the fresh coriander. Set aside.
4. When beans have been cooking for approximately 2 hours (or "when properly soft"), add combination of walnuts-raw garlic-fruit-herb-spice paste. Stir in for 2-5 minutes (don't let the coriander get soggy)
5. Stir in lots more fresh coriander, immediately remove from flame. Serve, garnished with even more coriander.

What makes the dish, for me, is ensuring a) that the garlic is raw, b) that the coriander isn't soggy (ie, add dried spices throughout, but  fresh spices only at the end), c) that there are plenty of plums in there, d) that you add ridiculously large amounts of every spice listed on this menu.

Dear Fleur,
What if I *am* in Georgia? Where can I get good lobio and lobiani in Tbilisi?
-A Human Bean

Dear Human Bean,
Google-sourced image.
While I normal decry chain restaurants with every fibre of my being, if you're looking for cheap and reliably delicious lobiani in a charming atmosphere, the Machakhela in Meidan (which is open 24/7 - hence for breakfast) has a stunning terrace overlooking the river, serves serviceable Nescafe with milk, and uniformly excellent lobiani. (Yes, I know, it's an overpriced chain, but it's the only place I can get my 7 am lobiani fix.) The upscale Literatuli chain offers another variety - thick lobio inside a flaky croissant pastry, which is reasonably priced (3 lari or thereabouts) and mindblowingly delicious.

The best lobio I've tasted was the pureed lobio at the Twins Old Cellar winery/inn in Napareuli, near Telavi, Kakheti. In Tbilisi, however, I'm partial to the lobio with dried fruit at Cafe Gabriadze (9 lari - pricey but good, with larger/harder beans). Or head to Mtskheta, thirty minutes away, famous for its lobio. Salobie - outside the city centre - is rightly famous, but I was equally impressed with a tiny restaurant right near the car park called something like Dzveli Mtskheta (right towards the city centre from the enormous lot, on your right, in a small courtayard). Lobio 3-6 lari - can't recall.


justvitek: Несколько причин делать маску из свежего огурца: экспресс-уход


4208855_wVQ1_2e9kzo (700x466, 113Kb)

На его основе делают даже в промышленных масштабах тоники и кремы. Он также помогает успокоить кожу после пребывания на солнце и отбелить ее.  А в сочетании с куркумой он творит настоящие чудеса.

Куркума является мощным ингредиентом для поддержания тонуса кожи и ее омоложения. Это прекрасный антиоксидант для кожи, а также противовоспалительное средство. От такого дуэта кожа будет увлажненной, сияющей и упругой. Чтобы приготовить маску, смешай кашицу половины среднего огурца и 1/2 ложки молотой куркумы.

Хорошенько всё перемешай. Очисти кожу и нанеси маску на 15–20 минут. Смой маску чистой прохладной водой. Если твоя кожа очень сухая, можешь нанести увлажняющий крем дополнительно. Учти, что куркума обладает красящими свойствами, поэтому лучше надеть что-то не очень ценное или накинуть на плечи полотенце. По той же причине маску лучше использовать вечером перед сном, чтобы смыть желтоватый оттенок утром (может проявляться на белоснежках).

Но если ты загорелая, то такая маска даст тебе возможность поддерживать ровный цвет лица и тела, ведь зачастую кожа лица вымывается намного быстрее и становится бледной. Применяй эту маску 3 раза в неделю, и уже через месяц твоя кожа будет более упругой, чистой и свежей. Но эффект виден уже после первого применения: кожа будто заряженная энергией, мягкая, подтянутая, и ее хочется трогать (что не очень полезно).


Ким Кардашьян крестила своих детей в Армении


Американская актриса и модель армянского происхождения Ким Кардашьян крестила троих своих детей в духовном центре Армянской апостольской церкви − Первопрестольном Святом Эчмиадзине, сообщает «Арменпресс» со ссылкой на главу информационной службы Первопрестольного Святого Эчмиадзина иерея Ваграма Меликяна.

«Никаких особых церемоний не было. Как и все другие семьи, они заранее зарегистрировались и в назначенное время пришли и приняли крещение», − рассказал собеседник агентства.

Троих детей крестили в часовне Святого Вардана и Святого Иоанна Крестителя. По данным портала, старшая дочь Ким и рэпера Канье Уэста Норт была крещена в Иерусалиме в 2015 году.

Ким Кардашьян приехала в Армению для участия во Всемирном конгрессе информационных технологий (WCIT-2019), который впервые пройдет в Ереване с 6 по 9 октября, передают «Новости-Армения». Модель выступит с лекцией «О влиянии современных технологий на СМИ, журналистику и искусство» в рамках пленарного заседания «Рынка идей».

Вместе с Ким в Армению приехала Кортни Кардашьян и трое детей.

Ким Кардашян имеет армянские корни со стороны отца. Кардашьян стали знаменитыми после того, как в 2007 году сняли реалити-шоу «Семейство Кардашян» на телеканале «E!». В мае 2014 года Ким вышла замуж за рэпера Канье Уэста. У супругов четверо детей — дочери Норт и Чикаго, а также сыновья Сейнт и Саам.


Armenia and the technology of diaspora

It’s a tough world out there for small countries. Technology is the future, everyone knows that; but how do you claim your share of that future when you’re competing with America, China, the EU and India? How do you build a thriving ecosystem of tech wealth and tech education — successful international businesses whose alumni […]

GNC-Alfa adds new TV channel

(Telecompaper) Armenian fixed operator GNC-Alfa, working under the Rostelecom brand, has added a new TV channel to its pay-TV line-up. The Armenian news TV channel Armnews is now available for all subscribers...

Vigilante - T-Employ - Armenia, Quindío

Experiencia en vigilancia y/o seguridad privada, en conjuntos residenciales, discotecas o empresas grandes.
De TeRecomiendo - Tue, 10 Sep 2019 01:29:07 GMT - Ver todos: empleos en Armenia, Quindío

Vigilante - Servagro - Armenia, Quindío

Prevenir y reducir los riesgos en cuanto a seguridad que puedan presentarse en las instalaciones donde estén prestando el servicio.
De Servagro - Tue, 09 Oct 2018 06:33:59 GMT - Ver todos: empleos en Armenia, Quindío

VEON Armenia launches 4G network in Echmiadzin

VEON Armenia, formerly ArmenTel and trading under the brand Beeline, has announced the launch of fourth-generation LTE services in the city of Echmiadzin, allowing users to access the internet at speeds of up to 100Mbps. reports that the cellco’s launch in the region is supported by a network of 4G base stations operating at 1800MHz, which offers improved in-building coverage. Since the start of this year, VEON Armenia – a wholly owned subsidiary of Amsterdam-based VEON – has increased the number of 700MHz/1800MHz 4G base stations in the country by 24% and will continue to actively expand network coverage throughout the country in future. The cellco claims that in 2019 smartphone take-up has increased 6% and the number of mobile internet users among smartphone users is up 10%.

World's First AI Concert Opens the WCIT 2019 in Yerevan, Armenia - Interesting Engineering

World's First AI Concert Opens the WCIT 2019 in Yerevan, Armenia  Interesting Engineering

ICANN: Register Now to Participate in the 4th Eastern European DNS Forum

ICANN Tuesday announced that the fourth Eastern European Domain Name System Forum (EEDNSF) will take place from 11-12 October 2019 in Yerevan, Armenia, co-organized with the .am/հայ Registry, ISOC.AM. The...

Middle Eastern Wine And Food Pairing

Regions such as Persia: the current Iran—Georgia and Armenia—have long be historical cradles of wine making.

Comment on Armenia and the technology of diaspora by tereza uloyan

Emin, I know it's hard for you to accept it. However, that is the case. Hovannes Adamian (1879–1932), one of the founders of color television Sergei Adian (b. 1931), one of the most prominent Soviet mathematicians[40] Tateos Agekian (1913–2006), astrophysicist, a pioneer of stellar dynamics Abraham Alikhanov (1904–1970), Soviet physicist, a founder of nuclear physics in USSR Victor Ambartsumian (1908-1906), astrophysicist, one of the founders of theoretical astrophysics Gurgen Askaryan (1928–1997), physicist, inventor of light self focusing Boris Babayan (b. 1933), father of supercomputing in the former Soviet Union and Russia Mikhail Chailakhyan (1902–1991), founder of hormonal theory of plant development Artur Chilingarov (b. 1939), polar explorer, member of the State Duma from 1993 to 2011 Bagrat Ioannisiani (1911–1985), designer of the BTA-6, one of the largest telescopes in the world Andronik Iosifyan (1905–1993), father of electromechanics in the USSR, one of the founders of Soviet missilery Alexander Kemurdzhian (1921–2003), designer of the first rovers to explore another world: first moon rovers and first mars rovers Semyon Kirlian (1898–1978), founder of Kirlian photography; discovered that living matter is emitting energy fields Ivan Knunyants (1906–1990), chemist, a major developer of the Soviet chemical weapons program Samvel Kocharyants (1909–1993), developer of nuclear warheads for ballistic missiles[41] Yuri Oganessian (b. 1933), nuclear physicist, the world's leading researcher in superheavy elements Leon Orbeli (1882–1958), founder of evolutionary physiology Mikhail Pogosyan (b. 1956), aerospace engineer, general director of Sukhoi Norair Sisakian (1907–1966), biochemist, a founder of space biology; pioneer in biochemistry of sub-cell structures and technical biochemistry Karen Ter-Martirosian (1922–2005), theoretical physicist, known for his contributions to quantum mechanics and quantum field theory These are just some of them.

Comment on Armenia and the technology of diaspora by Mariam Hambardzumyan

Such a wonderful article. Thanks a lot for feeling the country and people so deeply.

Без заголовка


Это цитата сообщения Иранта Оригинальное сообщениеПройма: некоторые нюансы для вязаных изделий

Автор: Iranta. Островок вязаного уюта


Когда мы вяжем, то, конечно же, стараемся учитывать все нюансы силуэта – именно это делает изделие ручной работы очень привлекательным, ведь помогает достичь главного: выделить достоинства и скрыть недостатки нашей фигуры.
В этом посте я коснусь некоторых нюансов при вывязывании пройм, прежде всего в изделиях с классическим втачным рукавом, а также для моделей со спущенным плечом.
Несомненно, все нужно пробовать на собственном опыте, подходит ли именно вам определенный способ вязания или, может быть, только какая-то мелочь позволит «выйти» на нужный вам результат.

РџСЂРѕРёМ†РјР°. РџРѕСЃС‚. 10 (700x539, 627Kb)

Итак, коснемся общих правил убавлений/прибавлений для пройм – схема № 1

Схема 1. Отрезки вязания проймы (472x700, 20Kb)




Tea Time with Nazook

Sounds like a person, right?  But, no.  Nazook is a delicious pastry-like bread, filled with walnuts, that pairs deliciously with tea or coffee.

For March, Kelly is Kitchen of the Month, and she chose Nazook, an Armenian (or Russian, depending) sweet bread, that is very simple to make.  So simple, in fact, I read the recipe a dozen times looking for rising times.  I even checked other recipes out on the Web, and found essentially the same instructions.

Make the dough.  Let it rest over night.  Prepare the filling.  Shape the little rolls.  Bake.

There are no excuses for not making this bread.  Just plan ahead the night before to make the dough.  Shaping 48 rolls does take a bit of time, but you can be making them while the first pan is in the oven.  I did turn the pans around after 15 minutes so the bread would brown evenly.

If you want to be a Buddy, bake your Nazook, blog about the process, and let Kelly know by March 30th to be included in the roundup.

from Mom's Authentic Assyrian Recipes
makes 48 pastries

2¼ tsp (7g) active dry yeast (I used 2 tsp instant yeast)
1 cup (227g) sour cream
3¼ cups (390g) sifted flour
½ tsp (6 g) salt
1 cup (226g) chilled, unsalted butter
1 egg
1 tbsp (12g) vegetable oil
1 tsp (5g) lemon juice

1 cup (226g) butter, melted (+ 3tbsp melted, optional)
2 cups (240g) sifted flour
1 cup (198g) sugar
1 cup (113g) walnuts, finely chopped
1 tsp (5g) vanilla
1 tsp (2g) cardamom

2 egg yolks, beaten
1 tsp (5g) yogurt (I used water)


Dough: If using active dry yeast, add to the sour cream and stir in.  Set aside for 10 minutes.  If using instant yeast, add to flour.  Combine flour, salt and butter and blend with your fingers until crumbly. Add egg, oil, lemon juice, and sour cream and mix until incorporated.  Knead the dough on a floured surface for 5 minutes, or until no longer sticky.  Add more flour if necessary.  (You may need to add another 60g flour).  Form into a ball, and to follow tradition, mark with a +, symbolizing a cross. Cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate 5 hours, or overnight.

Filling: Mix flour, sugar, walnuts, and cardamom. Add vanilla to melted butter and pour slowly into flour mixture while stirring.  Stir until the mixture is smooth.  (This ended up as a  streusel consistency, at first a paste and then nice and crumbly as it cooled.)

Preheat oven to 350°F.

Assembly: Melt the 3 extra tablespoons of butter and set aside.  Remove dough from refrigerator and divide into 8 equal portions. Roll each dough ball into a 10 x 6” rectangle.  Brush with melted butter.  (The filling adheres to the dough just fine without the added butter and since there is a full pound in the recipe.)  Crumble 1/8th of the filling over each rectangle, leaving a ½-inch border.  Cover with a piece of parchment paper.  Press down lightly with your hands, so that the filling adheres to the dough.  Fold the edges in ½-inch over the filling.  Roll into a cylinder.  Gently flatten with the palms of your hands.  (Do this because they puff quite a lot in the oven.)
Cut each roll into 6 pieces and arrange on 2 parchment lined cookie sheets.  Brush liberally with the egg glaze.  Bake for 30-35 minutes, or until golden brown.  Excellent with coffee or hot tea.  Not too sweet, just sweet enough!



Nattaliya: Полезные привычки: Пейте больше воды в течении дня.


Полезные привычки: Пейте больше воды в течении дня.
Мне кажется об этом уже знают все, но не многие пьют воду каждый день в нужном количестве. Конечно количество воды зависит от вашего веса и образа жизни, но в среднем взрослый человек должен выпивать 2 литра воды в день.

Желательно это делать за 15-20 минут до приема пищи. И обязательно 1 стакан воды утром на голодный желудок.

Разговаривая с людьми об этой полезной привычке, часто сталкиваюсь с тем, что не всегда люди понимают эту привычку правильно.

Некоторые под словом "вода" понимают слово "жидкость" и начинают твердить, что они регулярно пьют чай, кофе, сок, молоко, едят суп и что-то в этом роде. Заканчивая это фразой "Я достаточно употребляю воды в день".

Но здесь очень важно понимать, что вода - это просто чистая вода, а не любые напитки и жидкости. Максимум что допускается это добавить в воду лимонный сок, но это опять же для тех, у кого понижена кислотность и то я не советовала бы злоупотреблять. Все таки нужно пить чистую воду без каких либо добавок.

Пью ли я воду сама? Пытаюсь. Да, начинаю, потом забываю, потом опять вспоминаю. В общем пытаюсь, но получается не очень. Предлагаю Вам вместе со мной привить себе эту полезную для нашего организма привычку.

🥛Кто со мной, пишите в комментариях "Я" или 🥛

🍀PS: Переходя на натуральную косметику, эта привычка становиться еще более полезной. Ведь вы этой привычкой помогаете натуральной косметике быстрей избавиться от различных шлаков в виде различной химии, которой напичкана наша кожа и волосы.

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Armenia and the technology of diaspora

It’s a tough world out there for small countries. Technology is the future, everyone knows that; but how do you claim your share of that future when you’re competing with America, China, the EU and India? How do you build a thriving ecosystem of tech wealth and tech education — successful international businesses whose alumni […]

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10/07 Links Pt2: The Zionist Movement Did Not Seek to Dispossess the Palestinian Arabs; Interior minister moves to deport Palestinian BDS founder; Yom Kippur 1967: The Return to the Western Wall

From Ian:

Efraim Karsh (WSJ): The Zionist Movement Did Not Seek to Dispossess the Palestinian Arabs 
David Ben-Gurion's stature as Israel's founding father would seem to be eminently secure, given his crucial, perhaps indispensable, role in salvaging the Jewish people from political oblivion and reinstating it in its ancestral homeland. Tom Segev's A State at Any Cost: The Life of David Ben-Gurion is an effort to tarnish his reputation and reinterpret Israel's founding period.

On May 14, 1948, Ben-Gurion proclaimed the establishment of the State of Israel, becoming its first prime minister and defense minister, posts he held until 1963 (with a brief retirement from office in 1953-55). Segev casts Israel's founding father as the destroyer of Palestinian Arab society - deeply implicated in what Segev and his fellow revisionists see as the "original sin" of Israel's creation: the supposedly deliberate and aggressive dispossession of the native Arab population.

The truth is that, far from seeking to dispossess the Palestinian Arabs as claimed by Segev, the Zionist movement had always been amenable to the existence of a substantial Arab minority in the prospective Jewish state.

No less than Ze'ev Jabotinsky, founder of the faction that was the forebear of today's Likud Party, voiced his readiness (in a famous 1923 essay) "to take an oath binding ourselves and our descendants that we shall never do anything contrary to the principle of equal rights, and that we shall never try to eject anyone." And if this was the position of the more "militant" faction of the Jewish national movement, small wonder that mainstream Zionism took for granted the full equality of the Arab minority in the prospective Jewish state.

In December 1947, shortly after Palestinian Arabs had unleashed wholesale violence to subvert the newly passed UN partition resolution, Ben-Gurion told his Labor Party that "in our state there will be non-Jews as well" and all of them will be equal citizens; equal in everything without any exception; that is: the state will be their state as well."

The Haganah's operational plan - adopted in March 1948 to reverse then-current Palestinian Arab aggression and rebuff the anticipated invasion by the Arab states - was predicated, in the explicit instructions of the Haganah's commander in chief, on the "acknowledgment of the full rights, needs, and freedom of the Arabs in the Hebrew state without any discrimination, and a desire for coexistence on the basis of mutual freedom and dignity."
To the Arab World, Jewish Sovereignty Is a Rebellion against Islam Itself
Arab anti-Zionism, Shmuel Trigano argues, has little to do with land, the fate of the Palestinians, or Palestinian self-determination—and everything to do with religion. Citing the historical status of non-Muslims in the Islamic Middle East, he points in particular to two concepts: that of the ummah, a nation of all Muslim believers that transcends ethnic and political boundaries, and that of the dhimmi, protected religious minorities who are allowed to live in Muslim society with legal disabilities:

The concept of the ummah inspired the Arabs to rebel against the [European] colonial powers: not so much for their colonial nature (the colonial yoke of the Ottomans was by and large tolerated), but for their Christianity. A decisive turning point was the rise of nationalism: while the ummah dissolved into nation-states, the pan-Arabism that emerged in its wake provided indirect continuity.

To this situation, . . . an additional factor came to the fore: the creation of a Jewish national home in Palestine, under the British Mandate, as provided by the Balfour Declaration of 1917. The problem derived not from the emergence of a new political force in the midst of the Arab countries, but from its Jewish character: as sacrilegious to the Islamic conscience as the Christian colonial powers had been. . . . In these terms, Jewish sovereignty is understood as nothing short of a rebellion against Islam.

Thus, Trigano argues, the conflict between Israel and its neighbors can be understood in relation to the gradual and long-ongoing destruction of the Jewish communities of the Middle East and, more broadly, to the destruction of Christian and other non-Muslim communities. The latter began not recently, with the rise of Islamic State, but with the bloody anti-Armenian pogroms of the 1890s:

The Armenians . . . committed an act of rebellion against [their status as] dhimmi by fighting for national autonomy. . . . A violent response ensued: several massacres were carried out by the Ottomans in 1894-5. . . . Often overlooked is the jihadist nature of these massacres: not only in their motivation and their legitimation, but also in the nature of the acts themselves and the fact that the surviving women and children (some 150,000) were forcibly converted to Islam. The same pattern was to reappear in the second wave of massacres, this time instigated by the Young Turks [in 1915].
Michael Lumish: The White Jew
When I was growing up to be a "white" person meant to be a person of European descent. This is no longer the case.

To be "white," today, means to be a "bad" person, particularly if you tend to be of the manly persuasion.

In contemporary political parlance, "whiteness" is a signifier of racism, oppression, colonialism, imperialism, privilege, sexism, Islamophobia, transphobia, capitalism, and, most particularly, racism.

The irony is delicious.

"Progressives" -- throughout politics and the academe and, even, corporate America -- consider "white" to be a category of ethnic guilt. In the name of "social justice" they are condemning innocent young kids, particularly boys, of some sort of original sin.

They are, in fact, damaging your children and most of you are A-OK with it.

In this way, the "progressive" movement is deeply religious and increasingly medieval. The movement used to be about open-mindedness. Today it is about hysterical dogma. Mario Savio would not recognize it.

It used to be about social libertarianism and freedom of expression. Today it is about ideological conformity and a Puritanical patrolling of the borders of acceptable thought.

Interior minister moves to deport Palestinian BDS founder
Interior Minister Aryeh Deri announced on Sunday that he had directed the Population and Immigration Authority to prepare a legal opinion to be used in the deportation of Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions founder Omar Barghouti.

Barghouti holds Israeli permanent residency status, which he obtained after marrying an Arab Israeli woman, with whom he lives in the northern city of Acre.

“I intend to act quickly to deprive Omar Barghouti of residency status in Israel, Deri said in a statement announcing the move. “This is a man who does everything to harm the country and therefore must not enjoy the right to be a resident of Israel.”

The Interior Ministry said that the opportunity became available to push for Bargouti’s deportation after Deputy Attorney General Dina Zilber notified his office that it had the authority to revoke the BDS founder’s residency status.

This was thanks to a 2018 amendment to Israeli residency laws that makes breach of trust a crime significant enough to allow the interior minister to strip an individual of his or her residency status. According to an interpretation of the law, boycotting Israel could constitute such an offense.

Israel has barred Barghouti from leaving the county a number of times in recent years by refusing to renew travel documents granted to Palestinian residents of Israel who do not have full citizenship.
David Collier: Miko Peled, Ian Fantom and the secretive ‘neo-Nazi’ group
Last Thursday there was a ‘Keep Talking’ event at St Anne’s Church Soho. It was an event organised and attended by some truly nasty antisemites. The event shows how the suggested differences between ‘far-right’ and ‘far-left’ are illusions. There is just a sewer of extremism – those who build conspiracy theories, and all too frequently pin the blame on the ‘Jews’.

We can begin with this image, which shows Miko Peled speaking at the Church. On his right (our left) – set apart from the audience- are Ian Fantom and Alison Chabloz.

Ian Fantom is a hard-core conspiracy theorist. He wore this t-shirt, suggesting both 9/11 and 7/7 were staged, to an event he organised in 2016:

In 2010, Ian Fantom co-founded a group called ‘Keep Talking’ that was set up because other ‘9-11 truth’ groups were ‘sabotaged from within’. Conspiracy theories about conspiracy groups. Fantom explains this himself in an article he wrote for ‘UNZ review’. The website UNZ is described as ‘extreme-right‘ and pushes Holocaust denial. The founder of Unz is known to have contributed funds to a ‘quasi white-nationalist’ group.

Fantom co-founded ‘Keep Talking’ with the Holocaust denier Nick Kollerstrom. It was interesting to read that the two of them agreed ‘Keep Talking’ would avoid discussion of Holocaust denial because they didn’t want to be ‘derailed’ by the ‘Zionist lobby’.

At the Peled event, Fantom is sitting next to Alison Chabloz. Chabloz is a convicted Holocaust denier. She was able to attend the event because she was recently released from jail pending an appeal. Chabloz is best known for teasing Jews over the Holocaust through the use of music, creating songs that turn the Holocaust into a fictional joke that she sets to classic Jewish tunes. Other far-right activists were also in attendance. The images suggest that James Thring was present. Thring is a confidante of David Duke and is a regular attendee of the ‘Keep Talking’ events.
Church ‘sorry’ for leasing room for Miko Peled talk
St Anne’s Church in Soho has apologised for leasing a room to the controversial Keep Talking Group for a talk by Israeli-born anti-Zionist activist Miko Peled.

Peled spoke at the church last Thursday for an event titled “Miko Peled, Journey of an Israeli in Palestine.”

The anti-racism charity Hope Not Hate expressed concern about the event in a series of tweets on Saturday.

St Anne’s Church said on Sunday that it will donate the room hire fee to the Community Security Trust and will review its own booking procedure.

The church apologised “for the offence that has been caused to members of the Jewish Community” and said it opposes “any form of hatred: be it racism, homophobia or antisemitism.”

But Peled denied accusations of prejudice, saying in a statement: “The suggestion that the event in which I spoke in any way shape or form represents hate, racism, homophobia or antisemitism is outrageous and libelous.
Petra Marquardt-Bigman: Zahra Billoo’s “pro-Palestinian” anti-Semitism
Given that Billoo has almost 34 000 Twitter followers, she may not have seen the responses, and she may also not have seen a blog post that highlighted her updated blood libel. But it is also unlikely that she would have cared much if she had noticed the criticism. Like her good friend Linda Sarsour, Zahra Billoo despises anyone who dares to notice contemporary manifestations of anti-Semitism propagated by the left. That includes the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), to which Billoo devoted a Facebook post and an almost identical Twitter thread last year in order to educate her followers about the ADL’s supposedly vicious record and odious history.

If you consider an organization that has been fighting anti-Semitism and other forms of bigotry for more than a century as an unmitigated evil that must be denounced and shunned, you shouldn’t be surprised when lots of people doubt that you’re just out to criticize Israeli policies.

In this context it’s particularly depressing that Democratic Congresswoman Rashida Tlaib decided to issue a full-throated declaration of solidarity with Billoo. Tlaib linked to a thread in which Billoo attributed her ousting from the Women’s March board to “an Islamophobic smear campaign led by the usual antagonists,” which she identified as mainly “right-wingers, from the President’s son to the Anti-Defamation League and troll armies.” It seems fair to assume that Tlaib intended to endorse Billoo’s take when she wrote: “They won’t silence us for speaking out against human rights violations. They will lie, smear our names and call us anti this and that, but we always be pro- humanity & we have the truth on our side.”

Well, if you think it is “pro-humanity” to endorse the kind of blatant anti-Semitism Zahra Billoo propagates, you probably agree with all the Jew-haters who have thought for centuries that Jews are not quite human.

I can easily imagine that neither Rashida Tlaib nor Linda Sarsour nor Zahra Billoo would think I have any standing to define what’s “pro-Palestinian,” but if they insist that it’s “pro-Palestinian” to update age-old anti-Semitic stereotypes by substituting “Israel” or “Zionists” for “Jews”, their Palestinian cause can only attract vile bigots.
Open letter to Mayor DeBlasio and the NY Democrats machine
As the perilous scourge of visceral anti-Semitism continues unabated in New York City in the form of attacks on Orthodox Jews as well as their homes and synagogues, our elected officials have stubbornly remained mute on the issue of clearly identifying from whence these attacks are emanating.

This past week a synagogue in the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn was vandalized on Rosh Hashanah and a hassidic woman was attacked as well. Video footage shows two minority youth throwing a milk crate and a metal mailbox at the synagogue. They were with at least three other young people of color outside the Throop Avenue synagogue. The impact broke a window.

It appears that the best that New York City Mayor Bill DeBlasio could muster up in response to these attacks was to call them a "hate crime" on his Twitter account but he never offered a clear and decisive plan on how to deter these attacks.

Having said this, it is long overdue to squarely confront Mayor DeBlasio as well as New York Governor Andrew Cuomo, Attorney General Letitia James and others who are committed to furthering the Democratic party agenda of transforming anti-Semitism into a politically "right wing" phenomenon that will only cease to exist when President Trump vacates office.

In response to this dangerous political chicanery of dismissing anti-Semitic attacks when they are committed by minority youth, I thought a letter to the Mayor and his cohorts would be in order.

College slammed for hosting Labour MP suspended for alleged antisemitism
Several Jewish groups and UK Members of Parliament have slammed a decision by the University of Nottingham to host Labour MP Chris Williamson, who was suspended from the party in February for claiming it has been “too apologetic” about antisemitism.

Williamson was readmitted back into the party in June, but was suspended again two days later after a backlash from the Jewish community and Labour MPs. In August, he announced he was suing the Labour Party over its decision to re-implement his suspension.

Last week the University of Nottingham announced that Williamson would speak on Monday in a lecture series on “British Politics in Crisis” hosted by the School of Politics and International Relations.

The Union of Jewish Students together with the Nottingham Jewish Society called the decision “unacceptable,” adding that they were “surprised wholly.”

“Williamson has been suspended by the Labour Party over antisemitism and has a consistent history of Jew-baiting and defending antisemitism,” read the statement. “Williamson has been invited to Nottingham to add a perspective of an individual who is an ally of Jeremy Corbyn, yet there are plenty of individuals the university could have invited who are not suspended for antisemitism.”
Reporter complained about ‘stingy’ Jew, hired by Liberty University
Emily Austen, a reporter who was fired by Fox Sports in Florida for derogatory comments about Jews and minorities, has been hired by the evangelical Christian Liberty University.

Fox dismissed Austen in 2016 as a sideline reporter for the Tampa Bay Rays baseball team and the Orlando Magic basketball team after she recorded an interview with Barstool Sports in which she said she “didn’t even know that Mexicans were that smart,” and that the “Chinese guy is always the smartest guy in math class,” according to the Tampa Bay Times.

In the interview, she also talked about “Jews in Boca,” including one who was “stingy,” and said Jews “would complain and b**** about everything.”

Liberty, the Virginia school run by Jerry Falwell Jr. that was founded by his televangelist father, announced on Wednesday that it was hiring Austen to appear on “Game On,” a sports TV show it produces.

“This is much more than a second chance at my ‘dream career,'” Austen said in a statement posted on Facebook by “Game On.” “I am here to honor God, share the Gospel through athletics, and promote Liberty student-athletes, coaches and staff and their walks with Christ. I once was lost but now I am found.”

Demi Lovato Apologizes, Had No Idea Jews Lived in Israel (satire)
Following backlash, singer Demi Lovato has profusely apologized for her recent concert in and praise of Israel, insisting she had no idea that the people who treated her so well on the trip were in fact Jews.

Lovato spent her time in the country, which she billed as a spiritual journey, visiting the Western Wall and Israel’s Holocaust memorial, Yad Vashem, after being baptized in the Jordan River. But soon after she returned, Twitter user @FreePalestine42069 called her out for legitimizing the presence of Jews in the country.

“Debbie (sic) Lovato is an apartheid-loving Zionist!” the user said in a post that earned seven retweets, including three from Democratic presidential candidates. “She is a war crime (sic) and must be brought to the Haig (sic) right now!”

Lovato immediately apologized, claiming she did not know that Israel was full of Jews and that her visit would spark such a negative reaction.
CNN Rewrites History of 1948, 1967 Wars
Sam Kiley, a senior international correspondent based in CNN Abu Dhabi’s bureau, has rewritten the history of Israel’s 1948 War of Independence and the 1967 Six-Day War. In his Oct. 3 analysis (“Any war between the US and Iran would be a catastrophe. And no one could win it“), Kiley absurdly asserts that those fateful wars were “to expand territory”:
Close to 200,000 descendants of Palestinians who fled their country in successive Israeli wars to expand territory in 1948 and 1967, now live in Lebanon. A similar number are in Jordan.

The 1948 and 1967 wars were fought to fend off Arab campaigns to annihilate the Jewish state, not “to expand territory.” As CNN has in the past reported, in May 1948: “Forces from Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Lebanon invade, leading to the first in a series of Arab-Israeli wars.”

In 1967, Israel attacked Egypt preemptively to once again thwart a campaign to eliminate the Jewish state. Before Israel’s preemptive attack, Egypt expelled United Nations troops from the Sinai peninsula and blockaded Israel’s port of Eilat, under international law a casus belli. These belligerent Arab actions were accompanied by explicit calls from Arab leaders to destroy Israel. For instance, as President Nasser declared: “Our aim is the full restoration of the rights of the Palestinian people. In other words, we aim at the destruction of the State of Israel. The immediate aim: perfection of Arab military might. The national aim: the eradication of Israel” (Nov. 18, 1965).
The Washington Post Isn’t About to Let Facts Get in Its Way
The Washington Post, for example, gives inordinate column space to the tiny fraction of Jews, American and otherwise, who are against the right of Jewish self-determination. In a Sept. 20, 2019 tweet, Mairav Zonszein of +972 magazine cheered that her publication was “all up in The Washington Post opinion pages today,” with two pieces from the same organization appearing on the same day. Zonszein proudly noted that editors of “mainstream outlets” were no longer editing out or tweaking her use of the term “apartheid.”

As NGO Monitor has documented, “972’s articles promote a marginal agenda from the fringes of Israeli discourse, thus presenting a distorted sense of the debate in Israel.” The blog-based magazine “promotes the Durban strategy to demonize and delegitimize Israel” and its writers and contributors have accused the Jewish state of “apartheid,” “ethnic cleansing,” and “racism.” Indeed, the magazine’s content is completely self-discrediting and its donors are largely foreign and anti-Israel.

A previous editor-in-chief, Noam Sheila, referred to his critics as “the Jewish KKK” and in May 2012, +972 published a cartoon that depicted Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu raping US President Barack Obama and eating his limbs. In May 2019, they published an article titled, “By going vegan, Israelis can avoid talking about human rights.”

Elsewhere, the Post has published opinion pieces by Jewish Voice for Peace (JVP), described by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) as “a radical anti-Israel activist group that advocates for a complete economic, cultural, and academic boycott of the State of Israel.” JVP, ADL’s report on the group notes, has celebrated Palestinian terrorists like Rasmea Odeh and Marwan Barghouti.
Indy writer: levels of antisemitism in the UK are almost “negligible”.
First, the fact that there were, as Shamash writes, no antisemitic incidents reported during the 2018 high holidays (Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur) may have something to do with the fact that the UK deployed counter-terror police to protect synagogues on those days. (Indeed, all throughout the year, every Jewish institution in the UK is protected by some kind of security presence.)

Moreover, according to CST, 2018 saw the highest levels of antisemitism ever recorded in a single calendar year.

Finally, the writer’s final claim that, compared to the experiences of Muslims in the UK, “levels of antisemitism are almost negligible” is not supported the data.

CST (a charity that fights antisemitism) recorded1652 antisemitic incidents in 2018.

In that same year, Tell Mama (a charity that fights anti-Muslim bigotry) recorded 1072 anti-Muslim incidents.

Now, let’s look at hate crime data (which is distinct from the data recorded by CST and Tell Mama) reported by the Home Office. It does show more hate crimes in 2017-18 against Muslims than Jews in total numbers . But, given Jews’ significantly smaller population (Jews represent .05% of the population), the RATE of hate crimes against Jews was significantly higher than those against Muslims (who represent nearly 5% of the population).
BBC News silent on PA climb down over tax revenues
In late February of this year the Palestinian Authority announced that it would refuse to accept tax revenues collected on its behalf by Israel due to deduction of the amount paid to terrorists and their families.

BBC audiences heard nothing about that financial own goal (or the subsequent salary cuts endured by PA employees) until June, when they were informed that the PA “could be bankrupt by July or August”. The BBC’s explanation of that claim included the topic of tax revenue transfers from Israel:

“The financial crisis was exacerbated this February by a dispute with Israel over the transfer of tax and tariff revenues it collects on the PA’s behalf.

Israel announced it would freeze the transfer of about $139m (£109m) – an amount it said was equal to that paid by the PA in 2018 to families of Palestinians jailed by Israel or killed while carrying out attacks.

Israeli officials say the payments incentivise terrorism. But the PA insists they are welfare payments for relatives of prisoners and “martyrs”.

The PA responded to the freeze by refusing to accept any further Israeli revenue transfers, which account for about half its budget.”
McGill Daily Continues To Malign Israel
Up to its old tricks, the McGill Daily continues to malign Israel on its pages. This is not surprising from a publication which recently peddled in antisemitism by claiming that Zionism is racism and for having an editorial policy of banning Zionist opinions.

On the September 30 edition, the Daily featured a polemic by its Science and Technology editor, Willa Holt, about “Israel’s September Knesset Election”.

How did the Daily depict Israel? With a Palestinian flag, a freudian slip perhaps!

Instead of providing a neutral analysis of Israeli democracy in action, here’s how Ms. Holt described Israeli Prime Minister Netanyahu:
Netanyahu ran his campaign on violent colonial promises and racist, hypernationalist anti-Arab statements, including a promise to annex the Jordan Valley”

Holt later claimed that: “Both parties (Blue & White and Likud) in question are advancing further violence on Palestinians in the Jordan Valley, which is already under a de facto annexation, which stands in violation of international law.”

If this isn’t opinion disguised as news, then what is? On what basis can these Israeli political parties be said to have advocated for “advancing further violence on Palestinians…”? As well, it goes without saying that Israel disputes claims that its presence in Judea and Samaria (the “West Bank”) is in violation of international law. Israel claims it has legal standing to presently administer these areas and it asserts ancestral and religious rights too.

Holt concludes by observing the following: “For Palestinians already living under a violent occupation, the election has no positive outcomes. The international community’s inaction in the face of illegal occupation is itself a violation of human rights.”

So much for journalistic objectivity!
Accused Poway synagogue gunman pleads not guilty to deadly shooting
The accused gunman in the deadly shooting at a San Diego-area synagogue pleaded not guilty to charges of murder and attempted murder.

In addition to entering pleas on Thursday in a San Diego court for firing an assault rifle inside the Chabad of Poway synagogue, John Earnest, 20, also pleaded not guilty to arson charges for a fire a month earlier at a nearby mosque, the ABC affiliate in San Diego, 10 News reported.

One woman, Lori Gilbert-Kaye, 60, was killed and three people were wounded, including an 8-year-old girl and the synagogue’s rabbi, who lost a finger, in the April 27 shooting at the Chabad of Poway synagogue.

The murder charge has been classified as a hate crime, making Earnest eligible for the death penalty, though prosecutors from the San Diego County District Attorney’s Office have not said whether they will seek that punishment.

Earnest is being held without bail. He is due back in court on December 5, when a trial date will be set.

Earnest also faces more than 100 hate crime-related counts filed by the U.S. Attorney’s Office and could also face the death penalty in the federal case, the Times of San Diego reported.

Earnest told a 911 operator in the moments after the attack that he did it to save white people from Jews.

Why a Japanese-American artist painted a mural of Nazi fighter Hannah Senesh
Hannah Senesh, the Jewish woman who died fighting Nazis as a British paratrooper, may seem an unlikely motivation for Japanese-born artist Julie Robertson.

But the 35-year-old Christian artist, who just spent four days painting a 30-by-40-foot mural of the late Jewish poet, learned about Senesh earlier this year and was struck by her bravery. A national hero in Israel, Senesh parachuted into Europe to help anti-Nazi forces in 1943. She was captured and killed at the age of 23, but despite being tortured refused to reveal any details of her mission.

“To be able to hear the story of such a young girl that had such conviction to do something so dangerous, and then she never gave up information when she was captured, that’s my hero,” she told the Jewish Telegraphic Agency on Wednesday in between finishing work on the mural. “So I really wanted to paint her.”

Robertson, who goes by the name JUURI professionally, painted the mural in the East Village neighborhood of San Diego. She learned about Senesh earlier this year while on a trip to Israel organized by Philos Project, a Christian pro-Israel group. She had been to Israel two other times as part of delegations organized by Artists 4 Israel, a group that brings creatives to the Jewish state.

The Oklahoma City-based artist says she had always wanted to go to the Jewish state because “it’s the starting place of my faith.”

“I’ve always heard about Israel my entire life, but you can’t really know what it is until you go there,” she said.

US Ambassador Friedman at Evangelical rally: ‘Jerusalem literally keeps us safe’
Shared values and a common history, not soldiers and weapons, guarantee a nation’s security, US Ambassador to Israel David Friedman said Sunday.

Addressing a rally of pro-Israel Evangelicals, Friedman hailed the recently inaugurated Pilgrimage Road, a new archaeological site in Jerusalem’s City of David, which lies underneath the Palestinian neighborhood of Silwan, as a “once in a century discovery” that proved beyond any doubt the existence of the Jewish Temple in the city.

“Jerusalem does not only move us spiritually. It literally keeps us safe,” said Friedman. “Let me be clear about an important point: no quantity of bombs or fighter jets or troops really guarantees anyone’s security. What makes a people safe, what makes us all safe, is when we stand for something, when we collectively share values, beliefs, goals and a common history. That’s what Israel’s enemies try to deny it when they object so angrily to the Pilgrimage Road. Because if Israel, God forbids, loses its history, it stands for nothing, and it is no longer safe.”

On June 30, Friedman and other US officials used a sledgehammer to hammer through what they later said was a newly erected cardboard wall in front of the Pilgrimage Road, a now-subterranean stairway that was said to have served as a main artery for Jews to the Temple Mount thousands of years ago.
The Temple Mount's treasure trove
A small clay bulla, or seal, that was used to sign official letters in the days of the kingdom of Judea waited nearly 2,600 years amid the rubble at the foundations of the Western Wall to be discovered by Israeli archaeologists. For eight years, the rubble has been cleared away, one bucket after another, and taken directly to the site of the Ancient Jerusalem Sifting Project, which is run under the auspices of Ir David Foundation.

Comparatively large finds, such as a chisel used to carve the stones of the Western Wall, turn up immediately. Small discoveries usually come to light only after some time has passed. The dirt that contained the royal seal had been waiting six years to be sifted. A few weeks ago, project volunteer Batya Ofan, dumped it onto a large sieve, washed it down, and uncovered a royal seal from the seventh century BCE bearing the name "Adoniyahu asher al habayit" (translation: Adoniyahu, who is over [oversees] the house) in early Hebrew script.

The Bible uses the epithet "asher al habayit" for only eight people. It was a title reserved for the most senior administrator of a kingdom – in this case, the kingdom of Judea. However, the name Adoniyahu does not appear among those eight. Three different biblical figures – King David's son, a Levite from the days of Jehoshaphat, and a tribal leader from the time of the Prophet Nehemiah - bear the name, but none of them lived in the seventh century BCE. The seal, therefore, introduced archaeologists to a fourth Adoniyahu, who was hitherto unknown.

Archaeologist Dr. Eli Shukron, who once directed the project to excavate the foundations of the Western Wall and oversaw many of the discoveries made there, suggests a possible connection between the seal that belonged to the fourth Adoniyahu "asher al habayit" and another inscription from the same century that was discovered in a burial cave dating back to the First Temple era 150 years ago.
Yom Kippur 1967: The Return to the Western Wall
On Yom Kippur in 1967, thousands arrived at the Western Wall for the concluding prayers and to hear the long awaited sound of the shofar.

Prior to the advance of Israeli paratroopers into the Old City of Jerusalem in June 1967, the Western Wall area had been occupied by Jordan and off-limits to Jews.

The 20th century was a transitional time for the land of Israel, and the Western Wall had been under many rulers, from the Ottoman Turks, to British Mandatory rule, to the Jordanians.

Yom Kippur of 1929 followed the devastating pogroms in the land of Israel. Death and destruction was incited largely by the vehement anti-Zionist Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Amin Al-Husseini. In the aftermath, British authorities allowed the Mechitza (dividing screen between men and women) at the Western Wall, which was prohibited the prior year. Still, the sounding of the shofar was prohibited, due to pressure from the Mufti and his cohorts. That decree remained in effect throughout the years of the British Mandate.

The independent State of Israel was declared on May 14, 1948 and preserved only through desperate defense in bloody conflict. But despite valiant efforts to hold onto it, the Old City fell to Jordanian forces. The Western Wall was then declared off limits to Israelis and Jews.

For the next 19 years, the Western Wall remained that way. When Yom Kippur arrived, the wall stood in solitude, devoid of its faithful. Jews could only gaze from afar — from the Israeli side of the armistice line.

However, that would soon change.
'There is going to be a war tonight' - Israel opens Yom Kippur War archive
The Defense Ministry has published new archival material describing the drama of the critical hours prior to the outbreak of the 1973 Yom Kippur War.

“There is going to be a war tonight,” said IDF chief of staff Lt.-Gen. David “Dado” Elazar at 4:30 a.m. on October 6, 1973, the day the war broke out, to commander of the IAF Maj.-Gen. Benny Peled and the head of Military Intelligence, Maj.-Gen. Eli Zeira. “There are military signs, moves and reports that should be taken seriously.”

An hour later, Elazar warned Zeira that the military should go on high alert and mobilize thousands of reservists.

At 7:15 that morning, in another meeting with commanders, Elazar concluded: “If no preventative strike will be approved by noon, we will be on immediate alert,” since it was estimated that the war would break out at 6 p.m. Elazar also addressed the issue of evacuating civilians from the Golan Heights to the center of the country.

“I am aware of the political limits of this, but when we are confident that a war is going to break out, it is important that we win as fast as possible,” he said.

The Yom Kippur War came almost as a complete surprise to Israel. A warning notice was given too late for an orderly call-up of the reserves, before the Syrian and Egyptian armies launched a joint surprise attack on IDF positions in the Golan Heights and the Sinai Peninsula.
Fearing shortages, Dayan mulled drafting young, old in 1973 war, papers show
In the early hours of the 1973 Yom Kippur War, as Israel struggled to beat back invading Egyptian and Syrian forces, Defense Minister Moshe Dayan told his staff to begin looking into drafting teens and elderly ex-reserves soldiers into the fight, fearing the Jewish state may not have the manpower it needed for the battle.

The comments are part of a series of transcripts and reports declassified by the Defense Ministry on Monday, showing the fears, deliberations and painful internal conversations by the Israel Defense Forces’ top brass and senior political leadership during a conflict that even at the time was considered poorly prepared for and managed.

The ministry’s archive released the transcripts from IDF General Staff meetings for the first five days of the war, as well as the final intelligence report given to IDF chief of staff David “Dado” Elazar and defense minister Moshe Dayan on October 5, 1973, one day before the war broke out.

The following day, the Egyptians and Syrians launched their attacks, catching the IDF off-guard. The war was hard-fought and grueling with significant setbacks in the early days, leading to candid expressions of concern by the country’s leaders over Israel’s ability to win it.

“What do I fear in my heart more than anything? That the State of Israel will in the end be left without enough weapons to defend itself… There won’t be enough tanks, there won’t be planes, there won’t be people, there won’t be people trained to protect the land of Israel,” Dayan told the IDF General Staff according to the newly released transcripts.

The then-defense minister told the army to consider conscripting people too old to perform reserve duty or too young to have yet been drafted.
Golda Meir’s letter to bereaved families on eve of Yom Kippur War uncovered
A letter of condolence to bereaved Israeli families written by then-prime minister Golda Meir on the eve of the Yom Kippur War recently was discovered.

In the years following the establishment of the Jewish state, it was customary for the prime minister to have contact with the families of killed soldiers, including sending letters for holidays and official occasions. Meir was scrupulous about the custom and frequently corresponded with bereaved families both privately and officially.

On the eve of the Yom Kippur War in 1973, Meir sent a letter, dated October 5, to bereaved families in which she wrote: “Your pain is the pain of the entire nation… Our main concern is achieving peace for Israel. The memory of our loved ones motivates us to do anything in our power so that there be no more casualties, and we know no more bereavement.”

A day later saw the outbreak of the Yom Kippur War, which claimed the lives of 2,500 Israeli soldiers.

Meir resigned in April 1974, amid public criticism and a loss of confidence in the government.

The letter will be offered for sale at the Kedem auction house in Jerusalem in December.
Inaccurate BBC Yom Kippur war claim – 14 years and counting
Six years ago we documented the BBC’s correction of inaccurate Israeli casualty figures during the 1973 Yom Kippur War:

BBC Yom Kippur war accuracy failure perpetuated over years

However as was noted at the time, at least two other items of BBC content include the same error, stating that the number of Israeli casualties in that war was “about 6,000”.

That claim is found for example in a backgrounder titled ‘A History of Conflict’ which is undated, but appears to come from around 2005.

It also appears in another side-box of ‘context’ appended to an ‘On This Day’ feature – likewise undated, but apparently from around 2005 at the latest.
Forty-Six Years Since Israel's Yom Kippur War
Retired IDF General Yom-Tov Tamir was stationed on the Suez Canal during the Yom Kippur War. Tamir joins us the in studio to speak of the attack on its 46th anniversary. More: On October 6, 1973, a combined attack by the armies and air forces of Egypt and Syria, breached Israeli defenses and launched a nearly three week war that cost the lives of some 3,000 Israelis and maimed and scarred thousands of others. The surprise pincer attack on Israel's holiest day reshaped the country's history, shaking the confidence of the region's most formidable power.

We have lots of ideas, but we need more resources to be even more effective. Please donate today to help get the message out and to help defend Israel.

Battle of Tigranocerta (69 BCE)

Through an alliance with his father-in-law, Mithradates VI of Pontus, Armenian King Tigranes the Great extended his conquests across Asia Minor and founded Tigranocerta—the modern Siirt, Turkey—as the capital of his large empire. In 69 BCE, Roman forces led by General Lucullus captured Tigranocerta. With the aid of Tigranes's son, Pompey vanquished Tigranes, who lost all of his conquests and had to pay tribute to Rome. What early form of chemical warfare was employed during the battle?


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Mejor Película Internacional: 93 países, un récord, luchan ya por el Oscar


Ya es oficial: este año el Oscar a la Mejor Película Internacional, base su récord participipantes con un total de 93 países en liza por la estatuilla. La surcoreana 'Parásitos' parte como gran favorita para el Oscar. Su mayor rival podría ser 'Dolor y Gloria', con la que Pedro Almodóvar puede devolver al cine español a la categoría 15 años después del triunfo de 'Mar Adentro'.

Albania (0 nominaciones): 'The Delegation' de Bujar Alimani.
Alemania (20 nominaciones, 3 Oscars): 'Systemsprenger' de Nora Fingscheidt. Ganador del Alfred Bauer del Festival de Berlín.
Arabia Saudí (0 nominaciones): 'The Perfect Candidate' de Haifaa Al-Mansour. Presente en la Sección Oficial del Festival de Venecia.
Argelia (5 nominaciones, 1 Oscar): 'Papicha' de Mounia Meddur. Presente en Un Certain Regard de Cannes.
Argentina (7 nominaciones, 2 Oscars): 'La odisea de los giles' de Sebastián Borensztein.
Armenia (0 nominaciones): 'Lenghty Night' de Edgar Baghdasaryan.
Austria (4 nominaciones, 2 Oscars): 'Joy' de Sudabeh Mortezai.
Bangladesh (0 nominaciones): 'Alpha' de Nasiruddin Yousuff.
Bélgica (7 nominaciones): 'Nuestras madres' de César Díaz. Ganadora de la Cámara de Oro en el Festival de Cannes.
Bielorrusia (0 nominaciones) : 'Debut' de Anastasiya Miroshnichenko.
Bolivia (0 nominaciones): 'Tu Me Manques' de Rodrigo Bellott.
Bosnia (1 nominación, 1 Oscar): 'The Son' de Ines Tanovic.
Brasil (4 nominaciones): 'La Vida Invisible de Eurídice Gusmão' de Karim Aïnouz. Ganadora de Un Certain Regard en el Festival de Cannes.
Bulgaria (0 nominaciones): 'Aga' de Milko Lazarov. 
Camboya (1 nominación): 'In the Life of Music' de Caylee So & Sok Visal.
Canadá (7 nominaciones, 1 Oscar): 'Antingone' de  Sophie Deraspe.
Chile (2 nominaciones, 1 Oscar): 'Araña' de Andres Wood.
China (2 nominaciones): 'Ne Zha' de Yu Yang.
Colombia (1 nominación): 'Monos' de Alejandro Landes. Mención especial del Festival de Sundance.
Corea del Sur (0 nominaciones): 'Parásitos' de Boong Jon-ho. Ganadora de la Palma de Oro en el Festival de Cannes y finalista del Premio del Público del Festival de Toronto.
Costa Rica (0 nominaciones): 'El Despertar De Las Hormigas' de Antonella Sudasassi.
Croacia (0 nominaciones): 'Mali' de Antonio Nuic.
Cuba (1 nominación): 'Un traductor' de Rodrigo y Sebastián Barriuso.
Dinamarca (12 nominaciones, 3 Oscars): 'Queen of Hearts' de May el-Toukhy. Premio del Público en el Festival de Sundance.
Ecuador (0 nominaciones): 'La mala noche' de Gabriela Calvache.
Egipto (0 nominaciones): 'Poisonous Roses' de Fawzi Saleh.
Eslovaquia (0 nominaciones): 'Let There Be Light' de Marko Škop.
Eslovenia (0 nominaciones): 'History of Love' de Sonja Prosenc. Mención especial en el Festival de Karlovy Vary.
España (19 nominaciones, 4 Oscars): 'Dolor y gloria' de Pedro Almodóvar. Premio al mejor actor en el Festival de Cannes.
Estonia (1 nominación): 'Truth and Justice' de Tanel Toom.
Etiopía (0 nominaciones): 'Running Against The Wind' de Jan Philipp Weyl.
Filipinas (0 nominaciones): ''Dagsin' de Atom Magadia.
Finlandia (1 nominación): 'Stupid Young Heart' de Selma Vilhunen.
Francia (39 nominaciones, 12 Oscars): 'Los Miserables' de Ladj Ly. Ganadora del Premio del Jurado del Festival de Cannes.
Georgia (1 nominación): 'Shindisi' de Dito Tsintsadze.
Ghana (0 nominaciones): 'Azali' de Kwabena Gyansah.
Grecia (5 nominaciones): 'When Tomatoes Met Wagner' de Marianna Economou.
Honduras (0 nominaciones): 'Café con sabor a mi tierra' de Carlos Membreño.
Hong Kong (2 nominaciones): 'The White Storm 2 - Drug Lords' de Herman Yau.
Hungría (10 nominaciones, 2 Oscars): 'Those Who Remained' de Barnabás Toth.
India (3 nominaciones): 'Gully Boy' de Zoya Akhtar.
Indonesia (0 nominaciones): 'Memoirs Of My Body' de Garin Nugroho.
Irán (3 nominaciones, 2 Oscar): 'Finding Farideh' de Kourosh Ataee & Azadeh Moussavi.
Irlanda (0 nominaciones): 'Gaza' de Garry Keane y Andrew McConnell.
Islandia (1 nominacion): 'A White, White Day' de Hlynur Pálmason. Presente en la Semana de la Critica del Festival de Cannes.
Israel (10 nominaciones): 'Incitement' de Yaron Zilberman.
Italia (31 nominaciones, 14 Oscars): 'El traidor' de Marco Bellocchio. Presente a concurso en el Festival de Cannes.
Japón (16 nominaciones, 4 Oscars): 'El tiempo contigo' de Makoto Shinkai.
Kazajistán (0 nominaciones): 'Golden Throne' de Rustem Abdrashev.
Kenia (0 nominaciones): 'Subira' de Ravneet Chadha.
Kirguistán (0 nominaciones): 'Aurora' de Bekzat Pirmatov.
Kosovo (0 nominaciones): 'Zana' de Antoneta Kastrati.
Letonia (0 nominaciones): 'The Mover' de Dāvis Sīmanis.
Líbano (2 nominaciones): '1982' de Oualid Mouaness.
Lituania (0 nominaciones): 'Bridges of Time' de Kristine Briede y Audrius Stonys.
Luxemburgo (0 nominaciones): 'Tel Aviv on Fire' de Sameh Zoabi.
Macedonia del Norte (1 nominación): 'Honeyland' de Tamara Kotevska y Ljubomir Stefanov. Ganadora del Gran Premio del Jurado en Sundance.
Malasia (0 nominaciones=: 'M for Malaysia' de Dian Lee e Ineza Roussille.
Marruecos (0 nominaciones): 'Adam' de Maryam Touzani. Presente en Un Certain Regard del Festival de Cannes.
México (9 nominaciones, 1 Oscar). 'La Camarista' de Lisa Avilés.
Mongolia (0 nominaciones): 'The Steed' de Erdenebileg Ganbold
Montenegro (0 nominaciones): 'Neverending Past' de Andro Martinovic.
Nepal (1 nominación): 'Bulbul' de Binod Paudel.
Nigeria (0 nominaciones): 'Lionheart' de Genevieve Nnaji.
Noruega (5 nominaciones): 'Out Stealing Horses' de Hans Petter Moland. Premio a la mejor constribución artística por la fotografía en el Festival de Berlín.
Países Bajos (7 nominaciones, 3 Oscars): 'Instinct' de Halina Reijn.
Pakistán (0 nominaciones): 'Laal Kabootar' de Kamal Khan.
Palestina (2 nominaciones): 'It Must Be Heaven' de Elia Suleiman. Ganadora del premio al mejor guion del Festival de Cannes.
Panáma (0 nominaciones): 'Todos cambiamos' de Arturo Montenegro.
Perú (1 nominación): 'Retablo' de Álvaro Delgado - Aparicio.
Polonia (11 nominaciones, 1 Oscar): 'Corpus Christi' de Jan Komasa.
Portugal (0 nominaciones): 'A Herdade' de Tiago Guedes. Presente en la competición del Festival de Venecia.
Reino Unido (2 nominaciones): 'El niño que domó el viento' de Chiwetel Ejiofor.
República Checa (6 nominaciones, 2 Oscars): 'The Painted Bird' de Václav Marhoul. Presente en la competición del Festival de Venecia.
República Dominicana (0 nominaciones): 'El proyeccionista' de Jose María Cabral.
Rumanía (0 nominaciones): 'The Whistlers' de Corneliu Porumboiu. Seleccionada a concurso en el Festival de Cannes.
Rusia (7 nominaciones, 1 Oscar): 'Beanpole' de Kantemir Balagov. Ganadora del Fipresci y el premio a la mejor dirección de Un Certain Regard del Festival de Cannes.
Senegal (0 nominaciones): 'Atlantics' de Mati Diop. Ganadora del Gran Premio del Jurado en el Festival de Cannes.
Serbia (0 nominaciones): 'King Peter of Serbia' de Petar Ristovski.
Singapur (0 nominaciones): 'A Land Imagined' de Yeo Siew Hua. Ganadora del Leopardo de Oro en Locarno.
Sudáfrica (2 nominaciones, 1 Oscar): 'Knuckle City' de Jahmil X. T. Qubeka.
Suecia (16 nominaciones, 3 Oscars): 'And Then We Danced' de Levan Aki. Presente en la Quincena de Realizadores del Festival de Cannes.
Suiza (5 nominaciones, 2 Oscars): 'El despertar de Motti Wolkenbruch' de Michael Steiner.
Tailandia (0 nominaciones): 'Inhuman Kiss' de Sitisiri Mongkolsir.
Taiwán (3 nominaciones, 1 Oscar): 'Dear Ex' de Chih-Yen Hsu y Mag Hsu.
Túnez (0 nominaciones): 'Dear Son' de Mohammed Ben Attia. Presente en Orizzonti en el Festival de Venecia.
Turquía (0 nominaciones): 'Commitment' de Semih Kaplanoğlu.
Ucrania (0 nominaciones): 'Homeward' de Nariman Aliev. Presente en Un Certain Regard del Festival de Cannes.
Uruguay (0 nominaciones): 'Así habló el cambista' de Santiago Veiroj.
Uzbekistán (0 nominaciones): 'Hot Bread' de Umid Khamdamov.
Venezuela (0 nominaciones): 'Yo imposible' de Patricia Ortega.
Vietnam (1 nominación): 'Furie' de Lê Văn Kiệt.

Kim Kardashian blows kisses to fans at technology convention in Armenia after her children's baptism

The KUWTK star, 38, attended the World Congress on Information Technology (WCIT) convention at the Karen Demirchyan Sports and Concert Complex in Yerevan on Tuesday.

Armenia U21 - Luxembourg U21

Football. European U-21 Championship qualification

Liechtenstein - Armenia

Football. EURO 2020 Qualifying

Kim Kardashian opens up about raising kids “normal, well-adjusted”

Kim Kardashian West has opened up about the way she is raising her four kids who are currently with her in Armenia.

Speier, Chu amendments take center stage during visits to Armenia

Speier, with the support of Pallone and Schiff, introduced an amendment to secure $40 million in democracy aid to Armenia.

Armenian gymnast reaches World Championships finals

Armenian athlete Artur Tovmasyan has reached the 2019 World Gymnastics Championships men’s finals.

Valeriy Osipyan dismissed as Armenia PM adviser

Former Armenian police chief Valeriy Osipyan has been releived of the post of chief adviser to the Prime Minister.

Armenia negotiating YouTube localization: Deputy PM

Armenia is planning to localize YouTube in the near future, Deputy PM Tigran Avinyan said at the WCIT2019.

“We want a clean city”: why Yerevan is up in arms about waste management


In post-revolutionary Armenia, the monopolies of the past - even over trash - are coming increasingly into question.


Iluce: Снуд-бриошь Triangle от Wanpen Huang


Это цитата сообщения RUSSA_N Оригинальное сообщениеСнуд-бриошь Triangle от Wanpen Huang

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Russia-Iran special forces conduct first ever joint exercise in E. Syria Russian, Iranian and Syrian government forces launched their first joint exercise in Syria's Deir ez-Zour region - or, for that matter, their first combined drill anywhere else in the Mid-East.

Could Israel's Missile Defenses Withstand a Swarm or Missile Attack from Iran? In the aftermath of Iran's alleged drone strikes against Saudi Arabia and military support for Houthi insurgents in Yemen, Prominent figures in Israel's security establishment are growing increasingly convinced that a direct military confrontation with Tehran is not only likely, but inevitable.

Putin, Rouhani meet in Armenia to discuss regional issues Iran's president called on the international community to stand against America's 'hostile approach'.

Pompeo, Pope Francis urge religious freedom in Mideast, elsewhere Pope Francis and U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo agreed on Thursday on the need to protect the rights of Christian minorities in the Middle East during a meeting at the Vatican, the U.S. State Department said.

Netanyahu, Liberman fail to reach 'breakthrough' after coalition talks Liberman pressed the PM to form a government with Blue & White party leader Benny Gantz.

'No precedent in human experience': Study finds nuclear war between India and Pakistan could leave 125 million dead A nuclear war between India and Pakistan could kill up to 125 million people in just a few days - surpassing the death count of the entire Second World War - and kick off a worldwide environmental meltdown, a new study found.

France: President Macron Must Stop Appeasing Iran's Mullahs Has French President Emmanuel Macron forgotten that he is helping and appeasing a state leading in human rights violations?

Boris Johnson: Brexit plan 'genuine attempt to bridge chasm' Prime Minister Boris Johnson has said he has made a "genuine attempt to bridge the chasm" in order to get a fresh Brexit deal with the EU.

Yom Kippur: Can the Nations Also Repent? With Yom Kippur (Day of atonement) around the corner, Jews worldwide are preparing to fast in an effort to be angel-like as they repent and have their final judgment decided for all the sins committed in the year 5779.

Rivlin: Israel is in crisis, needs government now 22nd Knesset sworn in amid political uncertainty.


Albicocca: tutte le proprietà e i benefici

Le proprietà e i benefici dell’albicocca sono molteplici: questo prezioso frutto è, infatti, ricco di proprietà terapeutiche e nutritive eccellenti per la salute dell’organismo.L’albicocca, il cui nome scientifico è Prunus Armeniaca, è un…

The Proto-Indo-European Homeland Puzzle

The Indo-European Language Family

Indo-European was the first language family to be identified. This discovery, and the beginning of modern linguistics, can be dated to February 2, 1786 at a gathering of scientists and other interested men. Sir William Jones, speaking at the Asiatic Society in Calcutta, made this astounding statement:

The Sanskrit language, whatever be its antiquity, is of a wonderful structure: more perfect than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than either; yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of verbs and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by accident; so strong indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three, without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which, perhaps, no longer exists.

Jones later added Persian and Celtic as likely members of this family of languages.

Jones was uniquely qualified to make this discovery. His parental language was Welsh; he was taught English at school; he learned classical Greek and Latin in university where he studied law; he wrote the first English grammar of the Persian language (which earned him a reputation as one of the most respected linguists in Europe); and when appointed a judge in India at age 37 set out to learn the Sanskrit language to better understand local laws. Thus by age 40 Jones was familiar with a language in 6 (out of a total of 12) different Indo-European language branches.

Indo-European languages are spoken today by over 3 billion people - about half of the world's population - as either a first or second language. These languages are divided into 10 or 12 language branches or subfamilies. See the attached graph (Figure 1.1 of The Horse, The Wheel and Language p.12) which is arranged more or less geographically. English is a member of the Germanic subfamily along with German, Dutch, Frisian, the Scandinavian languages (which includes Icelandic), Yiddish, and Afrikaans. Other languages to note include:
            Tocharian – two extinct languages found in western China, the farthest East branch
            Hittite – a member of the extinct Anatolian branch – the earliest branch to separate
            Romany – the language of the Gypsies of Europe, is a member of the Indic branch showing that they originated in northwest India (not to be confused with Rumanian which is a member of the Latin or Romance language branch)

Source: Figure 1.1 of The Horse, The Wheel and Language p.12

About 6,000 to 5,000 years ago the parent language, called Proto-Indo-European, was spoken by a semi-nomadic tribe of people in the southern Ukraine and Russia. How their language spread and evolved into all of all these languages could be the subject for a future lecture. Today I want to show how historical linguistics and archaeology were combined to solve the puzzle of who the speakers of Proto-Indo-European were, and where and when they lived.
Source: Figure 1.2 of The Horse, The Wheel and Language p.14

The Proto-Indo-European Homeland Puzzle

Since the discovery of the IE language family, the location of the homeland of the original speakers has been claimed by different people to be many different places: India, Pakistan, Syria/Lebanon, the Caucasus Mountains, Turkey, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, the Balkans and Germany. By the late 20th century linguists only seriously considered two of these – Anatolia (modern Turkey) and the steppes of southern Ukraine and Russia. And as recently as 2000, Calvert Watkins in his essay “Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans” which introduces his book The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots stated “Archaeologists have not in fact succeeded in locating the Indo-Europeans.”

Colin Renfrew was a strong supporter of the other serious contender, Anatolia. Renfew's elegant proposal, published in the 1990's, had Proto-Indo-European migrant farmers carry their language along with agriculture from the Middle East to the westernmost part of Europe. But like many elegant theories, this one turned out to be not true. (I was greatly disappointed when linguistics and DNA analysis disproved Thor Heyerdahl's theories of Polynesian origins). There are, as we will see, serious problems with Renfrew's theory.

Before going further, I need to emphasize one point. Proto-Indo-European is a language. It is not a culture, nor is it a genetically-definable population. Language does not necessarily follow cultural boundaries, which can be determined by archaeology. Every first year archaeology student is taught “pots are not people”. But we know that someone must have spoken this language, and they must have lived in a particular place during a particular time. So while looking for the speakers of Proto-Indo-European we need to be careful of this constraint.
Clues from the Language

Since Proto-Indo-European is a language, let's look first at clues to the homeland from the language itself. The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots published in 2000 contains 1350 reconstructed root words and several thousand more words based on these roots. These words have been painstakingly reconstructed by comparing similar words (called cognates) from the daughter languages over the more than 200 years since Jones' discovery. What can we learn about the people who spoke this language from their vocabulary?

they knew four seasons with snow in winter
they were not familiar with tropical plants or animals
animals include: wolf, lynx, elk beaver, otter, mouse, fish
birds include: crane, goose, duck, eagle, woodpecker
insects: wasp, hornet, fly, louse, bee, honey (mead)
domestic animals include: dog, cattle, sheep and horse
horses play an important role in the culture
they practiced spinning and weaving of wool
they knew metallurgy - copper
they knew of the wheel and used wagons or carts (weak link in Anatolian)
they knew of boats and oars - words like nav (navigate, navy) and rowing.
gift exchange is an important part of their culture
the guest-host relation was important –  *ghosti is the root of both host and guest (ghost originally meant visitor or guest)
they borrowed words from Proto-Uralic, another Eurasian language family, suggesting that the Proto-Indo-European speakers must have lived close to, and likely traded with, people who spoke Proto-Uralic who then, as now, live in northern Europe and Siberia (Hungarian is a member of this family found in Europe because of recent migration (~900CE).

The seasons and animals indicate a northern location either in or adjacent to a forest. The words for bee and honey place the homeland west of the Ural Mountains as honeybees do not occur east of there.

Clues to Dating Proto-Indo-European

Language can also help place the Proto-Indo-European speakers in time as well as location.

Agriculture was introduced to Europe between 6700 and 6500 BC while the wheel was not known until 3400 BC and woolen textiles sometime after 4000 BC. For the daughter language families to have similar words for the wheel and wool, they must have separated from Proto-Indo-European after their arrival. This effectively eliminates the Anatolian farmer immigrant theory. Besides, the two or three Anatolian languages were very similar to each other and spoken by only a small number of people in this area, which strongly suggests they are spoken by Indo-European speaking migrants to Anatolia, not by the ancestors of the language.

The domestication of the horse provides additional clues. Horses were hunted for meat by the people of the steppe for millennia before they were domesticated. They were first domesticated sometime after 4800 BC, a thousand years after cattle were introduced to the area. But they were raised for their meat only. During a cool dry period (4200-3800 BC) horses would have an advantage over cattle because they can forage for themselves during the winter. [Pioneer farmers in Saskatchewan like my grandfather often turned their horses loose for the winter to manage for themselves, rounding them up in the spring]. Riding of horses began on the steppes sometime before 3700 BC and had spread to Northern Kazakhstan, the Caucasus Mountains, and into Europe, by 3000 BC.

An important tool used in the dating of horse riding is bit wear on horse molars. The identification of tooth wear caused by bits of metal, bone, rope and rawhide, was pioneered by the author of The Horse, The Wheel and Language – David W. Anthony, and his wife, fellow archaeologist Dorcas Brown. There is an interesting Saskatchewan connection here. One of the experts they contacted was Hilary Clayton who began studying the mechanics of bits in horses’ mouths while working in Philadelphia, and then took a job at the Western Veterinarian College in Saskatoon. Anthony and Brown followed her to Saskatchewan in 1985 and viewed the X-ray videos she had made of horses chewing their bits.

Riding horses provided a significant benefit to herders in the steppes. A man on horseback could manage a herd of cattle or sheep much larger than a man on foot. With the much later advent of wheeled carts, about 3300 BC, the herders could carry with them tents, food and water allowing them to take advantage of the vast areas between the river valleys. This opened up the steppe much as the horse did to the plains of North America 5,000 years later.

Dating the Daughters

Language provides clues to timing in another way. Linguists can date, with more or less certainty, when each of the daughter language branches separated from the mother language. Here is a list of the branches, in the order of separation, with the approximate date (all BC) of separation (from Figure 3.2 The Horse, The Wheel and Language p. 57).

            Anatolian        4200
            Tocharian       3700 - 3300
            Germanic        3300
            Celtic / Italic   3000
            Greek / Armenian 2500
            Balto-Slavic    2500
            Indo-Iranian    2500-2200

Clues from Archaeology – The Kurgan Cultures

With the time line narrowed to the period 4000 to 2000 BC, it's time to look at the archaeological record and see who was living in the likely homelands and how well they fit with the linguistic clues. The archaeology of the Pontic-Caspian steppes was mostly carried out by Soviet scientists and published in Russian. These were not translated into English until the 1990s. Anthony was one of the first western archaeologists to study this work and relate it to the Proto-Indo-European homeland question.

Anthony found a close fit with the western steppe peoples who built huge burial mounds called kurgans. Their culture varied somewhat over the Proto-Indo-European time line and also geographically from place to place within this large area, but their overall cultures were similar, especially compared to the foragers to the north and east and to the sophisticated farming cultures to the west and south. They were semi-nomadic, raising cattle and sheep. Horses were important both for meat and for riding to manage their growing herds. They used wheeled carts. They mined their own ore and made their own tools and weapons of copper, tin and bronze.

Even more compelling is the evidence, from archaeology, of known migrations out of the steppes in the right directions and at the right times to account for the birth of the daughter language families.

1) to the west 4200-3900 (Anatolian)
2) to the east 3700-3300 (Tocharian)
3) to the west - several waves (Germanic, Celtic, Italic)
4) to north (Baltic, Slavic)
5) to the east and south (Iranian, Indic)

I should explain that by migration I do not mean large scale movement of people displacing existing populations along with their culture and language. This may have been the case with the Pre-Tocharians who made a remarkably long migration in one jump to the Altai Mountains 2000 km to the east (equivalent to the journey made by my grandparents from southern Ontario to Saskatchewan, but without the advantage of trains). Most if not all the other migrations were by small groups who, through some combination of trade or intimidation, became rulers of existing populations. They brought with them enough of their culture to be recognized archaeologically; and they brought their language which, for a variety of reasons, was adopted by the others and continued to spread long after they were gone.
Puzzle Solved

While there may be a few objections to his theory not yet satisfactorily answered, Anthony is convinced that the Proto-Indo-European Homeland puzzle has been solved.

Source: Figure 5.1 of The Horse, The Wheel and Language p.84

I want to finish with a quote from The Horse, The Wheel and Language  p. 464

Understanding the people who lived before us is difficult, particularly the people who lived in the prehistoric tribal past. Archaeology throws a bright light on some aspects of their lives but leaves much in the dark. Historical linguistics can illuminate a few of those dark corners.


Armenia people and country Part one. Garni Tempel and UNESCO World Heritage Geghard

Great country with many attractions I can not describe all. Enjoy the pictures they impressively reflect the country and the people again. See also: Prolog, Wedding Part one, and Wedding Part two.

Wedding Armenia part two

A wedding like out of a thousand and one night. In Armenia one understands to celebrate. In addition fantastic Schaschlick, dance and good mood. Amazing party. Happy future for you both. Part One click here.

Wedding Armenia part one

A wedding like out of a thousand and one night. In Armenia one understands to celebrate. In addition fantastic Schaschlick, dance and good mood. Amazing party. Happy future for you both. Lovely honeymoon in Sharm-el-Sheikh. Part two click here.

Ностальгия по зиме .


Давно я не видела снега пушистого,
Белого-белого, чистого-чистого.
И чтобы в ладони ложились снежинки
Безумно прекрасные, как на картинке.

Я каждое утро смотрела в окно.
Всё чуда ждала,вдруг свершится оно.
Два месяца зимних давно пролетели,
Но лишь пару раз выли злобно метели.

А так...всё дожди...гололёд...вновь дожди.
Природа рыдала:"Ты снега не жди.
Ведь ясно давно,все пропали сомненья-
Глобальное скоро грядёт потепленье".

Как хочется снега... Такого, как в детстве.
Когда этим снегом могли мы согреться.
Когда в нежном, мягком снегу мы купались.
В сугробах когда лабиринты копались.

Из снега дома, пироги и ватрушки,
Постели, перины и даже подушки...
А снежно-волшебное покрывало,
Что в солнца лучах так сверкало, играло?...

Какая же раньше погода была!...
Лето, так ЛЕТО! Зима, так ЗИМА!
Нет, я не ною и не скулю.
Я, правда, любую погоду люблю.

А что же сегодня случилось со мною?
Стал выпавший снег ностальгии виною.
Как в детстве моём - мягкий, нежный, пушистый...
Белый-пребелый... Чистый-пречистый...
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El ‘show techie’ de Kim Kardashian en Armenia

La empresaria visita una conferencia tecnológica en el país de sus ancestros para hablar de su familia y sus negocios, rodeada de una desmedida expectación

Kim Kardashian Takes Family (and Camera Crew) to Armenia to Have Kids Baptized

*Kim Kardashian, her camera crew and her three of her kids: Psalm, Chicago, and Saint West, jetted off to Armenia, where she had her children baptized for an upcoming episode of her reality TV show. Kardashian, who is of Armenian descent, shared footage on Monday via Instagram story, showing her holding Psalm as she entered […]

The post Kim Kardashian Takes Family (and Camera Crew) to Armenia to Have Kids Baptized appeared first on EURweb.


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Мила_Оли: Джемпер с жасминовым узором


Фото: журнал«Verena. Спецвыпуск» №2/2019




38/40 (42/44) 46/48

ВВам потребуется

Пряжа (80% вискозы, 20% льна; 105 м/50 г) — 600 (650) 700 г меланжевой цвета капучино; крючки №6 и 7.

УУзоры и схемы

ЖЖасминовый узор

Вязать крючком №7: сначала выполнить 1 начальную цепочку из пышных столбиков следующим образом: выполнить 1 простую начальную петлю и 1 в.п., лежащую на крючке петлю вытянуть на длину, равную ширине большого пальца, * сделать 1 накид, ввести в в.п., протянуть нить и вытянуть на длину, равную ширине большого пальца, от * повторить еще 1 раз. Теперь на крючке лежит 5 нитей.

Теперь все нити на крючке провязать вместе за один прием, при этом рабочую нить удерживать левой рукой внизу под крючком. Затем ввести крючок в удерживаемую петлю рабочей нити и нить вытянуть. На крючке теперь 2 петли.

На этих обеих петлях связать 1 ст. б/н и закончить 1 в.п. = 1-й пышный столбик готов.

Для следующего пышного столбика снова вытянуть лежащую на крючке петлю на длину, равную примерно ширине большого пальца, * сделать 1 накид, затем ввести крючок под в.п. в ст. б/н, захватить нить и вытянуть на длину, равную ширине большого пальца, от * повторить еще 1 раз. Все нити на крючке провязать вместе за один прием, затем ввести крючок в удерживаемую петлю рабочей нити, выполнить 1 ст. б/н и закончить 1 в.п. = 2-й пышный столбик готов. Так работать дальше, пока не будет достигнута необходимая ширина.

Теперь 2-й р. вязать следующим образом: сначала выполнить следующий пышный столбик аналогичным способом, как предыдущий, затем точно так же начать следующий пышный столбик, однако нити на крючке не провязывать вместе, а ** ввести крючок в предшествующий ст. б/н, * сделать 1 накид, ввести крючок в в.п., захватить нить и вытянуть петлю на длину, равную ширине большого пальца, от * повторить еще 1 раз, петли не закрывать, в завершение от ** еще раз повторить 1 раз, при этом опять 1 ст. б/н перебросить налево. На крючке теперь лежит 13 нитей.

Все петли на крючке провязать вместе, при этом рабочую нить удерживать, затем ввести крючок в удерживаемую петлю, захватить нить и на обеих находящихся на крючке петлях провязать 1 ст. б/н. Закончить 1 в.п.

От ** повторять, пока ряд не будет закончен. Этот 2-й р. постоянно повторять, при этом каждый ряд начинать с 1 отдельного закрепленного пышного столбика, затем постоянно выполнять 3 провязанных вместе пышных столбика (см. эскиз).


ООсновной узор

Вязать крючком №6: ст. с/н. Каждый ряд начать с 3 в.п. подъема вместо 1-го ст. с/н и закончить 1 ст. с/н в последнюю в.п. подъема предыдущего ряда.

ППлотность вязания

1 пышный столбик набора х 5 р. = 2,2 x 10 см, связано жасминовым узором;

14,5 п. х 8,5 р. = 10 x 10 см, связано основным узором.



ВВыполнение работы


Вязать жасминовым узором, при этом начать с набора 24 (26) 28 пышных столбиков. Этот начальный ряд в последующих расчетах не учитывается.

Через 32 см = 16 р. от набора продолжить работу основным узором. Для этого из верхнего края жасминового узора провязать 77 (83) 89 ст. б/н. Этот ряд в последующие расчеты не входит.

После этого вязать основным узором.

Через 28 см = 24 р. от смены узора закончить работу, при этом средние 33 п. образуют горловину, внешние по 22 (25) 28 п. относятся к плечам.


Аналогично, однако с вырезом горловины. Для этого через 22,5 см = 19 р. от смены узора оставить непровязанными средние 21 п. и каждую сторону закончить по отдельности.

Для скругления по внутреннему краю убавить в каждом ряду 1 раз 3 п., 1 раз 2 п. и 1 раз 1 п.

Работу закончить на высоте спинки на оставшихся 22 (25) 28 петлях плеча.


Выполнить цепочку из 58 (61) 64 в.п. и 3 в.п. подъема и вязать основным узором.

Через 33 см = 28 р. от набора закончить работу.


Выполнить плечевые швы.

Край горловины обвязать 2 круг.р. соединительных столбиков крючком №6, при этом во 2-м круг.р. петли захватывать постоянно за зад­нюю стенку петли.

Вшить рукава, выполнить швы рукавов и боковые швы.

Фото: журнал«Verena. Спецвыпуск» №2/2019


Видео с разбором УЗОРА


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24. Победители не удовлетворяются прошлыми успехами. Они каждый день требуют от себя большего.

25. Победители не дают окружающему хаосу отвлечь их от будущих успехов. Они добиваются результата, невзирая на все это.

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27. Победители не теряют из виду, почему они занимаются тем, чем занимаются. Они постоянно вдохновляют себя.


Kim Kardashian Baptizes Saint, Chicago and Psalm West During Family Trip in Armenia

Kim Kardashian, North West, Saint West, Chicago West, Psalm West, InstagramIt's a blessed day for Kim Kardashian and her kids! The Keeping Up With the Kardashians star and her family took a special trip to Armenia, and it's already going to be one to...


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Kim Kardashian cumple su gran sueño de bautizar a sus hijos pequeños en Armenia



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Kim Kardashian viaja a Armenia para bautizar a sus hijos


En compañía de Kourtney Kardashian y sus hijos, los pequeños North, Saint, Chicago y Psalm fueron bautizados en el país de origen de su abuelo.

Kim Kardashian viaja a Armenia para bautizar a sus hijos

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